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North America
Location North America.svg
Area 24,709,000 km2 (9,540,000 sq mi)
Population 528,720,588 (July 2008 est.)
Pop. density 22.9/km2 (59.3/sq mi) [1]
Demonym North American, American[2]
Countries 23 (List of countries)
Dependencies see List of North American countries
Languages English, Spanish, French, and many others
Time Zones UTC-10 to UTC
Largest cities List of cities[3]

North America (Spanish: América del Norte or Norteamérica; French: Amérique du Nord) is the northern continent of the Americas,[4] situated in the Earth's northern hemisphere and in the western hemisphere. It is bordered on the north by the Arctic Ocean, on the east by the North Atlantic Ocean, on the southeast by the Caribbean Sea, and on the west by the North Pacific Ocean; South America lies to the southeast. North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers (9,540,000 square miles), about 4.8% of the planet's surface or about 16.5% of its land area. As of July 2008, its population was estimated at nearly 529 million people. It is the third-largest continent in area, following Asia and Africa, and the fourth in population after Asia, Africa, and Europe.

Contents

Etymology

The Americas are generally accepted as having been named after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci by the German cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann. Vespucci, who explored South America between 1497 and 1502, was the first European to suggest that the Americas were not the East Indies, but a different landmass previously unknown by Europeans. In 1507, Waldseemüller produced a world map, in which he placed the word "America" on the continent of South America, in the middle of what is today Brazil. He explained the rationale for the name in the accompanying book Cosmographiae Introductio,

ab Americo inventore ... quasi Americi terram sive Americam (from Americus the discoverer ... as if it were the land of Americus, thus America).[5]

For Waldseemüller, no one should object to the naming of the land after its discoverer. He used the Latinized version of Vespucci's name (Americus Vespucius), but in its feminine form "America", following the examples of "Europa" and "Asia".

Later, when other mapmakers added North America, they extended the original name to it as well: in 1538, Gerard Mercator used the name America to all of the Western Hemisphere on his world map.[6]

Some argue that the convention is to use the surname for naming discoveries except in the case of royalty and so a derivation from "Amerigo Vespucci" could be problematic.[7] Ricardo Palma (1949) proposed a derivation from the "Amerrique" mountains of Central America—Vespucci was the first to discover South America and the Amerrique mountains of Central America, which connected his discoveries to those of Christopher Columbus.

Alfred E. Hudd proposed a theory in 1908 that the continents are named after a Welsh merchant named Richard Amerike from Bristol, who is believed to have financed John Cabot's voyage of discovery from England to Newfoundland in 1497. A minutely explored belief that has been advanced is that America was named for a Spanish sailor bearing the ancient Visigothic name of 'Amairick'. Another is that the name is rooted in a Native American language.[6]

History

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Paleohistory

North America is the source of much of what humanity knows about geologic time periods.[8] The geographic area that would later become the United States has been the source of more varieties of dinosaurs than any other modern country.[8] According to paleontologist Peter Dodson, this is primarily due to stratigraphy, climate and geography, human resources, and history.[8] Much of the Mesozoic Era is represented by exposed outcrops in the many arid regions of the continent.[8] The most significant Late Jurassic dinosaur-bearing fossil deposit in North America is the Morrison Formation of the western United States.[9]

Prehistory

The ruins of Chichén Itzá, Mexico.

Scientists have several theories as to the origins of the early human population of North America. The indigenous peoples of North America themselves have many creation myths, by which they assert that they have been present on the land since its creation.

Before contact with Europeans, the natives of North America were divided into many different polities, from small bands of a few families to large empires. They lived in several "culture areas", which roughly correspond to geographic and biological zones and give a good indication of the main lifeway or occupation of the people who lived there (e.g. the Bison hunters of the Great Plains, or the farmers of Mesoamerica). Native groups can also be classified by their language family (e.g. Athapascan or Uto-Aztecan). It is important to note that peoples with similar languages did not always share the same material culture, nor were they always allies.

Scientists believe that the Inuit people of the high Arctic came to North America much later than other native groups, as evidenced by the disappearance of Dorset culture artifacts from the archaeological record, and their replacement by the Thule people.

During the thousands of years of native inhabitation on the continent, cultures changed and shifted. Archaeologists often name different cultural groups they discover after the site where they are first found. One of the oldest cultures yet found is the Clovis culture of modern New Mexico. A more recent example is the group of related cultures called the Mound builders (e.g. the Fort Walton Culture), found in the Mississippi river valley. They flourished from 300 BC to the 150s AD.

The more southern cultural groups of North America were responsible for the domestication of many common crops now used around the world, such as tomatoes and squash. Perhaps most importantly they domesticated one of the world's major staples, maize (corn).

History

As a result of the development of agriculture in the south, many important cultural advances were made there. For example, the Maya civilization developed a writing system, built huge pyramids and temples, had a complex calendar, and developed the concept of zero around 400 AD, a few hundred years after the Mesopotamians.[10] The Mayan culture was still present when the Spanish arrived in Central America, but political dominance in the area had shifted to the Aztec Empire further north.

Upon the arrival of the Europeans in the "New World", Native American population declined substantially, primarily due to the introduction of European diseases to which the Native Americans lacked immunity.[11] Native peoples found their culture changed drastically. As such, their affiliation with political and cultural groups changed as well, several linguistic groups went extinct, and others changed quite quickly. The names and cultures that Europeans recorded for the natives were not necessarily the same as the ones they had used a few generations before, or the ones in use today.

Geography and extent

A satellite composite image of North America. Clickable map

North America occupies the northern portion of the landmass generally referred to as the New World, the Western Hemisphere, the Americas, or simply America (which is sometimes considered a single continent[12][13][14] and North America a subcontinent).[15] North America's only land connection to South America is at the Isthmus of Panama. The continent is generally delimited on the southeast by the Darién watershed along the Colombia-Panama border, or at the Panama Canal; according to other sources, its southern limit is the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Mexico, with Central America tapering and extending southeastward to South America. Before the Central American isthmus was raised, the region had been underwater. The islands of the West Indies delineate a submerged former land bridge, which had connected North America and South America via what are now Florida and Venezuela. Much of North America is on the North American Plate.

The continental coastline is long and irregular. The Gulf of Mexico is the largest body of water indenting the continent, followed by Hudson Bay. Others include the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the Gulf of California.

There are numerous islands off the continent’s coasts: principally, the Arctic Archipelago, the Bahamas, Turks & Caicos, the Greater and Lesser Antilles, the Aleutian Islands (some of which are in the eastern hemisphere proper), the Alexander Archipelago, the many thousand islands of the British Columbia Coast, Newfoundland and Greenland, a self-governing Danish island, and the world's largest, is on the same tectonic plate (the North American Plate) and is part of North America geographically. Bermuda is not part of the Americas, but is an oceanic island which was formed on the fissure of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge over 100 million years ago. The nearest landmass to it is Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, and it is often thought of as part of North America, especially given its historical, political and cultural ties to Virginia and other parts of the continent.

Physical geography

Sedimentary, volcanic, plutonic, metamorphic rock types of North America

The vast majority of North America is on the North American Plate. Parts of California and western Mexico form the partial edge of the Pacific Plate, with the two plates meeting along the San Andreas fault. The southernmost portion of the continent and much of the West Indies lie on the Caribbean Plate, whereas the Juan de Fuca and Cocos plates border the North American Plate on its western frontier.

The continent can be divided into four great regions (each of which contains many subregions): the Great Plains stretching from the Gulf of Mexico to the Canadian Arctic; the geologically young, mountainous west, including the Rocky Mountains, the Great Basin, California and Alaska; the raised but relatively flat plateau of the Canadian Shield in the northeast; and the varied eastern region, which includes the Appalachian Mountains, the coastal plain along the Atlantic seaboard, and the Florida peninsula. Mexico, with its long plateaus and cordilleras, falls largely in the western region, although the eastern coastal plain does extend south along the Gulf.

The western mountains are split in the middle and into the main range of the Rockies and the coast ranges in California, Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia with the Great Basin—a lower area containing smaller ranges and low-lying deserts—in between. The highest peak is Denali in Alaska.

The United States Geographical Survey states that the geographic center of North America is "6 miles west of Balta, Pierce County, North Dakota" at approximately 48°10′N 100°10′W / 48.167°N 100.167°W / 48.167; -100.167, approximately 15 miles (25 km) from Rugby, North Dakota. The USGS further states that “No marked or monumented point has been established by any government agency as the geographic center of either the 50 States, the conterminous United States, or the North American continent.” Nonetheless, there is a 15-foot (4.5 m) field stone obelisk in Rugby claiming to mark the center.

Human geography

Mexico City is the most populous city in North America.
New York City is the second most populous city in North America.
Toronto is the most populous city in Canada, and the fifth-most in North America.

The prevalent languages in North America are English, Spanish, and French. The term Anglo-America is used to refer to the anglophone countries of the Americas: namely Canada (where English and French are co-official) and the United States, but also sometimes Belize and parts of the Caribbean. Latin America refers to the other areas of the Americas (generally south of the United States) where the Romance languages, derived from Latin, of Spanish and Portuguese (but French speaking countries are not usually included) predominate: the other republics of Central America (but not always Belize), part of the Caribbean (not the Dutch, English or French speaking areas), Mexico, and most of South America (except Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana (FR) and The Falkland Islands (UK).

The French language has historically played a significant role in North America and retains a distinctive presence in some regions. Canada is officially bilingual. French is the official language of the province of Quebec and is co-official with English in the province of New Brunswick. Other French-speaking locales include the province of Ontario (the official language is English, but there is an estimated 500,000 Franco-Ontarians), the French West Indies and Saint-Pierre and Miquelon, as well as the U.S. state of Louisiana, where French is also an official language. Haiti is included with this group based on historical association but Haitians speak Creole and French. Similarly there remains small segments in Saint Lucia and the Commonwealth of Dominica that speak unique French and creole languages alongside their English speaking majorities.

Socially and culturally, North America presents a well-defined entity. Canada and the United States have a similar culture and similar traditions as a result of both countries being former British colonies. A common cultural and economic market has developed between the two nations because of the strong economic and historical ties. Spanish-speaking North America shares a common past as former Spanish colonies. In Mexico and the Central American countries where civilizations like the Maya developed, indigenous people preserve traditions across modern boundaries. Central American and Spanish-speaking Caribbean nations have historically had more in common due to geographical proximity and the fact that, after winning independence from Spain. Northern Mexico, particularly cities such as Monterrey, Tijuana, Ciudad Juárez and Mexicali, are strongly influenced by the culture and way of life of the U.S. Immigration to the United States and Canada remains a significant attribute of many nations close to the southern border of the U.S. As the British Empire and its influences declined, the Anglophone Caribbean states have witnessed the economic influence of northern North America increase on the region. In the Anglophone Caribbean this influence is in part due to the fact that the majority of English-speaking Caribbean countries have populations of less than 200,000 people and many of these countries now have expatriate diasporas living abroad that are larger than those remaining at home.

Economically, Canada and the United States are the wealthiest and most developed nations in the continent, followed by Mexico, a newly industrialized country; the countries of Central America and the Caribbean are at various levels of development. The most important trade blocs are the Caribbean Community and Common Market (CARICOM), the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), and the recently signed Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA)—the last of these being an example of the economic integration sought by the nations of this sub-region as a way to improve their financial status.

Demographically, North America is a racially and ethnically diverse continent. Its three main racial groups are Whites, Mestizos and Blacks (chiefly African-Americans and Afro-Caribbeans).[citation needed] There is a significant minority of Amerindians and Asians among other less numerous groups.

Countries and territories

Non-Native American control
over North America,
1750–2008

North America is often divided into subregions but no universally accepted divisions exist. Central America comprises the southern region of the continent, but its northern terminus varies between sources. Geophysically, the region starts at the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in Mexico (namely the Mexican states of Campeche, Chiapas, Tabasco, Quintana Roo, and Yucatán[16]). The United Nations geoscheme includes Mexico in Central America; conversely, the European Union excludes both Mexico and Belize from the area. Geopolitically, Mexico is frequently not considered a part of Central America.[17]

Northern America is used to refer to the northern countries and territories of North America: Canada, the United States, Greenland, Bermuda, and St. Pierre and Miquelon. They are often considered distinct from the southern portion of the Americas, which largely comprise Latin America. The term Middle America is sometimes used to collectively refer to Mexico, the nations of Central America, and the Caribbean.

Country or
territory
Area
(km²)[18]
Population
(July 2008 est.)[18]
Population density
(per km²)
Capital
Anguilla Anguilla (UK) &0000000000000102.000000102 &0000000000014108.00000014,108 138.3 The Valley
Antigua and Barbuda Antigua and Barbuda &0000000000000443.000000443 &0000000000084522.00000084,522 190.8 St. John's
Aruba Aruba (Netherlands)[19] &0000000000000193.000000193 &0000000000101541.000000101,541 526.1 Oranjestad
The Bahamas Bahamas &0000000000010070.00000010,070[20] &0000000000307451.000000307,451 30.5 Nassau
Barbados Barbados &0000000000000431.000000431 &0000000000281968.000000281,968 654.2 Bridgetown
Belize Belize &0000000000022966.00000022,966 &0000000000301270.000000301,270 13.1 Belmopan
Bermuda Bermuda (UK) &0000000000000053.00000053 &0000000000066536.00000066,536 1255.4 Hamilton
British Virgin Islands British Virgin Islands (UK) &0000000000000153.000000153 &0000000000024041.00000024,041 157.1 Road Town
Canada Canada &0000000009984670.0000009,984,670[20] &0000000033212696.00000033,212,696 3.7 Ottawa
Cayman Islands Cayman Islands (UK) &0000000000000262.000000262 &0000000000047862.00000047,862 182.7 George Town
France Clipperton Island (France) &0000000000000006.0000006 &-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1.0000000 0.0
Costa Rica Costa Rica &0000000000051100.00000051,100 &0000000004195914.0000004,195,914 82.1 San José
Cuba Cuba &0000000000110860.000000110,860 &0000000011423952.00000011,423,952 103.0 Havana
Dominica Dominica &0000000000000754.000000754 &0000000000072514.00000072,514 96.2 Roseau
Dominican Republic Dominican Republic &0000000000048730.00000048,730 &0000000009507133.0000009,507,133 195.1 Santo Domingo
El Salvador El Salvador &0000000000021040.00000021,040 &0000000007066403.0000007,066,403 335.9 San Salvador
Greenland Greenland (Denmark) &0000000002166086.0000002,166,086 &0000000000057564.00000057,564 0.027 Nuuk
Grenada Grenada &0000000000000344.000000344 &0000000000090343.00000090,343 262.6 St. George's
Guadeloupe Guadeloupe (France) &0000000000001780.0000001,780[21] &0000000000452776.000000452,776[21] 254.4 Basse-Terre
Guatemala Guatemala &0000000000108890.000000108,890 &0000000013002206.00000013,002,206 119.4 Guatemala City
Haiti Haiti &0000000000027750.00000027,750 &0000000008924553.0000008,924,553 321.6 Port-au-Prince
Honduras Honduras &0000000000112090.000000112,090 &0000000007639327.0000007,639,327 68.2 Tegucigalpa
Jamaica Jamaica &0000000000010991.00000010,991 &0000000002804332.0000002,804,332 255.1 Kingston
Martinique Martinique (France) &0000000000001100.0000001,100[21] &0000000000436131.000000436,131[21] 396.5 Fort-de-France
Mexico Mexico &0000000001923040.0000001,923,040[20] &0000000109955400.000000109,955,400 57.2 Mexico City
Montserrat Montserrat (UK) &0000000000000102.000000102 &0000000000005079.0000005,079 49.8 Plymouth; Brades[22]
United States Navassa Island (USA) &0000000000000005.0000005 &-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1.0000000 0.0
Netherlands Antilles Netherlands Antilles (Netherlands)[19] &0000000000000960.000000960 &0000000000225369.000000225,369 234.8 Willemstad
Nicaragua Nicaragua &0000000000120254.000000120,254[20] &0000000005785846.0000005,785,846 48.1 Managua
Panama Panama[19][23] &0000000000078200.00000078,200 &0000000003309679.0000003,309,679 42.3 Panama City
Puerto Rico Puerto Rico (USA) &0000000000008870.0000008,870[20] &0000000003958128.0000003,958,128 446.2 San Juan
Saint Barthélemy Saint Barthélemy (France) &0000000000000021.00000021 &0000000000007492.0000007,492 356.8 Gustavia
Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Kitts and Nevis &0000000000000261.000000261 &0000000000039817.00000039,817 152.6 Basseterre
Saint Lucia Saint Lucia &0000000000000616.000000616 &0000000000159585.000000159,585 259.1 Castries
Collectivity of Saint Martin Saint Martin (France) &0000000000000054.00000054 &0000000000029376.00000029,376 544.0 Marigot
Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Pierre and Miquelon (France) &0000000000000242.000000242 &0000000000007044.0000007,044 29.1 Saint-Pierre
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Saint Vincent and the Grenadines &0000000000000389.000000389 &0000000000118432.000000118,432 304.5 Kingstown
Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago[19] &0000000000005128.0000005,128 &0000000001047366.0000001,047,366 204.2 Port of Spain
Turks and Caicos Islands Turks and Caicos Islands (UK) &0000000000000430.000000430 &0000000000022352.00000022,352 52.0 Cockburn Town
United States United States[24] &0000000009826630.0000009,826,630[20] &0000000303824640.000000303,824,640 33.2 Washington, D.C.
United States Virgin Islands U.S. Virgin Islands (USA) &0000000000000346.000000346[20] &0000000000109840.000000109,840 317.5 Charlotte Amalie
Total &0000000024646412.00000024,646,412 &0000000528720588.000000528,720,588 22.9

The term North America may mean different things to different people in the world according to the context. Usage other than that of the entire continent includes:

  • In English, North America may be used to refer to the United States and Canada together.[25] Alternatively, usage often includes Mexico[26] (as with North American Free Trade Agreement) and other entities.[27][28][29][30][31][32]
  • In Latin America, Spain, Portugal, and some other parts of Europe, North America usually designates a subcontinent (subcontinente in Spanish) of the Americas containing Canada, the United States, and Mexico, and often Greenland, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, and Bermuda.[33]

Historical toponymy

199% cass

North America, in whole or in part, has been historically referred to by other names:

Communications

Many of the nations of North America cooperate together on a shared telephone system known as the North American Numbering Plan (NANP) which is an integrated telephone numbering plan of 24 countries and territories: the United States and its territories, Canada, Bermuda, and 16 Caribbean nations.

See also

Organizations and agreements:

References

  1. ^ This North American density figure is based on a total land area of 23,090,542 km2 only, considerably less than the total combined land and water area of 24,709,000 km².
  2. ^ American, Merriam-Webster OnLine.
  3. ^ List based on 2005 figures in Table A.12, World Urbanization Prospects: The 2005 Revision, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, United Nations. Accessed on line January 1, 2008.
  4. ^ "North America". Encyclopaedia Britannica. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/418612/North-America. 
  5. ^ p. 9, The Cosmographiæ Introductio of Martin Waldseemüller in Facsimile, translated by Edward Burke and Mario E. Cosenza, introduction by Joseph Fischer and Franz von Wieser, edited by Charles George Herbermann, New York: The United States Catholic Historical Society, 1907.
  6. ^ a b The Naming of America: Fragments We've Shored Against Ourselves. By Jonathan Cohen
  7. ^ Lloyd, John; John Mitchinson (2006). The Book of General Ignorance. Harmony Books. pp. 95. ISBN 978-0-307-39491-0. "New countries or continents were never named after a person’s first name, but always after the second..." 
  8. ^ a b c d Dodson, Peter (1997). "American Dinosaurs." Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs. Edited by Phillip J. Currie and Kevin Padian. Academic Press. p. 10-13.
  9. ^ Weishampel, David B; et al (2004). "Dinosaur distribution (Late Jurassic, North America)." In: Weishampel, David B.; Dodson, Peter; and Osmólska, Halszka (eds.): The Dinosauria, 2nd, Berkeley: University of California Press. Pp. 543–545. ISBN 0-520-24209-2.
  10. ^ Robert Kaplan (January 16, 2007). "What is the origin of zero? How did we indicate nothingness before zero?". Scientific American. http://www.sciam.com/math/article/id/what-is-the-origin-of-zer. Retrieved 2008-02-19. 
  11. ^ pp. 42–46, A Concise History of World Population: An Introduction to Population Processes, Massimo Livi Bacci, Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishing, 2001, 3rd ed., ISBN 0-631-22335-5.
  12. ^ "The Olympic symbols". Lausanne: Olympic Museum and Studies Centre: International Olympic Committee. 2002. Archived from the original on 7 March 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080307073846/http://multimedia.olympic.org/pdf/en_report_672.pdf.  The five rings of the Olympic flag represent the five inhabited, participating continents (Africa, America, Asia, Europe, and Oceania).
  13. ^ Océano Uno, Diccionario Enciclopédico y Atlas Mundial, "Continente", page 392, 1730. ISBN 84-494-0188-7
  14. ^ Los Cinco Continentes (The Five Continents), Planeta-De Agostini Editions, 1997. ISBN 84-395-6054-0
  15. ^ "Encarta, "Norteamérica".". Archived from the original on 2009-10-31. http://www.webcitation.org/query?id=1257013693874868. 
  16. ^ Encyclopaedia Britannica, "Central America"
  17. ^ The American Heritage Dictionary, "Central America"
  18. ^ a b Land areas and population estimates are taken from The 2008 World Factbook which currently uses July 2008 data, unless otherwise noted.
  19. ^ a b c d Depending on definitions, Aruba, Netherlands Antilles, Panama, and Trinidad and Tobago have territory in one or both of North and South America.
  20. ^ a b c d e f g Water area makes up a considerable portion of this entity's total area. Therefore, for a more accurate figure on which to calculate population density, this figure includes land area only.
  21. ^ a b c d Estimates as of July 2006. Since Guadeloupe and Martinique have been upgraded from overseas departments to regions of France, they are no longer listed separately in The World Factbook. Therefore, these figures are from the last edition in which they appear -- 2006.
  22. ^ Due to ongoing activity of the Soufriere Hills volcano beginning in July 1995, much of Plymouth's de jure capital was destroyed and government offices were relocated to Brades.
  23. ^ Panama is generally considered a North American country, though some authorities divide it at the Panama Canal; land area and population figures are for the entire country.
  24. ^ Includes the U.S. state of Hawaii, which is distant from the North American landmass in the Pacific Ocean and is, thus, commonly included with the other territories of Oceania.
  25. ^ Burchfield, R. W., ed. 2004. "America." Fowler's Modern English Usage (ISBN 0-19-861021-1) New York: Oxford University Press, p. 48 -- quotation reads: "the term 'North America' is mostly used to mean the United States and Canada together. Countries to the south of the United States are described as being in Central America (Mexico, Nicaragua, etc.) or South America (Brazil, Argentina, etc.)"; see also: McArthur, Tom. 1992. "North American." The Oxford Companion to the English Language (ISBN 0-19-214183-X) New York: Oxford University Press, p. 707.
  26. ^ the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration: refers to "Three nations, on the same continent"
  27. ^ Martin W. Lewis and Kären E. Wigen. (1997). "The Myth of Continents." (ISBN 0520207432) University of California Press, p. 40 -- quotation reads: "In regard to North America one can detect a similar shift between official designation and popular conception. Strictly speaking, the North American continent includes Panama and all points north, but in common parlance Central America is usually excluded, while in some circumstances Mexico is deleted as well"; see also the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration: refers to "Three nations, on the same continent"
  28. ^ Countries of North America: includes Bermuda, Canada, Mexico, St. Pierre and Miquelon, and the United States
  29. ^ What's the difference between North, Latin, Central, Middle, South, Spanish and Anglo America?, about.com
  30. ^ North America, Microsoft Encarta. Archived 2009-10-31.
  31. ^ North America, msuglobalaccess.net : describes "North America includes Canada, the United States, Mexico, and their related territories, lying north of Central and South America"
  32. ^ Security and Prosperity Partnership Of North America
  33. ^ In Ibero-America, North America is considered a subcontinent containing Canada, the United States, Mexico, Greenland, Bermuda and Saint-Pierre and Miquelon."Norteamérica (Mexican version)"/(Spaniard version). Encarta Online Encyclopedia.. Archived 2009-10-31.
  34. ^ Clayton, Lawrence (1993). The De Soto Chronicles: The Expedition of Hernando De Soto to North America in 1539–1543. Tuscaloosa, Alabama: University of Alabama Press. .
  35. ^ In 1584 Sir Walter Raleigh sent Philip Amadas and Arthur Barlowe to lead an exploration of what is now the North Carolina coast, and they returned with word of a regional "king" named "Wingina." This was modified later that year by Raleigh and the Queen to "Virginia", perhaps in part noting her status as the "Virgin Queen;" Stewart, George (1945). Names on the Land: A Historical Account of Place-Naming in the United States. New York: Random House. p. 22. 

External links



Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Adjective

North American (not comparable)

  1. of, or relating to North America

Translations

Noun

Singular
North American

Plural
North Americans

North American (plural North Americans)

  1. A person from or living in North America.
  2. (Native American Indian) The "First People"; the first nation people of America. The first people to arrive in America about 20,000 to 30,000 yrs ago.

Translations


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