Nitric oxide: Wikis

  

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Nitric oxide
Identifiers
CAS number 10102-43-9 Yes check.svgY
PubChem 145068
UN number 1660
DrugBank DB00435
KEGG C00533
ChEBI 16480
RTECS number QX0525000
ATC code R07AX01
InChI
InChI key MWUXSHHQAYIFBG-UHFFFAOYAI
Properties
Molecular formula NO
Molar mass 30.006 g/mol
Appearance colourless gas
paramagnetic
Density 1.269 g/cm3 (liquid)
1.3402 g/l (gas)
Melting point
−163.6 °C, 110 K, -262 °F
Boiling point
−150.8 °C, 122 K, -239 °F
Solubility in water 7.4 ml/100 ml (STP)
Solubility soluble in alcohol, CS2
Refractive index (nD) 1.0002697
Structure
Molecular shape linear, C∞v
Thermochemistry
Std enthalpy of
formation
ΔfHo298
+90.29 kJ/mol
Standard molar
entropy
So298
210.76 J K−1 mol−1
Pharmacology
Bioavailability good
Routes of
administration
Inhalation
Metabolism via pulmonary capillary bed
Elimination
half-life
2–6 seconds
Hazards
MSDS External MSDS
EU Index Not listed
R-phrases R26, R34
S-phrases (S1), S9, S26, S36, S45
NFPA 704
NFPA 704.svg
0
3
0
OX
Flash point Non-flammable
Related compounds
Related nitrogen oxides Nitrous oxide
Dinitrogen trioxide
Nitrogen dioxide
Dinitrogen tetroxide
Dinitrogen pentoxide
 Yes check.svgY (what is this?)  (verify)
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Infobox references
.Nitric oxide (common name) or nitrogen monoxide (systematic name) is a chemical compound with chemical formula NO.^ The fact is, Nitric Oxide, when combined with various metabolic by-products, such as superoxide, form very nasty radicals called Reactive Nitrogen Species.
  • Best Overall Nitric Oxide (NO) Product? - Bodybuilding.com Forums 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC forum.bodybuilding.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Iida et al., "Reactions of nitrosobenzenes with nitrogen monoxide," Chemistry Abstracts, The American Chemical Society, 89(21):573, Abstract No.
  • N-nitroso-N-substituted hydroxylamines as nitric oxide donors - Patent 5698738 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Problems with present nitric oxide donor compounds include the following: .
  • N-nitroso-N-substituted hydroxylamines as nitric oxide donors - Patent 5698738 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

.This gas is an important signaling molecule in the body of mammals, including humans, and is an extremely important intermediate in the chemical industry.^ Nitric oxide is a gaseous chemical compound that acts as an important signaling molecule within the human body.
  • The Nitric Oxide Truth (You might not want to read this) 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC proteinfactory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The gaseous signalling molecule nitric oxide (NO) is involved in various physiological processes including regulation of blood pressure, immunocytotoxicity and neurotransmission.
  • PLoS ONE: Odorant-Dependent Generation of Nitric Oxide in Mammalian Olfactory Sensory Neurons 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ An important theme for NO signaling, which may partly settle the ongoing controversies regarding it, is the spatial confinement of NOSs with effector molecules, including ion channels.
  • Nitric Oxide as a Unique Bioactive Signaling Messenger inPhysiology and Pathophysiology 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.It is also an air pollutant produced by cigarette smoke, automobile engines and power plants.^ It is a highly diffusible inorganic radical gas and has been known for many years as a noxious pollutant in car exhaust fumes, fossil fumes, and cigarette smoke.
  • Nitric Oxide as a Unique Bioactive Signaling Messenger inPhysiology and Pathophysiology 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.NO is an important messenger molecule involved in many physiological and pathological processes within the mammalian body both beneficial and detrimental.^ NO is an important mediator of both physiological and pathological responses.
  • Nitric Oxide as a Unique Bioactive Signaling Messenger inPhysiology and Pathophysiology 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Nitric oxide (NO) is an important endogenous messenger that is widespread in the human body, functioning for example, to regulate peripheral blood flow, platelet function, immune reactions, and neurotransmission, and also to mediate inflammation.
  • Measurement of Exhaled Nitric Oxide and Exhaled Breath Condensate in the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma and Other Respiratory Disorders 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC blue.regence.com [Source type: Academic]

^ B. C. Kone and C. Baylis Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Medical School at Houston 77030, USA. Nitric oxide (NO) is an important molecular mediator of numerous physiological processes in virtually every organ.
  • Biosynthesis and homeostatic roles of nitric oxide in the normal kidney -- Kone and Baylis 272 (5): 561 -- AJP - Renal Physiology 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC ajprenal.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

[1] .Appropriate levels of NO production are important in protecting an organ such as the liver from ischemic damage.^ When the endothelium is healthy, Nitric Oxide (NO) controls vascular tone (particularly vascular dilation), and protects the endothelium from damage due to increased pressure or flow.
  • ArgMatrix | Pharmaceutical Grade L-Arginine 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC argmatrix.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Saturated ascorbic acid levels in endothelial cells are necessary to protect BH4 from oxidation to provide optimal condition for cellular NO synthesis.
  • Dysfunction of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase and Atherosclerosis -- Kawashima and Yokoyama 24 (6): 998 -- Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC atvb.ahajournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ On the other hand, in ischemia-reperfusion injury, H 4 -biopterin, but not ascorbic acid or superoxide dismutase, protects from organ damage ( 91 ).
  • Tetrahydrobiopterin and Nitric Oxide: Mechanistic and Pharmacological Aspects -- Werner et al. 228 (11): 1291 -- Experimental Biology and Medicine 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.ebmonline.org [Source type: Academic]

.However sustained levels of NO production result in direct tissue toxicity and contribute to the vascular collapse associated with septic shock, whereas chronic expression of NO is associated with various carcinomas and inflammatory conditions including juvenile diabetes, multiple sclerosis, arthritis and ulcerative colitis.^ This continuum of iNOS activity and NO generation in immunoregulatory functions can be divided into three stages: 1 ) under physiological conditions, normal to low quantities of NO produced by constitutive and inducible NOS act as an intracellular activation signal; 2 ) when NO production is increased for longer periods of time via iNOS, NO functions as an autocrine or paracrine immunoregulatory molecule; and 3 ) chronic and sustained generation of NO can be associated with direct reactions between NO and cellular constituents and generation of reactive nitrogen species.
  • Nitric oxide in gastrointestinal epithelial cell carcinogenesis: linking inflammation to oncogenesis -- Jaiswal et al. 281 (3): 626 -- AJP - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC ajpgi.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ There are emerging clinical data showing that chronic inflammatory conditions along the digestive tract, liver, and pancreas have increased expression of iNOS. Moreover, expression of iNOS is retained by the associated cancers, suggesting that iNOS is important in the development and expression of these malignancies.
  • Nitric oxide in gastrointestinal epithelial cell carcinogenesis: linking inflammation to oncogenesis -- Jaiswal et al. 281 (3): 626 -- AJP - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC ajpgi.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Consistent with this, multiple detection strategies have demonstrated that iNOS expression, enzymatic activity, and NO production are increased in human inflammatory bowel disease tissues.

[2]
.Nitric oxide should not be confused with nitrous oxide (N2O), an anesthetic and greenhouse gas, or with nitrogen dioxide (NO2), a brown toxic gas and a major air pollutant.^ Roles of nitric oxide (NO) in carcinogenesis.
  • Nitric oxide in gastrointestinal epithelial cell carcinogenesis: linking inflammation to oncogenesis -- Jaiswal et al. 281 (3): 626 -- AJP - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC ajpgi.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ THE NO(nitric oxide SCAM .
  • THE NO(nitric oxide SCAM - Sherdog Mixed Martial Arts Forums 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.sherdog.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nitric-oxide (NO) and nitrogen-dioxide (NO 2 ) emissions from herbicide-treated soybean plants.
  • Mechanisms for nitric oxide synthesis in plants -- Crawford 57 (3): 471 -- Journal of Experimental Botany 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC jxb.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.The nitric oxide molecule is a free radical, which is relevant to understanding its high reactivity.^ Nitric oxide (NO) is a pleiotropic free radical messenger molecule.

^ "Nitric oxide is a signaling molecule in spermatozoa."

^ Formation, decomposition and reactivity of nitric oxide .
  • ISPUB - Nitric Oxide And Propofol 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.ispub.com [Source type: Academic]

Despite being a simple molecule, NO is a fundamental player in the fields of neuroscience, physiology, and immunology, and was proclaimed “Molecule of the Year” in 1992.[3]

Contents

Reactions

2 NO + O2 → 2 NO2
.This conversion has been speculated as occurring via the ONOONO intermediate.^ NO + O 2 → 2NO 2 This conversion has been speculated as occurring via the ONOONO intermediate.
  • Nitric oxide: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Oxidation of L ­Arg to L ­citrulline occurs via two successive monooxygenation reactions producing N ­hydroxy­ L ­arginine as an intermediate (1) .

In water, NO reacts with oxygen and water to form HNO2 or nitrous acid. The reaction is thought to proceed via the following stoichiometry:
4 NO + O2 + 2 H2O → 4 HNO2
.
  • NO will react with fluorine, chlorine, and bromine to form the XNO species, known as the nitrosyl halides, such as nitrosyl chloride.^ The fact is, Nitric Oxide, when combined with various metabolic by-products, such as superoxide, form very nasty radicals called Reactive Nitrogen Species.
    • Best Overall Nitric Oxide (NO) Product? - Bodybuilding.com Forums 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC forum.bodybuilding.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ I 3 – release of NO from the heme in nitrosyl(heme)hemoglobin was measured after forming the latter by reacting NO gas with deoxyhemoglobin.
    • Journal of Clinical Investigation -- Inhaled nitric oxide augments nitric oxide transport on sickle cell hemoglobin without affecting oxygen affinity 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.jci.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Cellular effects NO reacts with O 2 and superoxide anion (O 2 -) to form peroxinitrite.
    • Bernasconi A, Beghetti M. Inhaled nitric oxide applications in paediatric practice. Images Paediatr Cardiol 2002;10 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.impaedcard.com [Source type: Academic]

    .Nitrosyl iodide can form but is an extremely short lived species and tends to reform I2.^ A major breakthrough in this puzzle was achieved in low-temperature optical studies, designed to detect short-lived intermediates formed in the reaction of reduced nNOS with O 2 ( 56 ).
    • Tetrahydrobiopterin and Nitric Oxide: Mechanistic and Pharmacological Aspects -- Werner et al. 228 (11): 1291 -- Experimental Biology and Medicine 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.ebmonline.org [Source type: Academic]

2 NO + Cl2 → 2 NOCl
  • Nitroxyl (HNO) is the reduced form of nitric oxide.
Traube reaction
This is a very old reaction (1898) but of interest today in NO prodrug research. .Nitric oxide can also react directly with sodium methoxide, forming sodium formate and nitrous oxide.^ Nitric oxide reacts with superoxide to form the potent oxidant peroxynitrite.
  • NMDA sensitization and stimulation by peroxynitrite, nitric oxide, and organic solvents as the mechanism of chemical sensitivity in multiple chemical sensitivity -- PALL 16 (11): 1407 -- The FASEB Journal 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.fasebj.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The fact is, Nitric Oxide, when combined with various metabolic by-products, such as superoxide, form very nasty radicals called Reactive Nitrogen Species.
  • Best Overall Nitric Oxide (NO) Product? - Bodybuilding.com Forums 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC forum.bodybuilding.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fleming, I. and Busse, R. (1995) Control and consequences of endothelial nitric oxide formation.
  • Reviews on nitric oxide synthases 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC metallo.scripps.edu [Source type: Academic]

[5]

Preparation

4 NH3 + 5 O2 → 4 NO + 6 H2O
The uncatalyzed endothermic reaction of O2 and N2, which is performed at high temperature (>2000°C) by lightning has not been developed into a practical commercial synthesis (see Birkeland–Eyde process):
N2 + O2 → 2 NO
  • In the laboratory, it is conveniently generated by reduction of nitric acid with copper:
8 HNO3 + 3 Cu → 3 Cu(NO3)2 + 4 H2O + 2 NO
2 NaNO2 + 2 NaI + 2 H2SO4 → I2 + 4 NaHSO4 + 2 NO
2 NaNO2 + 2 FeSO4 + 3 H2SO4 → Fe2(SO4)3 + 2 NaHSO4 + 2 H2O + 2 NO
3 KNO2 (l) + KNO3 (l) + Cr2O3(s) → 2 K2CrO4(s) + 4 NO (g)
.The iron(II) sulfate route is simple and has been used in undergraduate laboratory experiments.^ Policy regarding publication of experiments on unanesthetized animals conforms with the standards for use of laboratory animals established by the Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, U.S. National Academy of Sciences.
  • Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry - Elsevier 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.elsevier.com [Source type: Academic]

^ NaNO 2 + 2 NaI + 2 H 2 SO 4 → I 2 + 4 NaHSO 4 + 2 NO 2 NaNO 2 + 2 FeSO 4 + 3 H 2 SO 4 → Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 + 2 NaHSO 4 + 2 H 2 O + 2 NO 3 KNO 2 (l) + KNO 3 (l) + Cr 2 O 3 (s) → 2 K 2 CrO 4 (s) + 4 NO (g) The iron(II) sulfate route is simple and has been used in undergraduate laboratory experiments.
  • Nitric oxide: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

  • So-called NONOate compounds are also used for NO generation.

Coordination chemistry

.NO forms complexes with all transition metals to give complexes called metal nitrosyls.^ I 3 – release of NO from the heme in nitrosyl(heme)hemoglobin was measured after forming the latter by reacting NO gas with deoxyhemoglobin.
  • Journal of Clinical Investigation -- Inhaled nitric oxide augments nitric oxide transport on sickle cell hemoglobin without affecting oxygen affinity 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.jci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In reaction with hemoglobin NO forms methemoglobin, nitrosyl-hemoglobin (HbFe2+NO) and S-nitrosohemoglobin (SNO-Hb).

^ When I first heard about this product a lot of people said that all NO does is give you a good pump, nothing else.
  • Best Overall Nitric Oxide (NO) Product? - Bodybuilding.com Forums 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC forum.bodybuilding.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The most common bonding mode of NO is the terminal linear type (M-NO).^ This suggests that NO contributes to the mechanisms of several types of primary headaches and that NO-related central sensitization may be an important common denominator in the pain mechanisms of primary headaches.
  • Nitric oxide-induced headache in patients with chronic tension-type headache -- Ashina et al. 123 (9): 1830 -- Brain 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC brain.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The present study demonstrates that an NO-induced biphasic response with an immediate and a delayed headache is common to chronic tension-type headache and migraine.
  • Nitric oxide-induced headache in patients with chronic tension-type headache -- Ashina et al. 123 (9): 1830 -- Brain 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC brain.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.The angle of the M-N-O group can vary from 160° to 180° but are still termed as "linear". In this case, the NO group is considered a 3-electron donor under the covalent (neutral) method of electron counting, or a 2-electron donor under the ionic method.^ CONCLUSIONS: The methods proposed require confirmation through large controlled clinical trials that can assess the efficacy reported in pilot studies and case reports and define the optimal method(s) to treat individual pathologies in the various pediatric age groups.

^ This indicates that NO in the area is called on to regulate the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system both in a long-term sense and also when the system is under stress .
  • Constitutive Nitric Oxide Synthase in Hypothalami of Normal and Hereditary Diabetes Insipidus Rats and Mice: Role of Nitric Oxide in Osmotic Regulation and its Mechanism - NDI Foundation 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.ndif.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In oxidative stress condition is an unusual species, where it can act as a reducing agent by donating its extra electron to NO to form peroxynitrite (ONOO − ), or it can act as an oxidizing agent; in this case it gets reduced to H 2 O 2 .
  • Nitric Oxide as a Unique Bioactive Signaling Messenger inPhysiology and Pathophysiology 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

[6] .In the case of a bent M-N-O conformation, the NO group can be considered a one-electron donor using neural counting, or a 2-electron donor using ionic counting.^ Present NO Donors: Presently, there are only a few nitric oxide donor compounds that are used clinically (e.g., nitroglycerin, sodium nitroprusside and amyl nitrite).
  • N-nitroso-N-substituted hydroxylamines as nitric oxide donors - Patent 5698738 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The NO donors may be used, therefore, to prevent atherosclerosis and bone loss without inducing bleeding, (so called "no blood sector in HRT").
  • N-nitroso-N-substituted hydroxylamines as nitric oxide donors - Patent 5698738 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Conversion of NHA to L-citrulline and NO requires another molecule of O 2 and one more electron.
  • Tetrahydrobiopterin and Nitric Oxide: Mechanistic and Pharmacological Aspects -- Werner et al. 228 (11): 1291 -- Experimental Biology and Medicine 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.ebmonline.org [Source type: Academic]

[7]One can view such complexes as derived from NO+, which is isoelectronic with CO.
.Nitric oxide can serve as a one-electron pseudohalide.^ Published evidence from one study demonstrated nitric oxide to transiently improve oxygenation in the first 72 hours of treatment.

^ Finally, the study of nitric oxide may lead to an understanding of how other small molecules, such as carbon monoxide, serve as biological messengers.
  • Nitric Oxide: A Physiologic Messenger — Ann Intern Med 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.annals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Furthermore, recent work suggests that only one inducible nitric oxide synthase isoform exists [155] and that it can be induced in many, if not all, cells.
  • Nitric Oxide: A Physiologic Messenger — Ann Intern Med 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.annals.org [Source type: Academic]

.In such complexes, the M-N-O group is characterized by an angle between 120° and 140°.^ The best-characterized receptor of nitric oxide is iron, contained in certain proteins as a heme group or as an iron-sulfur complex.
  • Nitric Oxide: A Physiologic Messenger — Ann Intern Med 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.annals.org [Source type: Academic]

.The NO group can also bridge between metal centers through the nitrogen atom in a variety of geometries.^ The production of Nitric Oxide occurs when the amino acid L-arginine is converted into L-citruline through an enzyme group known as Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS).
  • Bodybuilding.com - NO Nitric Oxide Information and Product Listing! NO Nitric Oxide FAQ! 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.bodybuilding.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a group, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms are localized to a wide variety of tissues.

^ Many earlier NO donors involve compounds in which the nitric oxide-releasing moiety is attached either to an oxygen or to a nitrogen atom.
  • N-nitroso-N-substituted hydroxylamines as nitric oxide donors - Patent 5698738 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

Measurement of nitric oxide concentration

Nitric oxide (white) in conifer cells, visualized using DAF-2 DA (diaminofluorescein diacetate)
.The concentration of nitric oxide can be determined using a simple chemiluminescent reaction involving ozone:[8] A sample containing nitric oxide is mixed with a large quantity of ozone.^ "The nitric oxide producing reactions of hydroxyurea."

^ The gaseous signalling molecule nitric oxide (NO) is involved in various physiological processes including regulation of blood pressure, immunocytotoxicity and neurotransmission.
  • PLoS ONE: Odorant-Dependent Generation of Nitric Oxide in Mammalian Olfactory Sensory Neurons 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Nitric Oxide is a free form gas that is produced in the body and is used by the body to communicate with other cells in the body.
  • Bodybuilding.com - NO Nitric Oxide Information and Product Listing! NO Nitric Oxide FAQ! 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.bodybuilding.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The nitric oxide reacts with the ozone to produce oxygen and nitrogen dioxide.^ "The nitric oxide producing reactions of hydroxyurea."

^ Toxicity issues: Nitric oxide reacts with oxygen to form nitrogen dioxide, NO2.
  • Nitric oxide for respiratory failure in infants born at or near term 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The fact is, Nitric Oxide, when combined with various metabolic by-products, such as superoxide, form very nasty radicals called Reactive Nitrogen Species.
  • Best Overall Nitric Oxide (NO) Product? - Bodybuilding.com Forums 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC forum.bodybuilding.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This reaction also produces light (chemiluminescence), which can be measured with a photodetector.^ Measurement of nitrosylation of hemoglobin by chemiluminescent I 3 – reaction.
  • Journal of Clinical Investigation -- Inhaled nitric oxide augments nitric oxide transport on sickle cell hemoglobin without affecting oxygen affinity 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.jci.org [Source type: Academic]

.The amount of light produced is proportional to the amount of nitric oxide in the sample.^ "The nitric oxide producing reactions of hydroxyurea."

^ The signaling molecule produced is nitric oxide.
  • Free Nitric Oxide Report - TopTenHealthProducts.com 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC toptenhealthproducts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The amount of light produced is proportional to the amount of nitric oxide in the sample.
  • Nitric oxide: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

NO + O3 → NO2 + O2 + light
.Other methods of testing include electroanalysis (amperometric approach), where NO reacts with an electrode to induce a current or voltage change.^ Methods currently known to provide cardioprotection (or preconditioning) include exercise, heat stress, oxidative stress, brief ischaemia, stretch and certain pharmacological interventions.

^ The introduction of inhaled NO and other recent advances in vascular biology have drastically changed the therapeutic approach of pulmonary hypertension.
  • Bernasconi A, Beghetti M. Inhaled nitric oxide applications in paediatric practice. Images Paediatr Cardiol 2002;10 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.impaedcard.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The measurement of EBC pH is one EBC marker that is currently being investigated as a method for assessing asthma and other chronic pulmonary diseases.
  • Breath Tests of Airway Inflammation: Exhaled Nitric Oxide and Exhaled Breath Condensate 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.aetna.com [Source type: Academic]

.The detection of NO radicals in biological tissues is particularly difficult due to the short lifetime and concentration of these radicals in tissues.^ The detection of NO radicals in biological tissues is particularly difficult due to the short lifetime and concentration of these radicals in tissues.
  • Nitric oxide: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ When the endothelium is healthy, Nitric Oxide (NO) controls vascular tone (particularly vascular dilation), and protects the endothelium from damage due to increased pressure or flow.
  • ArgMatrix | Pharmaceutical Grade L-Arginine 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC argmatrix.com [Source type: Academic]

^ HO1 is concentrated in peripheral tissues such as the spleen and liver, while particularly high densities of HO2 occur in the brain ( 66 , 67 ).
  • Nitric Oxide and Related Substances as Neural Messengers 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.acnp.org [Source type: Academic]

.One of the few practical methods is spin trapping of nitric oxide with iron-dithiocarbamate complexes and subsequent detection of the mono-nitrosyl-iron complex with Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR).^ Beesley, J.E. (1995) Histochemical methods for detecting nitric oxide synthase.
  • Reviews on nitric oxide synthases 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC metallo.scripps.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Electron paramagnetic resonance detection of nitrosyl-iron-protein complexes in whole cells.
  • Reviews on nitric oxide synthases 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC metallo.scripps.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ [Medline] Schmidt PP, Lange R, Gorren ACF, Werner ER, Mayer B, Andersson KK. Formation of a protonated trihydrobiopterin radical cation in the first reaction cycle of neuronal and endothelial nitric oxide synthase detected by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy.
  • Tetrahydrobiopterin and Nitric Oxide: Mechanistic and Pharmacological Aspects -- Werner et al. 228 (11): 1291 -- Experimental Biology and Medicine 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.ebmonline.org [Source type: Academic]

[9][10]
A group of fluorescent dye indicators that are also available in acetylated form for intracellular measurements exist. .The most common compound is 4,5-diaminofluorescein (DAF-2).^ Probably the most successful indicator for nitric oxide has been 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate (DAF-2 diacetate), which was developed by Kojima and collaborators.
  • Probes for Nitric Oxide Research—Section 18.3 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.invitrogen.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The most common compound is 4,5-diaminofluorescein (DAF-2).
  • Nitric oxide: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

[3]

Production environmental effects

.From a thermodynamic perspective, NO is unstable with respect to O2 and N2, although this conversion is very slow at ambient temperatures in the absence of a catalyst.^ NO represents a very attractive therapeutic target with respect to several gastrointestinal disorders.
  • V. Therapeutic potential of nitric oxide donors and inhibitors -- Muscará and Wallace 276 (6): 1313 -- AJP - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC ajpgi.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

.Because the heat of formation of NO is endothermic, its synthesis from molecular nitrogen and oxygen requires elevated temperatures, >1000°C. A major natural source is lightning.^ Because it is associated with VEGF formation, NO can also be considered an angiogenic factor, thereby promoting cancer progression.
  • Nitric oxide in gastrointestinal epithelial cell carcinogenesis: linking inflammation to oncogenesis -- Jaiswal et al. 281 (3): 626 -- AJP - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC ajpgi.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ These results show that AtNOS1 is a major source of NO needed not only for signalling but also for some defence responses.
  • Mechanisms for nitric oxide synthesis in plants -- Crawford 57 (3): 471 -- Journal of Experimental Botany 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC jxb.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Required co-factors include oxygen, NADPH, calcium (constitutive NOS) and tetrahydrobiopterin (50, 51).
  • ISPUB - Nitric Oxide And Propofol 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.ispub.com [Source type: Academic]

.The use of internal combustion engines has drastically increased the presence of nitric oxide in the environment.^ In addition, a suitable nitric oxide donor can by used for HRT, since these compounds do not exert hormone activities.
  • N-nitroso-N-substituted hydroxylamines as nitric oxide donors - Patent 5698738 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Nitric oxide production is stimulated by an increase of the concentration of cytosolic Ca(2+) in vascular endothelial cells.

^ Kosaka H, Watanabe M, Yoshihara H, Shiga T: Detection of nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-treated rats by ESR using carbon monoxide hemoglobin.
  • Journal of Trauma Management & Outcomes | Full text | The beneficial effects of inhaled nitric oxide in patients with severe traumatic brain injury complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome: a hypothesis 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.traumamanagement.org [Source type: Academic]

.One purpose of catalytic converters in cars is to minimize NO emission by catalytic reversion to O2 and N2.^ In responding to cellular ionization events, the cell converts an oxidative signal to a nitrosative one because ROS are too reactive and unspecific in their reactions for regulatory purposes and the cell is equipped to precisely modulate NO* levels.

.Nitric oxide in the air may convert to nitric acid, which has been implicated in acid rain.^ Recent studies have demonstrated that some effects of propofol may lie in its antioxidant properties and the likely involvement of nitric oxide.
  • Nitric Oxide and Propofol 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC priory.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Becker, Y. (1993 b ) Success and failure of dendritic cell (DC) anticancer activity may be modulated by nitric oxide synthetase (NOS) gene expression: A hypothesis.
  • Reviews on nitric oxide synthases 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC metallo.scripps.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ They hypothesized that a dysfunctional endothelium with reduced endogenous nitric oxide release may contribute to post operative pulmonary hypertension.
  • Bernasconi A, Beghetti M. Inhaled nitric oxide applications in paediatric practice. Images Paediatr Cardiol 2002;10 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.impaedcard.com [Source type: Academic]

Furthermore, both NO and NO2 participate in ozone layer depletion. .Nitric oxide is a small highly diffusible gas and a ubiquitous bioactive molecule.^ "Nitric oxide is a signaling molecule in spermatozoa."

^ Nitric oxide is a lipophilic molecule that diffuses through membranes.
  • Mechanisms for nitric oxide synthesis in plants -- Crawford 57 (3): 471 -- Journal of Experimental Botany 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC jxb.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Nitric oxide is colorless, poisonous gas.
  • NO-Nitric Oxide 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.indsci.com [Source type: Reference]

Technical applications

.Although NO has relatively few direct uses, it is produced on a massive scale as an intermediate in the Ostwald process for the synthesis of nitric acid from ammonia.^ Saturated ascorbic acid levels in endothelial cells are necessary to protect BH4 from oxidation to provide optimal condition for cellular NO synthesis.
  • Dysfunction of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase and Atherosclerosis -- Kawashima and Yokoyama 24 (6): 998 -- Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC atvb.ahajournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Nitric oxide (NO) is an inorganic gas synthesized by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in which amino acid L-arginine is oxidized to NO and equal amount of L-citrulline(44-46).
  • Nitric Oxide and Propofol 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC priory.com [Source type: Academic]

^ NO 2 is thought to be responsible for the pulmonary injury caused by exposure to NO. NO 2 is clearly cytotoxic 55 and in aqueous solutions is transformed to nitric and nitrous acids.
  • Bernasconi A, Beghetti M. Inhaled nitric oxide applications in paediatric practice. Images Paediatr Cardiol 2002;10 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.impaedcard.com [Source type: Academic]

.In 2005, the US alone produced 6M metric tons of nitric acid.^ It is produced in vivo from the amino acid L-arginine by a complex family of enzymes termed nitric oxide synthase (NOS).

[11] It finds use in the semiconductor industry for various processes. .In one of its applications it is used along with nitrous oxide to form oxynitride gates in CMOS devices.^ Finally, one atom of oxygen from oxygen binds with the terminal guanidine nitrogen from arginine to form nitric oxide [9, 10] .
  • Nitric Oxide: A Physiologic Messenger — Ann Intern Med 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.annals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It is a small molecule composed of one atom each of nitrogen and oxygen, not to be confused with nitrous oxide, N 2O , an inhalational anesthetic commonly referred to as laughing gas.
  • Nitric Oxide: A Physiologic Messenger — Ann Intern Med 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.annals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Nitric Oxide is a free form gas that is produced in the body and is used by the body to communicate with other cells in the body.
  • Bodybuilding.com - NO Nitric Oxide Information and Product Listing! NO Nitric Oxide FAQ! 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.bodybuilding.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Miscellaneous applications

.Nitric oxide can be used for detecting surface radicals on polymers.^ The fact is, Nitric Oxide, when combined with various metabolic by-products, such as superoxide, form very nasty radicals called Reactive Nitrogen Species.
  • Best Overall Nitric Oxide (NO) Product? - Bodybuilding.com Forums 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC forum.bodybuilding.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nitric Oxide is a free form gas that is produced in the body and is used by the body to communicate with other cells in the body.
  • Bodybuilding.com - NO Nitric Oxide Information and Product Listing! NO Nitric Oxide FAQ! 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.bodybuilding.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, a suitable nitric oxide donor can by used for HRT, since these compounds do not exert hormone activities.
  • N-nitroso-N-substituted hydroxylamines as nitric oxide donors - Patent 5698738 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

.Quenching of surface radicals with nitric oxide results in incorporation of nitrogen, which can be quantified by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.^ The fact is, Nitric Oxide, when combined with various metabolic by-products, such as superoxide, form very nasty radicals called Reactive Nitrogen Species.
  • Best Overall Nitric Oxide (NO) Product? - Bodybuilding.com Forums 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC forum.bodybuilding.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A number of methods have been developed to measure exhaled nitric oxide, including laser spectroscopy and chemiluminescence.
  • Breath Tests of Airway Inflammation: Exhaled Nitric Oxide and Exhaled Breath Condensate 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.aetna.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Nitric oxide (NO) is a pleiotropic free radical messenger molecule.

[citation needed]

Biological functions

.NO is one of the few gaseous signaling molecules known.^ It is an important signalling molecule in the body of mammals including humans , one of the few gaseous signalling molecules known.
  • Nitric oxide 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC pheeds.com [Source type: Academic]

^ NO is one of the few gaseous signaling molecules known.

^ Nitric oxide (also known as "NO") is a gas that functions as a signaling molecule (neurotransmitter) telling your body to make blood vessels relax and widen.
  • Find out what Nitric Oxide is and how Nitric Oxide supplements work. 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC musclesurf.com [Source type: General]

.It is a key vertebrate biological messenger, playing a role in a variety of biological processes.^ This article highlights the complex roles the aminergic system plays along with key hormones that are equally involved.

^ These data indicate that NO signaling during training plays a critical role in the formation of multiple memory processes.
  • Nitric Oxide Is Necessary for Multiple Memory Processes after Learning That a Food Is Inedible in Aplysia -- Katzoff et al. 22 (21): 9581 -- Journal of Neuroscience 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.jneurosci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Although previously regarded as a toxic pollutant gas, nitric oxide (NO) is a short-lived molecule that plays a key role in many physiological and pathological processes.

.Nitric oxide, known as the 'endothelium-derived relaxing factor', or 'EDRF', is biosynthesized endogenously from arginine and oxygen by various nitric oxide synthase (NOS) enzymes and by reduction of inorganic nitrate.^ Induction of nitric oxide synthase in macrophages.
  • Nitric Oxide: A Physiologic Messenger — Ann Intern Med 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.annals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The effects of the derivatives were also compared to DETA/NO, a known nitric oxide donor compound.
  • N-nitroso-N-substituted hydroxylamines as nitric oxide donors - Patent 5698738 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Review Endothelium-derived nitric oxide: the endogenous nitrovasodilator in the human cardiovascular system.
  • Nitric Oxide as a Unique Bioactive Signaling Messenger inPhysiology and Pathophysiology 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The endothelium (inner lining) of blood vessels uses nitric oxide to signal the surrounding smooth muscle to relax, thus resulting in vasodilation and increasing blood flow.^ The increase in cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) causes smooth muscle relaxation, and thus vasodilation.
  • Nitric Oxide: A Physiologic Messenger — Ann Intern Med 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.annals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Muscle relaxants and inotropes also used.
  • Nitric oxide for respiratory failure in infants born at or near term 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Nitric Oxide (NO) helps to increase and prolong muscle pump.
  • Nitric Oxide - Sports and Fitness Supplements | The Creatine Store 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.creatinestore.co.uk [Source type: General]

.Nitric oxide is highly reactive (having a lifetime of a few seconds), yet diffuses freely across membranes.^ Try the # 1 Nitric Oxide product, free*.

^ Nitric oxide is highly reactive (having a lifetime of a few seconds), yet diffuses freely across membranes.

^ Nitric oxide has few industrial uses.
  • Nitric oxide 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC pheeds.com [Source type: Academic]

.These attributes make nitric oxide ideal for a transient paracrine (between adjacent cells) and autocrine (within a single cell) signaling molecule.^ "Nitric oxide is a signaling molecule in spermatozoa."

^ Nitric oxide: one of the more conserved and widespread signaling molecules.
  • Mechanisms for nitric oxide synthesis in plants -- Crawford 57 (3): 471 -- Journal of Experimental Botany 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC jxb.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Nitric oxide in plants: the biosynthesis and cell signalling properties of a fascinating molecule.
  • Mechanisms for nitric oxide synthesis in plants -- Crawford 57 (3): 471 -- Journal of Experimental Botany 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC jxb.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[12] .The production of nitric oxide is elevated in populations living at high-altitudes, which helps these people avoid hypoxia by aiding in pulmonary vasculature vasodilation.^ The fact is, Nitric Oxide, when combined with various metabolic by-products, such as superoxide, form very nasty radicals called Reactive Nitrogen Species.
  • Best Overall Nitric Oxide (NO) Product? - Bodybuilding.com Forums 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC forum.bodybuilding.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Where other nitric oxide products fail, Plas Click here for more Our Price: £43.99 .
  • Nitric Oxide - Sports Nutrition Supplements | The Supplement Store 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.thesupplementstore.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ You do NOT need to cycle nitric oxide products like you do creatine.
  • Nitric Oxide FAQ - Bodybuilding.com Forums 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC forum.bodybuilding.com [Source type: General]

.Effects include vasodilatation, neurotransmission (see gasotransmitters), modulation of the hair cycle, production of reactive nitrogen intermediates and penile erections (through its ability to vasodilate).^ Inhibition of reactive nitrogen species production in COPD airways: comparison of inhaled corticosteroid and oral theophylline Thorax, September 1, 2006; 61(9): 761 - 766.
  • Nitric oxide as a secretory product of mammalian cells -- Nathan 6 (12): 3051 -- The FASEB Journal 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.fasebj.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This effect is the so-called microselective effect of iNO. As for endogenous NO, this vasodilator effect is induced through the cyclic cGMP pathway, as demonstrated by an increase in plasma cGMP during iNO therapy.
  • Bernasconi A, Beghetti M. Inhaled nitric oxide applications in paediatric practice. Images Paediatr Cardiol 2002;10 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.impaedcard.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These effects are supposed to be mediated through its oxidation and the concomitant production of reactive oxygen species.

.Nitroglycerin and amyl nitrite serve as vasodilators because they are converted to nitric oxide in the body.^ However, in the last 7 years, nitric oxide, a byproduct of automobile exhaust, electric power stations, and lightning, was discovered in the body, where it participates in various functions, including suppression of pathogens, vasodilation, and neurotransmission [1-8] .
  • Nitric Oxide: A Physiologic Messenger — Ann Intern Med 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.annals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: NOS1_HUMAN, P29475 Function : Produces nitric oxide (NO) which is a messenger molecule with diverse functions throughout the body.
  • NOS1 Gene - GeneCards | NOS1 Protein | NOS1 Antibody 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.genecards.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Present NO Donors: Presently, there are only a few nitric oxide donor compounds that are used clinically (e.g., nitroglycerin, sodium nitroprusside and amyl nitrite).
  • N-nitroso-N-substituted hydroxylamines as nitric oxide donors - Patent 5698738 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

.Sildenafil citrate, popularly known by the trade name Viagra, stimulates erections primarily by enhancing signaling through the nitric oxide pathway in the penis.^ The L ­arginine:nitric oxide pathway.
  • Reviews on nitric oxide synthases 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC metallo.scripps.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Nitric oxide stimulator!
  • HgH Human Growth Hormone 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.hgh.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nitric oxide signalling in plants.
  • Mechanisms for nitric oxide synthesis in plants -- Crawford 57 (3): 471 -- Journal of Experimental Botany 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC jxb.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.Nitric oxide (NO) contributes to vessel homeostasis by inhibiting vascular smooth muscle contraction and growth, platelet aggregation, and leukocyte adhesion to the endothelium.^ Roles of nitric oxide (NO) in carcinogenesis.
  • Nitric oxide in gastrointestinal epithelial cell carcinogenesis: linking inflammation to oncogenesis -- Jaiswal et al. 281 (3): 626 -- AJP - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC ajpgi.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Endothelium-derived nitric oxide; 4.
  • Nitric Oxide in Health and Disease - Cambridge University Press 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.cambridge.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Nitric oxide (NO) contributes to vessel homeostasis by inhibiting vascular smooth muscle contraction and growth, platelet aggregation, and leukocyte adhesion to the endothelium.
  • Nitric Oxide Molecule 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.worldofmolecules.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Nitric oxide: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

.Humans with atherosclerosis, diabetes, or hypertension often show impaired NO pathways.^ This review focuses on the role of impaired endothelial function for the development of atherosclerosis in human arterial hypertension and hypercholesterolemia in vivo.

^ It is well known that diabetes mellitus often combines with hypertension.

^ Common vascular disease states including hypertension, atherosclerosis, and diabetes are associated with endothelial dysfunction, characterized by reduced bioactivity of NO. Loss of the vasculoprotective effects of NO contributes to disease progression, but the mechanisms underlying endothelial dysfunction remain unclear.
  • Nitric Oxide as a Unique Bioactive Signaling Messenger inPhysiology and Pathophysiology 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

[13] .A high-salt intake was demonstrated to attenuate NO production, although bioavailability remains unregulated.^ It is also demonstrated that addition of exogenous BH4 increases NO production and decreases superoxide production from endothelial cells.
  • Dysfunction of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase and Atherosclerosis -- Kawashima and Yokoyama 24 (6): 998 -- Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC atvb.ahajournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Early hypercholesterolaemia-induced vascular disease is characterized by an attenuated capacity for endothelial production of the antiatherogenic molecule nitric oxide (NO), which is generated by endothelial NO synthase (eNOS).

^ When examined critically, however, a pattern emerges, with studies examining NO release showing increased production, whereas those examining NO bioactivity show it to be attenuated.

[14]
.Nitric oxide is also generated by phagocytes (monocytes, macrophages, and neutrophils) as part of the human immune response.^ Induction of nitric oxide synthase in macrophages.
  • Nitric Oxide: A Physiologic Messenger — Ann Intern Med 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.annals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Other organs that benefit in some way from Nitric Oxide include the brain, lungs, liver, stomach and digestive and immune systems.

^ In fact, its link to a healthy cardiovascular system is so strong that the medication Nitroglycerine is prescribed to sufferers of angina because of its ability to generate Nitric Oxide.

.Phagocytes are armed with inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which is activated by interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) as a single signal or by tumor necrosis factor (TNF) along with a second signal.^ The role of calmodulin in inducible nitric oxide synthase function is unknown.
  • Nitric Oxide: A Physiologic Messenger — Ann Intern Med 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.annals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Induction of nitric oxide synthase in macrophages.
  • Nitric Oxide: A Physiologic Messenger — Ann Intern Med 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.annals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In search of the prototype of nitric oxide synthase.
  • Mechanisms for nitric oxide synthesis in plants -- Crawford 57 (3): 471 -- Journal of Experimental Botany 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC jxb.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[15] .On the converse, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) provides a strong inhibitory signal to iNOS, whereas interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-10 provide weak inhibitory signals.^ Inducible nitric oxide synthase is induced by T helper I cytokines (interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor and gamma-interferon), while arginases are induced by T helper II cytokines and other immune regulators such as interleukins 4, 10, and 13, transforming growth factor-beta and prostaglandin E2.

^ The synthesis of endothelin-1 is induced by hypoxia, thrombin, interleukin-1, transforming growth factor-beta1, vasopressin, and catecholamines.

^ Furthermore, identification of growth factors and signalling molecules under cell culture conditions is crucial for the selective cardiac differentiation of embryonic stem cells.

.In this way the immune system may regulate the armamentarium of phagocytes that play a role in inflammation and immune responses.^ This article highlights the complex roles the aminergic system plays along with key hormones that are equally involved.

^ Data on exhaled nitric oxide are few and variable, not allowing conclusions about its usefulness as a marker of airway inflammation in athletes, or its role in modulating bronchial responsiveness.

^ These observations suggest that iNOS may play a fundamental role in the initiation and promotion/progression of cancers arising within a background of inflammation.
  • Nitric oxide in gastrointestinal epithelial cell carcinogenesis: linking inflammation to oncogenesis -- Jaiswal et al. 281 (3): 626 -- AJP - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC ajpgi.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

.Nitric oxide secreted as an immune response is as free radicals and is toxic to bacteria; the mechanism for this includes DNA damage[16][17][18] and degradation of iron sulfur centers into iron ions and iron-nitrosyl compounds.^ Problems with present nitric oxide donor compounds include the following: .
  • N-nitroso-N-substituted hydroxylamines as nitric oxide donors - Patent 5698738 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Nitric oxide (NO) is a pleiotropic free radical messenger molecule.

^ The reaction of NO with iron-sulfur centers may also perpetuate radical reactions.
  • Nitric oxide in gastrointestinal epithelial cell carcinogenesis: linking inflammation to oncogenesis -- Jaiswal et al. 281 (3): 626 -- AJP - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC ajpgi.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

[19] .In response, however, many bacterial pathogens have evolved mechanisms for nitric oxide resistance.^ Nitric oxide mechanisms of nebivolol .
  • Nitric oxide mechanisms of nebivolol -- Maffei and Lembo 3 (4): 317 -- Therapeutic Advances in Cardiovascular Disease 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC tak.sagepub.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The advantages of Nitric oxide are many.

^ Bacterial nitric oxide protects pathogen from immune system attacks .
  • Health: Key Anthrax Virulence Factor Discovered; Bacterial nitric oxide protects pathogen from immune ... 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.maimonidesmed.org [Source type: News]

[20] .Because nitric oxide might serve as an inflammometer in conditions like asthma, there has been increasing interest in the use of exhaled nitric oxide as a breath test in diseases with airway inflammation.^ "Nitric oxide in inflammatory bowel disease."

^ "Nitric oxide in allergic airway inflammation."

^ "Exhaled nitric oxide in asthma: from bench to bedside."

.Nitric oxide can contribute to reperfusion injury when an excessive amount produced during reperfusion (following a period of ischemia) reacts with superoxide to produce the damaging oxidant peroxynitrite.^ Nitric oxide reacts with superoxide to form the potent oxidant peroxynitrite.
  • NMDA sensitization and stimulation by peroxynitrite, nitric oxide, and organic solvents as the mechanism of chemical sensitivity in multiple chemical sensitivity -- PALL 16 (11): 1407 -- The FASEB Journal 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.fasebj.org [Source type: Academic]

^ "Roles of nitric oxide and superoxide in inflammation."

^ DNA damage by nitric oxide.
  • Bernasconi A, Beghetti M. Inhaled nitric oxide applications in paediatric practice. Images Paediatr Cardiol 2002;10 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.impaedcard.com [Source type: Academic]

.In contrast, inhaled nitric oxide has been shown to help survival and recovery from paraquat poisoning, which produces lung tissue-damaging superoxide and hinders NOS metabolism.^ Nitric oxide (NO) is produced from L-arginine in mammalian tissues.

^ "Roles of nitric oxide and superoxide in inflammation."

^ Roles of nitric oxide (NO) in carcinogenesis.
  • Nitric oxide in gastrointestinal epithelial cell carcinogenesis: linking inflammation to oncogenesis -- Jaiswal et al. 281 (3): 626 -- AJP - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC ajpgi.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

.In plants, nitric oxide can be produced by any of four routes: (i) L-arginine-dependent nitric oxide synthase,[21][22][23] (although the existence of animal NOS homologs in plants is debated),[24] (ii) by plasma membrane-bound nitrate reductase, (iii) by mitochondrial electron transport chain, or (iv) by non-enzymatic reactions.^ Roles of nitric oxide (NO) in carcinogenesis.
  • Nitric oxide in gastrointestinal epithelial cell carcinogenesis: linking inflammation to oncogenesis -- Jaiswal et al. 281 (3): 626 -- AJP - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC ajpgi.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ At present, AtNOS1 is the only reported arginine-dependent NOS in plants.
  • Mechanisms for nitric oxide synthesis in plants -- Crawford 57 (3): 471 -- Journal of Experimental Botany 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC jxb.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ "The nitric oxide producing reactions of hydroxyurea."

.It is a signaling molecule, acts mainly against oxidative stress and also plays a role in plant pathogen interactions.^ "Role of oxidative stress in atherosclerosis."

^ Review Nitric oxide signaling in plant-pathogen interactions.
  • Nitric Oxide as a Unique Bioactive Signaling Messenger inPhysiology and Pathophysiology 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Recent studies have also revealed a role of NO as a signaling molecule in plants.
  • Nitric Oxide as a Unique Bioactive Signaling Messenger inPhysiology and Pathophysiology 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Treating cut flowers and other plants with nitric oxide has been shown to lengthen the time before wilting.^ Nitric oxide signalling in plants.
  • Mechanisms for nitric oxide synthesis in plants -- Crawford 57 (3): 471 -- Journal of Experimental Botany 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC jxb.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Mechanisms for nitric oxide synthesis in plants .
  • Mechanisms for nitric oxide synthesis in plants -- Crawford 57 (3): 471 -- Journal of Experimental Botany 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC jxb.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Plant nitric oxide synthase .
  • Mechanisms for nitric oxide synthesis in plants -- Crawford 57 (3): 471 -- Journal of Experimental Botany 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC jxb.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[25]
.An important biological reaction of nitric oxide is S-nitrosylation, the conversion of thiol groups, including cysteine residues in proteins, to form S-nitrosothiols (RSNOs).^ "The nitric oxide producing reactions of hydroxyurea."

^ NO can react with thiol groups and form S-nitrosothiols.
  • Bernasconi A, Beghetti M. Inhaled nitric oxide applications in paediatric practice. Images Paediatr Cardiol 2002;10 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.impaedcard.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The fact is, Nitric Oxide, when combined with various metabolic by-products, such as superoxide, form very nasty radicals called Reactive Nitrogen Species.
  • Best Overall Nitric Oxide (NO) Product? - Bodybuilding.com Forums 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC forum.bodybuilding.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.S-Nitrosylation is a mechanism for dynamic, post-translational regulation of most or all major classes of protein.^ This review describes the mechanisms that each class of heme protein sensor and transporter utilizes to promote this discrimination.

^ However, most agonists that act on endothelial cells cause a series of post-translational modifications that influence eNOS activity.

^ Stack with pre- and post-exercise supplements, all-day supplement and ultra-premium sustained release protein powder for maximum physique and performance impact.
  • HgH Human Growth Hormone 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.hgh.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Mechanism of action

.There are several mechanisms by which NO has been demonstrated to affect the biology of living cells.^ It is also demonstrated that addition of exogenous BH4 increases NO production and decreases superoxide production from endothelial cells.
  • Dysfunction of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase and Atherosclerosis -- Kawashima and Yokoyama 24 (6): 998 -- Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC atvb.ahajournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Among various mechanisms responsible for the impaired EDR, the increased NO breakdown by superoxide is important, and there is augmented production of superoxide in atherosclerotic vessels.
  • Dysfunction of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase and Atherosclerosis -- Kawashima and Yokoyama 24 (6): 998 -- Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC atvb.ahajournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This suggests that NO contributes to the mechanisms of several types of primary headaches and that NO-related central sensitization may be an important common denominator in the pain mechanisms of primary headaches.
  • Nitric oxide-induced headache in patients with chronic tension-type headache -- Ashina et al. 123 (9): 1830 -- Brain 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC brain.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.These include oxidation of iron-containing proteins such as ribonucleotide reductase and aconitase, activation of the soluble guanylate cyclase, ADP ribosylation of proteins, protein sulfhydryl group nitrosylation, and iron regulatory factor activation.^ NO initiates diverse cellular signaling cascades which comprise nitrosylation of proteins, adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP)-ribosylation, or stimulation of soluble guanylyl cyclases which catalyze intracellular guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) synthesis.

^ Curcumin inhibits activation of free radical-activated transcription factors such as NF- B and AP-1 and reduces the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF- , IL-1 , and IL-8.
  • Nitric oxide in gastrointestinal epithelial cell carcinogenesis: linking inflammation to oncogenesis -- Jaiswal et al. 281 (3): 626 -- AJP - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC ajpgi.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ (NO) stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis in a number of cell lines via a soluble guanylate-cyclase-dependent signaling pathway that activates PGC1alpha (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha), a master regulator of mitochondrial content.

[26] .NO has been demonstrated to activate NF-κB in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, an important transcription factor in iNOS gene expression in response to inflammation.^ NOS gene expression is regulated by the transcription factors nuclear factor (NF)- B, the Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway, and c-Jun NH 2 -terminal kinase (JNK)-activator protein-1 (AP-1) pathways ( 103 ).
  • Nitric oxide in gastrointestinal epithelial cell carcinogenesis: linking inflammation to oncogenesis -- Jaiswal et al. 281 (3): 626 -- AJP - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC ajpgi.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) pathway is a stress-responsive mechanism that transduces signals from the cell surface to the nucleus, thereby modulating gene expression.

^ NO produced by both iNOS and eNOS plays many important roles in wound healing, from the inflammatory phase through to scar remodeling.

[27] .It was found that NO acts through the stimulation of the soluble guanylate cyclase, which is a heterodimeric enzyme with subsequent formation of cyclic GMP. Cyclic GMP activates protein kinase G, which causes phosphorylation of myosin light chain phosphatase, and therefore inactivation of myosin light-chain kinase, and leads ultimately to the dephosphorylation of the myosin light chain, causing smooth muscle relaxation.^ NO released in response to nerve stimulation of the myenteric plexus causes relaxation of the smooth muscle.

^ Guanylate cyclase is activated to produce cGMP, which, through a cascade of protein kinases, induces smooth muscle relaxation.
  • Nitric Oxide: A Physiologic Messenger — Ann Intern Med 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.annals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Effects of cyclic GMP on smooth muscle relaxation.
  • Mechanisms for nitric oxide synthesis in plants -- Crawford 57 (3): 471 -- Journal of Experimental Botany 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC jxb.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[28]

Use in pediatric intensive care

.Nitric oxide/oxygen blends are used in critical care to promote capillary and pulmonary dilation to treat primary pulmonary hypertension in neonatal patients[29][30] post meconium aspiration and related to birth defects.^ A few patients with sepsis have been treated with nitric oxide synthase inhibitors.
  • Nitric Oxide: A Physiologic Messenger — Ann Intern Med 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.annals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Inhaled nitric oxide and persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn.
  • Nitric oxide for respiratory failure in infants born at or near term 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ It has been used to treat pulmonary hypertension of neonates by dilating pulmonary arteries [179] .
  • Nitric Oxide: A Physiologic Messenger — Ann Intern Med 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.annals.org [Source type: Academic]

.These are often a last-resort gas mixture before the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO).^ These two groups were well matched for their clinical characteristics and blood gas values and were nearly identical in the use of support treatments at the time of randomization.
  • Nitric oxide for respiratory failure in infants born at or near term 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Trials have shown that inhaled nitric oxide can increase the levels of oxygen in babies' blood and reduce the need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), a highly technical and invasive therapy.
  • Nitric oxide for respiratory failure in infants born at or near term 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.nichd.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ To ensure reliable data, the oxygen electrode was cleaned and a new membrane applied 24 hours before each study day.
  • Journal of Clinical Investigation -- Inhaled nitric oxide augments nitric oxide transport on sickle cell hemoglobin without affecting oxygen affinity 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.jci.org [Source type: Academic]

.Nitric oxide therapy has the potential to significantly increase the quality of life and, in some cases, save the lives of infants at risk for pulmonary vascular disease.^ "Nitric oxide in inflammatory bowel disease."

^ "The potential of nitric oxide therapeutics in stroke."

^ Dependency on vascular nitric oxide.
  • Dysfunction of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase and Atherosclerosis -- Kawashima and Yokoyama 24 (6): 998 -- Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC atvb.ahajournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[31]

Pharmacology

.Nitric oxide is considered an anti-anginal drug: it causes vasodilation, which can help with ischemic pain known as angina by decreasing the cardiac workload.^ In fact, its link to a healthy cardiovascular system is so strong that the medication Nitroglycerine is prescribed to sufferers of angina because of its ability to generate Nitric Oxide.

^ We found that overexpression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in the nucleus tractus solitarii as well as in the rostral ventrolateral medulla causes hypotension and bradycardia via a decrease in sympathetic nerve activity.

^ Nitric oxide is a versatile molecule, with its actions ranging from haemodynamic regulation to anti-proliferative effects on vascular smooth muscle cells.

By dilating the veins there is less blood returned to the heart per cycle. This decreases the amount of volume that the heart has to pump. Nitroglycerin pills, taken sublingually (under the tongue), are used to prevent or treat acute chest pain (ACS). .The nitroglycerin reacts with a sulfhydryl group (–SH) to produce nitric oxide, which eases the pain by causing vasodilation.^ "The nitric oxide producing reactions of hydroxyurea."

^ The fact that Nitric Oxide acts to reduce inflammation should also make it of interest to bodybuilders as it has the potential to reduce the pain associated with subjecting muscles to extreme stress.
  • Nitric Oxide - NO Information - Learn More about Nitric Oxide - NO! 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.a1supplements.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In contrast to the neuronal and endothelial nitric oxide synthase, the inducible macrophage nitric oxide synthase produces a large amount of nitric oxide.
  • Nitric Oxide: A Physiologic Messenger — Ann Intern Med 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.annals.org [Source type: Academic]

.Contrary to popular belief, nitrates do not increase the diameter of the coronary arteries and increase flow to the myocardium, rather they decrease the heart muscle's oxygen consumption by decreasing the workload.^ Satur8 Nitric Oxide is a new an revolutionary way to increase blood flow and expand blood vessels, which is particularly important during both exercise and recovery, when the muscle needs greater amounts of oxygen and vital nutrients!
  • HgH Human Growth Hormone 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.hgh.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The common risk factors for atherosclerosis increase production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by endothelial, vascular smooth muscle, and adventitial cells.

^ Since ACE produces angiotensin II in the heart, ACE inhibitors (ACEIs) may prevent coronary vasoconstriction and increase coronary blood flow.
  • Nitric Oxide as a Unique Bioactive Signaling Messenger inPhysiology and Pathophysiology 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

[citation needed]

See also

References

  1. ^ Hou Y.C., Janczuk A. and Wang P.G. (1999): Current trends in the development of nitric oxide donors. Curr. Pharm. Des. June, 5 (6): 417–471
  2. ^ Tylor B.S., Kion Y.M., Wang Q.I., Sharpio R.A., Billiar T.R. and Geller D.A. (1997): Nitric oxide down regulates hepatocyte-inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression. Arch. Surg. 1, (32). Nov.; 1177–1182.
  3. ^ a b Elizabeth Culotta and Daniel E. Koshland Jr (December 1992). "NO news is good news. (nitric oxide; includes information about other significant advances & discoveries of 1992) (Molecule of the Year)". Science 258 (5090): 1862–1864. doi:10.1126/science.1361684. PMID 1361684. 
  4. ^ Ueber Synthesen stickstoffhaltiger Verbindungen mit Hülfe des Stickoxyds Justus Liebig's Annalen der Chemie Volume 300, Issue 1, Date: 1898, Pages: 81–128 Wilhelm Traube doi:10.1002/jlac.18983000108
  5. ^ Nitric Oxide Reacts with Methoxide Frank DeRosa, Larry K. Keefer, and Joseph A. Hrabie J. Org. Chem. 2008, 73, 1139–1142 doi:10.1021/jo7020423
  6. ^ Robert H. Crabtree: "The Organometallic Chemistry of the Transition Metals", page 32.
  7. ^ Robert H. Crabtree: "The Organometallic Chemistry of the Transition Metals", pages 96-98.
  8. ^ Fontijn, A., A. J. Sabadell and R. J. Ronco (1970). "Homogeneous chemiluminescent measurement of nitric oxide with ozone." Analytical Chemistry 42(6): 575–579.
  9. ^ Vanin A. F.; Huisman A.; van Faassen E.E.; Methods in Enzymology vol 359 (2002) 27–42
  10. ^ Nagano T.; Yoshimura T.; "Bioimaging of nitric oxide", Chemical Reviews vol 102 (2002) 1235–1269.
  11. ^ “Production: Growth is the Norm” Chemical and Engineering News, July 1 0, 2006, p. 59.
  12. ^ Stryer, Lubert (1995). Biochemistry, 4th Edition. W.H. Freeman and Company. pp. 732. ISBN 0-7167-2009-4. 
  13. ^ Dessy, C.; Ferron, O. (September 2004). "Pathophysiological Roles of Nitric Oxide: In the Heart and the Coronary Vasculature". Current Medical Chemistry – Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry (Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.) 3 (3): 207–216. ISSN 1871–5230. 
  14. ^ http://content.karger.com/ProdukteDB/produkte.asp?Aktion=ShowPDF&ProduktNr=223997&Ausgabe=228460&ArtikelNr=63555
  15. ^ Gorczyniski and Stanely, Clinical Immunology. Landes Bioscience; Austin, TX. ISBN 1570596255
  16. ^ Wink, DA; et.al. (1991). "DNA deaminating ability and genotoxicity of nitric oxide and its progenitors". Science 254 (5034): 1001-3. PMID 1948068.  About killing of salmonella bacteria.
  17. ^ Nguyen, T; Brunson D, Crespi CL, Penman BW, Wishnok JS, Tannenbaum SR (Apr 1992). "DNA damage and mutation in human cells exposed to nitric oxide in vitro". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 89 (7): 3030-4. PMID 1557408.  Free, full, optically-scanned text.
  18. ^ Li, CQ; Pang B, Kiziltepe T, Trudel LJ, Engelward BP, Dedon PC, Wogan GN (March 2006). "Threshold Effects of Nitric Oxide-Induced Toxicity and Cellular Responses in Wild-Type and p53-Null Human Lymphoblastoid Cells". Chem Res Toxicol 19 (3): 399–406. doi:10.1021/tx050283e. PMID 16544944.  free, full text.
  19. ^ Hibbs, JB; Taintor RR, Vavrin Z, Rachlin EM (Nov 1988). "Nitric oxide: a cytotoxic activated macrophage effector molecule". Biochem Biophys Res Commun 157 (1): 87-94. PMID 3196352. 
  20. ^ C. A. Janeway, et al. (2005). Immunobiology: the immune system in health and disease (6th ed.). New York: Garland Science. ISBN 0-8153-4101-6. 
  21. ^ Corpas et al.; Barroso, JB; Carreras, A; Quirós, M; León, AM; Romero-Puertas, MC; Esteban, FJ; Valderrama, R et al. (2004). "Cellular and subcellular localization of endogenous nitric oxide in young and senescent pea plants". Plant Physiology 136 (1): 2722–33. doi:10.1104/pp.104.042812. PMID 15347796. 
  22. ^ Corpas et al.; Barroso, JB; Carreras, A; Valderrama, R; Palma, JM; León, AM; Sandalio, LM; Del Río, LA (2006). "Constitutive arginine-dependent nitric oxide synthase activity in different organs of pea seedlings during plant development". Planta 224 (2): 246–54. doi:10.1007/s00425-005-0205-9. PMID 16397797. 
  23. ^ Valderrama et al.; Corpas, FJ; Carreras, A; Fernández-Ocaña, A; Chaki, M; Luque, F; Gómez-Rodríguez, MV; Colmenero-Varea, P et al. (2007). "Nitrosative stress in plants". FEBS Lett 581 (3): 453–61. doi:10.1016/j.febslet.2007.01.006. PMID 17240373. 
  24. ^ Corpas et al.; Barroso, Juan B.; Del Rio, Luis A. (2004). "Enzymatic sources of nitric oxide in plant cells – beyond one protein–one function". New Phytologist 162: 246–7. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.2004.01058.x. 
  25. ^ Judy Siegel-Itzkovich. Viagra makes flowers stand up straight. Student BMJ, September 1999.
  26. ^ Shami P.J., Moore J.O., Cockerman J.P., Halhorn W.J., Misukonis M.A., and Weinberg J.B. (1995): Nitric oxide modulation of the growth and differentiation of freshly isolated acute non-lymphocytic leukaemia cells. Leukaemia Research; 19(8): 527–534.
  27. ^ Kaibori M., Sakitani K., Oda M., Kamiyama Y., Masu Y. and Okumura T.(1999). Immunosuppressant FK56 inhibits iNOS gene expression at a step of NF-Kappa B activation in rat hepatocytes. J. Hepatol. Jan; 30 (6): 1138–1145.
  28. ^ 'cGMP-Dependent Protein Kinase I and Smooth Muscle Relaxation: A Tale of Two Isoforms', Howard K. Surks (Circ. Res. 2007;101;1078–1080)
  29. ^ Finer NN, Barrington KJ (2006). "Nitric oxide for respiratory failure in infants born at or near term". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (4): CD000399. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000399.pub2. PMID 17054129. 
  30. ^ Chotigeat U, Khorana M, Kanjanapattanakul W (February 2007). "Inhaled nitric oxide in newborns with severe hypoxic respiratory failure". J Med Assoc Thai 90 (2): 266–71. PMID 17375630. 
  31. ^ Hayward C.S., Kelly R.P. and Macdonald P.S. (1999): Inhaled nitric oxide in cardiology practice. Cadio. Vasc. Res. Aug.; 15, 43 (3): 628–638.

Further reading

.
  • Butler A. and Nicholson R.; " Life, death and NO." Cambridge 2003. ISBN 978-0-85404-686-7.
  • Corpas FJ et al.^ ABSTRACT Asymmetrical Dimethylarginine Predicts Progression to Dialysis and Death in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: A Competing Risks Modeling Approach Ravani et al.
    • JAMA -- Abstract: Relationship Between Insulin Resistance and an Endogenous Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitor, March 20, 2002, Stühlinger et al. 287 (11): 1420 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC jama.ama-assn.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Such conditions exist in the apoplasm and have been invoked to explain NO effects on germinating seeds (Beligni and Lamattina, 2000 ; Bethke et al ., 2004 a , b ).
    • Mechanisms for nitric oxide synthesis in plants -- Crawford 57 (3): 471 -- Journal of Experimental Botany 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC jxb.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ To answer this question, AtNOS1 was fused to GST and expressed in E. coli (Guo et al ., 2003 ).
    • Mechanisms for nitric oxide synthesis in plants -- Crawford 57 (3): 471 -- Journal of Experimental Botany 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC jxb.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

    “Constitutive arginine-dependent nitric oxide synthase activity in different organs of pea seedlings during plant development” .Planta 2006 224(2):246–54.
  • Corpas FJ, del Río LA, Barroso JB. "Need of biomarkers of nitrosative stress in plants" Trends Plant Sci.^ [CrossRef] [Web of Science] [Medline] Barroso JB, Corpas FJ, Carreras A, Sandalio LM, Valderrama R, Palma JM, Lupianez JA, del Rio LA. 1999.
    • Mechanisms for nitric oxide synthesis in plants -- Crawford 57 (3): 471 -- Journal of Experimental Botany 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC jxb.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

    .2007 12(10):436–8.
  • van Faassen, E. E.; Vanin, A. F. (eds); " Radicals for life: The various forms of Nitric Oxide."^ Nitric Oxide is a free form gas that is produced in the body and is used by the body to communicate with other cells in the body.
    • Nitric Oxide - NO Information - Learn More about Nitric Oxide - NO! 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.a1supplements.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Eizirik, D.L. and Leijerstam, F. (1994) The inducible form of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in insulin­producing cells.
    • Reviews on nitric oxide synthases 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC metallo.scripps.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Data on exhaled nitric oxide are few and variable, not allowing conclusions about its usefulness as a marker of airway inflammation in athletes, or its role in modulating bronchial responsiveness.

    .Elsevier, Amsterdam 2007. ISBN 978-0-444-52236-8.
  • F.A. Cotton, G. Wilkinson, C.A. Murillo, M. Bochmann; Advanced Inorganic Chemistry, 6th ed.^ Drago, "Reactions of nitrogen(II) oxide, in Free Radicals in Inorganic Chemistry," Advances in Chem Series No.
    • N-nitroso-N-substituted hydroxylamines as nitric oxide donors - Patent 5698738 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

    .Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1999.
  • K.J. Gupta , M. Stoimenova, and W. M. Kaiser "In higher plants, only root mitochondria, but not leaf mitochondria reduce nitrite to NO, in vitro and in situ" Journal of Experimental Botany 2005 56(420):2601–2609.
  • E.Planchet, K.J. Gupta, M .Sonada & W.M.Kaiser (2005) "Nitric oxide emission from tobacco leaves and cell suspensions: rate limiting factors and evidence for the involvement of mitochondrial electron transport"The Plant Journal 41 (5), 732–743.
  • Stöhr, C.; Stremlau, S. "Formation and possible roles of nitric oxide in plant roots" Journal of Experimental Botany 2006 57(3):463–470.
  • Pacher, P.; Beckman, J. S.; Liaudet, L.; “Nitric Oxide and Peroxynitrite: in Health and disease” Physiological Reviews 2007, volume 87(1), page 315–424. PMID 17237348.
  • Valderrama et al.^ Roles of nitric oxide (NO) in carcinogenesis.
    • Nitric oxide in gastrointestinal epithelial cell carcinogenesis: linking inflammation to oncogenesis -- Jaiswal et al. 281 (3): 626 -- AJP - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC ajpgi.physiology.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Review Nitric oxide: a new paradigm for second messengers.
    • Nitric Oxide as a Unique Bioactive Signaling Messenger inPhysiology and Pathophysiology 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Generation and possible roles of NO in plant roots and their apoplastic space.
    • Mechanisms for nitric oxide synthesis in plants -- Crawford 57 (3): 471 -- Journal of Experimental Botany 10 January 2010 5:05 UTC jxb.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

    "Nitrosative stress in plants" FEBS Lett. 2007 581(3):453–61.

External links


Simple English

Nitric oxide is a chemical compound. It contains nitrogen in its +2 oxidation state. It has the chemical formula NO. It contains nitrogen and oxide ions.

Contents

Properties

It is a colorless gas. It is easily oxidized to nitrogen dioxide by air. It can react with a mixture of air and water to make nitrous acid. It glows when reacted with ozone.

Preparation

It is made by reacting ammonia with oxygen with a catalyst. It is also made in lightning. It can be made in small amounts by reacting copper with nitric acid. It can also be made by reducing nitrous acid with compounds such as iron(II) sulfate.

Uses

It is used in making nitric acid from ammonia. The ammonia is reacted with air to make nitric oxide. The nitric oxide is oxidized to nitrogen dioxide by air. The nitrogen dioxide is dissolved in water to make nitric acid and more nitric oxide.

It is also used as a stimulant in the human body. It has many actions in the human body that are being studied.

Safety

Nitric oxide is toxic when breathed in. It also easily is oxidized to nitrogen dioxide, a toxic brown choking substance.

See also


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 18, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Nitric oxide, which are similar to those in the above article.








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