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Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Niuē Fekai
Flag Coat of arms
AnthemKo e Iki he Lagi
Capital Alofi
Official language(s) Niuean, English
Demonym Niuean
Government Constitutional monarchy
 -  Head of State Queen Elizabeth II
 -  Premier Toke Talagi
Associated state
 -  Constitution Act 19 October 1974 
Area
 -  Total 260 km2 
100 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 0
Population
 -  July 2009 estimate 1,398[1] (218)
 -  Density 5.35/km2 (n/a)
13.9/sq mi
GDP (PPP)  estimate
 -  Total $7.6 million (not ranked)
Currency New Zealand dollar (NZD)
Time zone (UTC-11)
Drives on the left
Internet TLD .nu
Calling code 683

Niue (pronounced /ˈnjuːeɪ/ in English) is an island nation in the South Pacific Ocean. It is commonly known as the "Rock of Polynesia", and natives of the island call it "the Rock".

Though self governing, Niue is in free association with New Zealand, and thus lacks full sovereignty. Queen Elizabeth II is Niue's head of state. Most diplomatic relations are conducted by New Zealand on Niue's behalf.

Niue is 2,400 kilometres northeast of New Zealand in a triangle between Tonga, Samoa, and the Cook Islands. The people are predominantly Polynesian.

In 2003, Niue became the world's first "WiFi nation."[2]

Contents

History

Niue was settled by Polynesians from Samoa around CE 900.[3] Further settlers (or invaders) arrived from Tonga in the 16th century.[4]

Until the beginning of the 18th century, there appears to have been no national government or national leader. Before then, chiefs and heads of families exercised authority over segments of the population. Around 1700 the concept and practice of kingship appear to have been introduced through contact with Samoa or Tonga. From then a succession of patu-iki (kings) ruled the island, the first of whom was Puni-mata. Tui-toga, who reigned from 1875 to 1887, was the first Christian king.[5]

The first European to sight Niue was Captain James Cook in 1774. Cook made three attempts to land on the island but was refused permission to do so by the Polynesian inhabitants. He named the island "Savage Island" because, legend has it, the natives that "greeted" him were painted in what appeared to Cook and his crew to be blood. However, the substance on their teeth was that of the hulahula, a native red banana.[6]

For the next couple of centuries the island was known as Savage Island, until its original name Niu ē, which translates as "behold the coconut",[7] regained use. Its official name is still Niuē fekai (wild Niuē).[citation needed]

The next notable European visitors were from the London Missionary Society who arrived in 1846 on the "Messenger of Peace". After many years of trying to land a European missionary on Niue, a Niuean named Nukai Peniamina was taken away and trained as a Pastor at the Malua Theological College in Samoa. Peniamina returned as a missionary with the help of Toimata Fakafitifonua. He was finally allowed to land in Uluvehi Mutalau after a number of attempts in other villages had failed. The Chiefs of Mutalau village allowed Peniamina to land and assigned over 60 warriors to protect him day and night at the fort in Fupiu. Christianity was first taught to the Mutalau people before it was spread to all the villages on Niue; originally other major villages opposed the introduction of Christianity and had sought to kill Peniamina. The people from the village of Hakupu, although the last village to receive Christianity, came and asked for a "word of god"; hence their village was renamed "Ha Kupu Atua" meaning "any word of god", or "Hakupu" for short.

In 1887, King Fata-a-iki, who reigned from 1887 to 1896, offered to cede sovereignty to the British Empire, fearing the consequences of annexation by a less benevolent colonial power. The offer was not accepted until 1900.

Coral chasm in Niue

Niue was a British protectorate for a time, but the UK's direct involvement ended in 1901 when New Zealand annexed the island. Independence in the form of self-government was granted by the New Zealand parliament with the 1974 constitution. Robert Rex, ethnically part European, part native, was appointed the country's first premier, a position he held until his death 18 years later. Rex became the first Niuean to receive a knighthood, in 1984.

In January 2004, Niue was hit by Cyclone Heta, which killed two people and caused extensive damage to the entire island, including wiping out most of the south of the capital, Alofi.

Politics

The Niue Constitution Act vests executive authority in Her Majesty the Queen in Right of New Zealand and the Governor-General of New Zealand. The Constitution specifies that in everyday practice sovereignty is exercised by the Niue Cabinet of Ministers, comprising the premier and three other ministers. The premier and ministers are members of the Niue Legislative Assembly, the nation's parliament.

The assembly consists of 20 democratically elected members, 14 of whom are elected by the electors of each village constituency, six by all registered voters in all constituencies. Electors must be New Zealand citizens, resident for at least three months, and candidates must be electors and resident for 12 months.[citation needed] Anyone born in Niue must register on the electoral roll. If two candidates have the same number of votes, the votes are recounted; if the number of votes is still equal, the name of the winning candidate is drawn out of a hat. The Speaker is elected by the assembly and is the first official to be elected in the first sitting of the Legislative Assembly following an election. The new Speaker calls for nominations for premier; the candidate with the most votes from the 20 members is elected. The Premier selects three other members to form the Cabinet of Ministers, the executive arm of government. The other two organs of government, following the Westminster model, are the Legislative Assembly and the Judiciary. General elections take place every three years, most recently on 7 June 2008.

Geography

Map of Niue
Niue coastline

Niue is a 269 km² island in the southern Pacific Ocean, east of Tonga. The geographic coordinates are 19°03′48″S 169°52′11″W / 19.06333°S 169.86972°W / -19.06333; -169.86972.

There are three geographically outlying coral reefs within the Exclusive Economic Zone that do not have any land area:

  1. Beveridge Reef, at 20°00'S, 167°48'W, 240 km southeast, submerged atoll drying during low tide, 9.5 km North-South, 7.5 km East-West, total area 56 km², no land area, lagoon 11 metres deep
  2. Antiope Reef, at 18°15'S, 168°24'W, 180 km southeast, is a circular plateau approximately 400 metres in diameter, with a least depth of 9.5 metres
  3. Haran Reef (Harans Reef), at 21°33'S, 168°55'W, reported to break furiously, 294 km southeast

Besides these, Albert Meyer Reef, (20°53'S, 172°19'W, almost 5 km long and wide, least depth 3 metres, 326 km southwest) is not officially claimed by Niue, and the existence of Haymet Rocks, (26°S, 160°W, 1273 km ESE) is in doubt.

Niue is one of the world's largest coral islands. The terrain consists of steep limestone cliffs along the coast with a central plateau rising to about 60 metres above sea level. A coral reef surrounds the island, with the only major break in the reef being in the central western coast, close to the capital, Alofi. A notable feature is the number of limestone caves found close to the coast.

The island is roughly oval in shape (with a diameter of about 18 kilometres), with two large bays indenting the western coast, Alofi Bay in the centre and Avatele Bay in the south. Between these is the promontory of Halagigie Point. A small peninsula, TePā Point (Blowhole Point), is close to the settlement of Avatele in the southwest. Most of the population resides close to the west coast, around the capital, and in the northwest.

Some of the soils are geochemically very unusual. They are extremely highly weathered tropical soils, with high levels of iron and aluminium oxides (oxisol) and mercury, and they contain surprisingly high levels of natural radioactivity. There is almost no uranium, but the radionucleides Th-230 and Pa-231 head the decay chains. This is the same distribution of elements as found naturally on very deep seabeds, but the geochemical evidence suggests that the origin is extreme weathering of coral and brief sea submergence 120,000 years ago. Endothermal upwelling, by which mild natural volcanic heat draws deep seawater up through the porous coral, may also contribute.[8]

No adverse health effects from the radioactivity or other trace elements have been demonstrated and calculations show that level of radioactivity would probably be much too low to be detected in the population.

These unusual soils are very rich in phosphate, but it is not accessible to plants, being in the very insoluble form of iron phosphate, or crandallite.

It is thought that rather similar radioactive soils may exist on Lifou and Mare near New Caledonia, and Rennell in the Solomon Islands, but no other locations are known.

The time difference between Niue and mainland New Zealand is 23 hours during the Southern Hemisphere winter and 24 hours when the mainland uses Daylight Saving Time.

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Climate

The island has a tropical climate, with most rainfall occurring between November and April.

Climate data for Alofi, Niue
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 38
(100)
38
(100)
32
(90)
36
(97)
30
(86)
32
(90)
35
(95)
37
(99)
36
(97)
31
(88)
37
(99)
36
(97)
38
(100)
Average high °C (°F) 28
(82)
29
(84)
28
(82)
27
(81)
26
(79)
26
(79)
25
(77)
25
(77)
26
(79)
26
(79)
27
(81)
28
(82)
27
(81)
Daily mean °C (°F) 26
(79)
27
(81)
26
(79)
25
(77)
25
(77)
23
(73)
22
(72)
23
(73)
23
(73)
24
(75)
25
(77)
26
(79)
25
(77)
Average low °C (°F) 23
(73)
24
(75)
24
(75)
23
(73)
22
(72)
21
(70)
20
(68)
20
(68)
21
(70)
21
(70)
22
(72)
23
(73)
22
(72)
Record low °C (°F) 20
(68)
20
(68)
20
(68)
14
(57)
15
(59)
13
(55)
11
(52)
11
(52)
15
(59)
15
(59)
11
(52)
17
(63)
11
(52)
Precipitation cm (inches) 26
(10.2)
25
(9.8)
30
(11.8)
20
(7.9)
13
(5.1)
8
(3.1)
9
(3.5)
10
(3.9)
10
(3.9)
12
(4.7)
14
(5.5)
19
(7.5)
207
(81.5)
Source: Weatherbase[9] 2009-08-03

Defence and foreign affairs

Niue has been self-governing in free association with New Zealand since 3 September 1974 when the people endorsed the Constitution in a plebiscite.[10] Niue is fully responsible for its internal affairs. Niue's position concerning its external relations is less clear cut. Section 6 of the Niue Constitution Act provides that: "Nothing in this Act or in the Constitution shall affect the responsibilities of Her Majesty the Queen in right of New Zealand for the external affairs and defence of Niue." Section 8 elaborates but still leaves the position unclear, providing "Effect shall be given to the provisions of sections 6 and 7 [concerning external affairs and defence and economic and administrative assistance respectively] of this Act, and to any other aspect of the relationship between New Zealand and Niue which may from time to time call for positive co-operation between New Zealand and Niue after consultation between the Prime Minister of New Zealand and the Premier of Niue, and in accordance with the policies of their respective Governments; and, if it appears desirable that any provision be made in the law of Niue to carry out these policies, that provision may be made in the manner prescribed in the Constitution, but not otherwise."[11] The island has a representative mission in Wellington, New Zealand. Niue is also a member of the South Pacific Forum and a number of regional and international agencies. It is not a member of the United Nations, but is a state party to the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Ottawa Treaty and the Treaty of Rarotonga.

Niue purported to establish diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China on December 12, 2007.[12] However, in light of its Constitution it is uncertain whether Niue had the capacity to enter diplomatic relations with any country. Traditionally, Niue's foreign relations and defence have been regarded as the responsibility of New Zealand, which has full diplomatic relations with China. Furthermore the Joint Communique signed by Niue and China is different in its treatment of the Taiwan question from that agreed by New Zealand and China. New Zealand "acknowledged" China's position on Taiwan but has never expressly agreed with it, but Niue "recognizes that there is only one China in the world, the Government of the People's Republic of China is the sole legal government representing the whole of China and Taiwan is an inalienable part of the territory of China."[12] Critics have asked whether Niueans can continue to benefit from free association with New Zealand and yet disregard New Zealand's advice and establish an independent foreign policy.[13]

Economy

Alofi, the capital of Niue

Niue's economy is small, with a GDP of NZ$17 million in 2003,[14] or US$10 million at purchasing power parity.[15] Most economic activity revolves around the government, as the government was traditionally in charge of organising and managing the affairs of the new country since 1974. However, since the economy has reached a stage where state regulation may now give way to the private sector, there is an ongoing effort to develop the private sector. Following Cyclone Heta, the government made a major commitment towards rehabilitating and developing the private sector.[citation needed] The government allocated $1 million for the private sector, which was spent on helping businesses devastated by the cyclone, and on the construction of the Fonuakula Industrial Park. This industrial park is now completed and some businesses are already operating from it. The Fonuakula Industrial Park is managed by the Niue Business Centre, a quasi-governmental organisation providing advisory services to businesses.

Most Niuean families grow their own food crops for subsistence and some are sold at the Niue Makete in Alofi, some exported to their families in New Zealand.[citation needed] The Niuean taro is known in Samoa as "talo Niue" and in international markets as pink taro. Niue also exports taro to the New Zealand market. The Niue taro is a natural variety and is very resistant to pests.[citation needed]

The Niue Government and the Reef Group from New Zealand started two joint ventures in 2003 and 2004 involving the development of the fisheries and noni (Morinda citrifolia, a small tree with edible fruit). The Niue Fish Processors, Ltd is a joint venture company processing fresh fish, mainly tuna (yellow fin, big eye and albacore), for export to the overseas markets. NFP operates out of their state-of-the-art fish plant in Amanau Alofi South, completed and opened in October 2004.[citation needed]

In August 2005, an Australian mining company, Yamarna Goldfields, suggested that Niue might have the world's largest deposit of uranium. By early September these hopes were seen as overoptimistic,[16] and in late October the company cancelled its plans to mine, announcing that exploration drilling had identified nothing of commercial value.[17] The Australian Securities and Investments Commission filed charges in January 2007 against two directors of the company, now called Mining Projects Group Ltd, alleging that their conduct was deceptive and they engaged in insider trading.[18] This case was settled out of court in July 2008, both sides withdrawing their claims [19]. There is an Australian company that had been issued a mineral prospecting license in the early 1970s which is still very active in doing research and collecting data on potential mineral deposits on Niue.[citation needed]

Remittances from Niuean expatriates were a major source of foreign exchange in the 1970s and early 1980s. The continuous migration of Niueans to New Zealand has shifted most members of nuclear and extended families to New Zealand, removing the need to send remittances back home. In the late 1990s PFTAC conducted studies on the Niue balance of payments,[20] which confirmed that Niueans are receiving little remittances but are sending more monies overseas, mainly for paying for imported goods and for the education of Niuean students sent to study in New Zealand.[citation needed]

Foreign aid, principally from New Zealand, has been the island's principal source of income.[citation needed]Although most Niuean foreign aid comes from New Zealand the island nation is currently losing $250,000 NZ a year (i.e. reduce in New Zealand funding) meaning the country will come to rely upon its own economy more in times to come.

Government expenses consistently exceed revenue to a substantial degree, with aid from New Zealand subsidizing public service payrolls. The government also generates some revenue, mainly from income tax, import tax and the lease of phone lines. The government briefly flirted with the creation of "offshore banking", but, under pressure from the US Treasury, agreed to end its support for schemes designed to minimize tax in countries like New Zealand. Niue now provides an automated Companies Registration, which is administered by the New Zealand Ministry of Economic Development. The Niue Legislative Assembly passed the Niue Consumption Tax Act in the first week of February 2009, and the 12.5% tax on good and services is expected to come into effect on 1 April 2009. Income tax has been lowered, and import tax may be reset to zero except for "sin" items like tobacco, alcohol and soft drinks. Tax on secondary income has been lowered from 35% to 10%, with the stated goal of fostering increased labour productivity.[21]

In 1997, the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA), under contract with the US Department of Commerce, assigned the Internet Users Society-Niue (IUS-N), a private charity, as manager of the .nu top-level domain on the Internet. IUS-N's charitable purpose was — and continues to be — to use revenue from registering .nu domain names to fund low-cost or free Internet services for the people of Niue. In a letter to ICANN in 2007, IUS-N's independent auditors reported IUS-N had invested US$3 million for Internet services in Niue between 1999 and 2005 from .nu domain name registration revenue during that period. In 1999, IUS-N and the Government of Niue signed an agreement whereby the Government recognized that IUS-N managed the .nu ccTLD under IANA's authority and IUS-N committed to provide free Internet services to government departments as well as to Niue's private citizens. A newly elected Government later disputed that agreement and attempted to assert a claim on the domain name, including a requirement for IUS-N to make direct payments of compensation to the Government.[22]. In 2005 a Government-appointed Commission of Inquiry into the dispute released its report, which found no merit in the government's claims; the government subsequently dismissed the claims in 2007.[23] Starting in 2003 IUS-N began installing WiFi connections throughout the capital village of Alofi and in several nearby villages and schools, and has been expanding WiFi coverage into the outer villages since then, making Niue the first WiFi Nation.[24] To assure security for Government departments, IUS-N provides the government with a secure DSL connection to IUS-N's satellite Internet link, at no cost.

In 2003 the Government made a commitment to develop and expand vanilla production with the support of NZAID. Vanilla has grown wild in Niue for a long time. Despite the setback caused by the devastation of Cyclone Heta in early 2004, there was ongoing work on vanilla production. The expansion plan started with the employment of unemployed or underemployed labour force to help clear land, plant supporting trees and plant vanilla vines. The approach to accessing land include having each household interested to have a small plot of around half to 1-acre (4,000 m2) to be cleared and planted with vanilla vines. There are a lot of planting material for supporting trees to meet demand for the expansion of vanilla plantations, however there is a severe shortage of vanilla vines for planting stock. There is of course the existing vanilla vines, but cutting them for planting stock will reduce or stop vanilla from producing beans. At the moment the focus is in the areas of harvesting and marketing.[citation needed]

Niue's economy suffered from the devastating tropical Cyclone Heta on 4 January 2004. The Niue Integrated Strategic Plan(NISP) is the national development plan, setting national priorities for development. Cyclone Heta took away about two years from the implementation of the NISP, while national efforts concentrate on the recovery efforts. In 2008 Niue had yet to fully recover from the devastation of Cyclone Heta.

Niue uses the New Zealand dollar.

Tourism

Tourism has been identified as one of the three priority economic sectors (the other two are Fisheries and Agriculture) for economic development in Niue. In 2006, estimated visitor expenditure reached $1.6 million making Tourism a major export industry for Niue. Niue will continue to receive direct support from the Government and overseas donor agencies. Air New Zealand is the sole airline serving Niue, flying to Niue once a week. It took over after Polynesian Airlines stopped flying in November 2005. There is currently a tourism development strategy to increase the number of rooms available to overseas tourists at a sustainable level. Niue is also trying to attract foreign investors to invest in the tourism industry of Niue by offering import and company tax concessions as incentives.

Media

Niue has few media, due to its small size and population. It has two broadcast media outlets, Television Niue and Radio Sunshine, managed and operated by the Broadcasting Corporation of Niue, and one printed newspaper, the Niue Star.[25] The internet also provides opportunity for other news services like http://talanet.okakoa.com.

Information technology

The first computers were Apple machines brought in by the University of the South Pacific Extension Centre around the early '80s. The Treasury Department first computerised their general ledger in 1986 using NEC personal computers which are IBM PC XT compatible.[citation needed] The Census of Households and Population in 1986 was the first to be processed using a personal computer with the assistance of David Marshall, FAO Adviser on Agricultural Statistics, advising UNFPA Demographer Dr Lawrence Lewis and Niue Government Statistician Bill Vakaafi Motufoou to switch from using manual tabulation cards. In 1987 Statistics Niue got its new personal computer NEC PC AT use for processing the 1986 census data; Niue's personnel were sent on training in Japan and New Zealand to use the new computer. Niue's first Computer Policy was developed and adopted in 1988.[citation needed]

Students using their OLPC laptops on the school yard

In 2003, Niue became the first territory to offer free wireless internet to all its inhabitants.[26] In August 2008 it has been reported that 100 percent of primary and high school students have what is known as the OLPC XO-1, a specialised laptop by the One Laptop per Child project designed for children in the developing world.[27]

Culture

Niuean dancers at the Pasifika Festival

Arguably Niue's most prominent artist and writer is John Pule. Author of The Shark That Ate the Sun, he also paints, both on canvas and on traditional tapa cloth.[28] In 2005, he co-wrote Hiapo: Past and Present in Niuean Barkcloth, a study of a traditional Niuean artform, with Australian writer and anthropologist Nicholas Thomas.[29]

Taoga Niue is a newly established Government Department responsible for the preservation of the culture, tradition and heritage of Niue. Recognising its importance, the Government has added Taoga Niue as the sixth pillar of the NISP.

Agriculture

Agriculture is very important to the lifestyle of Niueans and the economy. Subsistence agriculture is very much part of Niue's agriculture, where nearly all the households have plantations of taro. Taro is a staple food, and the pink taro now dominant in the taro markets in New Zealand and Australia, is an intellectual property of Niue. This is one of the natural taro varieties on Niue, and has a strong resistance to pests.

Tapioca or cassava, yams and kumaras also grow very well, as do different varieties of bananas. Copra, passionfruit and limes dominated exports in the 1970s, but in 2008 vanilla, noni and taro are Niue's main export crops.

Coconut crab is also part of the food chain; it lives in the forest and coastal areas. The last agricultural census was in 1989.

Renewable energy

The European Union is helping Niue convert to using renewable energy. In July 2009 a solar panel system was installed, injecting about 50 kVA into the Niue national power grid. The solar panels are installed at Niue High School (20 kW), Niue Power Corporation office (1.7 kW)[30] and the Niue Foou Hospital (30 kW). The EU-funded grid-connected PV systems are supplied under the REP-5 programme and were installed recently by the Niue Power Corporation on the roofs of the high school and the power station office and on ground-mounted support structures in front of the hospital. They will be monitored and maintained by the NPC.[31]

Sport

Despite Niue being a small country, a number of different sports are popular. Rugby union is a popular sport played both by men and women; Niue were the 2008 FORU Oceania Cup champions[32]. Netball is played only by women. There is a nine-hole golf course at Fonuakula. There is a lawn bowling green under construction. Football is popular as evidenced by the Niue Soccer Tournament.

See also

Further reading

References

  1. ^ "Niue". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ne.html. Retrieved 2009-07-20. 
  2. ^ http://www.unstrung.com/document.asp?doc_id=35876
  3. ^ Encyclopedia Britannica, "Niue"
  4. ^ ibid
  5. ^ S. Percy Smith, Niuē-fekai (or Savage) Island and its People, 1903, pp.36-44
  6. ^ Tony Horowitz, Blue Latitudes: Boldly Going Where Captain Cook Has Gone Before, 2002, Chapter 8
  7. ^ Marks, Kathy (2008-07-09). "World's smallest state aims to become the first smoke-free paradise island". The Independent. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/australasia/worlds-smallest-state-aims-to-become-the-first-smokefree-paradise-island-862977.html. Retrieved 2008-07-21. 
  8. ^ Whitehead, N. E.; J. Hunt, D. Leslie, and P. Rankin (June 1993). "The elemental content of Niue Island soils as an indicator of their origin" (PDF). New Zealand Journal of Geology & Geophysics 36 (2): 243–255. http://www.rsnz.org/publish/nzjgg/1993/24.pdf. Retrieved 2007-12-03. 
  9. ^ "Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Alofi, Niue". Weatherbase. http://www.weatherbase.com/weather/weatherall.php3?s=22819&refer=&units=metric. Retrieved 2009-08-03. 
  10. ^ Masahiro Igarashi, Associated Statehood in International Law, p 167
  11. ^ Section 8, Niue Constitution Act.
  12. ^ a b "Full text of joint communique on the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and Niue". Xinhua News Agency. 2007-12-12. http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2007-12/12/content_7236560.htm. Retrieved 2008-03-06. 
  13. ^ The Hive, Pacific Watch : Has Niue's Constitutional Status Changed?, December 16, 2007
  14. ^ Country Information Paper - Niue, New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Updated 8 April 2009. Accessed 17 April 2009.
  15. ^ "Niue". CIA World Factbook. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ne.html#Econ. Retrieved 2008-10-02. 
  16. ^ Yamarna loses passion for Niue's uranium, The Age, 2005-09-06. Accessed 2007-12-24.
  17. ^ NIUE: No Mineable Uranium, Says Exploration Company, Pacific Magazine, 2005-11-03. Accessed 2007-12-24.
  18. ^ Australian Securities and Investments Commission (2007-01-23). "ASIC takes action against directors of Melbourne mining company". Press release. http://www.asic.gov.au/asic/asic.nsf/byheadline/07-13+ASIC+takes+action+against+directors+of+melbourne+mining+company?openDocument. Retrieved 2007-12-24. 
  19. ^ Australian Securities and Investments Commission (2008-07-04). "ASIC discontinues proceedings against directors of Melbourne mining company". Press release. http://www.asic.gov.au/asic/asic.nsf/byheadline/08-148+ASIC+discontinues+proceedings+against+directors+of+Melbourne+mining+company?openDocument. Retrieved 2008-09-04. 
  20. ^ http://www.pftac.org
  21. ^ "12.5% Niue Consumption Tax from 1 April". Niue Business News. 26 February 2009. Archived from the original on 2009-03-03. http://www.webcitation.org/5ezPJua5q. 
  22. ^ http://www.post-gazette.com/pg/06088/677770-96.stm
  23. ^ http://www.rnzi.com/pages/news.php?op=read&id=36393
  24. ^ http://wifination.org/
  25. ^ "Le Programme international pour le développement de la communication de l'UNESCO soutient le journal de Niue", UNESCO, July 16, 2002
  26. ^ Creating a Wireless Nation, IUSN White Paper, July 2003
  27. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/technology/7576573.stm
  28. ^ "The Bifocal World of John Pule: This Niuean Writer and Painter Is Still Searching For A Place To Call Home", Scott Whitney, Pacific Magazine, July 1, 2002
  29. ^ University of Otago
  30. ^ Sunny Portal - Nuie - Tuila Office - Tuila overview
  31. ^ "Achievements for Niue". The European Commission's Delegation to the Pacific. http://www.delfji.ec.europa.eu/en/achievements/niue.htm. Retrieved 31 July 2009. 
  32. ^ "Niue take Oceania Cup rugby union final", ABC Radio Australia, September 1, 2008

External links

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General information
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Coordinates: 19°03′S 169°55′W / 19.05°S 169.917°W / -19.05; -169.917


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Oceania : Niue
Location
noframe
Flag
Image:ne-flag.png
Quick Facts
Capital Alofi
Government self-governing parliamentary democracy
Currency New Zealand dollar (NZD)
Area 260 km2
Population 2,166 (July 2006 est.)
Language Niuean, a Polynesian language closely related to Tongan and Samoan; English
Religion Ekalesia Niue (Protestant) 75%, Latter-Day Saints 10%, other 15% (mostly Roman Catholic, Jehovah's Witnesses, Seventh-Day Adventist)
Calling Code 683
Internet TLD .nu
Time Zone UTC-11

Niue [1] is an island in Oceania. It is located approximately halfway between Tonga and the Cook Islands

Understand

Niue's remoteness, as well as cultural and linguistic differences between its Polynesian inhabitants and those of the rest of the Cook Islands, have led to it being separately administered. The population of the island continues to drop (from a peak of 5,200 in 1966 to about 2,100 in 2002) with substantial emigration to New Zealand, 2,400 km to the southwest. It is self-governing in free association with New Zealand since 1974, with Niue fully responsible for domestic affairs, and New Zealand asked to retain responsibility for foreign affairs and defense.

The economy suffers from the typical Pacific island problems of geographic isolation, few resources, and a small population. Government expenditures regularly exceed revenues, and the shortfall is made up by critically needed grants from New Zealand that are used to pay wages to public employees. Niue has cut government expenditures by reducing the public service by almost half. The agricultural sector consists mainly of subsistence gardening, although some cash crops are grown for export. The sale of postage stamps to foreign collectors is an important source of revenue. Efforts to increase GDP include the promotion of tourism and a financial services industry.

The word "Niue" is not used in the local language to refer to this island, meaning in fact "Look! There's a coconut". Captain Cook called it "Savage Island", thinking (incorrectly) that the natives who came to greet them were painted in blood.

Niue's timezone is GMT-11 mainland New Zealand is GMT+13 in daylight saving time. So Niue is one day later than the mainland.

Climate

Tropical; modified by southeast trade winds.

Landscape

From the sea approaches Niue is flat with its cliff faces resembling a large ‘Swiss cheese’ composed of coral limestone rock peppered with caves, hidden caverns and chasms, buried grottoes and other subterranean natural fissures that are yet to be discovered and developed into tourist attractions.

The island is approximately 73km in circumference with two distinct terraces. The upper terrace, 60m high at its highest point, slopes steeply to a 0.5m coastal terrace ending with high cliffs, some over 20m above sea level. A rugged fringing reef, which in places over 100m wide, surrounds the island.

Steep limestone cliffs along coast, central plateau. Unlike most Pacific islands, there are no beaches.

Get in

By plane

The easiest way to arrive in Niue (IATA: IUE) is by plane from Auckland. Be careful not to schedule your flights around religious holidays such as Easter, as seats are often at a premium since many Niueans return home at these times.

Air New Zealand [2] is the only airline to fly into Niue using scheduled services with only one flight a week. Huge crowds gather at the airport to meet every flight. Everyone (including New Zealanders) must have a return ticket. There is a $34 departure tax upon leaving (not included in price of plane ticket)

Hanan International Airport is about 2 km southeast of Alofi. Taxis meet the flight and many accommodation options include free transfers. If you don't have accommodation booked, just about anyone will give you a lift

By boat

There are no ferries from foreign ports. Outside of the cyclone season you can sail your own yacht to Niue. Check out Niue Yacht Club for information. Harbour fees are $15 per day. If you flew in during sailing season it's possible to hitch on a yacht off of Niue

Get around

Hire a vehicle or bicycle on arrival at one of several rental shops (e.g. Alofi Rentals) There is no public transport system. Getting around the island by car takes approximately 40 minutes. A Niue drivers license is required and can be obtained from the Police department for $11.30 when you present your home license. There are two petrol stations on Niue; all are in Alofi. One is in Alofi North and the other in Alofi South.

Hitchhiking is very easy on Niue; almost anyone will pick you up. Don't hitch on top of cars like I did, but riding in the back of utes is OK, but be careful not to get an eye poked out by a palm leaf as you pass by.

Alofi and all the other villages are small enough to walk around. Cycling around the island takes around three hours. Theres no harm in walking around the villages and in town as it is perfectly safe and a good way to catch and interact with the Niuean culture itself.

See

Niue is dotted with many caves and limestone arches

Dolphins and whales can be seen off the coast

  • Huvalu Forest Conservation Area. is a huge pristine tropical rainforest that occupies 20% of Niue's land area! A major source of wildlife and traditional foods, and a major focus of our conservation efforts, especially from the adjoining village of Hakupu. Teeming with diverse flora and fauna, there is nothing deadly, harmful or poisonous in our forests! While the terrain is largely flat it is very uneven and reflects its volcanic origin. Please do not explore alone or you will get lost and there aren't enough people on Niue to come and look for you!  edit
  • Matapa Chasm, North of Makefu. Fabulous swimming and snorkeling area, encased by steep 10 m cliffs that overhanging a deep long cool pool full of fish. It is next to the sea, but isolated from its currents by large boulders at the ocean side. The drumming noise from the ocean waves is quite a treat and can be deafening as you near its mouth. Taking a refreshing dip here is rewarding after visiting the Talava Arches  edit
  • Liku Sea Track and Cave, Liku. On Niue's East Coast, this sea track is about 500 metres from Liku Village. Access is via large open cave and the view at dawn - as can be seen from the photo - is stunning. Gaze east and reflect that there's hardly two grains of sand between you and Chile! At low tide, the coastline around here is full of tiny little private 'beaches', little sandy coves varying from 5 to 15 metres long! Lie down and sunbathe, or explore the numerous reef pools. Do be careful to leave well before the tide returns over the outer sea wall, and do take water and shoes.  edit
  • Talava Arches. A massive rock archway noted by Captain Cook in the late 1700’s, and surrounded by a network of complex caves. Difficult to get to without a guide, but well worth the effort. Allow 30-45 minutes return and take plenty of water. It's a hot and steamy walk; visit the Matapa Chasm afterward for a swim  edit
  • Anapala Chasm, Hakupu. Adjacent to Hakupu Heritage Park, a deep sharp descent (there are steps and a chain rail) into the very cool depths reveals a fresh water spring. Traditionally, very important for it gave access to the fresh water source beneath our island's land-mass; remember, Niue has no rivers or lakes.  edit
  • Avaiki Cave, Makefu. Limestone cave with excellent swimming options after a short walk through. Swimming is prohibited on Sunday and during the spawning season  edit

Do

There are many activities to do in Niue. All you need to do is adventure out. Have a keen and energetic attitude towards everything. Be positive and able to try anything and everythin that comes to offer in Niue, so you are able to uncover the interesting facts and interest that Niue can offer.

These are just some of the activities, as the rest you must uncover yourself as there is more to it, with self discovery. Kayaking, fishing, diving (Niue Dive offers PADI certified dives), golf, cycling, etc. Niue is different to all the other Pacific islands in the sense that there are no beaches. Go spelunking in one of the many caves around the island.

If your wanting to play a bit of touch, what better way to do it, by versing the locals. About every village has a green and most evenings the residents come out and play a friendly game of touch. So if you feel like mingling and playing abit of sports, just ask around and Im sure you will find a game.

  • Niue Dive, P.O. Box 140, Alofi, Niue, (683) 4311, [3]. Go on dives in many of the underwater "cathedrals." Niue has some of the world's best diving. Credit cards are accepted (when the system isn't down) but to be safe, bring enough cash for a dive. An opportunity not to be missed!  edit

Snorkelling is best at Limu Pools and Matapa Chasm

Talk

English (often with a distinctive New Zealand accent) is widely spoken. The local Niuean language is increasingly falling out of favour but you'll win the hearts of many locals by learning a few Niuean words

Buy

Few souvenirs are available. Postcards are available at the post office and there are two souvenir shops in Alofi. There is also an art gallery at the Niue Commercial Centre. Niuean weaving is among the finest in the Pacific and make great souvenirs.

Cash is essential just about everywhere! There are no ATMs. No businesses accept EFTPOS and a very small handful of upmarket hotels and Niue Dive accept credit cards. You can get a cash advance on a Visa card only at Bank South Pacific for a $10 fee + 3.5% commission.

Even though some places accept credit cards the system is often down. If you run out of money you will be stuck. Take the hint, do not show up in Niue without more money than you'll think you'll need!

There is a Western Union transfer service at Bank South Pacific.

Money

Niue uses the New Zealand dollar

Costs

Due to the fact that just about everything has to be imported, Niue is a bit more expensive than New Zealand. Fresh fruits and vegetables are cheaper, though. Tobacco products are much cheaper due to the lack of taxes. Alcohol is prohibitively expensive, except if you buy it at the duty-free shop

Eat

Don't expect McDonald's, Burger King, Subway, and KFC...unless you want to fly to New Zealand or Australia to get your fix. Bring a sense of culinary adventure. Local specialties include uga (coconut crab), anything with coconut, and the like. If you love tropical fruit you'll have fun in Niue; passionfruit, cassava, taro, vanilla, kumara, and various other fruits are abundant

We have many delicious places and could say better then commercial food aye.

  • Crazy Uga Cafe, Alofi, (683) 1277. Choose from either the "Big Uga" or "Little Uga" breakfast. Also serves pita wraps, sandwiches, coffee, and fruit smoothies. Great views of the reef and sea. Open on Tuesday nights for dinner.  edit
  • Gill's Indian Restaurant & Takeaway, Alofi South, (683) 4180. Mon-Fri 11AM-9PM Sat-Sun 5PM-9PM. The only "international" option on Niue. Serves beef, lamb, or chicken curry with rice and roti. Vegetarian and fish options available. Open on Sundays (a rarity on Niue)  edit
  • Jenna's De La Cuisine, Alofi (across from Niue Backpackers), (683) 4316. Tues-Sat 6:30PM-9PM. The host, Vivi, is the nicest! Tuesday night buffet (booking essential)  edit

we have a variety, from fish and chips to umu food and takeaway. To suit anyones food wants and needs.

Most visitors to Niue self-cater for most if not all the time. Most shops are closed Sunday and open limited hours on Saturday; therefore it is advisable to stock up on food on Friday.

  • Swans Supermarket, Alofi. 9AM-4PM Mon-Fri. The island's only supermarket. Sells a moderate range of fruits and vegetables, canned goods, hygiene items, etc.  edit
  • Double M Butchery, Alofi, (683) 4139. 9AM-5PM Mon-Fri 4-7PM Sat. Sells fresh meats and cheeses. Excellent selection of spices, vanilla beans, and other food items  edit
  • Makete Market, Alofi. 6-11AM Tues & Fri. Best place to get fresh fruits and vegetables. Coconut porridge for $2 is served in a shell and makes a fantastic breakfast. Locally caught uga are also sold here  edit
  • Bakery, next to RockET. Sells a good range of breads at low prices. Also has a small selection of pies and basic groceries  edit
  • Israel Mart, Avatele. Has Niue's best range of ice cream (15 flavours). Israeli owner, Avi has a collection of more than 3000 DVDs for hire  edit

Drink

Coconut water is very refreshing and a natural rehydrant on a hot and humid day.

Frosty Boy serves great vanilla bean shakes and ice cream. Run by the fabulous Brian and Ira Merrifield

  • Washaway Cafe, Avatele. open on Sunday evenings with a serve-yourself bar and the best focaccia bread on Niue  edit
  • Falala Fa Bar, Main St. Alofi, (683) 4697. Open 7 days. Fully licensed bar  edit
  • Clayton's Bar, Alofi South.  edit

Visitors can purchase up to three bottles of duty-free wine and spirits within four days after arrival from the Customs and Bond Store behind the shopping centre. It is only open until noon on weekdays. Bring your boarding pass.

For the really adventurous, try Noni juice at the Vaiau Farm. Anything that tastes that bad has to be really good for you!

Sleep

It's advisable to make a booking in advance but not necessary.

Most places to stay are in or near Alofi, and there are one or two options going toward Avatele. Accommodation is nonexistent on the eastern side of the island unless you have friends or are fortunate enough for a local to invite you in. Camping is permitted as long as you're not on private land but is strongly not recommended due to mosquitoes and, like in many Pacific islands, locals can take it like you're rejecting their hospitality

  • Niue BackPackers (ira.merrifield@gmail.com), Alofi Niue, (683) 4074. Four bedrooms , one with ensuite , BBQ on Deck , Shared kitchen & dining lounge. close to shops and the reef. Room rate NZ $25.PP night.  edit
  • Kololi's Guesthouse, Alofi, (683) 4258. Centrally located. Communal kitchen and DVD room.  edit
  • Peleni's Guesthouse, Alofi.  edit
  • Matavai Resort (matavai@niue.nu), (683) 4360. Niue's only resort. Restaurant with fully-licensed bar, and two swimming pools. Great views of the reef. Turtles and dolphins have been seen from here. Free use of golf clubs and bicycles for guests. $160-190 per night.  edit
  • Namukulu Motel, Namukulu, (683) 3001, [4]. Three spacious bungalows, each with fully equipped kitchen. Barbecue and picnic tables outside. Very close to Limu Pools. Free internet access  edit
  • Stone Villa's (stonesolutions@niue.nu), (683) 4023. Niue's only accommodation made from pure natural Limestone. The villa features a double bedroom with private patio, fully equipped kitchen with stove, fridge, microwave. Lounge area with TV, DvD, CD & Radio Player. Dining area has its own private patio. Separate bathroom with shower, separate toilet, laundry facilities with washing machine & dryer. Wireless internet, private phone with international access. Villa comes with a private car. Private transfer from the airport on arrival $150-$200 per night.  edit
  • Lanutahi Holiday Apartments, Tamakautoga, (683) 4317. Self Contained holiday apartment, each with fully equipped kitchen. 2 minutes walk from Matavai Resort for fully licensed Bar and Restaurant. 5 Minutes walk to Tamakautoga swimming pools and Avatele Beach  edit

Learn

Visit Niue and you'll learn a lot!

There are no universities and there is only one high school and one primary school. Although Niue has Schools, learning does not stop at school. Learning continues at home, in the bush, on the streets, at church and most of all with the people of Niue, especially the older generation.

The older generation has so much knowledge that they can never keep it to themselves. They are forever talking about the history and the culture of Niue to the younger generation. So if you are a visitor or a Niuean living overseas with full of unanswered questions and of course questions, just come to Niue and find out for yourself. Ask and you will recieve.

Work

Opportunities to work on Niue are extremely limited. Teaching positions may be available at some of the primary schools. Though do not let that stop you from coming to Niue. If you have the mind and money to develope Niue with your product, by all means come to Niue and start a business. Look at all the opporunities in helping and developing Niue to all.

People that work in the private sector earn their own money on their own time, it could be from making jewelery, food, building houses, hair dresser or just selling many items in a shop. Their is great potential in Niue. Work is all around, just need to open and take what is available.

Stay safe

Niue is a very safe island. The only jail is located next to the only golf course and is considered an open prison. Crime is extremely minimal if not nonexistent, and it's not uncommon for tourists to meet the Premier. If you want to meet your first world leader, this is the place!

Wear a helmet whilst cycling because an accident would be catastrophic and the nearest major medical facilities are in New Zealand and Australia. The only hospital is little more than a general practitioner's office, and combined with the fact that there is only one flight a week this is NOT a good place to have an accident or major illness. Travel insurance is strongly recommended. Seatbelts in vehicles aren't obligatory but it's advisable to wear one anyway

Some of the caves, especially Vaikona, it is strongly advised to go with a guide unless you're experienced because people have been lost and injured in some of the island's caves

Stay healthy

There are no snakes or poisonous insects. There is no malaria or dengue fever but the mosquitoes are awful during the wet season (December-March).

Reef shoes are strongly recommended if snorkelling because coral cuts can easily become infected. If you cut youself rinse the cut straight away with generous amounts of soap and water.

Respect

Sunday is a special day reserved for Niue's strong church-going population. Fishing, kayaking, and swimming is prohibited by law on Sunday

Swimming gear is OK in swimming areas but not in villages. Don't swim nude or topless, and don't swim where locals are fishing during the spawning season. Wave to everyone when they pass by

Niueans are among the friendliest people in the world. If they're able to help you, they will. Refusing an offer of dinner or a cuppa can be considered offensive

Niue is a very conservative island. Don't get drunk, as locals (especially police officers) don't look kindly on people getting drunk and then causing trouble. There have been reports of people being deported for these type of offenses. Furthermore, Homosexuality couples need to be mind full to the culture and older the generation.

Contact

Visitors pay a one off fee of NZ$25 to RockET who register their computer MAC address onto a single wireless base station of their choice. Connection speed seems poor and is a frustrating experience if previously used to broadband. If you don't have your own laptop there is an internet cafe next to the bakery at NZ$12 an hour. Some accommodation options offer internet access.

Skype doesn't work anywhere and there are no phone cards. Mobile phones from other countries won't work. Your best bet is to contact any and all friends/family from New Zealand (or your home country) before leaving for Niue because it's about NZ$2 a minute to call New Zealand, NZ$2.50 a minute to call Australia and about NZ$4.50 a minute to call everywhere else. Conversely, Niue is one of the most expensive countries to call, costing about NZ$2.20 a minute via Skype and NZ$6.50 a minute via landline. If you need to call from Niue the Telecom Office is open 24 hours.

This is a usable article. It has information for getting in as well as some complete entries for restaurants and hotels. An adventurous person could use this article, but please plunge forward and help it grow!

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

NIUE (SAVAGE ISLAND or Niue-Fekai, as the natives call it), an island in the South Pacific Ocean, 14 m. long by Io m. wide, in 1 9 ° 10' S., 169° 47' W. The entire island is an old coral reef upheaved 200 ft., honeycombed with caves and seamed with fissures. The soil, though thin, is, as in other limestone islands, very rich, and coco-nuts, tara, yams and bananas thrive. There is an abundant rainfall, but owing to the porous nature of the soil the water percolates into deep caves which have communication with the sea, and becomes brackish. The natives, a mixed Polynesian and Melanesian people of Samoan speech, are the most industrious in the Pacific, and many of the young men go as labourers to other islands. The consequent minority of men has been destructive of the sexual morality of the women, which formerly stood high. The natives are keen traders, and though uncouth in manners when compared with their nearest neighbours, the Tongans and Samoans, are friendly to Europeans. Their hostility to Captain Cook in 1774, which earned from him the name of Savage for the island, was due to their fear of foreign disease, a fear that has since been justified. The population (4079 in 1901) is slightly decreasing. The natives are all Christians, and the majority have learned to read and write, and to speak a little English, under the tuition of the London Missionary Society. They wear European clothes. The island became a British protectorate on the 10th of April 1900, and was made a dependency of New Zealand in October 1900, the native government, of an elected "king" and a council of headmen, being maintained. In 1900 there were thirteen Europeans on the island. The exports are copra, fungus and straw hats, which the women plait very cleverly.

See T. H. Hood, Notes of a Cruise in H.M.S. "Fawn" (Edinburgh, 1863); J. L. Brenchley, Jottings during the Cruise of the "Curacoa" (London, 1873); B. H. Thomson, Savage Island (London, 1902).


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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Proper noun

Niue

  1. Country in Oceania. Official name: Republic of Niue.

Translations

See also


Swedish

Proper noun

Niue

  1. Niue

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