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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Nobel Prize in Peace
Awarded for Outstanding contributions in Peace
Presented by Norwegian Nobel Committee
Country Norway
First awarded 1901
Official website http://nobelprize.org

The Nobel Peace Prize (Scandinavian languages: Nobels fredspris) is one of the five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel.

Contents

Background

According to Nobel's will, the Peace Prize should be awarded to the person who:

...shall have done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses.[1]

Alfred Nobel's will declared that the prize should be awarded by a committee of five people elected by the Norwegian Parliament.

Nobel died in 1896 and did not leave an explanation for choosing peace as a prize category. The categories for chemistry and physics were obvious choices as he was a trained chemical engineer. The reason behind the peace prize is less clear. According to the Norwegian Nobel Committee, there's significant evidence his friendship with Bertha von Suttner, a peace activist and later winner of the prize, may have profoundly influenced his decision to include peace as a category.[2] Scholars who studied Nobel have said it was Nobel's way to compensate for developing destructive forces (Nobel's inventions included dynamite and ballistite). None of his explosives, except for ballistite, were used in any war during his lifetime,[3] although the Irish Republican Brotherhood, an Irish nationalist organization, did carry out dynamite attacks in the 1880s[4] and he was instrumental in turning Bofors from an iron company to an armaments company whilst he owned it.

It is also unclear why Nobel wished the Peace Prize to be administered in Norway, which was ruled in union with Sweden at the time of Nobel's death. The Norwegian Nobel Committee speculates that Nobel may have considered Norway better suited to awarding the prize as it did not have the same militaristic traditions as Sweden. It also notes that at the end of the nineteenth century, the Norwegian parliament had become closely involved in the Inter-Parliamentary Union's efforts to resolve conflicts through mediation and arbitration.[2]

Nomination and selection

The Norwegian Parliament appoints the Norwegian Nobel Committee, which selects the laureate for the Peace Prize.

Nomination

Each year, the Norwegian Nobel Committee specifically invites qualified people to submit nominations for the Nobel Peace Prize.[5] The statutes of the Nobel Foundation specify categories of individuals who are eligible to make nominations for the Nobel Peace Prize.[6] These are;

The 14th Dalai Lama and Archbishop Desmond Tutu, Nobel Peace Prize laureates.

Nominations must usually be submitted to the Committee by February 1 of the year in question. Nominations by committee members can be submitted up to the date of the first Committee meeting after this deadline.[6]

In 2009, a record 205 nominations were received.[7] The statutes of the Nobel Foundation do not allow information about nominations, considerations or investigations relating to awarding the prize to be made public for at least 50 years after a prize has been awarded.[8] Over time many individuals have become known as "Nobel Peace Prize Nominees", but this designation has no official standing.[9] Nominations from 1901 to 1955, however, have been released in a database.[10] When the past nominations were released it was discovered that Adolf Hitler was nominated in 1939 by Erik Brandt, a member of the Swedish Parliament. Brandt never intended for this nomination to be seriously considered, and submitted it in protest to the nomination of Neville Chamberlain for the prize; Brandt retracted the nomination after a few days.[11] Other infamous nominees included Joseph Stalin and Benito Mussolini. However, since nomination requires only support from one qualified person, nominations do not necessarily represent the opinion of the Nobel committee itself.[12]

Unlike the other Nobel Prizes, which recognize completed scientific or literary accomplishment, the Nobel Peace Prize may be awarded to persons or organizations that are in the process of resolving a conflict or creating peace.

Selection

Nominations are considered by the Nobel Committee at a meeting where a short list of candidates for further review is created. This short list is then considered by permanent advisers to the Nobel institute, which consists of the Institute's Director and the Research Director and a small number of Norwegian academics with expertise in subject areas relating to the prize. Advisers usually have some months to complete reports, which are then considered by the Committee to select the laureate. The Committee seeks to achieve a unanimous decision, but this is not always possible.[13]

Awarding the prize

Obverse of the Nobel Peace Prize Medal presented to Sir Ralph Norman Angell in 1933; the Imperial War Museum, London.

The Chairman of the Norwegian Nobel Committee, currently Thorbjørn Jagland, presents the Nobel Peace Prize in the presence of the King of Norway on December 10 each year (the anniversary of Nobel's death). The Peace Prize is the only Nobel Prize not presented in Stockholm. The Nobel laureate receives a diploma, a medal and a document confirming the prize amount.[14] The Nobel Peace Prize Ceremony is held at the Oslo City Hall, followed the next day by the Nobel Peace Prize Concert, which is broadcast to more than 450 million households in over 150 countries around the world. The concert has received worldwide fame and the participation of top celebrity hosts and performers.

List of laureates

Reaction

Unlike the scientific and literary Nobel Prizes, usually issued in retrospect, often two or three decades after the awarded achievement, the Peace Prize has been awarded for more recent or immediate achievements. Some commentators[15] have suggested that to award a peace prize on the basis of unquantifiable contemporary opinion is unjust or possibly erroneous, especially as many of the judges cannot themselves be said to be impartial observers.

The awards given to Yasser Arafat, Lê Ðức Thọ,[16] Henry Kissinger,[16] Mikhail Gorbachev, Jimmy Carter,[17] Al Gore, and Barack Obama[18][19][20] have been much-debated. The Kissinger-Thọ award prompted two dissenting Committee members to resign.[21]

Omission

Another criticism of the peace-prize is the notable omissions, namely the failure to award individuals with widely recognized contributions to peace. Foreign Policy magazine lists Mohandas Gandhi, Eleanor Roosevelt, Václav Havel, Ken Saro-Wiwa, Sari Nusseibeh, Corazon Aquino and Liu Xiaobo as people who "never won the prize, but should have".[22] Other notable omissions that have drawn criticism include Abdul Sattar Edhi,[23] Irena Sendler,[24] Pope John Paul II[25] and Dorothy Day.[26]

The omission of Gandhi has been particularly widely discussed, including in public statements by various members of the Nobel Committee.[27][28] The Committee has confirmed that Gandhi was nominated in 1937, 1938, 1939, 1947 and, finally, a few days before he was murdered in January 1948.[29] The omission has been publicly regretted by later members of the Nobel Committee.[27] In 1948, the year of Gandhi's death, the Nobel Committee declined to award a prize on the ground that "there was no suitable living candidate" that year. Later, when the Dalai Lama was awarded the Peace Prize in 1989, the chairman of the committee said that this was "in part a tribute to the memory of Mahatma Gandhi".[30]

The Nobel Peace Center

In 2005, the Nobel Peace Center opened. It serves to present the laureates, their work for peace, and the ongoing problems of war and conflict around the world.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "Excerpt from the Will of Alfred Nobel". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/alfred_nobel/will/short_testamente.html. Retrieved 2008-03-31. 
  2. ^ a b "Why Norway?". The Norwegian Nobel Committee. http://nobelpeaceprize.org/en_GB/about_peaceprize/why-norway/. Retrieved 2009-10-11. 
  3. ^ Altman, L. (2006). Alfred Nobel and the prize that almost didn't happen. New York Times. Retrieved October 14, 2006.
  4. ^ BBC History - 1916 Easter Rising - Profiles - The Irish Republican Brotherhood BBC.
  5. ^ "Nomination for the Nobel Peace Prize". Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nomination/peace/index.html. Retrieved 2009-09-10. 
  6. ^ a b "Who may submit nominations?". The Norwegian Nobel Committee. http://nobelpeaceprize.org/en_GB/nomination_committee/who-can-nominate/. Retrieved 2009-09-10. 
  7. ^ ""President Barack Obama wins Nobel Peace Prize"". Associated Press on yahoo.com. http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/eu_nobel_peace. Retrieved 2009-10-09. 
  8. ^ "Nominations for the 2009 Nobel Peace Prize". The Norwegian Nobel Committee. http://nobelpeaceprize.org/en_GB/nomination_committee/nomination-2009/. Retrieved 2009-10-11. 
  9. ^ Who may submit nominations - Nobels fredspris
  10. ^ "Nomination Database — The Nobel Peace Prize, 1901-1955". Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nomination/peace/database.html. Retrieved 2009-10-06. 
  11. ^ Richardson, Gunnar, Förtroligt and hemligt : kunglig utrikespolitik och svensk neutralitet under andra världskriget. Stockholm : Carlsson, 2007
  12. ^ ""Selection Process"". Nobel Peace Prize Committee. http://nobelpeaceprize.org/en_GB/nomination_committee/selection-process/. Retrieved 2009-10-11. 
  13. ^ "How are Laureates selected?". The Norwegian Nobel Committee. http://nobelpeaceprize.org/en_GB/nomination_committee/selection-process/. Retrieved 2009-09-10. 
  14. ^ What the Nobel Laureates Receive. nobelprize.org.
  15. ^ Murphy, Clare (2004-08-10). "The Nobel: Dynamite or damp squib?". BBC online (BBC News). http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/3724734.stm. Retrieved 2009-10-11. 
  16. ^ a b "Worldwide criticism of Nobel peace awards". The Times. 1973-18-10. http://archive.timesonline.co.uk/tol/viewArticle.arc?articleId=ARCHIVE-The_Times-1973-10-18-06-006&pageId=ARCHIVE-The_Times-1973-10-18-06. Retrieved 2009-10-11. 
  17. ^ Douglas G. Brinkley. The Unfinished Presidency: Jimmy Carter's Journey to the Nobel Peace Prize (1999)
  18. ^ "Surprised, humbled Obama awarded Nobel Peace Prize". Associated Press. http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20091009/ap_on_re_eu/eu_nobel_peace. Retrieved 2009-10-09. 
  19. ^ Otterman, Sharon (2009-10-09), "World Reaction to a Nobel Surprise", The New York Times, http://thelede.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/10/09/world-reaction-to-a-nobel-surprise/?hp#bozoanchor, retrieved 2009-10-09 
  20. ^ "Obama Peace Prize win has Americans asking why?". reuters.com. http://www.reuters.com/article/GCA-BarackObama/idUKTRE5983AM20091009?virtualBrandChannel=11621&sp=true. Retrieved 2009-10-09. 
  21. ^ Tønnesson, Øyvind (29 June 2000). "Controversies and Criticisms". Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/peace/articles/controversies/index.html. Retrieved 27 February 2010. 
  22. ^ Kenner, David. (2009, Oct. 7). "Nobel Peace Prize Also-Rans". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 2009-10-10.
  23. ^ "Abdul Sattar Edhi for the Nobel Peace Prize". Boundless Meanderings (blog). 2007-01-25. http://boundlessmeanderings.wordpress.com/2007/01/25/abdul-sattar-edhi-for-the-nobel-peace-prize/. Retrieved 2009-10-10. 
  24. ^ "Irena Sendler". snopes.com. 2009-04-30. http://www.snopes.com/politics/war/sendler.asp. Retrieved 2009-10-10. 
  25. ^ "Pope John Paul II deserves the Nobel Peace Prize". The Kingdom. 2005-10-06. http://www.the-kingdom.ie/news/story/?trs=kfidmhidsn. Retrieved 2009-10-10. 
  26. ^ Roberts, Nancy L. (1984). "Dorothy Day and the Catholic Worker". ISBN 9780873959384. http://books.google.com.au/books?id=Wx5A4UE05QYC&source=gbs_navlinks_s. 
  27. ^ a b Tønnesson, Øyvind (1999-12-01). "Mahatma Gandhi, the Missing Laureate". The Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/articles/gandhi/index.html. Retrieved 2007-10-17. 
  28. ^ http://nobelprize.org/prize_announcements/peace/ask_questions.html
  29. ^ "The Nomination Database for the Nobel Peace Prize, 1901-1956: Gandhi". Nobelprize.org. http://nobelprize.org/nomination/peace/nomination.php?key1=candname&log1=LIKE&string1=gandhi&action=advsearch&log10=OR&key2=candname&log2=LIKE&string2=&log11=OR&key3=candname&log3=LIKE&string3=&startyear=&endyear=&order1=year&order2=nomname&order3=cand1name&submit2.x=0&submit2.y=0&submit2=Go. Retrieved 2008-10-13. 
  30. ^ Presentation Speech by Egil Aarvik, Chairman of the Norwegian Nobel Committee

External links


Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Familypedia

Lester B. Pearson after accepting the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize

The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. According to Nobel's will, the Peace Prize should be awarded "to the person who shall have done the most or the best work for fraternity between the nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses."

The Peace Prize is awarded annually in Oslo, the capital of Norway. The actual prize always is presented on the 10th of December, the anniversary of the death of Nobel. The Norwegian king is in attendance. "In Oslo, the Chairman of the Norwegian Nobel Committee presents the Nobel Peace Prize in the presence of the King of Norway. Under the eyes of a watching world, the Nobel Laureate receives three things: a diploma, a medal and a document confirming the prize amount" ("What the Nobel Laureates Receive"). For the past decade, the Nobel Peace Prize Ceremony at the Oslo City Hall has been followed the next day by the Nobel Peace Prize Concert, which is broadcast to over 150 countries and more than 450 million households around the world. The Concert has received worldwide fame and the participation of top celebrity hosts and performers. The selection of Nobel Peace Prize winners sometimes causes controversy, as the list of winners includes people who formerly used violent methods of problem-solving, but then later made exceptional concessions to non-violence in the attempt to achieve peace.

Contents

Appointment process

Nobel died in 1896 and did not leave an explanation for choosing peace as a prize category. The categories for chemistry and physics were obvious choices as he was a trained chemical engineer. The reason behind the peace prize is less clear. Some have said it was Nobel's way to compensate for developing destructive forces (Nobel's inventions included dynamite and ballistite). However, none of his explosives, except for ballistite, were used in any war during his lifetime,[1] although the Irish Republican Brotherhood, an Irish nationalist organisation, did carry out dynamite attacks in the 1880s.[2]

The Norwegian Parliament appoints the Norwegian Nobel Committee, which selects the Laureate for the Peace Prize. The Committee chairman, currently Dr. Ole Danbolt Mjøs, awards the Prize itself. At the time of Alfred Nobel's death Sweden and Norway were in a personal union in which the Swedish government was solely responsible for foreign policy, and the Norwegian Parliament was responsible only for Norwegian domestic policy. Alfred Nobel never explained[3] why he wanted a Norwegian rather than Swedish body to award the Peace Prize. As a consequence, many people have speculated about Nobel's intentions. For instance, Nobel may have wanted to prevent the manipulation of the selection process by foreign powers, and as Norway did not have any foreign policy, the Norwegian government could not be influenced.

Nominations

Nominations for the Prize may be made by a broad array of qualified individuals, including former recipients, members of national assemblies and congresses, university professors (in certain disciplines), international judges, and special advisors to the Prize Committee. In some years as many as 199 nominations have been received. The Committee keeps the nominations secret and asks that nominators do the same. Over time many individuals have become known as "Nobel Peace Prize Nominees", but this designation has no official standing[4]. Nominations from 1901 to 1955, however, have been released in a database.[5] When the past nominations were released it was discovered that Adolf Hitler was nominated in 1939 by Erik Brandt, a member of the Swedish Parliament. Brandt retracted the nomination after a few days.[6] Other infamous nominees included Joseph Stalin and Benito Mussolini. However, since nomination requires only support from one qualified person (e.g., a history professor), these unusual nominations do not represent the opinions of the Nobel committee itself.

Unlike the other Nobel Prizes, which recognize completed scientific or literary accomplishment, the Nobel Peace Prize may be awarded to persons or organizations that are in the process of resolving a conflict or creating peace. As some such processes have failed to create lasting peace, some Peace Prizes appear questionable in hindsight. For example, the awards given to Theodore Roosevelt, Shimon Peres, Yitzhak Rabin, Yasser Arafat, Lê Ðức Thọ and Henry Kissinger were particularly controversial and criticized; the Kissinger-Thọ award prompted two dissenting Committee members to resign.[7]

In 2005, the Nobel Peace Center opened. It serves to present the Laureates, their work for peace, and the ongoing problems of war and conflict around the world.

Controversy

For more details on this topic, see Nobel Prize controversies.

The Nobel Peace Prize has sparked controversy throughout its history. The Norwegian Parliament appoints the Peace Prize Committee, but pacifist critics argue that the same Parliament has pursued partisan military aims by ratifying membership in NATO in 1949, by hosting NATO troops, and by leasing ports and territorial waters to US ballistic missile submarines in 1983. However, the Parliament has no say in the award issue. A member of the Committee cannot at the same time be a member of the Parliament, and the Committee includes former members from all major parties, including those parties that oppose NATO membership.

A particular claimed weakness of the Nobel Peace Prize awarding process is the swiftness of recognition. The scientific and literary Nobel Prizes are usually issued in retrospect, often two or three decades after the awarded achievement, thus representing a time-proven confirmation and balance of approval by the established academic community, seldom contradicted by newer developments. In contrast, the Nobel Peace Prize at times takes the form of summary judgment, being issued in the same year as or the year immediately following the political act. Some commentators have suggested that to award a peace prize on the basis of unquantifiable contemporary opinion is unjust or possibly erroneous, especially as many of the judges cannot themselves be said to be impartial observers. In pro-democracy struggles, it may be said that the 'real' peace-makers may not be recognized for their long-term or subtle approaches. However, others have pointed to the uniqueness of the Peace Prize in that its high profile can often focus world attention on particular problems and possibly aid in the peace-efforts themselves.

The 14th Dalai Lama and Bishop Desmond Tutu, 2004

On closer inspection, the peace-laureates often have a lifetime's history of working at and promoting humanitarian issues, as in the examples of German medic Albert Schweitzer (1952 laureate), Dr. Martin Luther King, an African-American civil rights activist (1964 laureate); Mother Teresa, a Roman Catholic missionary nun (1979 laureate); and Aung San Suu Kyi, a Buddhist nonviolent pro-democracy activist (1991 laureate). Still others are selected for tireless efforts, as in the examples of Jimmy Carter and Mohamed ElBaradei. Others, even today, are quite controversial, due to the recipient's political activity, as in the case of Henry Kissinger (1973 laureate), Menachem Begin and Anwar Sadat (1978 laureates), or Yitzhak Rabin and Yasser Arafat (1994 laureates).

A widely discussed criticism of the peace-prize are the notable omissions, namely the failure to award individuals with widely recognized contributions to peace. The list includes Mahatma Gandhi, Pope John XXIII, Pope John Paul II, Steve Biko, Raphael Lemkin, Herbert Hoover, César Chávez, Jose Figueres Ferrer, and Oscar Romero. In particular, the omission of the Indian leader Gandhi has been widely discussed, including public statements by the various members of Nobel Committee.[8][9] It has been acknowledged by the committee that Gandhi was nominated in 1937, 1938, 1939, 1947 and, finally, a few days before he was murdered in January 1948. The omission has been publicly regretted by later members of the Nobel Committee.[8] In 1948, the year of Gandhi's death, the Nobel Committee declined to award a prize on the ground that "there was no suitable living candidate" that year. Later, when the Dalai Lama was awarded the Peace Prize in 1989, the chairman of the committee said that this was "in part a tribute to the memory of Mahatma Gandhi."[10] In most cases, the omissions resulted in part from the provision in Alfred Nobel's will that only living people could receive the prize.

Research by anthropologist David Stoll into Rigoberta Menchú, the 1992 recipient, revealed some fabrications in her biography, "Me llamo Rigoberta Menchú y así me nació la conciencia" (My Name is Rigoberta Menchú and this is how my Conscience was Born), translated into English as "I". Menchú later admitted changing some details about her background. After the initial controversy, the Nobel Committee dismissed calls to revoke her Nobel prize because of the reported falsifications. Professor Geir Lundestad, the secretary of the Committee, said her prize "was not based exclusively or primarily on the autobiography".[11]. According to the Nobel Committee, "Stoll approves of her Nobel prize and has no question about the picture of army atrocities which she presents. He says that her purpose in telling her story the way she did 'enabled her to focus international condemnation on an institution that deserved it, the Guatemalan army'.

Nobel Laureates in Peace

Year Laureate(s) Nationality Work for which cited (Citations)
1901* Jean Henri Dunant Template:Country data Switzerland Founder, Red Cross; Geneva Convention, Human rights.
1901* Frédéric Passy  France Founder and President, Société d'arbitrage entre les Nations.
1902 Élie Ducommun
Charles Albert Gobat
Template:Country data Switzerland Honorary secretaries, Permanent International Peace Bureau in Berne.
1903 William Randal Cremer United Kingdom Secretary, International Arbitration League.
1904 Institut de Droit International Template:Country data Belgium
1905 Bertha Sophie Felicitas Baronin von Suttner Template:Country data Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary/ Template:Country data Czech Republic Czech Honorary President, Permanent International Peace Bureau.
1906 Theodore Roosevelt President of the United States; peace treaty collaborations (brokering the Treaty of Portsmouth ending the Russo-Japanese War)
1907* Ernesto Teodoro Moneta Template:Country data Italy President, Lombard League of Peace
1907* Louis Renault  France Professor of International Law
1908* Klas Pontus Arnoldson  Sweden Founder, Swedish Peace and Arbitration Association
1908* Fredrik Bajer Template:Country data Denmark Honorary President, Permanent International Peace Bureau
1909* Auguste Marie François Beernaert Template:Country data Belgium Member of the Cour Internationale d'Arbitrage.
1909* Paul-Henri-Benjamin d'Estournelles de Constant  France founder and president of the French parliamentary group for international arbitration. Founder of the Comité de défense des intérets nationaux et de conciliation internationale
1910 International Peace Bureau Template:Country data Switzerland Berne
1911* Tobias Michael Carel Asser Template:Country data Netherlands initiator of the International Conferences of Private Law in The Hague.
1911* Alfred Hermann Fried Template:Country data Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary founder of Die Waffen Nieder.
1912 Elihu Root for initiating various arbitration agreements.
1913 Henri La Fontaine Template:Country data Belgium President of the Permanent International Peace Bureau.
1914 [no award]
1915 [no award]
1916 [no award]
1917 International Committee of the Red Cross Template:Country data Switzerland
1918 [no award]
1919 Woodrow Wilson President of the United States, as foremost promoter of the League of Nations.
1920 Léon Victor Auguste Bourgeois  France president of the Council of the League of Nations.
1921* Hjalmar Branting  Sweden prime minister, Swedish delegate to the Council of the League of Nations.
1921* Christian Lous Lange Template:Country data Norway secretary-general of the Inter-Parliamentary Union
1922 Fridtjof Nansen Template:Country data Norway Norwegian delegate to the League of Nations, originator of the Nansen passports for refugees.
1923 [no award]
1924 [no award]
1925* Austen Chamberlain United Kingdom for the Locarno Treaties.
1925* Charles Gates Dawes chairman of the Allied Reparations Commission and originator of the Dawes Plan.
1926* Aristide Briand  France for the Locarno Treaties.
1926* Gustav Stresemann Template:Country data Germany for the Locarno Treaties.
1927* Ferdinand Buisson  France founder and president of the League for Human Rights.
1927* Ludwig Quidde Template:Country data Germany delegate to numerous peace conferences.
1928 [no award]
1929 Frank B. Kellogg for the Kellogg-Briand Pact.
1930 Nathan Söderblom  Sweden leader of the ecumenical movement.
1931* Jane Addams international president of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom
1931* Nicholas Murray Butler for promoting the Kellogg-Briand Pact.
1932 [no award]
1933 Sir Norman Angell United Kingdom writer, member of the Executive Committee of the League of Nations and the National Peace Council.
1934 Arthur Henderson United Kingdom chairman of the League of Nations Disarmament Conference
1935 Carl von Ossietzky Template:Country data Germany pacifist journalist.
1936 Carlos Saavedra Lamas Template:Country data Argentina president of the League of Nations and mediator in the Chaco War between Paraguay and Bolivia.
1937 Robert Cecil United Kingdom founder and president of the International Peace Campaign
1938 Nansen International Office For Refugees Template:Country data Switzerland
1939 [no award]
1940 [no award]
1941 [no award]
1942 [no award]
1943 [no award]
1944 International Committee of the Red Cross Template:Country data Switzerland awarded retroactively in 1945
1945 Cordell Hull for co-initiating the United Nations.
1946* Emily Greene Balch honorary international president of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom
1946* John R. Mott chairman of the International Missionary Council and president of the World Alliance of Young Men's Christian Associations
1947 Friends Service Council
American Friends Service Committee
United Kingdom
on behalf of the Religious Society of Friends, better known as the Quakers.
1948 [no award] May have been awarded to Mahatma Gandhi had he not been assassinated.[12]
1949 Lord Boyd Orr United Kingdom director general Food and Agricultural Organization, president National Peace Council, president World Union of Peace Organizations.
1950 Ralph Bunche for mediating in Palestine (1948)
1951 Léon Jouhaux  France president of the International Committee of the European Council, vice president of the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions, vice president of the World Federation of Trade Unions, member of the ILO Council, delegate to the UN.
1952 Albert Schweitzer  France for his philosophy of "Reverence for Life", expressed in many ways, but most famously in founding the Lambaréné Hospital in Gabon
1953 George Catlett Marshall for the Marshall Plan
1954 United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees Template:Country data United Nations
1955 [no award]
1956 [no award]
1957 Lester Bowles Pearson Template:Country data Canada President of the 7th session of the United Nations General Assembly for introducing peacekeeping forces to resolve the Suez Crisis.
1958 Georges Pire Template:Country data Belgium leader of L'Europe du Coeur au Service du Monde, a relief organization for refugees.
1959 Philip Noel-Baker United Kingdom "for his lifelong ardent work for international peace and co-operation."
1960 Albert Lutuli Template:Country data South Africa President, African National Congress
1961 Dag Hammarskjöld  Sweden Secretary-General, United Nations (posthumous)
1962 Linus Carl Pauling "for his campaign against nuclear weapons testing."
1963 International Committee of the Red Cross
League of Red Cross societies
Template:Country data Switzerland
1964 Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Leader of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, campaigner for civil rights.
1965 United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) Template:Country data United Nations
1966 [no award]
1967 [no award]
1968 René Cassin  France President, European Court of Human Rights.
1969 International Labour Organization Template:Country data Switzerland
1970 Norman Borlaug "for research at the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center."
1971 Willy Brandt Template:Country data West Germany "for West Germany's Ostpolitik, embodying a new attitude towards Eastern Europe and East Germany."
1972 [no award]
1973 Henry A. Kissinger
Lê Ðức Thọ (declined the honours)

Template:Country data Vietnam
The Vietnam peace accord
1974 Seán MacBride
Eisaku Sato
Template:Country data Republic of Ireland
Template:Country data Japan
president of the International Peace Bureau the Commission of Namibia of the United Nations.
1975 Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov Template:Country data Soviet Union Campaigns for human rights
1976 Betty Williams
Mairead Corrigan
United Kingdom Founders of the Northern Ireland Peace Movement (later renamed Community of Peace People).
1977 Amnesty International United Kingdom Campaign against torture
1978 Mohamed Anwar Al-Sadat
Menachem Begin
Template:Country data Egypt
Template:Country data Israel
for negotiating peace between Egypt and Israel
1979 Mother Teresa Template:Country data Albania
 India
Poverty awareness campaigner
1980 Adolfo Pérez Esquivel Template:Country data Argentina Human rights advocate
1981 United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees Template:Country data United Nations
1982 Alva Myrdal
Alfonso García Robles
 Sweden
Template:Country data Mexico
Delegates to the United Nations General Assembly on Disarmament
1983 Lech Wałęsa Template:Country data Poland Founder of Solidarność; campaigner for human rights
1984 Desmond Mpilo Tutu Template:Country data South Africa Anti-apartheid
1985 International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War "for spreading authoritative information and by creating an awareness of the catastrophic consequences of atomic warfare."
1986 Elie Wiesel
Template:ROM
author, Holocaust survivor
1987 Óscar Arias Sánchez Template:Country data Costa Rica "for initiating peace negotiations in Central America."
1988 United Nations Peace-Keeping Forces Template:Country data United Nations For participation in numerous conflicts since 1956. At the time of the award, 736 people from a variety of nations had lost their lives in peacekeeping efforts.
1989 Tenzin Gyatso, the 14th Dalai Lama Template:Country data Tibet
 India
"for his consistent resistance to the use of violence in his people's struggle to regain their freedom."
1990 Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev
(Михаи́л Серге́евич Горбачёв)
Template:Country data Soviet Union "for his leading role in the peace process which today characterizes important parts of the international community"
1991 Aung San Suu Kyi () Template:Country data Myanmar "for her non-violent struggle for democracy and human rights."
1992 Rigoberta Menchú Template:GUA "in recognition of her work for social justice and ethno-cultural reconciliation based on respect for the rights of indigenous peoples."
1993 Nelson Mandela
Frederik Willem de Klerk
Template:Country data South Africa "for their work for the peaceful termination of the apartheid regime, and for laying the foundations for a new democratic South Africa."
1994 Yasser Arafat (ياسر عرفات)
Shimon Peres (שמעון פרס)
Yitzhak Rabin (יצחק רבין)
Template:Country data Palestinian Authority
Template:Country data Israel
Template:Country data Israel
"for their efforts to create peace in the Middle East."
1995 Joseph Rotblat
Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs
Template:Country data Poland


United Kingdom
Template:Country data Canada

"for their efforts to diminish the part played by nuclear arms in international politics and, in the longer run, to eliminate such arms."
1996 Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo
José Ramos-Horta
Template:Country data East Timor "for their work towards a just and peaceful solution to the conflict in East Timor."
1997 International Campaign to Ban Landmines
Jody Williams
"for their work for the banning and clearing of anti-personnel mines."
1998 John Hume
David Trimble
United Kingdom "Awarded for their efforts to find a peaceful solution to the conflict in Northern Ireland."
1999 Médecins Sans Frontières Template:Country data Belgium "in recognition of the organization's pioneering humanitarian work on several continents."
2000 Kim Dae Jung (김대중) Template:Country data South Korea "for his work for democracy and human rights in South Korea and in East Asia in general, and for peace and reconciliation with North Korea in particular."
2001 United Nations
Kofi Annan
Template:Country data United Nations
Template:Country data Ghana
"for their work for a better organized and more peaceful world."
2002 James Earl (Jimmy) Carter, Jr. "for his decades of untiring effort to find peaceful solutions to international conflicts, to advance democracy and human rights, and to promote economic and social development."
2003 Shirin Ebadi (شيرين عبادي) Template:Country data Iran "for her efforts for democracy and human rights. She has focused especially on the struggle for the rights of women and children."
2004 Wangari Maathai Template:Country data Kenya "for her contribution to sustainable development, democracy and peace."
2005 International Atomic Energy Agency
Mohamed ElBaradei (محمد البرادعي)
Template:Country data United Nations
Template:Country data Egypt
"for their efforts to prevent nuclear energy from being used for military purposes and to ensure that nuclear energy for peaceful purposes is used in the safest possible way."
2006 Muhammad Yunus (মুহাম্মদ ইউনুস)
Grameen Bank
Template:BAN "for advancing economic and social opportunities for the poor, especially women, through their pioneering microcredit work."
2007 Intergovernmental Panel
on Climate Change

Albert Arnold (Al) Gore, Jr.
Template:Country data United Nations
"for their efforts to build up and disseminate greater knowledge about man-made climate change, and to lay the foundations for the measures that are needed to counteract such change."

* Years with multiple motivations for a Nobel Prize.

References

See also

External links

Template:Nobel Peace

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Simple English

The Nobel Peace Prize is one of six awards in the memory of Alfred Nobel, the inventor of Dynamite. Every year the organization gives out six awards for the people "who best benefit mankind through their actions" in one of the six subjects; peace, literature, physics, chemistry, economics, and medicine.

The Peace Prize is given out in Norway, but the other Prizes are given out in Sweden. This is because Norway and Sweden were one country when the prizes were started.

Here are the winners of the Nobel Peace Prize:

Year Individual or Organization Notes
1901 Jean Henri Dunant (Switzerland) founder of the Red Cross and initiator of the Geneva Convention.
Frédéric Passy (France) founder and president of the Société Française pour l'arbitrage entre nations.
1902 Élie Ducommun (Switzerland) and Charles Albert Gobat honorary secretaries of the Permanent International Peace Bureau in Berne.
1903 Sir William Randal Cremer (UK) secretary of the International Arbitration League.
1904 Institut de droit international (Gent, Belgium).
1905 Bertha Sophie Felicitas Baronin von Suttner, née Countess Kinsky von Chinic und Tettau (Austria-Hungary) writer, honorary president of the Permanent International Peace Bureau.
1906 Theodore Roosevelt (USA) President of the United States, for drawing up the peace treaty in the Russo-Japanese War.
1907 Ernesto Teodoro Moneta (Italy) president of the Lombard League of Peace.
Louis Renault (France) professor of International Law.
1908 Klas Pontus Arnoldson (Sweden) founder of the Swedish Peace and Arbitration League.
Fredrik Bajer (Denmark) honorary president of the Permanent International Peace Bureau.
1909 Auguste Marie Francois Beernaert (Belgium) member of the Cour Internationale d'Arbitrage.
Paul-Henri-Benjamin d'Estournelles de Constant (France) founder and president of the French parliamentary group for international arbitration. Founder of the Comité de défense des intérets nationaux et de conciliation internationale
1910 Bureau International Permanent de la Paix (Permanent International Peace Bureau), Berne.
1911 Tobias Michael Carel Asser (Netherlands) initiator of the International Conferences of Private Law in The Hague.
Alfred Hermann Fried (Austria-Hungary) founder of Die Waffen Nieder.
1912 Elihu Root (USA) for initiating various arbitration agreements.
1913 Henri la Fontaine (Belgium) president of the Permanent International Peace Bureau.
1914 not awarded World War I
1915 not awarded World War I
1916 not awarded World War I
1917 International Red Cross, Geneva.
1918 Not awarded
1919 Woodrow Wilson (USA) President of the United States, for founding the League of Nations.
1920 Léon Victor Auguste Bourgeois president of the Council of the League of Nations.
1921 Hjalmar Branting (Sweden) prime minister, Swedish delegate to the Council of the League of Nations.
Christian Lous Lange (Norway) secretary-general of the Inter-Parliamentary Union
1922 Fridtjof Nansen (Norway) Norwegian delegate to the League of Nations, originator of the Nansen passports for refugees.
1923 Not awarded
1924
1925 Sir Austen Chamberlain (UK) for the Locarno Treaties.
Charles G. Dawes (USA) chairman of the Allied Reparation Commission and originator of the Dawes Plan.
1926 Aristide Briand (France) for the Locarno Treaties.
Gustav Stresemann (Germany) for the Locarno Treaties.
1927 Ferdinand Buisson (France) founder and president of the League for Human Rights.
Ludwig Quidde (Germany) delegate to numerous peace conferences.
1928 Not awarded
1929 Frank B. Kellogg (USA) for the Briand-Kellogg Pact.
1930 Archbishop Lars Olof Nathan (Jonathan) Söderblom (Sweden) leader of the ecumenical movement.
1931 Jane Addams (USA) international president of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom
Nicholas Murray Butler (USA) for promoting the Briand-Kellogg Pact.
1932 Not awarded
1933 Sir Norman Angell (Ralph Lane) (UK) writer, member of the Executive Committee of the League of Nations and the National Peace Council.
1934 Arthur Henderson (UK) chairman of the League of Nations Disarmament Conference
1935 Carl von Ossietzky (Germany) pacifist journalist.
1936 Carlos Saavedra Lamas (Argentina) president of the League of Nations and mediator in a conflict between Paraguay and Bolivia.
1937 The Viscount Cecil of Chelwood founder and president of the International Peace Campaign.
1938 Nansen International Office For Refugees, Geneva.
1939 Not awarded World War II
1940 Not awarded World War II
1941 Not awarded World War II
1942 Not awarded World War II
1943 Not awarded World War II
1944 International Committee of the Red Cross (awarded retroactively in 1945).
1945 Cordell Hull (USA) for co-initiating the United Nations.
1946 Emily Greene Balch (USA) honorary international president of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom
John R. Mott (USA) chairman of the International Missionary Council and president of the World Alliance of Young Men's Christian Associations
1947 The Friends Service Council (UK) and The American Friends Service Committee (USA) on behalf of the Religious Society of Friends, better known as the Quakers.
1948 Not awarded Apparently it would have been awarded to Mahatma Gandhi had he not died. See the Nobel e-museum article. [1]
1949 The Lord Boyd-Orr (UK) director General Food and Agricultural Organization, president National Peace Council, president World Union of Peace Organizations.
1950 Ralph Bunche (USA) for mediating in Palestine (1948).
1951 Léon Jouhaux (France) president of the International Committee of the European Council, vice president of the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions, vice president of the World Federation of Trade Unions, member of the ILO Council, delegate to the UN.
1952 Albert Schweitzer (Germany) for founding the Lambarene Hospital in Gabon.
1953 American Secretary of State George Catlett Marshall for the Marshall Plan.
1954 The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.
1955 Not awarded
1956 Not awarded
1957 Lester Pearson (Canada) president of the 7th session of the United Nations General Assembly for introducing peacekeeping forces to resolve the Suez Crisis.
1958 Georges Pire (Belgium) leader of L'Europe du Coeur au Service du Monde, a relief organization for refugees.
1959 Philip Noel-Baker (UK) for his lifelong ardent work for international peace and co-operation.
1960 Albert Lutuli (South Africa) president of the ANC (African National Congress).
1961 Dag Hammarskjöld (Sweden) secretary-general of the UN (awarded posthumously).
1962 Linus Carl Pauling (USA) for his campaign against nuclear weapons testing.
1963 International Committee of the Red Cross, Geneva.
League of Red Cross Societies, Geneva.
1964 Martin Luther King Jr (USA) campaigner for civil rights.
1965 United Nation's Children's Fund (UNICEF)
1966 Not awarded
1967
1968 René Cassin (France) president of the European Court of Human Rights.
1969 International Labour Organization (I.L.O.), Geneva.
1970 Norman Borlaug (USA) for research at the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center.
1971 Chancellor Willy Brandt (West Germany) for West Germany's Ostpolitik, embodying a new attitude towards Eastern Europe and East Germany.
1972 Not awarded
1973 Secretary of State Henry A. Kissinger (USA) and Foreign Minister Lê Ðức Thọ (Vietnam, declined) for the Vietnam peace accord.
1974 Seán MacBride (Ireland) president of the International Peace Bureau and the Commission of Namibia of the United Nations.
Eisaku Sato (佐藤榮作) (Japan) prime minister.
1975 Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov (USSR) for his campaigning for human rights.
1976 Betty Williams and Mairead Corrigan founders of the Northern Ireland Peace Movement (later renamed Community of Peace People).
1977 Amnesty International, London for its campaign against torture.
1978 President Mohamed Anwar Al-Sadat (Egypt) and Prime Minister Menachem Begin (Israel) for negotiating peace between Egypt and Israel.
1979 Mother Teresa (India,Albania) poverty awareness campaigner (India)
1980 Adolfo Pérez Esquivel (Argentina) human rights
1981 The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.
1982 Alva Myrdal (Sweden) and Alfonso García Robles (Mexico) delegates to the United Nations General Assembly on Disarmament.
1983 Lech Wałęsa (Poland) founder of Solidarność and campaigner for human rights. Later served as the first president of Poland after the fall of Communism
1984 Bishop Desmond Mpilo Tutu (South Africa) for his work against apartheid.
1985 International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, Boston.
1986 Elie Wiesel (USA) author, Holocaust survivor
1987 President Óscar Arias Sánchez (Costa Rica) for initiating peace negotiations in Central America.
1988 United Nations Peace-Keeping Forces. For participation in numerous conflicts since 1956. As of the time of the award, 736 people from a variety of nations had lost their lives in peacekeeping efforts.
1989 Tenzin Gyatso, the 14th Dalai Lama. for his consistent resistance to the use of violence in his people's struggle to regain their liberty.
1990 President Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (USSR) "for his leading role in the peace process which today characterizes important parts of the international community"
1991 Aung San Suu Kyi (Myanmar) "for her non-violent struggle for democracy and human rights"
1992 Author Rigoberta Menchú (Guatemala) "in recognition of her work for social justice and ethno-cultural reconciliation based on respect for the rights of indigenous peoples"
1993 President Nelson Mandela (South Africa) and former President Frederik Willem de Klerk (South Africa) "for their work for the peaceful termination of the apartheid regime, and for laying the foundations for a new democratic South Africa"
1994 PLO Chairman Yasser Arafat, Foreign Minister Shimon Peres (Israel) and Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin (Israel) "for their efforts to create peace in the Middle East"
1995 Józef Rotblat (Poland/UK) and the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs "for their efforts to diminish the part played by nuclear arms in international politics and, in the longer run, to eliminate such arms"
1996 Carlos Felipe Ximenes Belo (East Timor) and José Ramos Horta (East Timor) "for their work towards a just and peaceful solution to the conflict in East Timor"
1997 International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL) and Jody Williams "for their work for the banning and clearing of anti-personnel mines"
1998 John Hume and David Trimble (both Northern Ireland) "for their efforts to find a peaceful solution to the conflict in Northern Ireland"
1999 Médecins Sans Frontières, Brussels. "in recognition of the organization's pioneering humanitarian work on several continents"
2000 President Kim Dae Jung (김대중) (South Korea) "for his work for democracy and human rights in South Korea and in East Asia in general, and for peace and reconciliation with North Korea in particular"
2001 The United Nations and Secretary-General Kofi Annan (Ghana) "for their work for a better organized and more peaceful world"
2002 Jimmy Carter (USA) - former President of the United States "for his decades of untiring effort to find peaceful solutions to international conflicts, to advance democracy and human rights, and to promote economic and social development"
2003 Shirin Ebadi (شيرين عبادي) (Iran) "for her efforts for democracy and human rights. She has focused especially on the struggle for the rights of women and children."
2004 Wangari Maathai (Kenya) "for her contribution to sustainable development, democracy and peace"
2005 The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Mohamed ElBaradei (محمد البرادعي) (Egypt) "for their efforts to prevent nuclear energy from being used for military purposes and to ensure that nuclear energy for peaceful purposes is used in the safest possible way"
2006 Muhammad Yunus and Grameen Bank "for their efforts to create economic and social development from below"
2007 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and Albert Arnold Gore Jr "for their efforts to build up and disseminate greater knowledge about man-made climate change, and to lay the foundations for the measures that are needed to counteract such change"
2008 Martti Ahtisaari "for his important efforts, on several continents and over more than three decades, to resolve international conflicts"[1]
2009 Barack Obama "for his extraordinary efforts to strengthen international diplomacy and cooperation between peoples."[2]
2010 Liu Xiaobo "for his long and non-violent struggle for fundamental human rights in China"[3]

References









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