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.Norse mythology has its roots in Proto-Norse Germanic Iron Age Nordic prehistory.^ Norse mythology is the best-preserved version of the older common Germanic paganism, which also includes the very closely related Anglo-Saxon mythology.
  • Fosshotel Reykholt, cultural theme hotel - Norse myth 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.fosshotel.is [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Old Scandinavian Mythology! 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC arcticboyz.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Germanic sky god who became Tyr in Norse mythology , appears in some accounts as a ...
  • Article: Siguror and the Women.(Norse mythology) - ReVision | HighBeam Research - FREE trial 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.highbeam.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It will also include a very large portion of Germanic/Nordic mythology (the Eddas), the history of Norwegian kings, contemporary sagas and tales from the European age of chivalry .
  • Lochac College of Heralds - Links 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.sca.org.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Home 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.sca.org.nz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It flourished during the Viking Age and following the Christianization of Scandinavia during the High Middle Ages passed into Nordic folklore, some aspects surviving to the modern day.^ Some aspects of Norse mythology passed into Scandinavian folklore and have survived to modern day times.
  • norse mythology 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: General]
  • Norsemythology.eu 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.norsemythology.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the early Middle-Ages.
  • The Old Scandinavian Mythology! 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC arcticboyz.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some aspects of Norse mythology passed into Scandinavian folklore and have survived to modern day.
  • The Old Scandinavian Mythology! 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC arcticboyz.com [Source type: Original source]

.The mythology from the Romanticist Viking revival came to be an influence on modern literature and popular culture.^ Modern popular culture .

^ Another area of consideration will be the legacy of mythology in modern literature and popular culture.

^ The mythology from the Romanticist Viking revival came to be an influence on modern literature and popular culture.
  • Norse Mythology 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

Sources

The title page of Olive Bray's English translation of the Poetic Edda depicting the tree Yggdrasil and a number of its inhabitants (1908) by W. G. Collingwood.
.Most of the existing records on Norse mythology date from the 11th to 18th century, having gone through more than two centuries of oral preservation in what was at least officially a Christian society.^ Most of them deal with Norse mythology and legend.
  • Poetic Edda 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC sunnyway.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Add More Products To norse mythology .
  • Amazon.com: norse mythology 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ More information on Norse Mythology...
  • THOR TARP - Mythology Page 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.thortarp.com [Source type: Original source]

.At this point scholars started recording it, particularly in the Eddas and the Heimskringla by Snorri Sturluson, who believed that pre-Christian deities trace real historical people.^ However, some of it was captured and recorded by Christian scholars, particularly in the Eddas and the Heimskringla by Snorri Sturluson, who believed that pre-Christian deities were men and women rather than devils.
  • Norse mythology Overview (tradition, funeral, beliefs, translation, elder) - Religious Education Forum 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.religiousforums.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Heimskringla by Snorri Sturluson, who believed that pre-Christian deities trace real historical people.
  • Fosshotel Reykholt, cultural theme hotel - Norse myth 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.fosshotel.is [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Happily, some of it was captured and recorded by enlightened Christian scholars such as (particularly) Snorri Sturluson in the Eddas and Heimskringla, who rejected the idea that pre-Christian deities were devils.
  • Norse mythology - Discussion and Encyclopedia Article. Who is Norse mythology? What is Norse mythology? Where is Norse mythology? Definition of Norse mythology. Meaning of Norse mythology. 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.knowledgerush.com [Source type: Original source]

.There is also the Danish Gesta Danorum by Saxo Grammaticus, where the Norse gods are more strongly Euhemerized.^ There is also the Danish Gesta Danorum by Saxo Grammaticus, where, however, the Norse gods are strongly Euhemerized.
  • Norse mythology Overview (tradition, funeral, beliefs, translation, elder) - Religious Education Forum 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.religiousforums.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is also the Danish Gesta Danorum by Saxo Grammaticus , where the Norse gods are more strongly Euhemerized .

^ The main sources are the works of Snorri Sturlson, an Icelandic historian, and the Gesta Danorum, by Saxo Grammaticus.
  • Overview On Norse Mythology 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Prose or Younger Edda was written in the early 13th century by Snorri Sturluson, who was a leading skáld, chieftain, and diplomat in Iceland.^ The Prose or Younger Edda was written in the early 13th century by Snorri Sturluson, who was a leading poet, chieftain, and diplomat in Iceland.
  • Norse mythology Overview (tradition, funeral, beliefs, translation, elder) - Religious Education Forum 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.religiousforums.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Younger Edda and the Heimskringla were written by Snorri Sturluson in the 13th century , over two hundred years after Iceland became Christianized.

^ Edda by Snorri Sturluson, trans.
  • The Green: Mythological Booklist 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.thewildhunt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It may be thought of primarily as a handbook for aspiring skálds.^ It may be thought of primarily as a handbook for aspiring skalds.
  • Fosshotel Reykholt, cultural theme hotel - Norse myth 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.fosshotel.is [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It may be thought of primarily as a handbook for aspiring poet s.

^ It may be thought of primarily as a handbook for aspiring poets, which lists and describes traditional tales which formed the basis of standardised poetic expressions, such as " kennings ".
  • Norse mythology - Discussion and Encyclopedia Article. Who is Norse mythology? What is Norse mythology? Where is Norse mythology? Definition of Norse mythology. Meaning of Norse mythology. 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.knowledgerush.com [Source type: Original source]

.It contains prose explications of traditional "kennings," or compressed metaphors found in poetry.^ It contains prose explications of traditional "kennings," or compressed metaphors found in poetry.
  • Norse mythology Overview (tradition, funeral, beliefs, translation, elder) - Religious Education Forum 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.religiousforums.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fosshotel Reykholt, cultural theme hotel - Norse myth 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.fosshotel.is [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It contains prose explications of traditional " kennings ," or compressed metaphors found in poetry.

^ This website for example, combines music, prose, poetry, photography and traditional realistic art media to create an experience beyond merely looking at realistic paintings.
  • Norse Myths and Legends: Illustrations of Norse Mythology; Mythic Norse Art byContemporary American Artist Howard David Johnson 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.howarddavidjohnson.com [Source type: General]
  • Women of Mythology: Legendary women & goddess art of Howard David Johnson;Women of Greek, Roman, Norse & Asian Mythology 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.howarddavidjohnson.com [Source type: General]

.These prose retellings make the various tales of the Norse gods systematic and coherent.^ These prose retellings make the various tales of the Norse gods systematic and coherent.
  • Norsemythology.eu 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.norsemythology.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fosshotel Reykholt, cultural theme hotel - Norse myth 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.fosshotel.is [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to Norse myths, the Universe was divided into three levels and nine different worlds resided in these levels.Various Norse gods and goddess resided in these worlds.
  • Norse Gods and Goddesses 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Crossley-Holland has selected 32 myths that capture in vivid story the tales of these boisterous, courageous, cruel and passionate gods.
  • Bob & Nancy's Bookshop - Waldorf Teacher-Homeschool Resources - Storytelling 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.waldorfbooks.com [Source type: General]

.The Poetic Edda (also known as the Elder Edda) was committed to writing about 50 years after the Prose Edda. It contains 29 long poems, of which 11 deal with the Germanic deities, the rest with legendary heroes like Sigurd the Volsung (the Siegfried of the German version Nibelungenlied).^ Siegfried or Sigurd: Hero of early Germanic mythology.
  • The Gods of the Vikings 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC elswet.50megs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It contains 29 long poems, of which 11 deal with the Germanic deities, the rest with legendary heroes like Sigurd the Volsung (the Siegfried of the German version Nibelungenlied).
  • Fosshotel Reykholt, cultural theme hotel - Norse myth 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.fosshotel.is [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Voluspa is a long poem contained within the collection of Old Icelandic poetry known as the Poetic Edda.
  • "Thoughts on the Voluspa" 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.feri.com [Source type: Original source]

.Although scholars think it was transcribed later than the other Edda, the language and poetic forms involved in the tales appear to have been composed centuries earlier than their transcription.^ Although scholars think it was transcribed later than the other Edda, the language and poetic forms involved in the tales appear to have been composed centuries earlier than their transcription.
  • Norsemythology.eu 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.norsemythology.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Fosshotel Reykholt, cultural theme hotel - Norse myth 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.fosshotel.is [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Valkyries are attested in the Poetic Edda, a book of poems compiled in the 13th century from earlier traditional sources; the Prose Edda and Heimskringla, written in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson, and Njáls saga, a Saga of Icelanders also written in the 13th century.
  • The Old Scandinavian Mythology! 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC arcticboyz.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Norse Mythology in its form today comes down to us mainly from the Icelandic Eddas and sagas which were written down centuries after the Christianisation took hold in the north.

.Besides these sources, there are surviving legends in Norse folklore.^ Besides these sources, there are surviving legends in Scandinavian folklore.

^ There are many other sources of information on the web but these are considered to be the most reliable.
  • Fjellborg's Resources 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.fjellborg.org [Source type: General]

^ Norse mythology comprises the pre-Christian beliefs and legends of the Scandinavian peoples including those who settled on Iceland where most of the written sources for Norse mythology were assembled.
  • The Norse Gods 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC thenorsegods.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The Norse Gods | The Norse Gods 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC thenorsegods.com [Source type: Original source]

.Some of these can be corroborated with legends appearing in other Germanic literatures e.g.^ Some of these can be corroborated with legends appearing in other Germanic literatures e.g.

^ According to some legends the Valkyries were the choosers of the slain, according to other legends they were the collectors of the slain.

^ Sometimes Caesar fought these Germanic tribes; at other times he enlisted them in his army, serving as cavalry.

the tale related in the .Anglo-Saxon Battle of Finnsburgh and the many allusions to mythological tales in Deor.^ Anglo-Saxon Battle of Finnsburgh and the many allusions to mythological tales in Deor .

^ In the Beowulf , an Anglo-Saxon epic, two characters, Sigemund and his nephew Fitela, are probably allusions to Sigmund and Sinfjotli .

^ Nordic Gods & Heroes by Colum, Padraic The age-old legends and tales of Nordic mythology are a common heritage of German, Scandinavian and Anglo-Saxon peoples.
  • Celtic and Norse Mythology, Celtic Jewelry, Celtic, Celtic Design, Celtic Knots, Celtic Art, Celtic Knot, Celtic Knotwork, Celtic Mythology, Celtic Dragon, Celtic Rune, Celtic God, Celtic Goddess, Celtic Knot Design, Celtic Astrology, Celtic Art Work, Celtic Pendant, Celtic Religion, Celtic Myth, Celtic Necklace, Norse Mythology, Norse God, Norse Goddess, Norse, Norse Rune, Norse Myth, Norse Deity, Norse Jewelry, Norse Legend, Norse God and Goddess, Norse Mythology God, Rune, Runes, Rune Stones, Viking Rune, Rune Jewelry, Nordic Rune, Rune Casting, Rune Divination, Rune Charm, Rune Set, Futhark Rune, Fairy Tales 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.magictails.com [Source type: General]

.When several partial references and tellings survive, scholars can deduce the underlying tale.^ When several partial references and tellings survive, scholars can deduce the underlying tale.

.Additionally, there are hundreds of place names in the Nordic countries named after the gods.^ Additionally, there are hundreds of place names in Scandinavia named after the gods.

^ The gods named them Ask and Embla and built the kingdom of Middle-earth for them and to keep the giants out the gods placed a gigantic fence made of Ymir's eyelashes around Middle-earth.
  • Fosshotel Reykholt, cultural theme hotel - Norse myth 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.fosshotel.is [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to the old tales a man with the name of Gylfe, king of Svithiod, once entered the home of the gods and there he was told how the world begun.
  • norse mythology 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: General]

.A few runic inscriptions, such as the Rök Runestone and the Kvinneby amulet, make references to the mythology.^ A few runic inscriptions, such as the Rök Runestone and the Kvinneby amulet , make references to the mythology.

^ Norse Fornnordisk Mytologi English translation of the Hávamál, runic inscriptions and carvings, with images of runestones and deities.
  • Spiritual - Norse Gods 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.linklight.com [Source type: General]

.There are also several runestones and image stones that depict scenes from Norse mythology, such as Thor's fishing trip, scenes depicting Sigurd (Sigfried) the dragon slayer, Odin and Sleipnir, Odin being devoured by Fenrir, and one of the surviving stones from the Hunnestad Monument appears to show Hyrrokkin riding to Baldr's funeral (DR 284).^ Saga In Norse mythology, Saga was the daughter of Odin .
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Norse Mythology 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC vets.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Search for images of Norse mythology .
  • Norse mythology - Discussion and Encyclopedia Article. Who is Norse mythology? What is Norse mythology? Where is Norse mythology? Definition of Norse mythology. Meaning of Norse mythology. 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.knowledgerush.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Brono In Norse mythology, Brono was the son of Baldr.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Norse Mythology 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC vets.com [Source type: Original source]

.In Denmark, one image stone depicts Loki with curled dandy-like mustaches and lips that are sewn together and the British Gosforth cross shows several mythological images.^ In Denmark, one image stone depicts Loki with curled dandy-like mustaches and lips that are sewn together and the British Gosforth cross shows several intriguing images.

^ There are also several runestones and image stone s that depict scenes from Norse mythology, such as Thor 's fishing trip, scenes from the Völsunga saga , Odin and Sleipnir , Odin being devoured by Fenrir, and one of the surviving stones from the Hunnestad Monument appears to show Hyrrokkin riding to Baldr 's funeral ( DR 284 ).

^ They then turned his son Vali into a wolf's likeness, and he tore his brother Nan, with whose entrails they bound Loki over three great stones.
  • Traces of the Norse Mythology in the Isle of Man: Mythology 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.sacred-texts.com [Source type: Original source]

.There are also smaller images, such as figurines depicting the god Odin (with one eye), Thor (with his hammer) and Tena (Raina) (with her magic staff).^ Odin, the supreme Norse god, gave one of his eyes for wisdom.
  • Norse Myths and Legends: Illustrations of Norse Mythology; Mythic Norse Art byContemporary American Artist Howard David Johnson 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.howarddavidjohnson.com [Source type: General]

^ And a god; one of the sons of Odin.
  • Tor.com / Science fiction and fantasy / Blog posts / Bringing the House Down: Norse Code 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.tor.com [Source type: General]

^ Thor was God of Thunder and the son of Odin.
  • MacGamer.net - Age of Mythology - Gods - Major Norse Gods 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.macgamer.net [Source type: General]

Cosmology

"The Wolves Pursuing Sol and Mani" (1909) by J. C. Dollman.
.The Norse were a Seafaring people they viewed the world through a polar-coordinate-system.^ Chapters 10 is also useful because it shows the cosmological view of the Old Norse and the connection with the runes (24 pathways between the 9 worlds, 24 runes).
  • Celtic and Norse Mythology, Celtic Jewelry, Celtic, Celtic Design, Celtic Knots, Celtic Art, Celtic Knot, Celtic Knotwork, Celtic Mythology, Celtic Dragon, Celtic Rune, Celtic God, Celtic Goddess, Celtic Knot Design, Celtic Astrology, Celtic Art Work, Celtic Pendant, Celtic Religion, Celtic Myth, Celtic Necklace, Norse Mythology, Norse God, Norse Goddess, Norse, Norse Rune, Norse Myth, Norse Deity, Norse Jewelry, Norse Legend, Norse God and Goddess, Norse Mythology God, Rune, Runes, Rune Stones, Viking Rune, Rune Jewelry, Nordic Rune, Rune Casting, Rune Divination, Rune Charm, Rune Set, Futhark Rune, Fairy Tales 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.magictails.com [Source type: General]

^ The mythology and religion of a civilization says alot about its people: explore the history of the world through the stories people told."
  • Websites on Mythology in World Cultures 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: General]

^ Many people know that the Norse people were fierce warriors, but did you know that they were powerful magicians as well?
  • chapters.indigo.ca: Norse Magic: D.J. Conway: Books 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.chapters.indigo.ca [Source type: General]

In Norse mythology there are 'nine worlds' (níu heimar), that many scholars summarize as follows:
Middle
  • Midgard, world of average human experience (Middle Court).
North
South
East
.
  • Vanaheimr, world of the Vanir (Near the Don river (East by North East).
  • Muspellheim, world of fire (Mus (River-Border), Pell (Cliff), Heim (Home)) (where the sun rises) an Eastern Trade Point on the Dnieper in Modern Day Ukraine (East by South East).
  • Jötunheimr, world of the jötnar (Giants) (Maybe Statue Worship like in Egypt near Jo(r)dan-Joðun).^ Muspellheim, world of the primordial element of fire.
    • Fosshotel Reykholt, cultural theme hotel - Norse myth 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.fosshotel.is [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Vanaheimr, world of the Vanir.
    • Fosshotel Reykholt, cultural theme hotel - Norse myth 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.fosshotel.is [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Using the dead giant's skull, they created the endless expanse of the sky and supported its corners with four dwarfs (Nordi, Surdi, Austri, Westri) from whose names we get the four main points of the compass; North, South, East and West.
    • The Norwegian Connection - Mythology 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.celticattic.com [Source type: Original source]

    (South East)
West
  • Niflheim, world of ice (where the sun sets) (Vinland (lots of fog there too))
Up
.
  • Asgard, world of the Æsir, Outer Court (far away) (up?^ Scandinavians believed that there were nine existing worlds: Asgard , world of the Æsir ; Vanaheimr , home of the Vanir .

    ), Útgarðar may be an alternate spelling. Could be Asia's silk trade route.
Down
Across?
.
  • Ginnungagap, part of the Atlantic Ocean, but may translate as Ginn- Kein, Unga- People, Gap- Space.^ In the most northern parts of Europe, protected by the Baltic Sea, North Sea and Atlantic Ocean the Scandinavian people were able to hold out against the new Christian god for many more centuries.
    • Norse mythology - Discussion and Encyclopedia Article. Who is Norse mythology? What is Norse mythology? Where is Norse mythology? Definition of Norse mythology. Meaning of Norse mythology. 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.knowledgerush.com [Source type: Original source]

    A place where no one lives.
Note the boundaries remain uncertain.
.Each world also had significant places within.^ Each world also had significant places within.
  • Fosshotel Reykholt, cultural theme hotel - Norse myth 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.fosshotel.is [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Valhalla is Odin's hall located in Asgard.^ Valhalla: Odin's great "Hall of the Slain" within Asgard.
  • Norse and German Mythology 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.terrapsych.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Valhalla is Odin's hall located in Asgard.
  • Fosshotel Reykholt, cultural theme hotel - Norse myth 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.fosshotel.is [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Valaskjalf – Odin’s hall in Asgard.
  • The Norse Gods 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC thenorsegods.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The Norse Gods | The Norse Gods 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC thenorsegods.com [Source type: Original source]

.It was also home of the Einherjar, who were the souls of the greatest warriors.^ It was also home of the Einherjar, who were the souls of the greatest warriors.
  • Fosshotel Reykholt, cultural theme hotel - Norse myth 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.fosshotel.is [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Valhalla was Odin's hall located within Asgard; it was also home of the Einherjar , who were the souls of the greatest warriors.

^ It is home to the Einherjar; the brave souls who have died in battle.
  • GameFAQs: Valkyrie Profile (PS) Norse Mythology Guide by Hexum 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.gamefaqs.com [Source type: Original source]

.These warriors were selected by the Valkyries, Odin's mounted female messengers.^ The Valkyries were warrior maidens of Odin.

^ These warriors were selected by the Valkyries, Odin's mounted female messengers.
  • Fosshotel Reykholt, cultural theme hotel - Norse myth 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.fosshotel.is [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Valkyries : Virgins, messengers of Odin , who selected heroes to die in battle and took them to Valhalla ; generally considered as nine in number.
  • Norse Mythology@Everything2.com 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Norse Mythology@Everything2.com 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Einherjar would help defend the gods during Ragnarok.^ The Einherjar would help defend the gods during Ragnarok , when everyone would die in a great battle between the gods and their enemies (cf.

^ The Einherjar would help defend the gods during Ragnarok.
  • Fosshotel Reykholt, cultural theme hotel - Norse myth 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.fosshotel.is [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the beginning of Ragnarok--the period during which the doom of the gods and the destruction of life on Midgard would take place--the wolves would continuously catch the Sun and Moon and devour them, at least for a time.
  • Solar Deities in Norse Mythology | Norse Mythology 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.stevenforrest.com [Source type: General]

.Niflhel is a hellish place in Hel, where oathbreakers and other criminals suffer torments.^ Niflhel is a hellish place in Hel, where oathbreakers and other criminals suffer torments.
  • Fosshotel Reykholt, cultural theme hotel - Norse myth 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.fosshotel.is [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]
.These worlds are connected by Yggdrasil, the world tree, a giant tree with Asgard at its top.^ These worlds were connected by Yggdrasil , or the world ash root, a giant tree with Asgard at its top.

^ These worlds are connected by Yggdrasil, the world tree, a giant tree with Asgard at its top.
  • Fosshotel Reykholt, cultural theme hotel - Norse myth 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.fosshotel.is [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A sky god, he lived in Asgard , at the top of the world-tree, and from the Valkyries receives the souls of half of the heroic slain warriors, feasting with them in his great hall, Valhalla ; the rest are feasted by Freya his wife.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Norse Mythology 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC vets.com [Source type: Original source]

.Chewing at its roots in Niflheim is Nidhogg, a ferocious serpent or dragon.^ Chewing at its roots in Niflheim was Nidhogg , a ferocious serpent or dragon .

^ Nidhogg: the old dragon who chews on the root of the World Tree.
  • Norse and German Mythology 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.terrapsych.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Chewing at its roots in Niflheim is Nidhogg, a ferocious serpent or dragon.
  • Fosshotel Reykholt, cultural theme hotel - Norse myth 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.fosshotel.is [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Asgard can also be reached by Bifrost, a rainbow bridge guarded by Heimdall, a god who can see and hear a thousand miles.^ Asgard can also be reached by Bifrost, a rainbow bridge guarded by Heimdall, a god who can see and hear a thousand miles.
  • Fosshotel Reykholt, cultural theme hotel - Norse myth 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.fosshotel.is [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He lived at the foot of Bifrost, the rainbow bridge, and guarded it.
  • The Gods of the Vikings 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC elswet.50megs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ To reach this land one had to cross the bridge Bifrost (rainbow).
  • The Gods of the Vikings 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC elswet.50megs.com [Source type: Original source]

Supernatural beings

.There are several "clans" of Vættir or animistic nature spirits: the Æsir and Vanir, understood as gods, plus the Jötnar, the Álfar and Dvergar.^ Among the Æsir there were several gods of war, but Odin was foremost.
  • Peter Andreas Munch � Norse Mythology � Part 1 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.vaidilute.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Aesir, being the more skilled warriors, won the battle and three gods from the Vanir clan were given to the Aesir as a sign of peace.
  • HCCHS Student News - The Norse gods 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC yourstudentnews.com [Source type: General]

^ In Norse myth, the Vanir are originally a group of wild nature and fertility gods and goddesses, the sworn enemies of the warrior gods of the Aesir.
  • Norse Magic 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

To this list can be added the dead in the Underworld. .The distinction between Æsir and Vanir is relative, for the two are said to have made peace, exchanged hostages, intermarried and reigned together after the events of the Æsir–Vanir War, and afterward the gods are generally referred to collectively as Æsir.^ At the end of the war between the Æsir and the Vanir, Hœnir was delivered over to the Vanir as a hostage.
  • Peter Andreas Munch � Norse Mythology � Part 1 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.vaidilute.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Also, he hurled the spear at the Vanir during the great war between the two races of gods.
  • GameFAQs: Valkyrie Profile (PS) Norse Mythology Guide by Hexum 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.gamefaqs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After the War between the sir and Vanir Hoenir went to live with the Vanir as part of an exchange of gods.

.In addition, there are many other beings: Fenrir the gigantic wolf, Jörmungandr the sea-serpent (or "worm") that is coiled around Midgard, and Hel, ruler of Helheim.^ In addition there were all sorts of other supernatural beings: Fenris (or Fenrir) the gigantic wolf , and Jormungand the sea-serpent (or "worm") that was coiled around the world.
  • Norse mythology - Discussion and Encyclopedia Article. Who is Norse mythology? What is Norse mythology? Where is Norse mythology? Definition of Norse mythology. Meaning of Norse mythology. 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.knowledgerush.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He fathered Hel, Jormugand, the Midgard Serpeant; and Fenrir, the giant wolf.
  • GameFAQs: Valkyrie Profile (PS) Norse Mythology Guide by Hexum 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.gamefaqs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In addition, there are many other supernatural beings: Fenris the gigantic wolf , and Jörmungandr the sea-serpent (or "worm") that is coiled around Midgard.

.These three monsters are described as the progeny of Loki.^ These two monsters were described as the progeny of Loki , the god of evil, and a giant.
  • Norse mythology - Discussion and Encyclopedia Article. Who is Norse mythology? What is Norse mythology? Where is Norse mythology? Definition of Norse mythology. Meaning of Norse mythology. 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.knowledgerush.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These two monsters are described as the progeny of Loki, the trickster-god, and a giant (Hel is the third of these offspring).

^ "Then Loki wagered his head with the dwarf called Brokkr that Brokkr's brother Sindri could not make three other precious things equal in virtue to these."
  • Norse Pantheon 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC molly.kalafut.org [Source type: Original source]

.Other creatures include Huginn and Muninn (thought and memory, respectively), the two ravens who keep Odin, the chief god, apprised of what is happening on earth, since he gave his eye to the Well of Mimir in his quest for wisdom, Sleipnir, Loki's eight legged horse son belonging to Odin and Ratatoskr, the squirrel which scampers in the branches of Yggdrasil.^ Sleipnir The eight-legged horse of Odin.

^ Odin, the supreme Norse god, gave one of his eyes for wisdom.
  • Norse Myths and Legends: Illustrations of Norse Mythology; Mythic Norse Art byContemporary American Artist Howard David Johnson 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.howarddavidjohnson.com [Source type: General]

^ Odin is described as having one eye, since he traded the other for a drink from the Well of Wisdom.
  • GameFAQs: Valkyrie Profile (PS) Norse Mythology Guide by Hexum 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.gamefaqs.com [Source type: Original source]

Völuspá

.In the Poetic Edda poem Völuspá ("Prophecy [spá] of the völva"), Odin, the chief god of the Norse pantheon, has conjured up the spirit of a dead völva and commanded this spirit to reveal the past and the future.^ Völuspá: the first of the poems of the Edda as related by a volva to Odin.
  • Norse and German Mythology 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.terrapsych.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the Völuspá , Odin, the chief god of the Norse pantheon, has conjured up the spirit of a dead Völva (Shaman or sybil) and commanded this spirit to reveal the past and the future.

^ Odin Odin was chief god of Norse mythology.
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Norse Mythology 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC vets.com [Source type: Original source]

.She is reluctant: "What do you ask of me?^ She is reluctant: "What do you ask of me?
  • Norsemythology.eu 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.norsemythology.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Norse mythology - Discussion and Encyclopedia Article. Who is Norse mythology? What is Norse mythology? Where is Norse mythology? Definition of Norse mythology. Meaning of Norse mythology. 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.knowledgerush.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Norse mythology 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]

.Why tempt me?"; but since she is already dead, she shows no fear of Odin, and continually taunts him: "Well, would you know more?"^ Why tempt me?"; but since she is already dead, she shows no fear of Odin, and continually taunts him: "Well, would you know more?"
  • Norse mythology - Discussion and Encyclopedia Article. Who is Norse mythology? What is Norse mythology? Where is Norse mythology? Definition of Norse mythology. Meaning of Norse mythology. 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.knowledgerush.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Norse mythology 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But you should also know how to maintain your economy with your military expenses while playing such a strategy, you could train only axemen to defend and make sudden attacks on enemey workers (axemen are fast) so you can overcome him even more with economy, while training Hersis from Temple and workers from Settlement, axemen are best defense in first age as well, no army can stop them.
  • Age Of Mythology hints for Norse 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But in Fensalir did Frigg weep sore For Valhall s need: would you know yet more?
  • NORSE MYTHOLOGY, COSMOGONY AND COSMOLOGY 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC native-science.net [Source type: Original source]

.But Odin insists: if he is to fulfill his function as king of the gods, he must possess all knowledge.^ But Odin insists: if he is to fulfil his function as king of the gods, he must possess all knowledge.

^ But Odin insists: if he is to fulfil his function as king of the gods, he must posses all knowledge.
  • Norse mythology - Discussion and Encyclopedia Article. Who is Norse mythology? What is Norse mythology? Where is Norse mythology? Definition of Norse mythology. Meaning of Norse mythology. 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.knowledgerush.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His horse, Sleipnir, ran on eight legs, and his wolves, Freke and Gere, were fed all of Odin's meat, for the jarl of the gods survived only on mead."

Once the völva has revealed the secrets of past and future, she falls back into oblivion: "I sink now".

Abiogenesis and anthropogenesis

Ask and Embla as depicted on a Faroe Islands postage stamp (2003) by Anker Eli Petersen.
.According to Norse myth, the beginning of life was fire and ice, with the existence of only two worlds: Muspelheim and Niflheim.^ According to Norse myth, the beginning of life was fire and ice, with the existence of only two worlds: Muspelheim and Niflheim.

^ Transitions and "soul retrieval": Remember that you're living in two worlds at once: the one described on the evening news, and the spiritual dimensions of existence.

^ Surt: "Black" lord giant of fiery Muspelheim, bearer of a flaming sword, and future leader of the forces opposing Odin's at Ragnarok, where he will set the world on fire.
  • Norse and German Mythology 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.terrapsych.com [Source type: Original source]

.When the warm air of Muspelheim hit the cold ice of Niflheim, the jötunn Ymir and the icy cow Audhumla were created.^ When the warm air of Muspelheim hit the cold ice of Niflheim, the giant Ymir and the icy cow Audhumbla were created.

^ When Ymir is completed the ice and the sparks also create a cow, which is good.
  • Myths 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC home.swipnet.se [Source type: Original source]

^ Audhumia (Audhumbla): Cow that nourished Ymir; created Buri by licking ice cliff.
  • http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0197623.html 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.infoplease.com [Source type: General]

.Ymir's foot bred a son and a man and a woman emerged from his armpits, making Ymir the progenitor of the Jötnar.^ Ymir's foot bred a son and a man and a woman emerged from his armpits, making Ymir the progenitor of the Jotun, or giants.

^ A poem called "The Lay of Vafthrudnir," however, says that the first man and first woman grew out of Ymir's armpits before he was killed.
  • Norse Mythology - Myth Encyclopedia - Greek, god, story, legend, names, ancient, tree, war, world, Roman, creation, life, hero, king, people, children, creatures, evil, fire, monster, warrior 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.mythencyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ymir fathered Thrudgelmir , as well as two humans, one man and one woman.
  • NORSE MYTHOLOGY, COSMOGONY AND COSMOLOGY 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC native-science.net [Source type: Original source]

.Whilst Ymir slept, the intense heat from Muspelheim made him sweat, and he sweated out Surtr[citation needed], a jötunn of fire.^ Ymir slept, falling into a sweat.
  • Geometry.Net - Religion: Norse 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Norse Mythology 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.sunnyway.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Whilst Ymir slept, the intense heat from Muspelheim made him sweat, and he sweated out Surtr , a giant of fire.

^ While Ymir slept, the milk from Audhumbla fed him, and from Ymir's armpits grew a male and female frost giant.
  • GameFAQs: Valkyrie Profile (PS) Norse Mythology Guide by Hexum 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.gamefaqs.com [Source type: Original source]

.Later Ymir woke and drank Audhumbla's milk.^ Later Ymir woke and drank Audhumbla's milk.

^ While Ymir slept, the milk from Audhumbla fed him, and from Ymir's armpits grew a male and female frost giant.
  • GameFAQs: Valkyrie Profile (PS) Norse Mythology Guide by Hexum 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.gamefaqs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ymir fed of the milk from the cow Audhumbla who had also been created by the mists.
  • Norse Myth - Fun Facts, Answers, Factoids, Info, Information 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.funtrivia.com [Source type: Original source]

.Whilst he drank, the cow Audhumbla licked on a salt stone.^ Whilst he drank, the cow Audhumbla licked on a salt stone.

^ Audhumia (Audhumbla): Cow that nourished Ymir; created Buri by licking ice cliff.
  • http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0197623.html 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.infoplease.com [Source type: General]

^ The symbol of nature in the Norse mythology; the cow who licks the salt rock, whence the divine Buri is born, before man’s creation.

.On the first day after this a man's hair appeared on the stone, on the second day a head and on the third day an entire man emerged from the stone.^ After two days, his head appeared.
  • Norse Mythology 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.sunnyway.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On the first day after this a man's hair appeared on the stone, on the second day a head and on the third day an entire man emerged from the stone.

^ The next day a head and a face appeared from out of the stone.
  • Norway: Norse Mythology - Norsk mytologi - Bergen Cultural heritage - Bergen Guide, Norway - Artikler - 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.bergen-guide.com [Source type: Original source]

.His name was Búri and with an unknown jötunn female he fathered Borr(Bor), the father of the three gods Odin, Vili and Ve.^ Bor and Bestla married and had three sons: Odin, Vili, and Ve.
  • GameFAQs: Valkyrie Profile (PS) Norse Mythology Guide by Hexum 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.gamefaqs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He married Bestla and fathered Odin, Ve and Vili.
  • Norse Pantheon 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC molly.kalafut.org [Source type: Original source]

^ His name was Bure and with an unknown giant he fathered the three gods Odin , Vili and Ve .

.When the gods felt strong enough they killed Ymir.^ When the boys got older they decided to kill the evil giant Ymir.
  • Norse Myth - Fun Facts, Answers, Factoids, Info, Information 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.funtrivia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They were descended from Ymir, the frost giant, who was killed by Odin and his brothers.
  • Norse Mythology - Myth Encyclopedia - Greek, god, story, legend, names, ancient, tree, war, world, Roman, creation, life, hero, king, people, children, creatures, evil, fire, monster, warrior 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.mythencyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Once they had killed Ymir, Odin and the other gods created an orderly universe in three levels.
  • Norse Mythology - Myth Encyclopedia - Greek, god, story, legend, names, ancient, tree, war, world, Roman, creation, life, hero, king, people, children, creatures, evil, fire, monster, warrior 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.mythencyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.His blood flooded the world and drowned all of the jötunn, except two.^ His blood flooded the world and drowned all of the giants, except two.

^ They killed him, and the blood gushed from his body in such torrents (A flood myth) that all the giants except Bergelmer and his wife were killed.
  • The Gods of the Vikings 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC elswet.50megs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His blood caused a flood which swept all the frost giants to their death.
  • BBC - h2g2 - Norse Mythology - A625619 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.But jötnar grew again in numbers and soon there were as many as before Ymir's death.^ But giants grew again in numbers and soon there were as many as before Ymir's death.

^ A poem called "The Lay of Vafthrudnir," however, says that the first man and first woman grew out of Ymir's armpits before he was killed.
  • Norse Mythology - Myth Encyclopedia - Greek, god, story, legend, names, ancient, tree, war, world, Roman, creation, life, hero, king, people, children, creatures, evil, fire, monster, warrior 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.mythencyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The race of the Æsir here grew to a goodly number; Odin particularly had many children.
  • Peter Andreas Munch � Norse Mythology � Part 1 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.vaidilute.com [Source type: Original source]

.Then the gods created seven more worlds using Ymir's flesh for dirt, his blood for the Oceans, rivers and lakes, his bones for stone, his brain as the clouds, his skull for the heaven.^ The blood of Ymir formed seas and lakes.
  • NORSE MYTHOLOGY, COSMOGONY AND COSMOLOGY 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC native-science.net [Source type: Original source]

^ His skull formed the heavens, his flesh the ground, and his blood the oceans and rivers.
  • Norse and German Mythology 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.terrapsych.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Using Ymir's blood, they created the sea and lakes.
  • The Norwegian Connection - Mythology 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.celticattic.com [Source type: Original source]

.Sparks from Muspelheim flew up and became stars.^ Sparks from Muspelheim flew up and became stars.

^ Next, the sons of Borr took sparks from Muspelheim and dispersed them throughout Ginnungagap, thus creating stars and light for Heaven and Earth.
  • NORSE MYTHOLOGY, COSMOGONY AND COSMOLOGY 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC native-science.net [Source type: Original source]

^ From the sparks from Muspelheim, they created the Sun, stars and moon.
  • BBC - h2g2 - Norse Mythology - A625619 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One day when the gods were walking they found two tree trunks.^ While the threesome walked along the beach one day, they came upon two tree trunks, in which the gods saw great beauty.
  • GameFAQs: Valkyrie Profile (PS) Norse Mythology Guide by Hexum 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.gamefaqs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One day when the gods were walking they found two tree trunks.

^ One day they set out, arm-in-arm for a last promenade in the metropolis.
  • Lists of Pagan Films of the world, Mythology. Witches, Shamen, Witchcraft, Druids, Norse. Fairy Stories. 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.sandmartyn.freeserve.co.uk [Source type: General]

.They transformed them into the shape of humans.^ They transformed them into the shape of humans.

^ More George Mann Niedecken Table "Incorporating the furnishings as much as possible into the organic architecture so that they integrate into the structure, and designing simple shapes that...
  • Musée d'Orsay: Decorative arts 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.musee-orsay.fr [Source type: General]

^ This master narrative of humanity’s creative origins consists in transforming women’s gift labour into a woman-blaming narrative of male superiority.
  • Women and The Gift Economy 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.gift-economy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Odin gave them life, Vili gave them mind and Ve gave them the ability to hear, see, and speak.^ Odin gave them life; Vili gave consciousness; and Ve provided senses.

^ Odin gave them breath and life; Vili gave them brains and feelings; and Ve gave them hearing and sight.
  • NORSE MYTHOLOGY, COSMOGONY AND COSMOLOGY 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC native-science.net [Source type: Original source]

^ It was also Odin, Vili and Ve that gave the points of the compass their names.
  • Norse Myth - Fun Facts, Answers, Factoids, Info, Information 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.funtrivia.com [Source type: Original source]

.The gods named them Ask and Embla and built the kingdom of Middle-earth for them; and, to keep out the jötnar, the gods placed a gigantic fence made of Ymir's eyelashes around Middle-earth.^ The gods named them Ask and Embla and built the kingdom of Middle-earth for them and to keep the giants out the gods placed a gigantic fence made of Ymirs eye-lashes around Middle-earth.

^ The made a man, Ask, from the ashtree and a woman Embla from the elmtree.
  • Norse Myth - Fun Facts, Answers, Factoids, Info, Information 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.funtrivia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Two other names associated with Ymir are Brimir and Blinn according to Vlusp , stanza 9, where the gods discuss forming the race of dwarfs from the "blood of Brimir and the limbs of Blinn".
  • NORSE MYTHOLOGY, COSMOGONY AND COSMOLOGY 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC native-science.net [Source type: Original source]

.The völva goes on to describe Yggdrasil and three norns, Urðr (Wyrd), Verðandi and Skuld.^ The sybil describes the great ash tree Yggdrasil and the three norns (female symbols of inexorable fate; their names; Urðr ( Urd), Verðandandi ( Verdandi), and Skuld; indicate the past, present, and future), who spin the threads of fate beneath it.

^ The sybil goes on to describe Yggdrasil and the three norn s (female symbols of inexorable fate; their names - Urðr ( Urd ), Verðandandi ( Verdandi ), and Skuld - indicate the past, present, and future), who spin the threads of fate beneath it.

^ How the three maidens of fate, Urð [past], Verðandi [present], and Skuld [future], are three of the many Norns that shape men's lives; and how they water and feed one of Yggdrasil's roots.
  • Snorri's Edda (the Prose Edda). 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.baymoon.com [Source type: Original source]

.She then describes the war between the Æsir and Vanir and the murder of Baldr, Odin's handsome son whom everyone but Loki loved.^ Odin's son, gentle and handsome god .
  • Norse Mythology - Myth Encyclopedia - Greek, god, story, legend, names, ancient, tree, war, world, Roman, creation, life, hero, king, people, children, creatures, evil, fire, monster, warrior 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.mythencyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the War between the sir and the Vanir Odin hurled Gungnir at the Vanir.

^ She describes the primeval war between Æsir and Vanir and the murder of Baldr.

.(The story is that everything in existence promised not to hurt him except mistletoe.^ (The story is that everything in existence promised not to hurt him except mistletoe.

^ Nothing could hurt him save one thing; a single sprig of mistletoe.
  • The Norse Mythology Behind Valkyrie Profile 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.rpgamer.com [Source type: Original source]

^ All things except the mistletoe (believed to be harmless) have sworn an oath not to harm Baldr, so the sir throw missiles at him for sport.
  • NORSE MYTHOLOGY, COSMOGONY AND COSMOLOGY 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC native-science.net [Source type: Original source]

.Taking advantage of this weakness, Loki made a projectile of mistletoe and tricked Höðr, Odin's blind son and Baldr's brother, into using it to kill Baldr.^ Loki tricked the blind god Hodor into firing it.
  • Norse and German Mythology 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.terrapsych.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He is the blind god of winter, who is tricked by Loki into killing Balder.

^ Loki the Troublemaker learned of this, and deceived the blind Hod into killing Balder with an arrow made of mistletoe.
  • Norway: Norse Mythology - Norsk mytologi - Bergen Cultural heritage - Bergen Guide, Norway - Artikler - 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.bergen-guide.com [Source type: Original source]

.Hel said she would revive him if everyone in the nine worlds wept.^ Hel said she would revive him if everyone in the nine worlds wept.

^ The Gods go throughout all the nine worlds -- everyone is weeping.

^ Thereupon Hel announced that Baldr would only be released if all things, dead and alive, wept for him.
  • NORSE MYTHOLOGY, COSMOGONY AND COSMOLOGY 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC native-science.net [Source type: Original source]

.A female jötunn - Thokk, who may have been Loki in shape-shifted form - did not weep.^ All responded except a Giantess , Thokk ( Loki in disguise), whose refusal to weep forced Balder to remain in Hel's domain.
  • Norse Mythology 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.sunnyway.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Loki, who was now disguised as a female giantess, refused saying she would only shed a dry tear.
  • The Norwegian Connection - Mythology 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.celticattic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Valkyries Norse female spirits who ride the winds to battles so they may choose the heroic and brave from among the slain and guide them to Valhalla.
  • Norse Pantheon - Folklore and Mythology 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.bellaonline.com [Source type: Original source]

) .After that she turns her attention to the future.^ After that she turns her attention to the future.

^ Then she turns her attention to the future.
  • Norse mythology - Discussion and Encyclopedia Article. Who is Norse mythology? What is Norse mythology? Where is Norse mythology? Definition of Norse mythology. Meaning of Norse mythology. 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.knowledgerush.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Norse mythology 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]

Ragnarök

.Ragnarök refers to a series of major events, including a great battle foretold to ultimately result in the death of a number of major figures (including the gods Odin, Thor, Freyr, Heimdall, and the jötunn Loki), the occurrence of various natural disasters, and the subsequent submersion of the world in fire.^ Loki ; will escape for this battle, in which he will kill and be killed by Heimdall .
  • Snorri's Edda (the Prose Edda). 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.baymoon.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Odin – King of the Norse Gods, God of poetry, battle and death.
  • The Norse Gods 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC thenorsegods.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Both grand and tragic, the age-old tales tell of the creation of the world; the heroic deeds of such gods and heroes as Odin, Thor and Siegfried; the machinations of the evil Loki; the fantastical adventures of giants, dwarfs and elves; the twilight of the gods; and much more.
  • Celtic and Norse Mythology, Celtic Jewelry, Celtic, Celtic Design, Celtic Knots, Celtic Art, Celtic Knot, Celtic Knotwork, Celtic Mythology, Celtic Dragon, Celtic Rune, Celtic God, Celtic Goddess, Celtic Knot Design, Celtic Astrology, Celtic Art Work, Celtic Pendant, Celtic Religion, Celtic Myth, Celtic Necklace, Norse Mythology, Norse God, Norse Goddess, Norse, Norse Rune, Norse Myth, Norse Deity, Norse Jewelry, Norse Legend, Norse God and Goddess, Norse Mythology God, Rune, Runes, Rune Stones, Viking Rune, Rune Jewelry, Nordic Rune, Rune Casting, Rune Divination, Rune Charm, Rune Set, Futhark Rune, Fairy Tales 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.magictails.com [Source type: General]

.Afterwards, the world resurfaces anew and fertile, the surviving gods meet, and the world is repopulated by two human survivors.^ Vidar is one of the few gods who will survive Ragnarok, becoming the ruler of the new world.
  • GameFAQs: Valkyrie Profile (PS) Norse Mythology Guide by Hexum 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.gamefaqs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Eventually after Ragnarok, however, Thor's sons, Magni and Modi, Odin's son Vidar, and resurrected Balder, and two remaining humans do repopulate the world, starting anew, but for the most part of Norse mythology there is constant compromise and turmoil, often boding ill for the Norse gods.
  • Norse Mythology vs Greek Mythology [Archive] - Comic Book Resources Forums 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC forums.comicbookresources.com [Source type: Original source]

^ While Frey was also a fertility god, Freyas domain was humanity, while her brother ruled over nature.
  • The Norse Mythology Behind Valkyrie Profile 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.rpgamer.com [Source type: Original source]

Kings and heroes

The Ramsund carving depicting passages from the Völsunga saga
.The mythological literature relates the legends of heroes and kings, as well as supernatural creatures.^ The Ramsund carving depicting passages from the Völsunga saga The mythological literature relates the legends of heroes and kings, as well as supernatural creatures.

^ The mythological literature relates the legends of heroes and kings, as well as supernatural creatures.

^ This was the name of a hero in Irish legend, and it was also the name of several ancient Irish kings.
  • GREEK MYTHOLOGY NAMES 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.freewebs.com [Source type: Original source]

.These clan and kingdom founding figures possessed great importance as illustrations of proper action or national origins.^ These clan and kingdom founding figures possessed great importance as illustrations of proper action or national origins.

.The heroic literature may have fulfilled the same function as the national epic in other European literatures, or it may have been more nearly related to tribal identity.^ The heroic literature may have fulfilled the same function as the national epic in other European literatures, or it may have been more nearly related to tribal identity.

^ Other related archivesAetolus, Apia, Arcas, Azan, Greek mythology, Robert Graves, Sicyon Read more here: » Apis Greek mythology: Encyclopedia - Apis Greek mythology .

^ The Ramsund carving depicting passages from the Völsunga saga The mythological literature relates the legends of heroes and kings, as well as supernatural creatures.

.Many of the legendary figures probably existed, and generations of Scandinavian scholars have tried to extract history from myth in the sagas.^ Many of the legendary figures probably existed, and generations of Scandinavian scholars have tried to extract history from myth in the sagas.

^ Many of the legendary figures probably existed, and generations of Scandinavian scholars have tried to extract history from myth in the sagas .

^ Myths Of The Norsemen by Guerber, H A In this volume, a noted scholar of myth and folklore has assembled a rich collection of Northern mythology as preserved in the sagas of Iceland.
  • Celtic and Norse Mythology, Celtic Jewelry, Celtic, Celtic Design, Celtic Knots, Celtic Art, Celtic Knot, Celtic Knotwork, Celtic Mythology, Celtic Dragon, Celtic Rune, Celtic God, Celtic Goddess, Celtic Knot Design, Celtic Astrology, Celtic Art Work, Celtic Pendant, Celtic Religion, Celtic Myth, Celtic Necklace, Norse Mythology, Norse God, Norse Goddess, Norse, Norse Rune, Norse Myth, Norse Deity, Norse Jewelry, Norse Legend, Norse God and Goddess, Norse Mythology God, Rune, Runes, Rune Stones, Viking Rune, Rune Jewelry, Nordic Rune, Rune Casting, Rune Divination, Rune Charm, Rune Set, Futhark Rune, Fairy Tales 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.magictails.com [Source type: General]

.Sometimes the same hero resurfaces in several forms depending on which part of the Germanic world the epics survived such as Weyland/Völund and Siegfried/Sigurd, and probably Beowulf/Bödvar Bjarki.^ Sometimes the same hero resurfaces in several forms depending on which part of the Germanic world the epics survived such as Weyland/ Völund and Siegfried/ Sigurd, and probably Beowulf/ Bödvar Bjarki.

^ Sometimes the same hero resurfaces in several forms depending on which part of the Germanic world the epics survived such as Weyland / Völund and Siegfried/ Sigurd , and probably Beowulf / Bödvar Bjarki .

^ Siegfried or Sigurd: Hero of early Germanic mythology.
  • The Gods of the Vikings 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC elswet.50megs.com [Source type: Original source]

.Other notable heroes are Hagbard, Starkad, Ragnar Lodbrok, Sigurd Ring, Ivar Vidfamne and Harald Hildetand.^ Other notable heroes are Hagbard, Starkad, Ragnar Lodbrok, Sigurd Ring, Ivar Vidfamne and Harald Hildetand.

.Notable are also the shieldmaidens who were ordinary women who had chosen the path of the warrior.^ Notable are also the shieldmaidens who were "ordinary" women who had chosen the path of the warrior.

^ Notable are also the shieldmaiden s who were "ordinary" women who had chosen the path of the warrior.

^ Valkaries: the implacable "Choosers of the Slain": warrior women who select who will be slain in battle and transport dead heroes to Valhalla.
  • Norse and German Mythology 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.terrapsych.com [Source type: Original source]

.These women function both as heroines and as obstacles to the heroic journey.^ These women function both as heroines and as obstacles to the heroic journey.

^ This is a journey through the land of the Fortunate Islands, accompanied by heroes and heroines, with the possibility of ghosts and wailing banshees always just around the next bend.
  • Bob & Nancy's Bookshop - Waldorf Teacher-Homeschool Resources - Storytelling 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.waldorfbooks.com [Source type: General]

Norse worship

Centres of faith

Gamla Uppsala, the centre of worship in Sweden until the temple was destroyed in the late 11th century.
.The Germanic tribes rarely or never had temples in a modern sense.^ The Germanic tribes rarely or never had temples in a modern sense.

^ The composer asked for and received royal patronage to build Beyreuth, which he described as a modern “temple” wherein the Volk could celebrate the Germanic spirit embodied in this hero.
  • The History of Mythology: Part I 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.as.ysu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Blót, the form of worship practiced by the ancient Germanic and Scandinavian people, resembled that of the Celts and Balts.^ The Blót, the form of worship practiced by the ancient Germanic and Scandinavian people resembled that of the Celts and Balts : it could occur in sacred groves.

^ The Blót, the form of worship practiced by the ancient Germanic and Scandinavian people resembled that of the Celts and Balts : it could occur in sacred grove s.

^ The form of worship practiced by the ancient Germanic, Baltic and Scandinavian people closely resembled that of the Celts : it occurred mostly in grove s and forests .
  • Norse mythology - Discussion and Encyclopedia Article. Who is Norse mythology? What is Norse mythology? Where is Norse mythology? Definition of Norse mythology. Meaning of Norse mythology. 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.knowledgerush.com [Source type: Original source]

It occurred either in sacred groves, at home, or at a simple altar of piled stones known as a "horgr." However, there seem to have been a few more important centres, such as Skiringssal, Lejre and Uppsala. .Adam of Bremen claims that there was a temple in Uppsala (see Temple at Uppsala) with three wooden statues of Odin, Thor and Freyr.^ Adam of Bremen claims that there was a temple in Uppsala (see Temple at Uppsala) with three wooden statues of Thor, Odin and Freyr.

^ The three men are interpreted as Odin, Thor and Freyr .
  • NORSE MYTHOLOGY, COSMOGONY AND COSMOLOGY 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC native-science.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Adam of Bremen claims that there was a temple in Uppsala (see Temple at Uppsala ) with three wooden statues of Thor, Odin and Freyr.

Priests

.While a kind of priesthood seems to have existed, it never took on the professional and semi-hereditary character of the Celtic druidical class.^ While a kind of priesthood seems to have existed, it never took on the professional and semi-hereditary character of the Celtic druidical class.
  • Norse mythology - Discussion and Encyclopedia Article. Who is Norse mythology? What is Norse mythology? Where is Norse mythology? Definition of Norse mythology. Meaning of Norse mythology. 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.knowledgerush.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Norse mythology 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]

^ While a kind of priesthood seems to have existed, it never took on the professional and semi-hereditary character of the Celtic druid ical class.

^ The characters seem to exist only to serve the purpose of executing the plot.
  • Norse Code (Mass Market Paperback) by Greg Van Eekhout - Reviews, Discussion, Bookclubs, Lists 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.goodreads.com [Source type: General]

.This was because the shamanistic tradition was maintained by women, the Völvas.^ This was because the shamanistic tradition was maintained by women, the Völva s.

.It is often said that the Germanic kingship evolved out of a priestly office.^ It is often said that the Germanic king ship evolved out of a priestly office.

^ It is often said that the Germanic kingship evolved out of a priestly office.

.This priestly role of the king was in line with the general role of gothi, who was the head of a kindred group of families (for this social structure, see norse clans), and who administered the sacrifices.^ The head of a cult was called a godi , who was like the head of a kindred group of families.
  • Norse mythology - Discussion and Encyclopedia Article. Who is Norse mythology? What is Norse mythology? Where is Norse mythology? Definition of Norse mythology. Meaning of Norse mythology. 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.knowledgerush.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This priestly role of the king was in line with the general role of godi, who was the head of a kindred group of families (for this social structure, see norse clans), and who administered the sacrifices.

^ There were also elves and dwarfs, whose role is shadowy but who are generally thought to side with the gods.

[citation needed]

Human sacrifice

.A unique eye-witness account of Germanic human sacrifice survives in Ibn Fadlan's account of a Rus ship burial, where a slave-girl had volunteered to accompany her lord to the next world.^ A unique eye-witness account of Germanic human sacrifice survives in Ibn Fadlan's account of a Rus ship burial, where a slave-girl had volunteered to accompany her lord to the next world.

^ However, the Ibn Fadlan account is actually a burial ritual.

^ The name "Rus," or the Swedish Vikings described by Ibn Fadlan, appears in "Russia"; Vikings also founded Dublin, Iceland, Greenland.
  • Norse and German Mythology 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.terrapsych.com [Source type: Original source]

.More indirect accounts are given by Tacitus, Saxo Grammaticus and Adam von Bremen.^ More indirect accounts are given by Tacitus , Saxo Grammaticus and Adam von Bremen .

^ More indirect accounts are given by Tacitus, Saxo Grammaticus and Adam von Bremen.

^ Another important source is Adam of Bremens account ( The History of the Bishops of .
  • Peter Andreas Munch � Norse Mythology � Part 1 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.vaidilute.com [Source type: Original source]

.However, the Ibn Fadlan account is actually a burial ritual.^ However, the Ibn Fadlan account is actually a burial ritual.

^ A unique eye-witness account of Germanic human sacrifice survives in Ibn Fadlan's account of a Rus ship burial, where a slave-girl had volunteered to accompany her lord to the next world.

^ A unique eye-witness account of Germanic human sacrifice survives in Ibn Fadlan's account of a Rus ship burial , where a slave-girl had volunteered to accompany her lord to the next world.

.Current understanding of Norse mythology suggests an ulterior motive to the slave-girl's 'sacrifice'. It is believed that in Norse mythology a woman who joined the corpse of a man on the funeral pyre would be that man's wife in the next world.^ Iduna In Norse mythology, Iduna was the wife of Bragi .
  • The Probert Encyclopaedia - Norse Mythology 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC vets.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Current understanding of Norse mythology suggests an ulterior motive to the slave-girl's 'sacrifice'.

^ In Norse mythology Ran is the wife of Aegir.

.For a slave girl to become the wife of a lord was an obvious increase in status.^ For a slave girl to become the wife of a lord was an obvious increase in status.

.Although both religions are of the Indo-European tradition, the sacrifice described in the Ibn Fadlan account is not to be confused with the practice of Sati.^ Although both religions are of the Indo-European tradition, the sacrifice described in the Ibn Fadlan account is not to be confused with the practice of Sati .

^ A unique eye-witness account of Germanic human sacrifice survives in Ibn Fadlan's account of a Rus ship burial , where a slave-girl had volunteered to accompany her lord to the next world.

^ The name "Rus," or the Swedish Vikings described by Ibn Fadlan, appears in "Russia"; Vikings also founded Dublin, Iceland, Greenland.
  • Norse and German Mythology 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.terrapsych.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Heimskringla tells of Swedish King Aun who sacrificed nine of his sons in an effort to prolong his life until his subjects stopped him from killing his last son Egil.^ The Heimskringla tells of Swedish King Aun who sacrificed nine of his sons in an effort to prolong his life until his subjects stopped him from killing his last son Egil.

^ Having undercut Odin's divinity, Snorri then provides the story of a pact of Swedish King Aun with Odin to prolong his life by sacrificing his sons.

^ "Hlfdan and his wife had nine other sons also...the eighth was Lofdi , who was a great war-king (that host who were called Lofdar followed him; his kindred are called Lofdungs, whence sprang Eylimi, Sigurdr Ffnisbani's mother's sire)" -Prose Edda .
  • Norse Pantheon 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC molly.kalafut.org [Source type: Original source]

.According to Adam of Bremen, the Swedish kings sacrificed male slaves every ninth year during the Yule sacrifices at the Temple at Uppsala.^ According to Adam of Bremen, the Swedish kings sacrificed male slaves every ninth year during the Yule sacrifices at the Temple at Uppsala.

^ The Swedes had the right not only to elect kings but also to depose them, and both king Domalde and king Olof Trätälja are said to have been sacrificed after years of famine.

^ Archaeological studies of graves at the Swedish island of Lovön have shown that the Christianisation took 150-200 years, and this was a location close to the kings and bishops.

.The Swedes had the right not only to elect kings but also to depose them, and both king Domalde and king Olof Trätälja are said to have been sacrificed after years of famine.^ The Swedes had the right not only to elect kings but also to depose them, and both king Domalde and king Olof Trätälja are said to have been sacrificed after years of famine.

^ According to Adam of Bremen, the Swedish kings sacrificed male slaves every ninth year during the Yule sacrifices at the Temple at Uppsala.

.Odin was associated with death by hanging, and a possible practice of Odinic sacrifice by strangling has some archeological support in the existence of bodies such as Tollund Man that perfectly preserved by the acid of the Jutland peatbogs, into which they were cast after having been strangled.^ Odin was associated with death by hanging, and a possible practice of Odinic sacrifice by strangling has some archeological support in the existence of bodies perfectly preserved by the acid of the Jutland (later taken over by Danish people) peatbogs , into which they were cast after having been strangled.

^ In a later story the jar contained not evils but blessings, which would have been preserved for the human race had they not been lost through the opening of the jar out of curiosity by man himself.
  • Women and The Gift Economy 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.gift-economy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other Rudolf Simek has proposed that the Valknut symbol may have been associated with religious practices associated with death.
  • Norse Magic 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.However, scholars possess no written accounts that explicitly interpret the cause of these stranglings, which could obviously have other explanations.^ However, we possess no written accounts that explicitly interpret the cause of these stranglings, which could obviously have other explanations.

^ An important note in interpreting this mythology is that often the closest accounts that we have to "pre-contact" times were written by Christians.

^ However because of its powers a number of others want it too, and a battle for possession begins, ultimately fulfilling everybody's desires...
  • Lists of Pagan Films of the world, Mythology. Witches, Shamen, Witchcraft, Druids, Norse. Fairy Stories. 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.sandmartyn.freeserve.co.uk [Source type: General]

Interactions with Christianity

"Ansgarius predikar Christna läran i Sverige" (1839) by Hugo Hamilton. An 1830 portrayal of Ansgar, a Christian missionary invited to Sweden by its king Björn at Hauge in 829.
.An important note in interpreting this mythology is that often the closest accounts that scholars have to "pre-contact" times were written by Christians.^ Myths Of The Norsemen by Guerber, H A In this volume, a noted scholar of myth and folklore has assembled a rich collection of Northern mythology as preserved in the sagas of Iceland.
  • Celtic and Norse Mythology, Celtic Jewelry, Celtic, Celtic Design, Celtic Knots, Celtic Art, Celtic Knot, Celtic Knotwork, Celtic Mythology, Celtic Dragon, Celtic Rune, Celtic God, Celtic Goddess, Celtic Knot Design, Celtic Astrology, Celtic Art Work, Celtic Pendant, Celtic Religion, Celtic Myth, Celtic Necklace, Norse Mythology, Norse God, Norse Goddess, Norse, Norse Rune, Norse Myth, Norse Deity, Norse Jewelry, Norse Legend, Norse God and Goddess, Norse Mythology God, Rune, Runes, Rune Stones, Viking Rune, Rune Jewelry, Nordic Rune, Rune Casting, Rune Divination, Rune Charm, Rune Set, Futhark Rune, Fairy Tales 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.magictails.com [Source type: General]

^ All lyrics are written in euskera, their mother tongue, and they tell about old traditions, legends and mythology, always with a strong feeling against Christianity.

^ Just because it was written a long time ago doesn't make it true, or accepted at the time, or worth even noting.
  • 7 Books We Lost to History That Would Have Changed the World | Cracked.com 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: General]

.The Younger Edda and the Heimskringla were written by Snorri Sturluson in the 13th century, over two hundred years after Iceland became Christianized.^ Both works are from 13th century Iceland .
  • NORSE MYTHOLOGY, COSMOGONY AND COSMOLOGY 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC native-science.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Gn and Hfvarpnir are attested in the Prose Edda , written in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson .
  • NORSE MYTHOLOGY, COSMOGONY AND COSMOLOGY 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC native-science.net [Source type: Original source]

^ When Snorri Sturluson wrote the Eddas in the 13th century, all of Scandinavia was Christian.
  • The Norwegian Connection - Mythology 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.celticattic.com [Source type: Original source]

.This results in Snorri's works carrying a large amount of Euhemerism.^ This results in Snorri's works carrying a large amount of Euhemerism.

[1]
.Virtually all of the saga literature came out of Iceland, a relatively small and remote island, and even in the climate of religious tolerance there, Snorri was guided by an essentially Christian viewpoint.^ Virtually all of the saga literature came out of Iceland, a relatively small and remote island, and even in the climate of religious tolerance there, Snorri was guided by an essentially Christian viewpoint.

^ The Younger Edda and the Heimskringla were written by Snorri Sturluson in the 13th century , over two hundred years after Iceland became Christianized.

^ When Snorri Sturluson wrote the Eddas in the 13th century, all of Scandinavia was Christian.
  • The Norwegian Connection - Mythology 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.celticattic.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Heimskringla provides some interesting insights into this issue.^ It will provide insight for teachers, parents, and other adults who hope to answer some of the life questions of today.
  • Bob & Nancy's Bookshop - Waldorf Teacher-Homeschool Resources - Storytelling 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.waldorfbooks.com [Source type: General]

^ While primarily religious and mystical in tone, this essay does give some insight into the Kabbalistic take on Jewish cosmology.
  • Myths and Legends - frames 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.myths.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Myths and Legends - frames 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC home.comcast.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ My current position as the Resident Care Coordinator for an RCF working primarily with Hospice patients provided me with a unique insight into the death process.
  • Lying about Santa: The Irrelevance of Proof to the Holiday Spirit | Media/Culture | ReligionDispatches 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC religiondispatches.org [Source type: General]

.Snorri introduces Odin as a mortal warlord in Asia who acquires magical powers, settles in Sweden, and becomes a demi-god following his death.^ Snorri introduces Odin as a mortal warlord in Asia who acquires magical powers, settles in Sweden, and becomes a demi-god following his death.

^ Asgard can also be reached by Bifrost , the magical rainbow bridge guarded by Heimdall , the mute god of vigilance who could see and hear a thousand miles.

^ The Valknutr represents Odin's power, in Nordic mythology, while the lunar symbolism stands for Freya, Norse goddess of magic who taught Odin secret skills.
  • DragonWeave Jewelry Celtic Charms and Pendants 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.dragonweave.com [Source type: General]

.Having undercut Odin's divinity, Snorri then provides the story of a pact of Swedish King Aun with Odin to prolong his life by sacrificing his sons.^ Having undercut Odin's divinity, Snorri then provides the story of a pact of Swedish King Aun with Odin to prolong his life by sacrificing his sons.

^ The Heimskringla tells of Swedish King Aun who sacrificed nine of his sons in an effort to prolong his life until his subjects stopped him from killing his last son Egil.

^ Prince and later a king, the brother of Agnar and foster son of Odin and Frigg.
  • Norse Pantheon 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC molly.kalafut.org [Source type: Original source]

.Later in the Heimskringla, Snorri records in detail how converts to Christianity such as Saint Olaf Haraldsson brutally converted Scandinavians to Christianity.^ Later in the Heimskringla, Snorri records in detail how converts to Christianity such as Saint Olaf Haraldsson brutally converted Scandinavians to Christianity.

^ At this point scholars started recording it, particularly in the Edda s and the Heimskringla by Snorri Sturluson , who believed that pre-Christian deities trace real historical people.

^ How close are these records to the true beliefs held by these early Scandinavians?
  • The Norwegian Connection - Mythology 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.celticattic.com [Source type: Original source]

One form of execution occurred during the Christianization of Norway. King Olaf Tryggvason had male völvas (sejdmen) tied and left on a skerry at ebb to drown in the sea. (1897 illustration by Halfdan Egedius)
.Trying to avert civil war, the Icelandic parliament voted in Christianity, but for some years tolerated heathenry in the privacy of one's home.^ Trying to avert civil war, the Icelandic parliament voted in Christianity, but for some years tolerated heathenry in the privacy of one's home.

^ Acceptance of Christianity in Iceland in the Year 1000 (999), in Old Norse and Finnish Religions and Cultic Place Names 223-55 (T. Ahlbck, ed.
  • Myth_Religion-Bibliography 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.galinngrund.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The Younger Edda and the Heimskringla were written by Snorri Sturluson in the 13th century , over two hundred years after Iceland became Christianized.

.Sweden, on the other hand, had a series of civil wars in the 11th century, which ended with the burning of the Temple at Uppsala.^ Sweden, on the other hand, had a series of civil wars in the 11th century , which ended with the burning of the Temple at Uppsala .

^ There was a statue of Frey in the temple at Uppsala in Sweden, the center of his cult.

^ An historian of the eleventh century, Adam of Bremen, recounts that in the sacrificial grove near the temple at Uppsala many .
  • Peter Andreas Munch � Norse Mythology � Part 1 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.vaidilute.com [Source type: Original source]

.December 2007" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] In England, Christianization occurred earlier and sporadically, rarely by force.^ In England , on the other hand, Christianization occurred earlier and sporadically, rarely by force.

.Conversion by coercion was sporadic throughout the areas where Norse gods had been worshipped.^ Conversion by coercion was sporadic throughout the areas where Norse gods had been worshipped.

.However, the conversion did not happen overnight.^ However, the conversion did not happen overnight.

.Christian clergy did their utmost to teach the populace that the Norse gods were demons, but their success was limited and the gods never became evil in the popular mind in most of Scandinavia.^ Christian clergy did their utmost to teach the populace that the Norse gods were demons, but their success was limited and the gods never became evil in the popular mind in most of Scandinavia.

^ In Norse mythology, Balder was the son of Odin and Freya and husband of Nanna, and the best, wisest, and most loved of all the gods.

^ Greek Gods in Northern Costumes: Visual Representations of Norse Mythology in 19th Century Scandinavia, in Old Norse Myths, Literature and Society 209-19.
  • Myth_Religion-Bibliography 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.galinngrund.org [Source type: Academic]

.The length of time Christianization took is illustrated by two centrally located examples of Lovön and Bergen.^ Two centrally located and far from isolated settlements can illustrate how long the Christianization took.

^ Archaeological studies of graves at the Swedish island of Lovön have shown that the Christianisation took 150-200 years, and this was a location close to the kings and bishops.

^ Now, for the first time in almost two centuries, an artist or illustrator could earn a decent living again with his realistic art.
  • Norse Myths and Legends: Illustrations of Norse Mythology; Mythic Norse Art byContemporary American Artist Howard David Johnson 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.howarddavidjohnson.com [Source type: General]
  • Women of Mythology: Legendary women & goddess art of Howard David Johnson;Women of Greek, Roman, Norse & Asian Mythology 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.howarddavidjohnson.com [Source type: General]

.Archaeological studies of graves at the Swedish island of Lovön have shown that the Christianisation took 150-200 years, and this was a location close to the kings and bishops.^ Archaeological studies of graves at the Swedish island of Lovön have shown that the Christianisation took 150-200 years, and this was a location close to the kings and bishops.

^ According to Adam of Bremen, the Swedish kings sacrificed male slaves every ninth year during the Yule sacrifices at the Temple at Uppsala.

^ Two centrally located and far from isolated settlements can illustrate how long the Christianization took.

.Likewise in the bustling trading town of Bergen, many runic inscriptions have been found from the 13th century, among the Bryggen inscriptions.^ Likewise in the bustling trading town of Bergen, many runic inscriptions have been found from the 13th century , among the Bryggen inscriptions .

^ A survey and a discussion on runic inscriptions and names found in these inscriptions, dated from the Roman Iron Age to the Middle Ages, found in Mre and Romsdal.
  • Viking Answer Lady Webpage - Old Norse Names 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.vikinganswerlady.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The story of Sigurd, Gudren, Grimhild and Brynhild is found in the 13th century work Volsunga Saga , a story which is also told in the Poetic Edda and the Nibelungenlied .
  • Myths and Legends - frames 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.myths.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Myths and Legends - frames 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC home.comcast.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One of them says may Thor receive you, may Odin own you, and a second one is a galdra which says I carve curing runes, I carve salvaging runes, once against the elves, twice against the trolls, thrice against the thurs.^ Go where the Trolls may get you!
  • Peter Andreas Munch � Norse Mythology � Part 1 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.vaidilute.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One of them says may Thor receive you, may Odin own you , and a second one is a galdra which says I carve curing runes, I carve salvaging runes, once against the elves, twice against the trolls, thrice against the thurs .

^ May Thor's hammer protect you.
  • Norse Magic 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.The second one also mentions the dangerous Valkyrie Skögul.^ The second one also mentions the dangerous Valkyrie Skögul .

.Another contrast in Norse beliefs is the Gimle, the supposed "high heaven, which is thought to be a Christian addition to Norse mythology, and the Ragnarokk, the "fate" of Æsir gods.^ This was another name of the Norse god Ing.
  • GREEK MYTHOLOGY NAMES 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.freewebs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Another not as popular mythology is Norse mythology; Norse mythology is the religio...
  • Free Mythology Essays 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.123helpme.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Bri was the first god in Norse mythology .
  • NORSE MYTHOLOGY, COSMOGONY AND COSMOLOGY 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC native-science.net [Source type: Original source]

.This seems to be a Christian addition to the native mythology, since it ends the "reign" of the Æsir gods.^ Since the Christian hell resembled the abode of the dead in Norse mythology one of the names was borrowed from the old faith, Helvíti i.e.

^ According to Njls saga : Hjalti Skeggiason , an Icelander newly converted to Christianity, wished to express his contempt for the native gods, so he sang: .
  • NORSE MYTHOLOGY, COSMOGONY AND COSMOLOGY 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC native-science.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Ragnarok - ("Doom of the Gods", "Destruction of the Powers") Myth: The beggining of the end of the world in Norse Mythology.
  • GameFAQs: Valkyrie Profile (PS) Norse Mythology Guide by Hexum 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.gamefaqs.com [Source type: Original source]

.There are few accounts from the 14th to the 18th century, but the clergy, such as Olaus Magnus (1555) wrote about the difficulties of extinguishing the old beliefs.^ Otherwise there are few accounts from the 14th to the 18th century, but the clergy, such as Olaus Magnus (1555) wrote about the difficulties of extinguishing the old beliefs.

^ In the 19th century, however, even in some areas of Northern Albania (such as Lura) there were families with mixed religious views: some of them were partly Catholic and partly Moslem.
  • WinterSteel.Com - FAQs p4 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.wintersteel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, there seems to have been a few more important centres, such as Skiringssal , Lejre and Uppsala .

.The story related in Þrymskviða appears to have been unusually resilient, like the romantic story of Hagbard and Signy, and versions of both were recorded in the 17th century and as late as the 19th century.^ The story related in Þrymskviða appears to have been unusually resilient, like the romantic story of Hagbard and Signy , and versions of both were recorded in the 17th century and as late as the 19th century .

^ There had been, in the late 19th century, a confusion concerning early .

^ Thus, "almost everywhere" throughout Christendom, except in Rome and Alexandria, there were Christian worship services on both Saturday and Sunday as late as the fifth century.
  • Lying about Santa: The Irrelevance of Proof to the Holiday Spirit | Media/Culture | ReligionDispatches 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC religiondispatches.org [Source type: General]

.In the 19th and early 20th century Swedish folklorists documented what commoners believed, and what surfaced were many surviving traditions of the gods of Norse mythology.^ In Norse mythology, Aegir is the god of the sea.

^ The Aesir were the principal gods in Norse mythology.

^ Odin was chief god of Norse mythology.

.However, the traditions were by then far from the cohesive system of Snorri's accounts.^ However, the traditions were by then far from the cohesive system of Snorri's accounts.

.Most gods had been forgotten and only the hunting Odin and the jötunn-slaying Thor figure in numerous legends.^ Most gods had been forgotten and only the hunting Odin and the giant-slaying Thor figure in numerous legends.

^ Here are the most popular Japanese myths of gods, heroes and warriors; legends of Buddha, and of the goddess Benten and the god Daikoku.
  • Bob & Nancy's Bookshop - Waldorf Teacher-Homeschool Resources - Storytelling 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.waldorfbooks.com [Source type: General]

^ He is the most powerful of the gods, even surpassing Odin in strength.
  • GameFAQs: Valkyrie Profile (PS) Norse Mythology Guide by Hexum 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.gamefaqs.com [Source type: Original source]

.Freyja is mentioned a few times and Baldr only survives in legends about place names.^ Freyja is mentioned a few times and Baldr only survives in legends about place names.

^ Other than that, it's the only time in the game that Mimir was mentioned, or even hinted to.
  • GameFAQs: Valkyrie Profile (PS) Norse Mythology Guide by Hexum 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.gamefaqs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The wolf eventually agreed, but only if someone placed their hand in his mouth as a symbol of good will, because this time, he suspected that the gods were up to something.
  • GameFAQs: Valkyrie Profile (PS) Norse Mythology Guide by Hexum 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.gamefaqs.com [Source type: Original source]

.Other elements of Norse mythology survived without being perceived as such, especially concerning supernatural beings in Scandinavian folklore.^ Other elements of Norse mythology survived without being perceived as such, especially concerning supernatural beings in Scandinavian folklore .

^ There are also several runestones and image stone s that depict scenes from Norse mythology, such as Thor 's fishing trip, scenes from the Völsunga saga , Odin and Sleipnir , Odin being devoured by Fenrir, and one of the surviving stones from the Hunnestad Monument appears to show Hyrrokkin riding to Baldr 's funeral ( DR 284 ).

^ Introduction to Norse Mythology: Teutonic, or more commonly known as Norse Mythology, is the collective myths of the Scandinavians who belong to the countries of Sweden, Denmark, Norway, and Iceland.
  • GameFAQs: Valkyrie Profile (PS) Norse Mythology Guide by Hexum 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.gamefaqs.com [Source type: Original source]

.Moreover, the Norse belief in destiny has been very firm until modern times.^ Moreover, the Norse belief in destiny has been very firm until modern times.

^ Van Eekhout does a fantastic job of melding modern times with Norse myth and Rangnarok (the end of the world).
  • Norse Code (Mass Market Paperback) by Greg Van Eekhout - Reviews, Discussion, Bookclubs, Lists 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.goodreads.com [Source type: General]

^ Some aspects of Norse mythology passed into Scandinavian folklore and have survived to modern day times.

Since the Christian hell resembled the abode of the dead in Norse mythology one of the names was borrowed from the old faith, Helvíti i.e. Hel's punishment. .Many elements of the Yule traditions persevered, such as the Swedish tradition of slaughtering the pig at Christmas (Christmas ham), which originally was part of the sacrifice to Freyr.^ Many modern day beliefs and traditions have their origin in our Northern European ancestors.
  • Norse Magic 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Slaughtering the boar has given way to eating Christmas ham, but Father Christmas continues to look a lot like generous Freyr gathering and dispensing the harvest.
  • Norse and German Mythology 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.terrapsych.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The celebration of Christmas is a man made holiday nowhere endorsed in the Bible (only holidays such as the Passover and the Day of Atonement are sanctioned) and incorporates many pagan elements that were used to to give glory and worship to false gods.
  • Lying about Santa: The Irrelevance of Proof to the Holiday Spirit | Media/Culture | ReligionDispatches 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC religiondispatches.org [Source type: General]

Modern influences

Day (Old Norse) Meaning
Mánadagr Moon's day
Týsdagr Tyr's day
Óðinsdagr Odin's day
Þórsdagr Thor's day
Frjádagr Freyja's day
Laugardagr Washing day
Sunnudagr/Dróttinsdagr Sun's day/The Lord's day
.The Germanic gods have left numerous traces in modern vocabulary and elements of every day western life in most Germanic language speaking countries.^ The Germanic gods have left numerous traces in modern vocabulary and elements of every day western life in most Germanic language speaking countries.

^ Every day it was slaughtered and eaten, yet when dawn came it had been restored to life.
  • Norway: Norse Mythology - Norsk mytologi - Bergen Cultural heritage - Bergen Guide, Norway - Artikler - 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.bergen-guide.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The word eitr exists in most North Germanic languages (all derived from the Old Norse language) in Icelandic eitur , in Danish edder , in Swedish etter .
  • NORSE MYTHOLOGY, COSMOGONY AND COSMOLOGY 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC native-science.net [Source type: Original source]

.An example of this is some of the names of the days of the week: modelled after the names of the days of the week in Latin (named after Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus, and Saturn), the names for Tuesday through to Friday were replaced with Germanic equivalents of the Roman gods and the names for Monday and Sunday after the Sun and Moon.^ He was the Roman god of love, the son of Venus.
  • GREEK MYTHOLOGY NAMES 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.freewebs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ An example of this is some of the names of the days of the week: modelled after the names of the days of the week in Latin (named after Sun, Moon, Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus, Saturn ), the names for Tuesday through to Friday were replaced with Germanic equivalents of the Roman gods.

^ Also, a moon of Mars bears this name.
  • GREEK MYTHOLOGY NAMES 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.freewebs.com [Source type: Original source]

.In English, Saturn was not replaced.^ In English, Saturn was not replaced, while Saturday is named after the sabbath in German, and is called "washing day" in Scandinavia.


Viking revival

"Heimdallr returns the necklace Brísingamen to Freyja" by Swedish painter Nils Blommér.
.Early modern editions of Old Norse literature begins in the 16th century, e.g.^ Origin Legends and Foundation Myths in Flateyjarbk , in Old Norse Myths, Literature and Society 441-54.
  • Myth_Religion-Bibliography 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.galinngrund.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Within its extensive archives, Project Runeberg offers The Poetic Edda , both in modern Swedish and in Old Norse.
  • Myths and Legends - frames 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.myths.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Myths and Legends - frames 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC home.comcast.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hamhleypur in orskfiringa saga : A Post-Classical Ironisation of Myth?, in Old Norse Myths, Literature and Societyty 54-64.
  • Myth_Religion-Bibliography 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.galinngrund.org [Source type: Academic]

.Historia de gentibus septentrionalibus (Olaus Magnus, 1555) and the first edition of the 13th century Gesta Danorum (Saxo Grammaticus), in 1514. The pace of publication increased during the 17th century with Latin translations of the Edda (notably Peder Resen's Edda Islandorum of 1665).^ Otherwise there are few accounts from the 14th to the 18th century, but the clergy, such as Olaus Magnus (1555) wrote about the difficulties of extinguishing the old beliefs.

^ The Danish History of Saxo Grammaticus , ( Gesta Danorum ), written in the late 1100s and early 1200s.
  • Folktexts: A library of folktales, folklore, fairy tales, and mythology, page 2 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.pitt.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Younger Edda and the Heimskringla were written by Snorri Sturluson in the 13th century , over two hundred years after Iceland became Christianized.

The renewed interest of Romanticism in the Old North had political implications. .Myths about a glorious and brave past is said to have given the Swedes the courage to retake Finland, which had been lost in 1809 during the war between Sweden and Russia.^ Vali vowed to bring Loki to justice for the crime, but was never able to do it, unless there is a myth about it that has been lost.
  • The Norse Mythology Behind Valkyrie Profile 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.rpgamer.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Norse myths were brought into being during the Viking era which lasted from about 1780 A.D. to 1070 A.D., which was following the fall of the Roman Empire.
  • GameFAQs: Valkyrie Profile (PS) Norse Mythology Guide by Hexum 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.gamefaqs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Given a sword and a new name, Mist’s job is to recruit soldiers for the war between the gods at the end of the world—and to kill those who refuse to fight.
  • Norse Code (Mass Market Paperback) by Greg Van Eekhout - Reviews, Discussion, Bookclubs, Lists 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.goodreads.com [Source type: General]

The Geatish Society, of which Geijer was a member, popularized this myth to a great extent.[citation needed]
A focus for early British enthusiasts was George Hicke, who published a Linguarum vett. septentrionalium thesaurus in .1703–5. In the 1780s, Denmark offered to cede Iceland to Britain in exchange for Crab Island (West Indies), and in the 1860s Iceland was considered as a compensation for British support of Denmark in the Slesvig-Holstein conflicts.^ West Iceland) was a Nordic Skaldic poet and a remote descendent of the great Egil Skallagrímsson , whom Hollander considers "the most original and also the most versatile of skalds.
  • Snorri's Edda (the Prose Edda). 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.baymoon.com [Source type: Original source]

.During this time, British interest and enthusiasm for Iceland and Nordic culture grew dramatically.^ Foreningen Forn Sed A Norwegian confessional society for people who are interested in Norse mythology and Nordic popular faith, traditions and culture.
  • Spiritual - Norse Gods 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.linklight.com [Source type: General]

^ The FAQ for the soc.culture.nordic newsgroup, especially parts 2 (miscellenia) and 5 (Iceland).
  • Norse Mythology in The Wheel of Time 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC hem3.passagen.se [Source type: Original source]

^ Ancient Greek Traditions Ancient Roman & Italian Traditions Celtic Traditions Icelandic, Nordic, & Teutonic Traditions Medieval Life & Times Arthurian Themes Grail  Lore .

Germanic Neopaganism

.Romanticist interest in the Old North gave rise to Germanic mysticism involving various schemes of occultist "Runology", notably following Guido von List and his Das Geheimnis der Runen (1908) in the early 20th century.^ The Valknut (Old Norse valr, "slain warriors" + knut, "knot") is a symbol consisting of three interlocked triangles, and appears on various Germanic objects.
  • Norse Magic 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ The word eitr exists in most North Germanic languages (all derived from the Old Norse language) in Icelandic eitur , in Danish edder , in Swedish etter .
  • NORSE MYTHOLOGY, COSMOGONY AND COSMOLOGY 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC native-science.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Further information: thunder Proto-Germanic * thunaraz , [8] "thunder" gave rise to Old Norse orr , German Donner , Dutch donder as well as Old English unor whence Modern English thunder with epenthetic d .
  • NORSE MYTHOLOGY, COSMOGONY AND COSMOLOGY 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC native-science.net [Source type: Original source]

.Since the 1970s, there have been revivals of the old Germanic religion as Germanic Neopaganism (Ásatrú) in both Europe and the United States.^ In Ragnarök, Loke was engaged by Heimdall in a battle that killed them both, and there are indications that Heimdall and Loke was old antagonists.
  • Norse Mythology in The Wheel of Time 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC hem3.passagen.se [Source type: Original source]

^ EGG TREE - A charm against witches once common in the Ozark mountain region of the United States, but infrequently used since the 1930's.
  • WinterSteel.Com - FAQs p4 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.wintersteel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Revival of Germanic Religion in Contemporary Anglo-American Culture, 21 Mankind Q. 279-93.
  • Myth_Religion-Bibliography 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.galinngrund.org [Source type: Academic]

Modern popular culture

.Norse mythology influenced Richard Wagner's use of literary themes from it to compose the four operas that make up Der Ring des Nibelungen (The Ring of the Nibelung).^ Norse mythology also influenced Richard Wagner 's use of literary themes from it to compose the four operas that make up Der Ring des Nibelungen ( The Ring of the Nibelung ) - inspiring and laying the foundation for numerous similarly inspired works.

^ I quite liked the use of the Norse mythology.
  • Norse Code (Mass Market Paperback) by Greg Van Eekhout - Reviews, Discussion, Bookclubs, Lists 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.goodreads.com [Source type: General]

^ Also in the 1800's, Richard Wagner composed Der Ring des Nibelungen , an opera in the tradition of Nibelungenleid and the Volsungsaga .
  • Myths and Legends - frames 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.myths.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Myths and Legends - frames 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC home.comcast.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Subsequently, J. R. R. Tolkien's writings, especially The Silmarillion, were heavily influenced by the indigenous beliefs of the pre-Christian Northern Europeans.^ Norse, Viking or Scandinavian mythology forms the foundation of the indigenous pre-Christian religion, beliefs and legends of the Scandinavian peoples.
  • Norse Magic 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ In order to understand Norse magic, it is essential to become familiar with Norse mythology and Norse paganism, the pre-Christian spiritual tradition of the Northern European peoples also referred to in Scandinavia as Heithni (Hay-thnee).
  • Norse Magic 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ The pre-Christian indigenous beliefs and religious ideas common amongst the Northern Germanic tribes can be referred to as Norse paganism.
  • Norse Magic 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.As his related novel The Lord of the Rings became popular, elements of its fantasy world moved steadily into popular perceptions of the fantasy genre.^ As that work became popular, elements of its fantasy world moved steadily into popular perceptions of the fantasy genre.

^ The enormously popular "Lord of the Rings" is largely based on the 13th century Nibelungenlied saga from a Middle High German epic poem.
  • Norse Myths and Legends: Illustrations of Norse Mythology; Mythic Norse Art byContemporary American Artist Howard David Johnson 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.howarddavidjohnson.com [Source type: General]

^ Witchcraft the Lords of the Watchtowers, the Guardian of the Mighty Ones), elementals serve as the life force and may be summoned to assist in magick, related in nature.
  • WinterSteel.Com - FAQs p4 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.wintersteel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In many fantasy novels today can be found such Norse creatures as elves, dwarves, and frost jötnar.^ In nearly any modern fantasy novel today can be found such Norse creatures as elves, dwarves, and frost giants.

^ Much of what can be found about Norse cosmology in popular literature has become infused with foreign traditions such as ceremonial magic and Wiccan ideology.
  • Norse Magic 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ With characters such as Odin's ravens, Baldr, Loki, and many others ...more Even though I had been warned, it was hard for me to begin reading Norse Code, look at the tough female heroine on the cover, and not think urban fantasy.
  • Norse Code (Mass Market Paperback) by Greg Van Eekhout - Reviews, Discussion, Bookclubs, Lists 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.goodreads.com [Source type: General]

.Subsequently, Norse mythology has also greatly influenced popular culture, in literature and modern fiction.^ Much of what can be found about Norse cosmology in popular literature has become infused with foreign traditions such as ceremonial magic and Wiccan ideology.
  • Norse Magic 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Greek Gods in Northern Costumes: Visual Representations of Norse Mythology in 19th Century Scandinavia, in Old Norse Myths, Literature and Society 209-19.
  • Myth_Religion-Bibliography 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.galinngrund.org [Source type: Academic]

^ So they adapted the Norse mythology while celebrating everything Nordic (which was a reason why "The Twilight of the Gods" was so popular).
  • Norse Mythology - Television Tropes & Idioms 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC tvtropes.org [Source type: Original source]

(See Marvel Comics' The Mighty Thor or Neil Gaiman's The Sandman (Vertigo) also Neil Gaiman's novel American Gods)
.
Mats Wendt based his neo-romantic 16-hour symphonic suite Eddan – the invincible sword of the elf-smith on the chronological reconstruction of the Norse myths by Viktor Rydberg.
^ MUSHMellow A Pueblo-enhanced world that includes areas based on Mayberry, the old west, the Andes and Norse myth.
  • Spiritual - Norse Gods 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.linklight.com [Source type: General]

^ Neil Gaiman's American Gods and Elizabeth Bear's All the Windwracked Stars are both based on Norse myth.
  • Norse Code (Mass Market Paperback) by Greg Van Eekhout - Reviews, Discussion, Bookclubs, Lists 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.goodreads.com [Source type: General]

^ Swords, Shields and Disfigurement: Symbols of Law and Justice in Norse and Modern Mythology, in Old Norse Myths, Literature and Society 397.
  • Myth_Religion-Bibliography 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.galinngrund.org [Source type: Academic]

.
Norse mythology is a recurring theme in heavy metal lyrics.
^ They are a recurring motif in Norse mythology.
  • Norse Magic 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Style: Epic pagan metal Origin: Germany Lyrics: Nordic Mythology, Paganism, Anti-Christianism Year: 2005 Tracklist: 1.

^ Norse mythology seems to be an up-and-coming theme in fantasy literature these days.
  • Norse Code (Mass Market Paperback) by Greg Van Eekhout - Reviews, Discussion, Bookclubs, Lists 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.goodreads.com [Source type: General]

.Bands like Manowar, Therion, Bathory, Burzum, Amon Amarth, and Tyr among others, composed concept albums with songs based on the Eddas and Norse paganism.^ Although scholars think it was transcribed later than the other Edda, the language and poetic forms involved in the tales appear to have been composed centuries earlier than their transcription.

^ The concept of goddesses of fate spinning the threads of life is also present in Greek and Roman mythology, and probably in other indo-european religions too, making it impossible to say if the threads "comes" from Norse mythology or from another mythological base.
  • Norse Mythology in The Wheel of Time 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC hem3.passagen.se [Source type: Original source]

^ Devotional Site to the Norse God Tyr History of Norwegian paganism as well as background for the god Tyr.
  • Spiritual - Norse Gods 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.linklight.com [Source type: General]

.Many video games, especially RPG and strategies, are based on or inspired by Norse mythology, and feature certain elements of it.^ Age of Mythology preserves many familiar elements from the Age of Empires games ?
  • Age of Mythology for PS2 on Gamerhelp.com 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.gamerhelp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Norse mythology games .
  • GameSpot Forums - General Games Discussion - other Norse mythology games 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.gamespot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alo, here the definitive list of games related to Norse Mythology.
  • GameSpot Forums - General Games Discussion - other Norse mythology games 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.gamespot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Examples of games influenced by Norse mythology include Final Fantasy, Too Human, Age Of Mythology, World of Warcraft: Wrath of the Lich King, Ragnarok Online, Valkyrie Profile Series from Square Enix, Viking: Battle for Asgard, Dark Age of Camelot, Guild Wars, Tomb Raider Underworld, Aion: The Tower of Eternity, Darkfall, and many others.^ Mist, who was known as Cathy in life, is a Valkyrie working for NorseCODE, a company who uses the human genome project to find decendents of Odin for the final battle.
  • Norse Code (Mass Market Paperback) by Greg Van Eekhout - Reviews, Discussion, Bookclubs, Lists 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.goodreads.com [Source type: General]

^ In Norse mythology, Gladsheim was the mansion in Asgard where the gods lived.

^ My newfound interest in Norse Mythology hails from a video game, believe it or not :) It's called "Valkyrie Profile 2: Silmeria" .
  • DreamBook - Norse Mythology 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC books.dreambook.com [Source type: General]

Bibliography

Notes

  1. ^ Faulkes, Anthony. "Introduction" In Snorri Sturlusson, Prose Edda (Ed.) page xviii. Everyman, 1987. ISBN 0-460-87616-3

Primary sources

General secondary works

  • Aðalsteinsson, Jón Hnefill (1998). .A Piece of Horse Liver: Myth, Ritual and Folklore in Old Icelandic Sources (translated by Terry Gunnell & Joan Turville-Petre).^ Go geyja : The Limits of Humour in Old Norse-Icelandic Paganism, in Old Norse Myths, Literature and Society 386-95.
    • Myth_Religion-Bibliography 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.galinngrund.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Blot and Thing: The Function of the Tenth Century Goi, in A Piece of Horse Liver 35-56 [Originally published in 21 Temenos 23 (1985)].
    • Myth_Religion-Bibliography 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.galinngrund.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ A Piece of Horse-Liver and the Ratification of Law, in A Piece of Horse Liver: Myth, Ritual and Folklore in Old Icelandic Sources 57-78 [Originally published in Snorrastefna: 25-27 jl 1990 81-98 (lfar Bragason, ed., 1992)].
    • Myth_Religion-Bibliography 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.galinngrund.org [Source type: Academic]

    Reykjavík: Félagsvísindastofnun. ISBN 9979542640.
  • Andrén, Anders. Jennbert, Kristina. Raudvere, Catharina. (editors) (2006). .Old Norse Religion in Long-Term Perspectives: Origins, Changes and Interactions.^ Origin Legends and Foundation Myths in Flateyjarbk , in Old Norse Myths, Literature and Society 441-54.
    • Myth_Religion-Bibliography 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.galinngrund.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ [Originally published as Old Norse Religion in the Sagas of Icelanders, 7 Gripla 303-22 (1990).
    • Myth_Religion-Bibliography 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.galinngrund.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The Adornment of Earth: An Old Norse Transition Rite, 10 Journal of Prehistoric Religion 45-49.
    • Myth_Religion-Bibliography 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.galinngrund.org [Source type: Academic]

    Lund: Nordic Academic Press. .ISBN 918911681X.
  • Branston, Brian (1980).^ Branston, Brian (1980).

    Gods of the North. .London: Thames and Hudson.^ London: Thames and Hudson.

    .(Revised from an earlier hardback edition of 1955).^ (Revised from an earlier hardback edition of 1955).

    .ISBN 0-500-27177-1.
  • Christiansen, Eric (2002).^ ISBN 0-500-27177-1.

    .The Norsemen in the Viking Age.^ Christiansen, Eric, The Norsemen in the Viking Age (2001).
    • Myth_Religion-Bibliography 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.galinngrund.org [Source type: Academic]

    Malden, Mass.: Blackwell. .ISBN 1405149647.
  • Clunies Ross, Margaret (1994).^ Clunies Ross, Margaret (2006).
    • Myth_Religion-Bibliography 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.galinngrund.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Clunies Ross, Margaret (1989).
    • Myth_Religion-Bibliography 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.galinngrund.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Clunies Ross, Margaret (1992).
    • Myth_Religion-Bibliography 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.galinngrund.org [Source type: Academic]

    .Prolonged Echoes: Old Norse Myths in Medieval Northern Society, vol.^ Origin Legends and Foundation Myths in Flateyjarbk , in Old Norse Myths, Literature and Society 441-54.
    • Myth_Religion-Bibliography 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.galinngrund.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ A Toponymic Aspect of the Euhemeristic Concept: Comments on Snorris Interpretation of sgarr, Migarr and tgarr in the Prose Edda and Ynglingasaga , in Old Norse Myths, Literature and Society 540.
    • Myth_Religion-Bibliography 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.galinngrund.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The Construction of Gender in Old Norse Myth, in Old Norse Myths, Literature and Society 375-85.
    • Myth_Religion-Bibliography 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.galinngrund.org [Source type: Academic]

    1: The Myths
    . Odense: Odense Univ. Press. .ISBN 8778380081.
  • Davidson, H. R. Ellis (1964).^ Davidson, H R Ellis (1964).

    .Gods and Myths of Northern Europe.^ Davidson, H. R. Ellis, Gods and Myths of Northern Europe (1990).
    • Myth_Religion-Bibliography 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.galinngrund.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ God at the Borders: Northern Myth and Anglo-saxon Heroic Story, in Myth in Early Northwest Europe (Stephen O. Glosecki, ed.,), pp.
    • Myth_Religion-Bibliography 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.galinngrund.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Greek Gods in Northern Costumes: Visual Representations of Norse Mythology in 19th Century Scandinavia, in Old Norse Myths, Literature and Society 209-19.
    • Myth_Religion-Bibliography 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.galinngrund.org [Source type: Academic]

    Baltimore: Penguin. New edition 1990 by Penguin Books. .ISBN 0-14-013627-4. (Several runestones)
  • —— (1969).^ ISBN 0-14-013627-4.

    Scandinavian Mythology. .London and New York: Hamlyn.^ London and New York: Hamlyn, 1970].

    ^ London and New York: Hamlyn.

    .ISBN 0-87226-041-0. Reissued 1996 as Viking and Norse Mythology.^ Reissued 1996 as Viking and Norse Mythology .

    ^ Treasure of Norse Mythology Volume I ISBN 978-3-922800-99-6.

    ^ Encyclopedia Mythica - Norse mythology Old Norse Mythology : essays on Loke and the Norns, and some introductory material The Viking Home Page , general information about the Vikings.
    • Norse Mythology in The Wheel of Time 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC hem3.passagen.se [Source type: Original source]

    .New York: Barnes and Noble.
  • —— (1988).^ New York: Barnes and Noble.
    • Women and The Gift Economy 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.gift-economy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Norsemythology.eu 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.norsemythology.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Myths and Symbols in Pagan Europe.^ Davidson, H. R. Ellis, Myths and Symbols in Pagan Europe (1988).
    • Myth_Religion-Bibliography 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.galinngrund.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Book Review: Ellis Davidson, Myths and Symbols in Pagan Europe , 61 Medium Aevum 312-13.
    • Myth_Religion-Bibliography 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.galinngrund.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Book Review: Ellis Davidson, Myths and Symbols in Pagan Europe , 30 Scandinavica 235-38.
    • Myth_Religion-Bibliography 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.galinngrund.org [Source type: Academic]

    Syracuse, NY: Syracuse Univ. Press. ISBN 0815624387.
  • —— (1993). .The Lost Beliefs of Northern Europe.^ Davidson, Hilda Ellis, The Lost Beliefs of Northern Europe (1993).
    • Myth_Religion-Bibliography 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.galinngrund.org [Source type: Academic]

    .London & New York: Routledge.^ London and New York: Hamlyn.

    ^ New York: Routledge Sawin, Patricia.
    • Women and The Gift Economy 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.gift-economy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .ISBN 0415049377.
  • de Vries, Jan. Altgermanische Religionsgeschichte, 2 vols., 2nd.^ Scholars who have linked Odin with the "Death God" template include E. A. Ebbinghaus , Jan de Vries and Thor Templin .
    • NORSE MYTHOLOGY, COSMOGONY AND COSMOLOGY 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC native-science.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Pagan Scandinavia (1967), and Scandinavian Mythlogy (1986); De Vries, Jan, Heroic Song and Heroic Legend, ed.
    • Norse Mythology in The Wheel of Time 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC hem3.passagen.se [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Altgermanische Religionsgeschichte , 2 vols., 2nd.

    ed., .Grundriss der germanischen Philogie, 12–13. Berlin: W. de Gruyter.
  • DuBois, Thomas A. (1999).^ DuBois, Thomas A., Nordic Religions in the Viking Age (1999).
    • Myth_Religion-Bibliography 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.galinngrund.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Grundriss der germanischen Philogie, 12–13.

    ^ Berlin: W. de Gruyter.

    .Nordic Religions in the Viking Age.^ DuBois, Thomas A., Nordic Religions in the Viking Age (1999).
    • Myth_Religion-Bibliography 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.galinngrund.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Price, Neil S., The Viking Way: Religion and War in Late Iron Age Scandinavia (2002).
    • Myth_Religion-Bibliography 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.galinngrund.org [Source type: Academic]

    Philadelphia: Univ. Pennsylvania Press. .ISBN 0812217144.
  • Dumézil, Georges (1973).^ Dumézil, Georges (1973).

    .Gods of the Ancient Northmen.^ Kees W. Bolle (1963); Dumezil, Georges, Gods of the Ancient Northmen (Eng.
    • Norse Mythology in The Wheel of Time 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC hem3.passagen.se [Source type: Original source]

    Ed. & trans. Einar Haugen. .Berkeley: University of California Press.^ Berkeley and Los Angeles, University of California Press, 1990.
    • The Norse Mythology Behind Valkyrie Profile 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.rpgamer.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ David Greenebaum/University of California/Berkeley, CA .

    ISBN 0-520-03507-0.
  • Grimm, Jacob (1888). Teutonic Mythology, 4 vols. Trans. S. Stallybras. London. Reprinted 2003 by Kessinger. ISBN 0-7661-7742-4, ISBN 0-7661-7743-2, ISBN 0-7661-7744-0, ISBN 0-7661-7745-9. Reprinted 2004 Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-43615-2 (4 vols.), .ISBN 0-486-43546-6, ISBN 0-486-43547-4, ISBN 0-486-43548-2, ISBN 0-486-43549-0.
  • Lindow, John (1988).^ Lindow, John, Murder and Vengeance Among the Gods: Baldr in Scandinavian Mythology (1997).
    • Myth_Religion-Bibliography 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.galinngrund.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Lindow, John, Handbook of Norse Mythology (2001).
    • Myth_Religion-Bibliography 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.galinngrund.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Mythology and Mythography, in Old-Norse-Icelandic Literature: A Critical Guide 21-67 (Carol J. Clover and John Lindow, eds.
    • Myth_Religion-Bibliography 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.galinngrund.org [Source type: Academic]

    .Scandinavian Mythology: An Annotated Bibliography, Garland Folklore Bibliographies, 13. New York: Garland.^ MYTHOLOGY @ WEB ENGLISH TEACHER NEW! http://www.webenglishteacher.com/myth.html Links for teaching mythology, folklore and the Hero’s Journey.
    • Websites on Mythology in World Cultures 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: General]

    ^ FOLKLORE CREATURES – MYTH OR REALITY? – WEBQUEST NEW! http://questgarden.com/06/13/4/070302111225/index.htm A webquest on folklore creatures for grades 8-10.
    • Websites on Mythology in World Cultures 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: General]

    ^ ANCIENT MYTHOLOGY AND FOLKLORE NEW! http://library.thinkquest.org/03oct/01155/mythology.html A site by students for upper elementary students and up on mythology.
    • Websites on Mythology in World Cultures 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: General]

    ISBN 0-8240-9173-6.
  • —— (2001). .Norse Mythology: A Guide to the Gods, Heroes, Rituals, and Beliefs.^ In Norse mythology, Ullr is the god of war and the chase.

    ^ Sections: Greek Mythology General Section, Greek Gods and Goddesses Section, Greek Mythological Creatures Section, Greek Heroes Section, Greek Mythology Review Section, Extension Section and Links and Credits.
    • Websites on Mythology in World Cultures 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: General]

    ^ In Norse mythology, Ulle is the god of the chase.

    Oxford: Oxford University Press. .ISBN 0-19-515382-0. (A dictionary of Norse mythology.^ Greek Gods in Northern Costumes: Visual Representations of Norse Mythology in 19th Century Scandinavia, in Old Norse Myths, Literature and Society 209-19.
    • Myth_Religion-Bibliography 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.galinngrund.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ ENCYCLOPEDIA OF NORSE MYTHOLOGY NEW! http://todd.reimer.com/norse/myth.html A dictionary of the characters in Norse mythology.
    • Websites on Mythology in World Cultures 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: General]

    )
  • Mirachandra (2006). .Treasure of Norse Mythology Volume I ISBN 978-3-922800-99-6.
  • Motz, Lotte (1996).^ Motz, Lotte (1996).
    • Myth_Religion-Bibliography 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.galinngrund.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Motz, Lotte, The King, the Champion and the Sorcerer: A Study in Germanic Myth (1996).
    • Myth_Religion-Bibliography 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.galinngrund.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Davidson, H. R. Ellis, Viking and Norse Mythology (1996).
    • Myth_Religion-Bibliography 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.galinngrund.org [Source type: Academic]

    .The King, the Champion and the Sorcerer: A Study in Germanic Myth.^ Freyr--The Sacred King, in The King, the Champion and the Sorcerer 11-32.
    • Myth_Religion-Bibliography 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.galinngrund.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The Wanderer, in The King, the Champion and the Sorcerer 69-101.
    • Myth_Religion-Bibliography 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.galinngrund.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Motz, Lotte, The King, the Champion and the Sorcerer: A Study in Germanic Myth (1996).
    • Myth_Religion-Bibliography 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.galinngrund.org [Source type: Academic]

    Wien: Fassbaender. ISBN 3900538573.
  • O'Donoghue, Heather (2007). .From Asgard to Valhalla  : the remarkable history of the Norse myths.^ Asgard - Myth: One of the nine worlds in Norse Mythology; the home of the Aesir, located on the highest of the three levels of the universe.
    • GameFAQs: Valkyrie Profile (PS) Norse Mythology Guide by Hexum 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.gamefaqs.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Races: Aesir - ("god") Myth: The Aesir are the main race of gods in Norse Mythology who live in Asgard at the highest level of the universe.
    • GameFAQs: Valkyrie Profile (PS) Norse Mythology Guide by Hexum 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.gamefaqs.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Iceland represented a remarkable nexus for Norse and Germanic myth and skaldic poetry from 1000 AD onward.
    • Norse and German Mythology 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.terrapsych.com [Source type: Original source]

    London: I. B. Tauris. .ISBN 1845113578.
  • Orchard, Andy (1997).^ Orchard, Andy, Cassell Dictionary of Norse Myth and Legend (1997).
    • Myth_Religion-Bibliography 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.galinngrund.org [Source type: Academic]

    .Cassell's Dictionary of Norse Myth and Legend.^ Origin Legends and Foundation Myths in Flateyjarbk , in Old Norse Myths, Literature and Society 441-54.
    • Myth_Religion-Bibliography 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.galinngrund.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ McKinnell, John, Meeting the Other in Norse Myth and Legend (2005).
    • Myth_Religion-Bibliography 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.galinngrund.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Orchard, Andy, Cassell Dictionary of Norse Myth and Legend (1997).
    • Myth_Religion-Bibliography 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.galinngrund.org [Source type: Academic]

    London: Cassell. ISBN 0-304-36385-5.
  • Page, R. I. (1990). Norse Myths (The Legendary Past). .London: British Museum; and Austin: University of Texas Press.^ London: Oxford University Press, 1937.
    • Viking Answer Lady Webpage - Old Norse Names 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.vikinganswerlady.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .ISBN 0-292-75546-5.
  • Price, Neil S (2002).^ Price, Neil S., The Viking Way: Religion and War in Late Iron Age Scandinavia (2002).
    • Myth_Religion-Bibliography 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.galinngrund.org [Source type: Academic]

    .The Viking Way: Religion and War in Late Iron Age Scandinavia.^ DuBois, Thomas A., Nordic Religions in the Viking Age (1999).
    • Myth_Religion-Bibliography 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.galinngrund.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Price, Neil S., The Viking Way: Religion and War in Late Iron Age Scandinavia (2002).
    • Myth_Religion-Bibliography 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.galinngrund.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Rewriting the German War God: George Dumzil, Politics and Scholarship in the Late 1930s, 38 History of Religions 187-208.
    • Myth_Religion-Bibliography 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.galinngrund.org [Source type: Academic]

    Uppsala: Dissertation, Dept. .Archaeology & Ancient History.^ Ancient and Modern history and archaeology.

    ^ Julia Hayden's Ancient World Web contains links to and reviews of a number of sites dealing with archaeology, history, art, mythology and ancient religions.
    • Myths and Legends - frames 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.myths.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Myths and Legends - frames 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC home.comcast.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ISBN 9150616269.
  • Simek, Rudolf (1993). .Dictionary of Northern Mythology.^ Simek, Rudolf, Dictionary of Northern Mythology (1984).
    • Myth_Religion-Bibliography 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.galinngrund.org [Source type: Academic]

    Trans. Angela Hall. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer. .ISBN 0-85991-369-4. New edition 2000, ISBN 0-85991-513-1.
  • Simrock, Karl Joseph (1853–1855) Handbuch der deutschen Mythologie.
  • Svanberg, Fredrik (2003).^ Svanberg, Fredrik, Decolonizing the Viking Age (2 vol., 2003).
    • Myth_Religion-Bibliography 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.galinngrund.org [Source type: Academic]

    .Decolonizing the Viking Age.^ Svanberg, Fredrik, Decolonizing the Viking Age (2 vol., 2003).
    • Myth_Religion-Bibliography 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.galinngrund.org [Source type: Academic]

    Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell. ISBN 9122020063(v. 1); 9122020071(v. .2).
  • Turville-Petre, E O Gabriel (1964).^ Turville-Petre, Gabriel (1972).
    • Myth_Religion-Bibliography 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.galinngrund.org [Source type: Academic]

    .Myth and Religion of the North: The Religion of Ancient Scandinavia.^ Father James W. Reites' course on the Origins of Western Religion contains a description and links concerning Religion in the Ancient Near East: Myths and Gods .
    • Myths and Legends - frames 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.myths.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Myths and Legends - frames 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC home.comcast.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ NORTH AMERICAN CREATION MYTHS NEW! http://www.historyforkids.org/learn/northamerica/before1500/religion/creation.htm Creation myths of Native American tribes.
    • Websites on Mythology in World Cultures 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: General]

    ^ These stories or myths reveal a great deal about the world of Ancient Greece, its geography, values, religion, and customs.
    • Websites on Mythology in World Cultures 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: General]

    London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. Reprinted 1975, Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-8371-7420-1.

Romanticism

  • Anderson, Rasmus (1875). .Norse Mythology, or, The Religion of Our Forefathers.^ Now that we have given an orderly view of the mythology of our forefathers, some mention should be made of the chief sources from which the account has been drawn.
    • Peter Andreas Munch � Norse Mythology � Part 1 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.vaidilute.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ So far as this phase of the religion of our fathers is concerned, we must rest content with the indications furnished in the foregoing division of the book, on the Myths of the Gods, or the Mythology Proper.
    • Peter Andreas Munch � Norse Mythology � Part 1 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.vaidilute.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ We may with some justice speak of a system of divinity or a mythology of the Eddas; but this does not mean the same as the actual religion of our forefathers, their systems of belief and worship.
    • Peter Andreas Munch � Norse Mythology � Part 1 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.vaidilute.com [Source type: Original source]

    Chicago: S.C. Griggs.
  • Guerber, H. A. (1909). Myths of the Norsemen: From the Eddas and Sagas. London: George G. Harrap. Reprinted 1992, Mineola, N.Y.: Dover. ISBN 0-486-27348-2.
  • Keary, A & E (1909), The Heroes of Asgard. New York: Macmillan Company. Reprinted 1982 by Smithmark Pub. ISBN 0-8317-4475-8. Reprinted 1979 by Pan Macmillan ISBN 0-333-07802-0.
  • Mable, Hamilton Wright (1901). .Norse Stories Retold from the Eddas.^ Eddas: the collections of stories and poems that constitute the primary early record of Norse and Icelandic mythology.
    • Norse and German Mythology 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.terrapsych.com [Source type: Original source]

    Mead and Company. .Reprinted 1999, New York: Hippocrene Books.^ New York, Pantheon Books, 1980.
    • The Norse Mythology Behind Valkyrie Profile 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.rpgamer.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ New York, Galahad Books, 1980.
    • The Norse Mythology Behind Valkyrie Profile 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.rpgamer.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ New York: Anchor Books.
    • Women and The Gift Economy 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.gift-economy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .ISBN 0-7818-0770-0.
  • Mackenzie, Donald A (1912).^ Eddas: the collections of stories and poems that constitute the primary early record of Norse and Icelandic mythology.
    • Norse and German Mythology 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.terrapsych.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Greek epics ARE religious stories (as are the Vedas, Norse Eddas, Irish sagas, Kalevala, etc etc)!
    • 7 Books We Lost to History That Would Have Changed the World | Cracked.com 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Within its extensive archives, Project Runeberg offers The Poetic Edda , both in modern Swedish and in Old Norse.
    • Myths and Legends - frames 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.myths.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Myths and Legends - frames 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC home.comcast.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Teutonic Myth and Legend. New York: W H Wise & Co. 1934. Reprinted 2003 by University Press of the Pacific. .ISBN 1-4102-0740-4.
  • Rydberg, Viktor (1889).^ Lakota and Native American Myths and Legends of the Sioux in e-text Slavic .

    ^ Sections: Folk and Mythology Electronic Texts, Folk and Fairy Tale Links and Germanic Myths, Legends and Sagas.
    • Websites on Mythology in World Cultures 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: General]

    Teutonic Mythology, trans. Rasmus B. Anderson. London: Swan Sonnenschein & Co. Reprinted 2001, Elibron Classics. ISBN 1-4021-9391-2. Reprinted 2004, Kessinger Publishing Company. ISBN 0-7661-8891-4.
  • Waddell, L. A. (1930). The British Edda. London: Chapman & Hall.

Modern retellings

.
  • Colum, Padraic (1920).^ Well, without further ado, here's a guide to the Norse Mythology found in Valkyrie Profile.
    • GameFAQs: Valkyrie Profile (PS) Norse Mythology Guide by Hexum 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.gamefaqs.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ NORSE MYTHOLOGY NEW! http://www.geocities.com/Athens/delphi/8991/scanda.html Information on Norse mythology.
    • Websites on Mythology in World Cultures 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: General]

    ^ Sverre Moe's Viking History Web includes a good deal of information on Norse mythology and deities.
    • Myths and Legends - frames 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.myths.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Myths and Legends - frames 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC home.comcast.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The Children of Odin: A Book of Northern Myths, illustrated by Willy Pogány.^ Don't get me I like norse mytholya as well from the norse I like Loki , Thor , Odin , the migrad serpent , the golden appels myth , Loki' children , the death of baluder , ragnork etc.
    • Norse Mythology vs Greek Mythology [Archive] - Comic Book Resources Forums 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC forums.comicbookresources.com [Source type: Original source]

    New York, Macmillan. Reprinted 2004 by Aladdin, ISBN 0-689-86885-5.
  • Crossley-Holland, Kevin (1981).^ Crossley-Holland, Kevin.
    • The Norse Mythology Behind Valkyrie Profile 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.rpgamer.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Introduced and Retold by Kevin Crossley-Holland .
    • Bob & Nancy's Bookshop - Waldorf Teacher-Homeschool Resources - Storytelling 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.waldorfbooks.com [Source type: General]

    The Norse Myths. .New York: Pantheon Books.^ New York, Galahad Books, 1980.
    • The Norse Mythology Behind Valkyrie Profile 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.rpgamer.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ New York: Anchor Books.
    • Women and The Gift Economy 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.gift-economy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ New York, Pantheon Books, 1980.
    • The Norse Mythology Behind Valkyrie Profile 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.rpgamer.com [Source type: Original source]

    .ISBN 0-394-74846-8. Also released as The Penguin Book of Norse Myths: Gods of the Vikings.^ He is also a god of war, appearing throughout Norse myth as the bringer of victory.
    • NORSE MYTHOLOGY, COSMOGONY AND COSMOLOGY 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC native-science.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Ragnarok - ("Doom of the Gods", "Destruction of the Powers") Myth: The beggining of the end of the world in Norse Mythology.
    • GameFAQs: Valkyrie Profile (PS) Norse Mythology Guide by Hexum 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.gamefaqs.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Greek Gods in Northern Costumes: Visual Representations of Norse Mythology in 19th Century Scandinavia, in Old Norse Myths, Literature and Society 209-19.
    • Myth_Religion-Bibliography 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.galinngrund.org [Source type: Academic]

    Harmondsworth: Penguin. ISBN 0-14-025869-8.
  • d'Aulaire, Ingri and Edgar (1967). ."d'Aulaire's Book of Norse Myths". New York, New York Review of Books.
  • Munch, Peter Andreas (1927).^ Book Review: Ellis Davidson, Myths and Symbols in Pagan Europe , 61 Medium Aevum 312-13.
    • Myth_Religion-Bibliography 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.galinngrund.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ New York, Galahad Books, 1980.
    • The Norse Mythology Behind Valkyrie Profile 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.rpgamer.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Book Review: McKinnell, Both One and Many: Essays on Change and Variety in Late Norse Heathenism , 4 Alvssml 113-15.
    • Myth_Religion-Bibliography 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.galinngrund.org [Source type: Academic]

    .Norse Mythology: Legends of Gods and Heroes, Scandinavian Classics.^ Lindow, John, Murder and Vengeance Among the Gods: Baldr in Scandinavian Mythology (1997).
    • Myth_Religion-Bibliography 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.galinngrund.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Sections: Greek Mythology General Section, Greek Gods and Goddesses Section, Greek Mythological Creatures Section, Greek Heroes Section, Greek Mythology Review Section, Extension Section and Links and Credits.
    • Websites on Mythology in World Cultures 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: General]

    ^ Light Elves, ( Wikipedia Excerpt Light Elves ) In Norse mythology, the light elves (Old Norse: Ljósálfar) live in the Old Norse version of the heavens, in the place called Álfheim underneath the place of the Gods.
    • WinterSteel.Com - FAQs p4 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.wintersteel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Trans. Sigurd Bernhard Hustvedt (1963). New York: American-Scandinavian Foundation. ISBN 0-404-04538-3.

See also

.Spelling of names in Norse mythology often varies depending on the nationality of the source material.^ This is the name of the goddess of love and beauty in Norse mythology.
  • GREEK MYTHOLOGY NAMES 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.freewebs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In Norse mythology , Ymir , also named Aurgelmir ( Old Norse gravel-yeller ) among the giants themselves, was the founder of the race of frost giants and an important figure in Norse cosmology .
  • NORSE MYTHOLOGY, COSMOGONY AND COSMOLOGY 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC native-science.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In Norse mythology this was the name of a dwarf who was to marry Thor's daughter Thrud.
  • GREEK MYTHOLOGY NAMES 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.freewebs.com [Source type: Original source]

.For more information see Old Norse orthography
.^ For more information regarding that see Mimir.
  • GameFAQs: Valkyrie Profile (PS) Norse Mythology Guide by Hexum 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.gamefaqs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For more information regarding this see Valkyrie.
  • GameFAQs: Valkyrie Profile (PS) Norse Mythology Guide by Hexum 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.gamefaqs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ (See individual listings below for more information on each of these events.
  • The Norse Mythology Behind Valkyrie Profile 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.rpgamer.com [Source type: Original source]

External links


Wikibooks

Up to date as of January 23, 2010
(Redirected to Mythology/Norse Mythology article)

From Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection

< Mythology

Contents

Norse culture and language, basics of Norse mythology

.Norse mythology refers to the pre-Christian beliefs of the Scandinavian people.^ Norse mythology represents the early pre-Christian religion and legends of the Scandinavian people.

^ The geography of the Norse universe in Scandinavian mythology.
  • Classic Literature - Search Results 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC classiclit.about.com [Source type: General]

^ Pre-Christian religious beliefs of the Scandinavian people.
  • http://www.worldalmanacforkids.com/WAKI-ViewArticle.aspx?pin=x-sc054400a&article_id=373&chapter_id=7&chapter_title=Mythology&article_title=More_about_Norse_Mythology 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.worldalmanacforkids.com [Source type: Original source]
  • http://waforkids.com/WAKI-ViewArticle.aspx?pin=x-sc054400a&article_id=373&chapter_id=7&chapter_title=Mythology&article_title=More_about_Norse_Mythology 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC waforkids.com [Source type: Original source]

.It is the most well known version of the older mythology common to the germanic tribes, including the closely related anglo-saxon mythology.^ Norse mythology is the best-preserved version of the older common Germanic paganism , which also includes the closely related Anglo-Saxon mythology .
  • norse mythology 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: General]

^ Norse mythology is the best-preserved version of the older common Germanic paganism , which also includes the closely related Anglo-Saxon mythology.

^ Norse mythology is the best-preserved version of the older common Germanic mythology, which also includes the closely related Anglo-Saxon mythology.

.The language spoken during the period that the norse gods were worshipped, was Old Norse.^ Writing in the 13th century, Snorri Sturluson tell us that "she alone among the gods is yet with us" an admission that her worship continued well into the Christian period.
  • Stamp Whys - "Odin's Game" - The Norse Gods 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.themysterybox.com [Source type: General]

^ The group, whose name mean "Old Custom" in old Norse, worships gods from the Norse pantheon, like their Viking forebears from the 8th, 9th and 10th centuries.
  • Denmark to allow 'Norse gods' marriage ceremonies 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.mail-archive.com [Source type: Original source]

^ According to Norse mythology the wolf Fenrir kills Odin during the events of Ragnarök (Old Norse ‘final destiny of the gods’), when the world in its present form perishes.
  • Max Payne Tattoo and Norse Viking Mythology 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.vikingrune.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By the time this language split up into different languages (not including dialects), Christianity had taken root in much of Northern Europe.^ In Christian times, holly taken into the church for Christmas celebration (or hazel for Easter) was carried home and hung up to ward off lightning the rest of the year.
  • All About Thyme: A Weekly Calendar of Times & Seasonings e-Letter 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.abouthyme.com [Source type: General]

^ Often times these myths can be difficult to understand because they view  the world in a much different way than western Christianized society.
  • Norse Mythology - History, Modern-Day References - Associated Content - associatedcontent.com 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ By this time, Roman Christianity was well established in Western Europe and no longer felt much threatened by the few remaining traces of pre-Christian thought.
  • The Norse 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC faculty.cua.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Sources

.Originally, much of Norse mythology consisted of spoken legends, told from the elders and parents to the children, and that way passed on.^ Most of them deal with Norse mythology and legend.
  • Poetic Edda 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC sunnyway.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Norse mythology : legends of gods and heroes.
  • Long Beach City College--Library Subject Guide--The Vikings 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC lib.lbcc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He told her all about the runemarks and the Norse Legends that contain the Gods that are currently banned and erased by the leaders of the Ragnarok town.
  • Runemarks - gigapedia.com 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC gigapedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.However, some of it is written, like the Eddas and the first part of Heimskringla (written by Snorri Sturlason between 1220 and 1230 on Iceland), which is also known as The Norwegian King Sagas, as it tells about the Norwegian kings, and their supposed relation to the Gods.^ The Eddas and sagas weren't written on paper.
  • The Norwegian Connection - Mythology 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.celticattic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The fourth, the Volsunga Saga, also comes from Iceland and was written about 50 years after Snorri.
  • GERMANIC (NORSE) MYTHOLOGY 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.zianet.com [Source type: Original source]

^ (The legends of Norwegian and Icelandic kings, recorded from the 12th to the 15th cent., are called sagas.
  • mythology Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about mythology 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The original title of this work is not known, as the oldest version lacks the title page, and starts with "Kringla Heimsis". Other than this, there are also runestones, which for practical reasons cannot contain very much information, and the surviving myths and folklore.^ Norse mythology is very different than other, better known, mythologies.
  • How to Understand Norse Mythology | eHow.com 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.ehow.com [Source type: General]
  • Questions about Norse Mythology - Ask.com 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.ask.com [Source type: General]

^ The other core text of Norse mythology, translated with an ear to the poetics and alliteration of the original works.
  • Isis Books & Gifts: Runes And Norse Myth And Magick Feature Page 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.isisbooks.com [Source type: General]

^ Indeed, as Hamilton writes, these myths can be seen as “early science.” Much of classical myth, however, is far more complex than these simple explanatory tales.
  • SparkNotes: Mythology: Overview 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.sparknotes.com [Source type: General]

The universe as seen by the believers of norse mythology

.The universe was believed to be a collection of flat, circular discs, known as the nine worlds.^ Their universe consisted of nine different worlds.
  • HCCHS Student News - The Norse gods 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC yourstudentnews.com [Source type: General]

^ According to Norse myths, the Universe was divided into three levels and nine different worlds resided in these levels.Various Norse gods and goddess resided in these worlds.
  • Norse Gods and Goddesses 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Norse mythology depicts the Earth as a flat disc, which is located in the branches of the world tree (also known as Yggdrasil).
  •    «   h y u u . D E S I G N S    »   20   s u b l i m i t y  16 January 2010 9:54 UTC hyuu.chanlu.org [Source type: General]

The worlds were:
.
Alfheim          World of the Light Elves
Asgard           World of the Aesir
Jotunheim    World of the Giants.^ Alfheim – The land of the light elves in Asgard Algron – Island where Odin (Harbard) stayed for five years Asgard – Land of the Aesir Bilskirnir – Thor’s hall in Asgard Bifrost - The flaming rainbow bridge between Asgard and Midgard Breidablik – Balder’s hall in Asgard Elivagar – The eleven rivers that flow from the spring of Hvergelmir in Niflheim.
  • The Norse Gods 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC thenorsegods.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The Norse Gods | The Norse Gods 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC thenorsegods.com [Source type: Original source]

^ THE CREATION OF THE WORLD THE GIANTS THE ÆSIR MEN AND WOMEN DWARFS VANIR ELVES .
  • Peter Andreas Munch � Norse Mythology � Part 1 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.vaidilute.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Worlds - Alfheim - Asgard - Jotenheim - Midgard - Nifleheim As you can see, I put everything in alphabetical order.
  • GameFAQs: Valkyrie Profile (PS) Norse Mythology Guide by Hexum 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.gamefaqs.com [Source type: Original source]

.Midgard Home of mankind.^ His eyelashes (or eyebrows) became the fence surrounding Midgard , or Middle Earth, the home of mankind.
  • NORSE MYTHOLOGY, COSMOGONY AND COSMOLOGY 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC native-science.net [Source type: Original source]

^ They called mankinds home Midgard, because it was situated in the middle of the world.
  • Norway: Norse Mythology - Norsk mytologi - Bergen Cultural heritage - Bergen Guide, Norway - Artikler - 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.bergen-guide.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This central portion is Midgard (Miðgarðr), the home of mankind.
  • Norse Mythology - Gods and Goddesses of Norse Mythology 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC ancienthistory.about.com [Source type: General]

.Muspelheim World of fire and the fire-giants, home of the giant Surt.^ Fire giants inhabit Muspelheim.
  • Norse and German Mythology 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.terrapsych.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Surt is the ruler of the fire giants, who live in Muspelheim.
  • GameFAQs: Valkyrie Profile (PS) Norse Mythology Guide by Hexum 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.gamefaqs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Race: Fire-giant Known relatives: Múspell (father) Story: Surtr was the son of Múspell, the glowing and burning southern region of the first world.
  • WeirdSpace Encyclopedia: Surtr (Norse mythology) 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.weirdspace.dk [Source type: Original source]

.Nidavellir Home of the Dwarves Niflheim World of the ice and that of the dead, which is also known as Hell.^ Iceland, the last stronghold of Norse paganism, is a land of fire and ice, so it is not surprising that the world begins the same way, in the meeting of Musspellheim and Niflheim.

^ The frozen reaches were known as the Home of Fogs, or Niflheim; the torrid region as Muspellsheim, which may perhaps be rendered, the Home of Desolation.
  • Peter Andreas Munch � Norse Mythology � Part 1 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.vaidilute.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One of its roots was in Asgarth, one was in Jotunheim, and one was in Niflheim that was the World of the Dead.
  • *�*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Odin's Ordeal | Viking mythology religion customs longboats asatru norse pagan myths odin odinism 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

Svartalfheim World of the Dark Elves Vanaheim Home of the Vanir
.All the nine worlds were connected by the World Tree, or Yggdrasill, the roots and branches connecting the different worlds.^ Yggdrasil The World-Tree; upon and around it all of reality is contructed.
  • Norse Pantheon - Folklore and Mythology 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.bellaonline.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These worlds were connected by Yggdrasil , or the world ash root, a giant tree with Asgard at its top.

^ This disk is situated in the branches of the world tree, or Yggdrasil.

In Niflheim, the dead resided. .However, unlike the stories known today of Hell (notice Hel versus hell), Niflheim was a material place located in connection with the other worlds.^ The term "India", however, did not always mean the place known today as India but rather was more synonymous with "Cush" which term was sometimes applied to areas east of the Caspian Sea in present-day Central Asia and is the "Cush" (i.e.
  • Tribe of Zebulon by Yair Davidiy 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC britam.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Unlike the Greek and Roman stories, which have been retold in many versions that still exist today, the Norse tales have barely survived.
  • SparkNotes: Mythology: Overview 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.sparknotes.com [Source type: General]

^ "Objective: Students will be able to connect real world logos and meanings to the names of companies and places by relating them to Greek myths."
  • Websites on Mythology in World Cultures 20 September 2009 18:22 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: General]

.Surrounding Midgard it was believed a Giant worm lived near the edge of the plate, Midgardsormrinn.^ They lived in Alvheim, which was believed by some to be located within the walls of sgard and by others in Midgard.
  • Norway: Norse Mythology - Norsk mytologi - Bergen Cultural heritage - Bergen Guide, Norway - Artikler - 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.bergen-guide.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They are the " hill-folk " or " cave-men," and live at Jotunheim, on the edge of the Earth, which is imagined flat, and surrounded by the Ocean.
  • Mythology - Traces of Norse Mythology, 1904 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.isle-of-man.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the beginning, there was nothing but an endless void, called the Ginnungagap, and Muspelheim and Niflheim, terrible worlds of pain.^ In the beginning, there was the void, and the void was called 'Ginnungagap'.
  • BBC - h2g2 - Norse Mythology - A625619 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The world is nothing but a dark and void place.
  • Myths 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC home.swipnet.se [Source type: Original source]

^ In the beginning of time, before the world was formed there was nothing but the void called Ginnungagap .

.Out of this void came Ymir, the first living creature.^ A poem called "The Lay of Vafthrudnir," however, says that the first man and first woman grew out of Ymir's armpits before he was killed.
  • Norse Mythology - Myth Encyclopedia - Greek, god, story, legend, names, ancient, tree, war, world, Roman, creation, life, hero, king, people, children, creatures, evil, fire, monster, warrior 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.mythencyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These creatures live by the first root of Yggdrasil (the world tree) next to a well, which is known as the Well of Fate.
  • Myths 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC home.swipnet.se [Source type: Original source]

^ All the Ymir kids came out to watch the best riders in the world.
  • Ymir, mountain bike movie capital of the world! - DirtWorld.com 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.dirtworld.com [Source type: General]

.He was a giant, and became the father of the race of frost giants.^ Frost formed and became a giant, Ymir.
  • Norse Mythology - Myth Encyclopedia - Greek, god, story, legend, names, ancient, tree, war, world, Roman, creation, life, hero, king, people, children, creatures, evil, fire, monster, warrior 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.mythencyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He fathered the race of frost giants who were enemies of the gods.
  • The Gods of the Vikings 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC elswet.50megs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ymir became father of a race of frost-giants.

.Ymir was the father of a six-headed son that was nourished by a cosmic cow called Audumla.^ A cow, Audumla , nourished him with her milk.
  • NORSE MYTHOLOGY, COSMOGONY AND COSMOLOGY 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC native-science.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Audhumia (Audhumbla): Cow that nourished Ymir ; created Buri by licking ice cliff.
  • Norse Mythology@Everything2.com 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Norse Mythology@Everything2.com 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Audhumia (Audhumbla): Cow that nourished Ymir; created Buri by licking ice cliff.
  • http://www.factmonster.com/ipka/A0197623.html 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.factmonster.com [Source type: General]
  • http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0197623.html 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.infoplease.com [Source type: General]
  • Norse Mythology 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.meta-religion.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Audumla fed herself by licking the salty rime-stone, until that stone was licked into a shape of man.^ Audumla fed herself by licking the salty rime-stone, until that stone was licked into a shape of man.

^ Licks it into the shape of a man nonetheless.
  • Norse Mythology vs Greek Mythology [Archive] - Comic Book Resources Forums 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC forums.comicbookresources.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Audumla was herself nourished by licking salty, rime-covered stones.
  • NORSE MYTHOLOGY, COSMOGONY AND COSMOLOGY 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC native-science.net [Source type: Original source]

.This stone-man was named Buri and he was the first primeval god.^ His name was Buri and he was the first god.
  • HCCHS Student News - The Norse gods 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC yourstudentnews.com [Source type: General]

^ The man's name was Buri .
  • Norse Mythology 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.sunnyway.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This stone-man was named Buri and he was the first primeval god.

.Buri was the father of Bor.^ Bor Norse Son of the Primal being Buri and father of Oinn, Vili, and Ve by his giantess consort Bestla.
  • Norse Pantheon - Folklore and Mythology 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.bellaonline.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Audumla, who licked the ice to uncover Buri, who fathered Bor (one of the fathered frost giants) who fathered Odin, Vili, and Ve.
  • Norse Mythology: An Introduction 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.essex1.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Buri A Norse Primal being, coalesced out of the First Ice, and freed from within the block by Auumla, father of Bor.
  • Norse Pantheon - Folklore and Mythology 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.bellaonline.com [Source type: Original source]

.Bor married the giantess Bestla, and became father of Odin, Ve and Vili.^ Odin is a son of Bor and Bestla.
  • The Old Scandinavian Mythology! 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC arcticboyz.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Son of Bor and Bestla, brother of Odin and Ve.

^ Bor and Bestla married and had three sons: Odin, Vili, and Ve.
  • GameFAQs: Valkyrie Profile (PS) Norse Mythology Guide by Hexum 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.gamefaqs.com [Source type: Original source]

.After a time, Ymir grew so evil and large that the three gods slew him, and used him to create the universe.^ Ymir soon grew so evil and large that the three gods were forced to kill him.

^ While Ymir slept, the milk from Audhumbla fed him, and from Ymir's armpits grew a male and female frost giant.
  • GameFAQs: Valkyrie Profile (PS) Norse Mythology Guide by Hexum 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.gamefaqs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ According to Norse myths, the Universe was divided into three levels and nine different worlds resided in these levels.Various Norse gods and goddess resided in these worlds.
  • Norse Gods and Goddesses 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: Original source]

.Midgard was created by Ymir's eyebrow as a place for the humans to dwell.^ The Creation of Humans After the creation of Midgard, the Vikings imagined that Odin and his brothers created the first humans.
  • The Norwegian Connection - Mythology 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.celticattic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Odin Creates the Universe Odin and his brothers first fashioned the earth (Midgard) from Ymir's flesh and, using his eyebrows, encircled it with a protective wall.
  • The Norwegian Connection - Mythology 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.celticattic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Asgards and Midgards then created comfortable living places for themselves and us humans and put such at the center of the world.
  • Beginning of Time in Norse Mythology 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC silvana.itgo.com [Source type: Original source]

.The first humans were Ask (ash) and Embla (elm).^ They became the first human beings, Ask and Embla.
  • GameFAQs: Valkyrie Profile (PS) Norse Mythology Guide by Hexum 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.gamefaqs.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The man was named Ask [Ash] and the woman Embla [Elm?
  • The Norse Creation Myth 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.pitt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The man was named Ask [Ash] and the woman Embla [Elm].
  • Norse Mythology 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.sunnyway.com [Source type: Original source]

.Sol is the goddess of the Sun, riding the heavens.^ In Scandinavia Sol was the goddess of the Sun and the daughter of Mundilfari, a giant who also fathered Mani, god of the Moon (In Scandinavia, North Germany and England the Sun is considered feminine and the Moon masculine).
  • Helios Apollo Hyperion Sol the Sun 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.myastrologybook.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Sol Goddess of the sun, who guides the sun-chariot through the sky.

^ Sol is the goddess of the sun, a daughter of Mundilfari, and wife of Glen.

.Her brother Mani, is the moon.^ In Norse mythology Sol and Mani, the Sun and the Moon, were chased by the wolf brothers Skoll and Hati.
  • Helios Apollo Hyperion Sol the Sun 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.myastrologybook.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This parallels her brother, the moon, Mani , who was chased by Hati , another wolf.
  • Norse mythology - Discussion and Encyclopedia Article. Who is Norse mythology? What is Norse mythology? Where is Norse mythology? Definition of Norse mythology. Meaning of Norse mythology. 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.knowledgerush.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Sol's brother, the moon, Mani, is chased by Hati, another wolf.

.It's easy to trace the present day Norwegian words Sol (sun) and måne (moon) to these norse gods.^ The Tibetan word for "sun" is the Hopi word for "moon" and the Hopi word for "sun" is the Tibetan word for "moon".

^ What word can best describe the Norse gods?
  • Cobblestone&Cricket: A Teacher's Guide to Norse Gods 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.cobblestonepub.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The day-names in English are named after norse gods.
  • Overview On Norse Mythology 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

War of the Aesir and Vanir

.The war between the Aesir and Vanir started when the Aesir, tired of her endless talk about gold and wealth, tortured the Vanir goddess Gullveig.^ After the war between the Aesir and the Vanir, he was sent as a hostage to the Vanir.

^ She is also a goddess of war, and according to Alternative Character Interpretation she was the one that started the mega-war between the Aesir and the Vanir.
  • Norse Mythology - Television Tropes & Idioms 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC tvtropes.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This section is on the Aesir and Vanir gods and goddesses.
  • Classic Literature - Search Results 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC classiclit.about.com [Source type: General]

.When the Vanir demanded equal status as the Aesir, the war broke out.^ War then broke out.
  • Norse Mythology 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.sunnyway.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Aesir did not have a wall around their home, Asgard, as it had been destroyed during the war with the other gods, the Vanir.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A625420 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Anyways, all this burning and rebirth pissed off the Vanir and set off the war between the Aesir and Vanir.
  • Norse Discourse: The Valkyries - Brat-halla 16 January 2010 9:54 UTC brat-halla.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[not finished]

See also


Simple English

's apples could they hope to live until Ragnarök. Image by J. Penrose, 1890.]] Norse or Scandinavian mythology is the belief and legends of the Scandinavian people. Norse mythology is a version of the older Germanic mythology and was later replaced by Christianity for the most part.

Norse mythology is a set of beliefs and stories shared by Northern Germanic tribes. It was not handed down from the gods to the mortal. It had no scripture. The mythology was passed on from one generation to the next in the form of poetry. It continued to be passed down this way through the time of the Vikings. The original beliefs were long lost. Our knowledge about it is mainly based on the Eddas and other medieval texts. These were written down during and after they turned to Christianity.

Contents

Cosmology

In Norse mythology, the earth was thought to be a flat disc. This disk is in the branches of the world tree, or Yggdrasil. Asgard was located at the centre of the disc. Asgard is where the gods lived. Asgard could only be reached by walking across the rainbow (the Bifröst bridge). The Giants lived in an place called Jötunheimr. Jötunheimr means giant realm.

A cold, dark place called Niflheim was ruled by Hel. She was the daughter of Loki. This was the eventual home of most of the dead. Located somewhere in the south was the fiery realm of Muspelheim, home of the fire giants.

In between Asgard and Niflheim was Midgard, the world of men.

Supernatural beings

often fought the giants.]]

There are three "clans" of deities, the Æsir, the Vanir, and the Jötnar (referred to as giants in this article). After a long war, the Æsir and Vanir made peace and joined together.

The Æsir and the Vanir are enemies with the Jötnar or giants. The Æsir are descendants of Jötnar. Both Æsir and Vanir intermarry with them. There are two kinds of giant: frost-giants and fire-giants.

There are many other supernatural beings. These include:

  • Fenrir the gigantic wolf
  • Jörmungandr the sea-serpent that is coiled around the world.
  • Hugin and Munin (thought and memory), the two ravens who keep Odin informed of what is happening on earth.
  • Ratatosk, the squirrel which scampers in the branches of the world tree, Yggdrasil.

Sources

Most of this mythology was passed down orally,(as poetry) and much of it has been lost. Some of it was recorded by Christian scholars. The main records come from the Eddas and the Heimskringla by Snorri Sturluson. He believed that pre-Christian deities were men and women rather than devils.

There are also several runestones and image stones that show scenes from Norse mythology, such as Thor's fishing trip and Odin being devoured by Fenrir.

Modern influences

Day (Norwegian) Origin
Mandag Moon's day
Tysdag Tyr's day
Onsdag Odin's day
Torsdag Thor's day
Fredag Freya's day
Laurdag "The day of the washing".
Sundag Sun's day

The Germanic gods have affected elements of every day western life in most countries that speak Germanic languages. An example is some of the names of the days of the week. The days were named after Roman gods in Latin (named after Sun, Moon, Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus, Saturn). The names for Tuesday through Friday were replaced with Germanic versions of the Roman gods. In English, Saturn was not replaced. Saturday is named after the sabbath in German, and is called "washing day" in Scandinavia.

Modern popular culture

J.R.R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings was influenced by the myths of the Northern Europeans. As it became popular, parts of its fantasy world moved into how people see the fantasy genre. In almost any modern fantasy novel, you can find Norse creatures like elves, dwarves, and giants.

Other websites


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 11, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Norse mythology, which are similar to those in the above article.








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