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BT-14 (NA-64 Yale)
NA-64 Yale standing in for a BT-14 at the National Museum of the United States Air Force, Dayton, Ohio
Role Trainer
Manufacturer North American Aviation
First flight April 1936
Primary user United States Army Air Corps
Number built +260
Unit cost $20,000

The North American BT-9 was a low-wing single piston engine monoplane primary trainer aircraft that served with the United States Army Air Corps (USAAC) and other allied countries during World War II. It was a contemporary of the Kaydet biplane trainer and was used by pilots in Basic Flying Training following their completion of Primary in the Kaydet. In United States Navy (USN) service it was designated the NJ-1.



The BT-9, designated NA-19 by the manufacturer, evolved from the North American NA-16, which first flew in April 1935. The BT-9 design first took to the skies in April 1936.[1]

Fabric covered the movable surfaces on the tail and wings, as well as the sides of the fuselage from just behind the firewall to the tail. The remainder of the aircraft was metal-covered and featured fixed (non-retractable) landing gear. The Army Air Corps purchased a total of 199 BT-9s, BT-9As and BT-9Bs. Many foreign countries also used variants of this aircraft.

An improved version was the BT-14. It featured a Pratt & Whitney R-985 Wasp Junior engine versus the Wright R-975 Whirlwind on the BT-9, as well as metal skin replacing the fabric on the fuselage.

NA-64 Yale I preserved airworthy in 2006 at the Historic Aircraft Restoration Museum near St Louis in RCAF 1940 markings

The NA-64 model was delivered to France and to the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) in 1940, retaining the fixed tailwheel undercarriage layout, and the RCAF named the type as the Yale, several being sold post-war and some survive in airworthy condition.

The NA-26, an improved model with retractable landing gear eventually designated the AT-6 Texan advanced trainer, was developed from the NA-16 design. The Australian CAC Wirraway was also developed from the NA-16.

Operators and variants

Source: Warbirds[2]
Prototype aircraft, one built.
Pre-production aircraft, one built.
North American BT-9
Two-seat primary trainer for the USAAC, 42 built.
North American BT-9A
Armed with two 0.30 in (7.62 mm) machine-guns. 40 built.
North American BT-9B
Improved version, 117 built.
North American BT-9C
Similar to the BT-9B, but with some equipment changes, 97 built.
North American BT-9D
One prototype only, which lead to the development of the BT-14.
North American NJ-1
Two-seat primary trainer aircraft for the USN, powered by a 600 hp (447 kW) Pratt & Whitney R-1340 radial piston engine, 40 delivered.
North American NA-57
France, 230 delivered. Export version of BT-9. First 30 served with French Navy. Most were captured and used by the German Luftwaffe.
Sweden, 137 built. License built version of NA-16-4M [3]
North American BT-14
Advanced version, powered by a 450 hp (336 kW) Pratt & Whitney R-985-25 radial piston engine, USAAC, 251 delivered.
North American BT-14A
27 BT-14s were converted to take the 400 hp (298 kW) Pratt & Whitney R-985-11 radial piston engine.
North American NA-64 'Yale'
France and Canada, 230 aircraft order. 111 were delivered to France before the surrender in 1940. The remaining 119 aircraft were acquired by the British and delivered to the RCAF, designated the 'Yale'.


 United States

Survivors/Aircraft on display

  • None
Sk 14
NA-64 Yale

Specifications (BT-9)

General characteristics

  • Crew: two, instructor and student
  • Length: 28 ft (8.5 m)
  • Wingspan: 42 ft (12.8 m)
  • Height: 13 ft 7 in (4.1 m)
  • Loaded weight: 4,470 lb (2,030 kg)
  • Powerplant:Wright R-975-53, 400 hp (300 kW)


See also

Related development

Related lists




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