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410 Tactical Fighter Training Squadron
No. 410 Squadron RCAF Banner.jpg
410 Squadron banner
Active June 1941 – 1964
1968 – present
Country Canada
Branch Canadian Forces Air Command
Type Aviation squadron
Size Wing
Motto Noctivaga (Wandering by night)[1]
Commanders
Notable
commanders
Colonel St-Amand J.P.J., CD
Insignia
Emblem 410squadron.jpg
Shoulder Patch 410 patch.jpg
Aircraft flown
Fighter CF-18 Hornet

No. 410 Squadron RCAF, the "Cougars", is a Canadian Forces Air Command aircraft squadron currently located at Canada's primary CF-18 training base, Cold Lake, Alberta. The squadron was formed during the Second World War as a Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) squadron under the Royal Air Force.

The first official sortie occurred on the night of 4 June 1942, near RAF Drem, when twelve Beaufighter crews took off. During the Second World War it was credited as being the top-scoring night fighter squadron in the RAF Second Tactical Air Force (TAF) during the period between D-Day and VE-Day.

During the Second World War No. 410 Squadron RCAF flew in major operations such as the Normandy Landings and the Battle of the Bulge. Between these two battles the squadron flew nightly patrols and many members gained ace status. Two members of 410, Flight Lieutenant (F/L) Currie and Flying Officer (F/O) Rose, were the first members of the RCAF to see the German V-2 Rocket Bomb in flight, later that same rocket bomb landed on the British coast.

The squadron was disbanded in 1964 but was reformed in 1968, and remains active. The squadron trains the most pilots a year on the CF-18 as 410 Tactical Fighter (Operational Training) Squadron, approximately 20 to 22. The TV show Jetstream was filmed with the squadron and showed life on the base and what pilots must endure to become fighter pilots.

Contents

History

No. 410 Squadron was formed at RAF Ayr in June 1941 as a Royal Canadian Air Force "Article XV squadron", under Royal Air Force operational control, the third night fighter squadron in the RCAF. At the time it was equipped with the Boulton Paul Defiant.[2] In May 1942 these were replaced by the Bristol Beaufighter, and in October of the same year these were replaced with De Havilland Mosquito Mk II's, with which the first victory for the squadron was claimed.[2] No. 410 was at the time noted as being the top-scoring night-fighter unit in RAF Second Tactical Air Force in the period between D-Day and VE Day,[2] although there are other claims that the top-scoring night-fighter unit is actually No. 409 Squadron RCAF, on the basis that there were many victories quickly counted up during 1943.[3]

The No. 410 Squadron badge depicts a cougar's face with a background decrescent (waning moon). The cougar, a North American mammal, was chosen because of its speed and power in its attacks. The waning moon refers to the squadron's night operations.[4] The two major devices are in reference to the squadron's Second World War service, when the unit was renowned for its skill and number of victories.[4] The squadron's motto is Noctivaga, which means "wandering by night".[4]

Second World War

A Junkers Ju 88 in flight, similar to the ones that were shot down by No. 410 Squadron
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Bases

No. 410 Squadron RCAF began its career in the Second World War at RAF Ayr. From there it was moved to RAF Drem, but was returned to RAF Ayr 10 months later.[5] On 1 September 1942 the Cougars were moved to RAF Scorton, but just under two months later was relocated to RAF Acklington. In 1943 they were placed at RAF Coleby Grange. The squadron was moved for the sixth time to RAF West Malling, and then to RAF Hunsdon. Later it was moved to RAF Castle Camps, and then back to RAF Hundson.[5] On 18 June 1944, they were placed at RAF Zeals, only to be moved again to RAF Colerne. On 9 September 1944 No. 410 Squadron RCAF was again moved to RAF Hunsdon. Thirteen days later, the squadron was relocated back to their sixth base, RAF Coleby Grange.[5] On 3 November 1944 the Squadron moved to RAF Amiens-Glisy. Two months later the squadron was relocated to RAF Lille-Vendeville, the first movement of the squadron in 1945.[6] As of 5 April 1945 the Cougars were located at RAF Amiens-Glisy, the second deployment to that area. The final movement of the war occurred on 9 June 1945, when the squadron moved to RAF Gilze-Rijen.[6]

Operations

The first official sortie occurred on the night of 4 June 1942, when twelve crews from No. 410 Squadron had taken off in Beaufighters, but the two scrambles that occurred were uneventful.[7] The first German contact, however, occurred on 6/7 September 1942, when a Beaufighter II from RAF Scorton flown by P/O R.R. Ferguson and P/O D. Creed (navigator), intercepted a Luftwaffe Ju 88. The Beaufighter was vectored to the Ju 88 approximately 20 miles (32 km) north east of Whitby. The attack damaged the Ju 88, but did not destroy it.[8] Since they did not manage to destroy the aircraft, this not count as the squadron's first outright victory. That came on 22 January 1943, when Flight Sergeant B.M. Haight and Sergeant T. Kipling (RAF, observer), flying a Mosquito II from RAF Acklington, were credited with a Do 217, which was destroyed near Hartlepool.[9] This occurred because of "night readiness", the ability to fly at a moment's notice at night. By the end of the war, 75¾ victories had been claimed.[10] The squadron flew 2,972 sorties and accumulated 28,150 hours of flight time. The squadron's victories included 75¾ destroyed, 2 probably destroyed, and 9 damaged. The squadron had the following casualties: operational: 17 aircraft and 32 aircrew, of whom 10 were killed, 20 presumed dead, and two were made prisoners of war. Non-operational: 14 aircraft and 30 personnel, of whom 29 were killed, 1 injured.[10]

D-Day and the invasion of Europe

A Dornier Do.217 that is similar to ones that were shot down by No. 410 Squadron RCAF

Between November 1943 and May 1944, the squadron was engaged in the night defence of Britain. On 5 June 1944, No. 410 Squadron's CO, Wing Commander G.A. Hiltz, flew a four-aircraft detachment to Colerne where they provided fighter cover for the initial airborne landings. Among the pilots who flew that operation was Flight Lieutenant Charles Emanuel "Pop" Edinger, who would become an ace.[11] On the night prior to the Normandy Landings, all of the TAF's night fighter squadrons were working late to ensure safety for the landing force. During June 1944, 18 of the 22 fighters were available for the flight, the other four were out for periodic maintenance. At 01:00 the first of four patrols took off, but the patrol was uneventful, with the pilots reporting clouds at 10,000 feet.[11] A further five patrols were flown to help cover the 4,000 ships that were part of Operation Neptune. On 7 June two of the aircraft were fired upon by friendly Lancaster bombers, who assumed they were hostile. However No. 410 Squadron claimed its first kill, when Flying Officers A. Mcleod and Bob Snowdon destroyed a Junkers Ju 188. On 12 June the squadron claimed multiple bomber kills.[11] The "little blitz" was moving in full on England. The Cougars shot down 14 raiders with five more probably destroyed or damaged. But the success was overshadowed by the allied invasion of Europe. From June to August 1944, the squadron's history was mostly taken up with patrols nightly over the beachheads to guard the Allied troops and shipping against German bombers. No. 410's Mosquitoes brought down thirty-one German aircraft and damaged or destroyed three more, in less than 31 sorties. Then the squadron moved to France and in the next eight months added 25 "kills" and a "damaged" to its score.[12]

Post D-Day

After D-Day the squadron flew patrols and received credits for many kills. In one instance Warrant Officer (W/O) W.F. Price and P/O J.G. Costello had shot down two Do.217 aircraft in twenty minutes.[13] Since D-Day the Cougars had destroyed twelve German bombers.[13] It was another five days before the squadron scored another kill. In the interval the crews, still maintaining their schedule of nine sorties per night,[13] had little to report. One night an engine in W/C Hiltz’s Mosquito failed on the take-off run and the aircraft, swerving off the runway, crashed into "A" Flight dispersal. The crews escaped injury, but many buildings went up in flames.[13] During an operation that resulted in the thirteenth kill of the period, one aircraft crashed—its crew was unable to bail out.[13] For the next week the weather was poor, which restricted night operations. Most of the crews that did go out had to be diverted to other bases on their return. German activity had also diminished and the beachhead was much quieter than it had been in mid-June. On the first two nights in July there were no sorties at all. Then the weather improved and the nightly round of nine patrols was resumed.[13]

F/L Currie and F/O Rose were the first to see the V-2 bomb, on the night of 10/11 September.[14] While on patrol from Brussels to Antwerp and Rotterdam they saw a bright orange light directly ahead and seemingly at their own level, 10,000 feet (3,000 m). At first glance Currie paid no attention to it, taking it for a bright star. Suddenly, Currie said, "it began to climb – hell it climbed!"[14] The light appeared to go straight up, so rapidly that within a few seconds it had passed out of sight. On return to base the crew reported the sighting as a V-1 flying bomb, but their account of the spectacular rate of climb and other details aroused great interest at higher levels. That night, a few moments after Currie and Rose made their sighting, a V-2 crashed on the English coast. Two nights later F/Os Fullerton and Gallagher also saw a ball of yellow flame streak vertically into the night sky, and in the weeks that followed there were many more similar reports.[13]

Battle of the Bulge and the end of the war

During the battle all of the TAF, including No. 410 Squadron, was on 48 hour alert. In the middle of December, under bad weather conditions, the Germans launched an offensive in the Ardennes.[15] The Luftwaffe caught many squadrons off guard,[15]. No. 410 Squadron enjoyed a number of successes, some of them even on Christmas day.[15] Although the war was entering its final stages, the squadron still had to watch for flak. The fighter squadrons continued to make advances until February while waiting for the Canadian push through the Reichwald. Although there was some aerial fighting, the major fighting with the Luftwaffe occurred when the Canadians started to cross the Rhine on 24 March 1945.[3]

On the evening of 18 December, during the Battle of the Bulge, Edinger was vectored to a Ju 87, which Edinger then fired upon. His navigator, C.C. Vaessen, confirmed the kill, stating that it had been hit in the starboard engine and had caught fire. The Ju 87 crashed into the trees and was engulfed in flame.[15][16] During the final months of the war Flight Lieutenant Rayne Schultz claimed his fifth kill of the war after having returned from working at the Training Command. His fifth kill was a Ju 188, which he claimed on 13/14 February 1944.[17] Shortly afterwards he claimed a second Ju 188 on 10/11 April 1945. He claimed his final kills on 21/22 April 1945 by downing two Ju 88s near Ferrbellen.[3]

A few days after the Squadron moved to Lille/Vendeville, it was called upon to provide a special patrol of four aircraft as air cover for Armistice Day ceremonies being held in Paris; no German intruders attempted to intervene.[13] Later in the month there was a tragic accident at base which took the lives of two pilots who had joined the Cougars a short time previously. F/Os H. Connelly and J. Hunt had gone up together to practice circuits and landings. As they made a circuit, preparatory to landing, the Mosquito stalled and crashed from 500 feet (150 m). A few days before Christmas there was another disaster, the heaviest blow suffered by the squadron.[13] For several days the airfield had been fogbound. When the sky cleared somewhat in the afternoon of the 21st, S/L Fulton, "B” Flight commander, took off for England in the squadron Oxford. With him were three officers and two airmen, all going on leave. Near Wrotham, Kent, the aircraft crashed and only one of its occupants survived, seriously injured. Killed with S/L Fulton were his navigator F/O A.R. Ayton (RAF), who had accompanied him on posting to the Cougars in October, F/L F.G. Thomson, DFC (RAF), who had arrived late in November to begin a second tour, and LACs E. Wahlers and R. Seefried. F/O W. Rumbold, another RAF navigator, was the injured passenger; he had been with the Squadron for two months.[13] The squadron was disbanded with the end of the war on 9 June 1945.[10]

Wartime commanders

The first commanding officer was Squadron Leader P.Y. Davoud, who was in charge between 30 June 1941 and 4 September 1941.[10] Following his time as commander was Wing Commander (W/C) M. Lipton, who was in charge between 5 September 1941 and 30 July 1942.[10] This position was then given to W/C F.W. Hillock, who was in charge between 19 August 1942 and 19 May 1943,[10] when the position was given to W/C G.H. Elms, who was in charge between 20 May 1943 and 18 February 1944.[10] In the latter part of the war W/C G.A. Hiltz, who was in charge between 19 February 1944 and 1 April 1945, was given command,[10] and the last commander of the war was W/C E.P. Heybroek, who was in charge between 2 April 1945 and 9 June 1945.[10]

Decorations

Unit awards

During the Second World War, No. 410 Squadron RCAF was awarded multiple battle honours. These honours are certified by the Canadian Air Force.[18]

Battle honours awarded to No. 410 Squadron RCAF[18]
Award Year(s) Additional Info
Defence of Britain 1941–44 Battle of Britain
Fortress Europe 1943 for operations against targets in Germany, Italy and enemy-occupied Europe
France and Germany 1944–45 ops over France and Germany prior to and after D-day
Normandy 1944 Normandy 1944
Rhine 1945 Rhine 1945
Biscay 1940–45 Biscay 1943


A DFC with bar

Individual awards

At least 12 members of the squadron were decorated during the war, with the award of 11 Distinguished Flying Crosses (DFC), plus one bar to the DFC, and a Distinguished Flying Medal (DFM). The first DFCs went to Acting Flight Lieutenant Martin Anthony Cybulski and Flying Officer Harold Herbert Ladbrook on 9 November 1943[19] The citation does not mention that they had to return to base on a single engine, and with other damage to the aircraft.[20] This was followed by Flying Officers Rayne Dennis Schultz and Vernon Albert Williams on 14 January 1944.[21] Again, the citation does not mention the severe damage to their own aircraft. At the close of the action with the third Do 217, which the combat report describes as: "a long duel with the enemy pilot showing a high degree of airmanship," they were hit by return fire, including a cannon shell that destroyed much of the instrument panel, and narrowly missed the pilot. The starboard engine almost died, then recovered, but then the port engine caught fire. They managed to return to RAF Bradwell on the starboard engine, landing at 19:45 on 10 December 1943.[22]

Sergeant James Norman was awarded the DFM on 26 September 1944.[23] Squadron Leader James Dean Somerville and F/O George Douglas Robinson were also awarded the DFC on 20 October 1944.[24][25] Then F/L Charles Emanuel Edinger on 5 December 1944, for destroying four Junkers Ju 88, and one unidentified German aircraft between June and October. He subsequently claimed one further Ju 88 and one Junkers Ju 87 in December.[16][26]

Flight Lieutenants Ben Erwin Plumer and William Warren Hargrove also received the DFC on 15 December 1944 for shooting down a Messerschmitt Bf 110 on 6 October:[27][28] F/O Dennis George Tongue was awarded the DFC on 29 December 1944,[29] and a bar to his DFC on 2 March 1945.[30] Tongue was a member of the RAF, and had been commissioned from sergeant, before his promotion to flying officer. His pilot on 25 November 1944, the night he won the bar to his DFC, was A. A. Harrington of the United States Army Air Force. The three aircraft they destroyed were Ju 88s, their own Mosquito was hit by debris from the second Ju 88, and during the fight that led to the downing of the third, Tongue was also having to keep track of a further Ju 88 which was endeavouring to attack them.[31]

F/O Donald Murdo Mackenzie was awarded the DFC on 27 February 1945,[32] he had destroyed a Ju 88 on 30 July 1944, and two more in a single sortie on 24 December.[33]

Post Second World War

No. 410 Squadron was reactivated on 1 December 1946 as an Air Defence squadron flying de Havilland Vampire F.3 aircraft, and was re-formed from a defence role into that of a fighter role at St Hubert (Montreal), Quebec on 1 December 1948.[2][10] The squadron later converted to Canadair Sabres and was deployed to Europe, flying from RCAF Station North Luffenham in the UK and RCAF Station Marville (No. 1 (Fighter) Wing) in France. The squadron was the first postwar regular force fighter unit to fly Vampire and Sabre aircraft, and the first to join No. 1 (Fighter) Wing of No. 1 Air Division Europe.[2][10] When No. 445 All Weather (Fighter) [AW(F)] Squadron arrived from Canada, No. 410 was deactivated at Marville on 1 October 1956 and reactivated as an all-weather fighter squadron at Uplands (Ottawa), Ontario on 1 November, flying Avro Canada CF-100s. When CF-100s were removed from service in 1961, the CF-101 Voodoo interceptor, was introduced for North American air defence. No. 410 converted to Voodoos, and the squadron continued to fly Voodoos until defence cuts led to the squadron being deactivated on 31 March 1964. In 1968, No. 3 OTU (Operating Training Unit) at CFB Bagotville, tasked with training pilots and navigators for the three operational CAF Voodoo squadrons was later renamed No. 410 Squadron. In 1982, No. 410 Squadron made its most recent move to Cold Lake, Alberta, changing aircraft to become the training unit for Canada's new CF-18 Hornet aircraft.[2][10]

Current

Operational training

No. 410 Squadron is now a Canadian Forces Air Command aircraft squadron located at Canada's primary CF-18 training base, Cold Lake, Alberta. In 1982, the squadron was renamed 410 Tactical Fighter (Operational Training) Squadron.[10] It runs one fighter pilot course every year, training approximately 20 pilots. The training program consists of nine months of ground school, simulator flights, and operational flying. Graduates are taken from the Fighter Lead-In Training Course and are provided with the knowledge of basic skills in both air-to-air and air-to-ground combat. Areas covered in depth include aircraft handling, instrument flight, formation flying, night flying, navigation, air-to-air refuelling, and weapons delivery and tactics. No. 410 Squadron runs the annual Fighter Weapons Instructor Course (FWIC) and a Fighter Electronic Warfare and Advanced Radar (FEWAR) Course. The intense and highly challenging FWIC is three months in length.[4] Each CF-18 squadron and tactical radar squadron sends candidates (eight students per course) who graduate with the leadership qualities and expertise required to return to their operational squadrons and design tactical training programs themselves. The Advanced Radar Course is conducted in two phases: ground school at 4 Wing and a flying phase at an electronic warfare range. This three-week course is designed to graduate ten pilots annually who return to their squadrons as electronic warfare experts and instructors. Since No. 410 Squadron has always had some of the most experienced CF-18 pilots in the fighter community, it is often charged with carrying out special fighter projects. The squadron conducted the operational testing and evaluation of the CF's precision guided munitions, and will be testing the use of night vision devices in the Hornet.[4]

FOTEF and 2009

A sub-unit of No. 410 Squadron is the Fighter Operational Test & Evaluation Flight (FOTEF). FOTEF is responsible for the operational testing and evaluation to meet the needs of the Fighter Force (FF). Their efforts are to continue to be integral to the operational effectiveness of all aspects of core and CF-18 capabilities. Some of the new systems being evaluated are Night Vision Imaging Systems (NVIS), Multi-function Information Distribution Systems (MIDS), the Advanced Multi-role Infra-Red Sensor, and the evaluation of new mission planning software and the Advanced Distributed Combat Training System.[4] Working closely with a variety of key units across the Air Force, including the "Aerospace Engineering & Test Establishment" (AETE), FOTEF has enabled the integration of newly modernized CF-18 ECP-583 R2 aircraft into the FF. In 2009, No. 410 Squadron is providing the CF-18 Demonstration Pilot and the air display CF-18 for the year's airshow season. Captain Tim "Donor" Woods, from Dundas, Ontario, has been selected as the year's demonstration pilot and the paint scheme of his display aircraft was developed in honour of the "Centennial of Flight" in Canada.[4]

Recertification and curriculum

The first seven courses the squadron ran were six month full-squadron courses from which the graduating pilots formed new CF-18 squadrons. This was done during and after 1988, which was when the CF-18 was being delivered. Following this initial cadre of courses, No. 410 Squadron trained CF-18 pilots at a rate of approximately 50 per year. In 1992, with the closure of three squadrons in Germany, this was reduced to 25. With the recent reduction in size of the remaining operational squadrons, No. 410 Squadron now trains approximately 20 fighter pilots annually.[34] At the same time as the current work mandate, No. 410 Squadron is also responsible for training and recertifying about five former CF-18 Hornet pilots annually. These pilots are returning to the CF-18 cockpit after a ground or exchange tour. No. 410 Squadron also trains newly arrived foreign exchange officers who will be joining one of Canada's two operational fighter squadrons. As backgrounds can differ significantly, each course is tailored to the individual based on their experience and demonstrated competencies.[4] Areas covered in depth in the Fighter Pilot Course (FPC) include basic and advanced aircraft handling, instrument flight, formation flying, night flying, all-weather interception, air-to-air refuelling, Basic Fighter Manoeuvres (BFM - "dogfighting skills") and air combat.[4] The latter half of each FPC comprises academic air-to-ground weapons delivery and Close Air Support (CAS), as well as advanced Air Interdiction (AI) tactics, the former usually completed during a squadron deployment to the south-western United States in the late spring and early fall due to the significantly better weather and the sheer number of bombing ranges available.[4]

Jetstream

The television show Jetstream was filmed in 2007 with the squadron and showed life on the base and what trainees must endure to become fighter pilots. They stayed with 410 for nine months to train to become qualified pilots and in that time some candidates did not graduate.[35] The television show was given full access to the candidates lives from ground school to graduation, and was allowed access almost everywhere. The series followed the six members of the Canadian Air Force's "Class of 2006" who had been selected to learn with 410.[36] The television show called the air base "fighter town", but Cold Lake is one of two bases that primarily use fighter/interceptor aircraft.[35]

Aircraft

A de Havilland Mosquito

Second World War

No. 410 Squadron began flying the North American Harvard training aircraft. The fighter that was first used was the Boulton Paul Defiant NFI during July 1941 to May 1942. The Boulton Paul Defiant was a "turret fighter" that was used as a night fighter by No. 410 Squadron. The main problem with this aircraft was that it had no forward armament,[37] and so was exchanged for the Bristol Beaufighter II, long-range heavy fighter. The Beaufighter was used from April 1942 up until January 1943. The Mk II used the Rolls Royce Merlin engine for better power than the original Beaufighter.[38] No. 410 transitioned to the de Havilland Mosquito Mk II in November 1942 through December 1943, after which, the Squadron used the Mosquito exclusively. It used the variants VI (July 1943 - September 1943), XIII (December 1943 - August 1944), and XXX (August 1944 - June 1945). All of these fighters had the same basic design—that of a low to medium altitude daytime tactical bomber, high altitude night bomber, pathfinder, day or night fighter, fighter-bomber, intruder, maritime strike and photo reconnaissance aircraft.[39]

Post war

As a training unit, 410 used the Canadair CT-133 Silver Star. The squadron became a fighter unit in 1948, flying the de Havilland Vampire. No. 410 then re-equipped with the Sabre in 1951, and then with the CF-100 Canuck in 1956. On 20 December 1961, 410 became Canada's first operational CF-101 Voodoo squadron. The Voodoo was an all-weather interceptor aircraft; its primary armament was the nuclear-tipped AIR-2A Genie unguided air-to-air rockets, and was used as Canada's primary means of air defence.

Current

A CF-18 Hornet

No. 410 Squadron RCAF is currently equipped with the CF-18 Hornet. The first two CF-18s were formally handed over to 410 (Operational Training Unit) Squadron at CFB Cold Lake, Alberta on 25 October 1982.[40]

References

Notes

  1. ^ "Sqn Histories 400-410". Air of Authority. http://www.rafweb.org/Sqn400-410.htm. Retrieved 13 December 2008.  
  2. ^ a b c d e f "410 Squadron". Royal Canadian Air Force. http://www.rcaf.com/squadrons/400series/410squadron.php. Retrieved 13 December 2008.  
  3. ^ a b c Thomas, 42
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "4 Wing - No. 410 Squadron General Information". Canadian Forces. http://www.airforce.forces.gc.ca/4w-4e/sqns-escs/page-eng.asp?id=478. Retrieved 25 January 2009.  
  5. ^ a b c "No. 410 (Cougar) Squadron RCAF". RAF Commands. http://www.rafcommands.currantbun.com/Fighter/410F.html. Retrieved 1 March 2009.  
  6. ^ a b "No. 410 'Cougar' Squadron (RCAF)". History of War. http://www.historyofwar.org/air/units/RCAF/410_wwII.html. Retrieved 1 March 2009.  
  7. ^ "Training and waiting". Royal Canadian Air Force. http://www.rcaf.com/439squadron/410sqn/410eng1-2.htm. Retrieved 27 March 2009.  
  8. ^ "Combat Reports, Second World War—Image details—Ferguson, R R, 06 September 1942" (fee required to view full pdf of original combat report). DocumentsOnline. The National Archives. http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/documentsonline/details-result.asp?Edoc_Id=7748377. Retrieved 15 December 2008.  
  9. ^ "Combat Reports, Second World War—Image details—Haight, B M, 22 January 1943" (fee required to view full pdf of original combat report). DocumentsOnline. The National Archives. http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/documentsonline/details-result.asp?Edoc_Id=7748398. Retrieved 15 December 2008.  
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "No. 410 Squadron". AvroLand. http://www.avroland.ca/al-rcaf-com-410sqn.html. Retrieved 24 December 2008.  
  11. ^ a b c Thomas, 26
  12. ^ "History of No. 410 Squadron". Royal Canadian Air Force. http://www.rcaf.com/439squadron/410sqn/410eng1-1.htm. Retrieved 24 January 2009.  
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "History of No. 410 Squadron". Royal Canadian Air Force. http://www.rcaf.com/439squadron/410sqn/410eng1-4.htm. Retrieved 24 January 2009.  
  14. ^ a b "History of No. 410 Squadron". Royal Canadian Air Force. http://www.rcaf.com/439squadron/410sqn/410eng1-5.htm. Retrieved 24 January 2009.  
  15. ^ a b c d Thomas, 39
  16. ^ a b "Combat Reports, Second World War—Image details—Edinger, C E, 16 September 1944; 06 October 1944, 24 December 1944, 14 June 1944, 03 July 1944, 16 September 1944, 18 June 1944, 18 December 1944" (fee required to view full pdf of original combat reports). DocumentsOnline. The National Archives. http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/documentsonline/details-result.asp?Edoc_Id=7748373. Retrieved 15 December 2008.  
  17. ^ "Rayne Schultz Combat Report". National Archives. http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/documentsonline/search-results.asp?searchtype=browserefine&query=last_name%3dschultz. Retrieved 09 February 2009.  
  18. ^ a b "No. 410 Squadron History". Canadian Forces Air Command. http://www.airforce.forces.gc.ca/site/hist/410sqn_e.asp. Retrieved 03 January 2009.  
  19. ^ London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 36241, p. 4918, 5 November 1943. Retrieved on 15 December 2008.
  20. ^ "Combat Reports, Second World War—Image details—Ladbrook, H H, 27 March 1943; 26 September 1943" (fee required to view full pdf of original combat reports). DocumentsOnline. The National Archives. http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/documentsonline/details-result.asp?Edoc_Id=7748370. Retrieved 15 December 2008.  
  21. ^ London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 36329, p. 285, 11 January 1944. Retrieved on 15 December 2008.
  22. ^ "Combat Reports, Second World War—Image details—Williams, V A, 15 August 1943; 10 December 1943" (fee required to view full pdf of original combat reports). DocumentsOnline. The National Archives. http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/documentsonline/details-result.asp?Edoc_Id=7748440. Retrieved 15 December 2008.  
  23. ^ London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 36718, pp. 4444–4445, 22 September 1944. Retrieved on 15 December 2008.
  24. ^ London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 36756, p. 4813, 17 October 1944. Retrieved on 15 December 2008.
  25. ^ "Combat Reports, Second World War—Image details—Robinson, G D, 13 February 1944; 06 August 1944, 01 August 1944, 14 August 1944" (fee required to view full pdf of original combat reports). DocumentsOnline. The National Archives. http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/documentsonline/details-result.asp?Edoc_Id=7748434. Retrieved 15 December 2008.  
  26. ^ London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 36826, pp. 5577–5578, 1 December 1944. Retrieved on 15 December 2008.
  27. ^ "Combat Reports, Second World War—Image details—Hargrove, W W, 06 October 1944" (fee required to view full pdf of original combat report). DocumentsOnline. The National Archives. http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/documentsonline/details-result.asp?Edoc_Id=7748422. Retrieved 15 December 2008.  
  28. ^ London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 36839, p. 5737, 12 December 1944. Retrieved on 15 December 2008.
  29. ^ London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 36863, pp. 5954–5955, 26 December 1944. Retrieved on 15 December 2008.
  30. ^ London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 36964, p. 1205, 27 February 1945. Retrieved on 15 December 2008.
  31. ^ "Combat Reports, Second World War—Image details—Tongue, Dennis G, 14 March 1944; 19 June 1944, 26 September 1944, 29 October 1944, 25 November 1944" (fee required to view full pdf of original combat report). DocumentsOnline. The National Archives. http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/documentsonline/details-result.asp?Edoc_Id=7748403. Retrieved 15 December 2008.  
  32. ^ London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 36959, pp. 1134–1135, 23 February 1945. Retrieved on 15 December 2008.
  33. ^ "Combat Reports, Second World War—Image details—MacKenzie, D, 30 July 1944; 29 December 1944" (fee required to view full pdf of original combat report). DocumentsOnline. The National Archives. http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/documentsonline/details-result.asp?Edoc_Id=7748364. Retrieved 15 December 2008.  
  34. ^ "4 Wing - No. 410 Squadron History". Canadian Forces. http://www.airforce.forces.gc.ca/4w-4e/sqns-escs/page-eng.asp?id=479. Retrieved 3 March 2009.  
  35. ^ a b "Jetstream". Discovery Channel. http://www.discoverychannel.ca/jetstream/#/utility/about/. Retrieved 13 December 2008.  
  36. ^ "Paperny launches Discovery Channel series Jetstream". Vancouver Sun. http://www.canada.com/vancouversun/news/westcoastlife/story.html?id=86b3f50a-84a0-4b92-b2b3-ed5df249d31b. Retrieved 06 January 2008.  
  37. ^ Brew, 46
  38. ^ Eden, 68
  39. ^ Eden, 118–129
  40. ^ Spick

Bibliography

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  • Green, William; Swanborough, Gordon (2001). The Great Book of Fighters. MBI Publishing. ISBN 0-7603-1194-3.  
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  • Page, Ron (1981). Canuck: CF-100 All Weather Fighter. Boston Mills Press. ISBN 0-919822-39-8.  
  • Spick, Mike (2000). The Great Book of Modern Warplanes. MBI Publishing Company. ISBN 0-7603-0893-4.  
  • Thomas, Andrew; Davey, Chris (2005). Mosquito Aces of World War 2. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1841768782. http://books.google.ca/books?id=M3FURgZ0qu4C&pg=PA42&dq=No.+410+Squadron#PPA42,M1.  
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  • Williams, Alan S. (2006). Queen's University. ISBN 0-9781693-0-1.  

External links


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