No. 208 Squadron RAF: Wikis

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No. 208 Squadron RAF
Active 26 October 1916 – 7 November 1919
1 February 1920 - 30 March 1959
1 April 1959 - 10 September 1971
1 March 1974 - 31 Mar 1994
1 Apr 1994 - present
Country United Kingdom United Kingdom
Branch Ensign of the Royal Air Force.svg Royal Air Force
Role Advanced/weapons training
Base RAF Valley
Motto Vigilant
Equipment BAe Hawk
Battle honours Western Front 1915-1918*
Arras*
Ypres 1917*
Lys
Somme 1918*
Egypt and Libya 1940-1942*
Greece 1941*
Iraq 1941
Syria 1941
El Alamein*
Italy 1944-1945*
Gustav Line
Gothic Line
Gulf 1991*
Honours marked with an asterisk* are those emblazoned on the Squadron Standard
Insignia
Squadron Badge heraldry A sphinx affrontée[1][2]
The Gizah Sphinx commemorated the Squadron's long association with Egypt during the inter-war years. An unofficial 'winged eye' badge had been in use from July 1930 until 1937.[3]
Squadron Codes GA (Apr 1939 - Sep 1939)
RG (Mar 1944 - 1949)
S (Carried on Buccaneers)
C (Carried on Hunters)
DA-DZ (Carried on Hawks)

No 208(R) Squadron is a unit of the Royal Air Force based at RAF Valley, Anglesey, Wales. It operates the BAe Hawk aircraft.

Contents

History

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World War I

The squadron was established as part of the Royal Naval Air Service in October 1916[4] at Dunkirk as No. 8 (Naval) Squadron. In its earlier days, the unit flew Sopwith Pups, 1½ Strutters and Nieuport Scouts. Later in World War I it re-equipped with Sopwith Camels and was assigned to artillery spotting. The squadron returned to the UK briefly before being sent back to France to face the German offensive. While in France a significant number of Camels belonging to the squadron were destroyed by the RAF to stop the Germans capturing them during their advance. When the Royal Air Force was formed on 1 April 1918, the unit was renumbered to No. 208 Squadron RAF. After the war ended 208 Squadron remained with the occupying forces until August 1919, when it again returned to the UK for disbandment the following month.

Interbellum

The squadron reformed at Ismailia in Egypt on 1 February 1920 by the renumbering of No. 113 Squadron RAF. It was equipped with RE8s and from November 1920 till May 1930 with Bristol Fighters. The years between the wars were by no means quiet, in September 1922 the squadron was sent to Turkey for a year during the Chanak crisis, being stationed at San Stefano, a part of the Bakırköy district of Istanbul, Turkey. After the conflict 208 sqadron went back to Egypt and in 1930 got Armstrong Whitworth Atlas aircraft to replace the old Bristol fighters. The Atlases in their turn were replaced five years later by Audaxes and for one flight by Demons. Just before the outbreak of World War II, in January 1939, these gave way for the Westland Lysander

World War II

208 Squadron was still stationed in Egypt at the outbreak of World War II. It joined the war effort in mid-1940 flying Westland Lysander reconnaissance aircraft and Hawker Hurricane fighters on army co-operation duties in the North African Campaign and the Greek Campaign of 1941. During the war it included a significant number of Royal Australian Air Force and South African Air Force personnel, along with other nationalities. Amongst members of the squadron at this time was Robert Leith-Macgregor, shot down on more than one occasion, once ending up taxiing through a minefield, but managed not to trigger any mines.[5]

The unit was later stationed in Palestine, before returning to North Africa. It briefly converted to Curtiss Tomahawks, but received Supermarine Spitfires in late 1943 and flew them for the remainder of the war. From 1944, it took part in the Italian Campaign.

After World War II

Shortly after the war 208 Squadron moved back to Palestine where it was involved in operations against the Egyptian Air Force. In 1948, the squadron moved to the Egyptian Canal Zone. It saw action in the Israeli War of Independence, losing four Spitfires in combat with Israeli Air Force aircraft (which also included Spitfires).

The last officially recorded "Air to Air fighter pilot kill" (bullets only without guidance systems) occurred on 22 May 1948, at 0930 two Egyptian LF9s decided to stage a third attack on Ramat David. This time Fg Off Tim McElhaw and Fg Off Hully of 208 Squadron had taken over the standing patrol. Fg Off McElhaw, flying Spitfire FR18 TZ228, managed to intercept and shoot down both LF9s.

In 1951, the squadron relocated to RAF Fayid where its Spitfires were replaced with Gloster Meteor jets. From there it moved to RAF Abu Sueir, relocating to RAF Takali, Malta, in late 1956, with interim spells earlier in the year at RNAS Hal Far, Malta, and RAF Akrotiri, Cyprus. It disbanded at Takhali in January 1956. It reformed the same month in the UK at RAF Tangmere from a nucleus of No. 34 Squadron RAF. Two months later it returned to the Middle East with De Havilland Vampires and subsequently the Hawker Hunter FGA.9. In 1958 and early 1959 it operated from Nicosia and Akrotiri with a detachment at Amman. The squadron disbanded at RAF Akrotiri on 31 March 1959. The next day, 1 April 1959, it reformed at RAF Eastleigh, Nairobi, Kenya, by the re-numbering of No. 142 Squadron RAF under Squadron Leader R. Ramirez.[6] It operated from Eastleigh from April 1959 to March 1960, being redeployed home to RAF Stradishall from March to June 1960, but returning to Eastleigh in June, sending detachments to Kuwait and Bahrain during the period. It was moved to Khormaksar once again in November 1961, under Air Forces Arabian Peninsula, which became Air Forces Middle East the same year.[7] In June 1964 it moved to Muharraq in Bahrain.The squadron remained in the Middle East until September 1971 when it was disbanded as a consequence of British drawdown of the armed forces from East of Suez.

Flying Buccaneers

RAF Buccaneer S.2 with wings folded
Buccaneer airbrake detail

208 Squadron reformed at RAF Honington in 1974 with Blackburn Buccaneer S2s assigned to SACEUR operating in a low-level strike role. The squadron's twelve Buccaneers were declared operational to SACEUR from 1975 armed with twentyfour WE.177 nuclear weapons.[8] The squadron was tasked with supporting land forces resisting an advance by the Warsaw Pact into western Europe, by striking at enemy forces, logistics and infrastructure beyond the forward edge of the battlefield, initially with conventional munitions, and with nuclear weapons in the event of escalation.[9] The allocation of the British-owned WE.177 weapon freed the squadron from the time-consuming burden, at a critical time, of using US-owned nuclear weapons held in US custody at a central location. The squadron continued in this role based at RAF Honington until late 1983,[10] when it moved base to RAF Lossiemouth and was re-assigned to SACLANT for maritime strike duties. The squadron's allocation of WE.177 nuclear weapons was reduced to twelve, one per aircraft,[11] although the Buccaneer was able to carry two in its internal bomb bay.[12] The squadron continued in this role until late 1993[13] when it relinquished its nuclear weapons. The unit was one of the last squadrons to operate the Buccaneer before it went out of service in 1994, and after the type's retirement the squadron again disbanded on 31 March 1994.[14]

Present role

BAe Hawk of No. 208 Squadron
BAe Hawk of No. 208 Squadron in flight

208 Squadron was reformed on 1 April 1994 from 234 (Reserve) Squadron attached to No. 4 Flying Training School. It moved to RAF Valley operating the BAe Hawk that it continues to fly to this day. No.4 FTS is made up of two squadrons; 208 Squadron provides the advanced flying training, students then moving onto 19 Squadron to receive tactics and weapons training. The vast majority of sorties undertaken by 208 Squadron are flown to teach RAF ab-initio pilots the fundamental skills of flying a fast-jet, to prepare them for tactical weapons training and onwards towards front-line aircraft such as the Tornado, Harrier and Typhoon.

A summary of 208 Squadron's present tasks:

Advanced flying training

  • To train RAF, RN and some foreign ab-initio pilots as per the Personnel Training Command (HQPTC) Training Task Programme to Tactical Weapons Unit (TWU) entry standard.
  • To re-train RAF and RN multi-engine and rotary pilots as per the HQPTC training Task Programme to TWU entry standard.
  • To refresh Short Tucano QFIs as per the HQPTC Training Task Programme to TWU entry standard.

Instructor training

  • To train Hawk QFIs as per the HQPTC Training Task Programme to B2 standard in accordance with the current Central Flying School (CFS) syllabuses.
  • To upgrade Hawk QFIs to B1, A2 and A1 standard in accordance with the 208 Squadron staff training requirements and CFS syllabuses.
  • To train Hawk IREs in accordance with the current CFS syllabuses.
  • To convert Qualified Flying Instructors (Tactical Sequences) and Qualified Pilot Navigation Instructors into Hawk QFIs as per the Headquarters HQPTC training Task Programme to B2 standard in accordance with the current CFS syllabuses.

Conversion training

  • To provide a common conversion course for all qualified pilots re-roling to the Hawk.
  • To provide United Kingdom Orientation training for Foreign and Commonwealth pilots destined for fast-jet appointments.
  • To provide conversion training for pilots destined for the Royal Air Force Aerobatics Team.

On 20 April 2007, a BaE Hawk from the squadron crashed near RAF Mona. The pilot was taken to hospital and discharged soon after. The accident was caused by a solo student stalling the aircraft on an overshoot.[15]

Aircraft operated

From To Aircraft Version
Oct 1916 Nov 1916 Sopwith 1½ Strutter
Oct 1916 Dec 1916 Nieuport Scout
Oct 1916 Feb 1917 Sopwith Pup
Feb 1917 Sep 1917 Sopwith Triplane
Sep 1917 Nov 1918 Sopwith Camel
Nov 1918 Sep 1919 Sopwith Snipe
Feb 1920 Nov 1920 R.E.8
Nov 1920 May 1930 Bristol F.2 Fighter F.2b
May 1930 Aug 1935 Armstrong Whitworth Atlas
Aug 1935 Jan 1939 Hawker Audax
Sep 1935 Mar 1936 Hawker Demon
Jan 1939 May 1942 Westland Lysander Mks.I, II
Nov 1940 Sep 1942 Hawker Hurricane Mk.I
May 1941 Jun 1941 Hawker Audax
May 1942 Sep 1942 Curtiss Tomahawk Mk.IIb
May 1942 Dec 1943 Hawker Hurricane Mks.IIa, IIb, IIc
Dec 1943 Jul 1944 Supermarine Spitfire Mk.Vc
Mar 1944 Jun 1947 Supermarine Spitfire Mk.IX
Aug 1944 Oct 1944 Supermarine Spitfire Mk.VIII
Aug 1946 Mar 1957 Supermarine Spitfire FR.18
Mar 1951 Jan 1958 Gloster Meteor FR.9
Jan 1958 Feb 1958 Hawker Hunter F.5
Jan 1958 Mar 1959 Hawker Hunter F.6
Apr 1959 Mar 1960 de Havilland Venom FB.4
Mar 1960 Sep 1971 Hawker Hunter FGA.9
Oct 1974 Mar 1994 Blackburn Buccaneer S.2A, S.2B
Apr 1994 Present BAe Hawk T.1, T1A

[14][16][17]

References

Notes

  1. ^ Halley 1988, p. 270.
  2. ^ Squadron website page about the squadron crest
  3. ^ Squadron website page about the shufti badge
  4. ^ Marr 1966, p. 1.
  5. ^ "Lieutenant-Colonel Robert Leith-Macgregor - Telegraph". The Daily Telegraph. 7 January 2009. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/obituaries/4163054/Lieutenant-Colonel-Robert-Leith-Macgregor.html. Retrieved 2009-01-18.  
  6. ^ Rawlings 1978, p. 323.
  7. ^ Rawlings 1984, p. 261.
  8. ^ RAF nuclear front line Order-of-Battle 1975
  9. ^ Weapon overview @ www.nuclear-weapons.info/vw.htm#WE.177 Carriage
  10. ^ RAF nuclear front line Order-of-Battle 1983
  11. ^ RAF nuclear front line Order-of-Battle 1984
  12. ^ Rotating bomb door animation with WE.177
  13. ^ RAF nuclear front line Order-of-Battle 1993
  14. ^ a b Jefford 2001, p. 72.
  15. ^ BBC report.
  16. ^ Marr 1966, p. 111.
  17. ^ Halley 1988, p. 271.

Bibliography

  • Johnstone, E.G., DSC (Editor). Naval Eight: A history of No.8 Squadron R.N.A.S. - afterwards No. 208 Squadron R.A.F - from its formation in 1916 until the Armistice in 1918. Naval and Military Press, 2006 (Reprint of the 1931, The Signal Press (London) Original Edition). ISBN 1-84342-986-1.
  • Halley, James J. The Squadrons of the Royal Air Force & Commonwealth 1918-1988. Tonbridge, Kent, UK: Air Britain (Historians) Ltd., 1988. ISBN 0-85130-164-9.
  • Jefford, C.G., Wing Commander MBE, BA, RAF (Retd). RAF Squadrons, a Comprehensive Record of the Movement and Equipment of all RAF Squadrons and their Antecedents since 1912. Shrewsbury, Shropshire, UK: Airlife Publishing Ltd., 1998 (second edition 2001). ISBN 1-84037-141-2.
  • Marr, D.S.B., BSc. A History of 208 Squadron. Southend-on-Sea, Essex, UK: RAF/Eden Fisher (Southend) Ltd., 1966.
  • Moyes, Philip J.R. Bomber Squadrons of the RAF and their Aircraft. London: Macdonald and Jane's (Publishers) Ltd., 1964 (new edition 1976). ISBN 0-354-01027-1.
  • Rawlings, John D.R. Fighter Squadrons of the RAF and their Aircraft. London: Macdonald & Jane's (Publishers) Ltd., 1969 (2nd edition 1976, republished 1978). ISBN 0-354-01028-X.
  • Rawlings, John D.R. The History of the Royal Air Force. Feltham, Middlesex, UK: Temple Press/Aerospace, 1984. ISBN 0-60034-990-X.
  • Styles, Dr. David G. 75 Years on - "The Flying Shuftis": Number 208 Squadron, Royal Air Force. Deerfield, Illinois: Dalton Watson, 1991. ISBN 1-85443-101-3.
  • Styles, Dr. David G. All the eights: Eight decades of Naval Eight/208. Loughborough, White Owl Press, 1996. ISBN 1-85443-131-5.

External links


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