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Northeast India

Location of Northeast India

Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
Area 262,230 km²
States and territories Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tripura
Largest cities (2008) Guwahati, Agartala, Shillong, Aizawl, Imphal
Official languages Assamese, Bengali, Bodo, Manipuri
Population 38,857,769
Population density 148 /km²
Birth rate
Death rate
Infant mortality rate

Northeast India refers to the easternmost region of India consisting of the contiguous Seven Sister States, Sikkim, and parts of North Bengal (districts of Darjeeling, Jalpaiguri, and Koch Bihar). Northeast India is ethnically distinct from the other states of India. Linguistically the region is distinguished by a preponderance of Tibeto-Burman languages. Strong ethnic cultures that had escaped Sanskritization effects permeate the region. That the eight states form a special category is officially recognized. The North East Council (NEC)[1] was constituted in 1971 as the nodal agency for the economic and social development of the eight states, the North Eastern Development Finance Corporation Ltd (NEDFi)[2] was incorporated on August 9, 1995 and the Ministry of Development of Northeastern Region (DONER)[3][4] was set up in September 2001.

Among the North Eastern states, Sikkim became an Indian protectorate in 1947 and a full state in 1975. The Siliguri Corridor in West Bengal, with an average width of 21km to 40 km, connects the north eastern region with the Indian mainland. More than 2000 Km of boundary is shared with other countries: namely Nepal, China, Bhutan, Burma and Bangladesh.

Contents

History

A ferocious lion excavated in Madan Kamdev close to Baihata Cariali in Assam representing the powerful Kamarupa-Palas (c. 9th–10th century A.D.)
Map of Assam state in 1950s
See also: Political integration of India

What is now Northeast India has been added to India during British Raj. Assam (which included at the time of Indian independence, Nagaland, Mizoram and Meghalaya) had its own history (though overlapping with the history of Bengal); Manipur and Tripura were princely states that also had their own histories; Arunachal Pradesh was beyond the outer line of British India at the beginning of the 20th century; and Sikkim was not part of the Republic of India until 1975. Most of these areas were incorporated into mainstream India during the British Raj when British colonial authorities annexed traditionally separate border states into Indian territory to form a buffer between their colony and external powers (ie: Assam, Manipur and Tripura in the Northeast, and Balochistan and the North West Frontier Province in the northwest). After independence in 1947, extension of the Indian state and political apparatus has been a challenge.[5]

Much of Arunachal Pradesh is claimed by China.[citation needed] Sino-Indian relations degraded during the Sino-Indian War of 1962. The cause of the escalation into war is still disputed by both Chinese and Indian sources. During the war in 1962, the PRC captured much of the NEFA (North East Frontier Agency) created by India in 1954. However, China soon declared victory and voluntarily withdrew back to the McMahon Line and returned Indian prisoners of war in 1963.

The region is known for its unique culture, handicrafts, martial arts, and scenic beauty. Problems include insurgency, unemployment, drug addiction, and lack of infrastructure. Since the beginning of the economic liberalization in the 1990s, studies have shown that this region is lagging behind the others in terms of development.

Geography

View of the Himalayas from Sikkim.

Northeast India has a predominantly humid sub-tropical climate with hot, humid summers, severe monsoons and mild winters. Along with the west coast of India, this region has some of the Indian sub-continent's last remaining rain forests. The states of Arunachal Pradesh and Sikkim have a montane climate with cold, snowy winters and mild summers.

Political issues

Naga girl from Nagaland.

The isolation of the Northeastern states began earlier as a result of British imperialism, when the region was cut-off from its traditional trading partners (Bhutan, Myanmar and Indo-China).[6] In 1947 Indian independence and partition made this a landlocked region, exacerbating the isolation that is being recognized lately, but not studied yet.[7] Soon it became a captive market for mainstream India.[8]

The northeastern states, having a comparitively small electorate (3.8% of India's total population) are alloted just 25 out of a total of 543 seats in the Lok Sabha (4.6% of the total number of seats).

The northeastern states are home to many ethnic groups, that are engaged in self-preservation[citation needed]. In recent times, some of these struggles have turned violent, leading to proliferation of armed insurgent groups, like the ULFA, NLFT.[9], NDFB[10] and NSCN[11]. Soon after the Sino-Indian War of 1962 and especially after the rise of insurgency in the region, security influence on policies has increased.[12]

Communities

See also

Notes

  1. ^ North East Council
  2. ^ North Eastern Development Finance Corporation Ltd.
  3. ^ Ministry of Development of Northeastern Region
  4. ^ Ministry of Development of Northeastern Region from Northeast Vigil
  5. ^ Verghese, V. G. (2001) Unfinished Business in the Northeast: Pointers Towards Restructuring, Reconciliation and Resurgence, Seventh Kamal Kumari Memorial Lecture, Guwahati
  6. ^ Baruah, Sanjib (2004), Between South and Southeast Asia Northeast India and Look East Policy, Ceniseas Paper 4, Guwahati
  7. ^ Seventh Kamal Kumari Memorial Lecture.
  8. ^ Khanna, Sushil: (2005) Economic opportunities or continuing stagnation Seminar, June 2005.
  9. ^ National Liberation Front of Tripura – South Asian Terrorism Portal
  10. ^ National Democratic Front of Bodoland (NDFB) – Terrorist Group of Assam – South Asia Terrorism Portal
  11. ^ National Socialist Council of Nagaland – Khaplang – South Asia Terrorism Portal
  12. ^ Sanjib Baruah (2001) Generals as Governors: The parallel political system of Northeast India, Retrieved April 24, 2009

External links

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North-East India

Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
Area 262,230 km²
States and territories Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tripura
Largest cities (2008) Guwahati, Agartala, Shillong, Aizawl, Imphal
Official languages Assamese, Bengali, Bodo, Manipuri
Population 38,857,769
Population density 148 /km²
Birth rate
Death rate
Infant mortality rate

North-East India refers to the easternmost region of India consisting of the contiguous Seven Sister States, Sikkim, and parts of North Bengal (districts of Darjeeling, Jalpaiguri, and Koch Bihar). North-East India is ethnically, linguistically and culturally very distinct from the other states of India. This region is officially recognized as a special category of states. The North East Council (NEC)[1] was constituted in 1971 as the nodal agency for the economic and social development of the eight states, the North Eastern Development Finance Corporation Ltd (NEDFi)[2] was incorporated on August 9, 1995 and the Ministry of Development of Northeastern Region (DONER)[3][4] was set up in September 2001.

Of these, Sikkim became an Indian protectorate in 1947 and a full state in 1975. The states border Nepal, Bhutan, China, Myanmar and Bangladesh. However they share only a 21 km common border with the rest of India via the Siliguri Corridor (Chicken's Neck).

Contents

History

For detailed history please see the articles on the individual states.

North-East India has been added to political India only in recent times,but was part of india politically under palas empire when most of india excluding some part were together. Assam (which included at the time of Indian independence, Nagaland, Mizoram and Meghalaya) was rarely part of political India for most of its history; Manipur and Tripura were princely states also rarely a part of political India; Arunachal Pradesh was beyond the outer line of British India at the beginning of the 20th century; and Sikkim too was not part of political India. These areas were incorporated into mainstream India during the British Raj when British colonial authorities annexed traditionally separate border countries into Indian territory to form a buffer between their colony and external powers (ie: Assam, Manipur and Tripura in the Northeast, and Balochistan and the North West Frontier Province in the northwest). After independence in 1947, extension of the Indian state and political apparatus has been a challenge.[5]

Much of Arunachal Pradesh is claimed by China. Sino-Indian relations degraded during the Sino-Indian War of 1962. The cause of the escalation into war is still disputed by both Chinese and Indian sources. During the war in 1962, the PRC captured much of the NEFA (North East Frontier Agency) created by India in 1954. However, China soon declared victory and voluntarily withdrew back to the McMahon Line and returned Indian prisoners of war in 1963.

The region is known for its unique culture, handicrafts, martial arts, and scenic beauty. Problems include insurgency, unemployment, drug addiction, and lack of infrastructure. Since the beginning of the economic liberalization in the 1990s, studies have shown that this region is lagging behind the others in terms of development.

Geography

from Sikkim.]]

North-East India has a predominantly humid sub-tropical climate with hot, humid summers, severe monsoons and mild winters. Along with the west coast of India, this region has some of the Indian sub-continent's last remaining rain forests. The states of Arunachal Pradesh and Sikkim have a montane climate with cold, snowy winters and mild summers.

Political issues

girl from Nagaland.]]

Template:Seealso The isolation of the Northeastern states began earlier as a result of British imperialism, when the region was cut-off from its traditional trading partners (Bhutan, Myanmar and Indo-China).[6] In 1947 Indian independence and partition made this a landlocked region, exacerbating the isolation that is being recognized lately, but not studied yet.[7] Soon it became a captive market for mainstream India.[8]

The northeastern states, having a comparitively small electorate (3.8% of India's total population) are alloted just 25 out of a total of 543 seats in the Lok Sabha (4.6% of the total number of seats).

The northeastern states are home to many ethnic groups, that are engaged in self-preservation[dubious ]Template:Fact. In recent times, some of these struggles have turned violent, leading to proliferation of armed insurgent groups, like the ULFA, NLFT.[9], NDFB[10] and NSCN[11]. Soon after the Sino-Indian War of 1962 and especially after the rise of insurgency in the region, security influence on policies has increased.[12]

See also

Notes

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to North-Eastern India article)

From Wikitravel

Asia : South Asia : India : North-Eastern India

North-East is a region in India.

Talk

Neither English nor Hindi are widely understood in this region, so travellers here should pick up a few phrases in the local languages if possible. The Northeast is the most culturally distinct from the rest of India, and many separatist movements exist here, however there have been no occasions where tourists have been attacked or them facing any disturbances.

Important Info

Its completely connected with the rest of the world with excellent communication facilities with all the major telecommunication companies like Reliance, Vodafone, Aircel, BSNL etc being fully functional.

Get in

The main entry point for any north-eastern state is Assam, if one is entering from within India. There are a few entry points from Bangladesh (Dawki in Meghalaya) and Myanmar (Moreh in Manipur) but entry is restricted to local traders/govt. officials.

Note that entry into the states of Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur and Mizoram requires a Protected Area Permit (PAP) for non-Indians and an Inner Line Permit (ILP) for Indian citizens. Permits are issued by the Ministry of Home Affairs, but the easiest approach is to get your Indian visa with a special endorsement allowing travel in the state you wish to visit. Individual travelers are generally granted 15 days (extendable once), but are allowed access only into major towns and sights; travels off the beaten track generally require a registered tour group of four or more people.

By Air

Assam(Gopinath Bordoloi Airport, Guwahati), Manipur (Imphal Airport), Nagaland (Dimapur Airport) and Tripura (Agartala Airport) have direct flights from other parts of India (Delhi and/or Kolkata). There are two other major airports serving upper regions of Assam and neighbouring areas - Dibrugarh Airport and Silchar Airport. There are helicopter services to Naharlagun (14 km from Itanagar, Arunachal Pradesh) and Aizawl (Mizoram).

By Train

There are good train connections from most of the major Indian cities to Assam. Incidentally, Assam is the only state in region with rail lines (barring Nagaland with one station-Dimapur). The important station in Assam are Guwahati, Bongaigaon, Lumding, Tinsukia and Dibrugarh. The fastest train from Delhi is Guwahati bound Rajdhani Express (28 hrs) followed by North-East Express (32 hrs) and Dibrugarh bound Brahmaputra Mail (42 hrs), while the fastest train from Kolkatta(Howrah) is Saraighat Express. Train track in Assam is not electrified and is single lane, so delays are a norm. There are narrow gauge trains to Arunachal Pradesh and Barak Valley area but they are very much prone to cancellation, delays and are not at all comfortable.

By Road

All the states have good network of roads in urban areas. There are regular long journey buses from West Bengal to many north-eastern states. Self-driving is not a good idea as all roads pass through heavy forest reserves and areas infested by insurgents.

  • Motorcycle Tour - Kickstart Adventures- an adventure tourism firm, has pioneered motorcycle tours in North East India. This adventure motorbike tour covers the states of Assam, Meghalaya, Nagaland, and Arunachal Pradesh, giving a traveller to visit to not only popular places but also rural parts of the region to experience first-hand of tribal cultures and traditions. The firm conducts tours all round the year.
  • Navagator India, [1]. Leisure & adventure tours to East Himalaya. Darjeeling Sikkim Dooars & Bhutan.  edit

Kaziranga Tour - Kaziranga is a national park famous for its one horned rhino( found nowhere else in the world). The park has excellent cottages with superb restaurants and the elephant rides in the wild park makes for a thrilling experience.

Eat

North East India is famous for its delicious and ethnic delicacies. The cuisine includes world famous vegetarian and non vegetarian dishes. North East has earned accolades for the various dishes prepared from local herbs and spices.Apart from local dishes , it is also equipped with restaurants and hotels serving conventional Indian foods ( both North Indian and South Indian). So as far as eating is concerned , there will be no problem for the tourists.

    • Hotel Alpine Continental,3 Star, Shillong [2]email: alpineshillong@hotmail.com
    • Lake View Inn, MG Road, [3]
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Simple English

[[File:|thumb|Northeast India on the map of the Republic of India]] North-East India refers to the easternmost region of the Republic of India. Geographically and culturally, the region now called north-east India is situated between the two traditions of Indic Asia and Mongoloid Asia and is regarded as part of Southeast Asia. This geographical-cultural condition of "in-betweenness" is an important factor in the area’s crisis of identity. The leaders of the present-day "underground outfits" continue to struggle for independence, as the political integration of the northeast to India was brought about without the approval of its people. The people of northeast India, who are culturally Mongoloid, refuse to accept the caste-ridden social system advocated by ‘Indian’ culture. Similar struggles for independence are also going on in other northeastern subdivisions or sister regions, such as Assam, Manipur, Mizoram, Meghalaya and Nagaland.

= Provincial symbols of North-east India regions

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