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State of North Carolina
Flag of North Carolina State seal of North Carolina
Flag Seal
Nickname(s): Tar Heel State; Old North State
Motto(s): Esse quam videri (official); First in Flight
before statehood, known as
the Province of North Carolina
Map of the United States with North Carolina highlighted
Official language(s) English
Demonym North Carolinian; Tar Heel (colloq.)
Capital Raleigh
Largest city Charlotte
Largest metro area Charlotte metro area
Area  Ranked 28th in the US
 - Total 53,865 sq mi
(139,509 km2)
 - Width 150 miles (340 km)
 - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)
 - % water 9.5
 - Latitude 33° 50′ N to 36° 35′ N
 - Longitude 75° 28′ W to 84° 19′ W
Population  Ranked 10th in the US
 - Total 9,380,884 (2009 est.)[2]
 - Density 165.24/sq mi  (63.80/km2)
Ranked 15th in the US
 - Median income  $44,670[3] (38th[3])
Elevation  
 - Highest point Mt. Mitchell[4]
6,684 ft  (2,038 m)
 - Mean 705 ft  (215 m)
 - Lowest point Atlantic Ocean[4]
0 ft  (0 m)
Admission to Union  November 21, 1789 (12th)
Governor Beverly Perdue (D)
Lieutenant Governor Walter H. Dalton (D)
U.S. Senators Richard Burr (R)
Kay Hagan (D)
U.S. House delegation 8 Democrats, 5 Republicans (list)
Time zone Eastern: UTC-5/-4
Abbreviations NC US-NC
Website http://www.nc.gov
A map of North Carolina

North Carolina (Listeni /ˌnɔrθ kærəˈlnə/) is a state located on the Atlantic Seaboard in the southeastern United States. The state borders South Carolina and Georgia to the south, Tennessee to the west and Virginia to the north. North Carolina contains 100 counties. Its capital is Raleigh, and its largest city is Charlotte.

North Carolina was one of the English Thirteen Colonies, and was originally known as Province of Carolina. Spanish colonial forces were the first to attempt to settle it, however, when the Juan Pardo-led Expedition built Fort San Juan in 1567. This was sited at Joara, a Mississippian culture regional chiefdom near present-day Morganton in the western interior of the states.[5] This was 20 years before the English established their first colony at Roanoke Island in an attempt to found a settlement in the Americas.[6]

On May 20, 1861, North Carolina was one of the last of the Confederate states to declare secession from the Union, to which it was restored on July 4, 1868. The state was the location of the first successful controlled, powered and sustained heavier-than-air flight, by the Wright brothers, at Kill Devil Hills, about 6.4 miles from Kitty Hawk on December 17, 1903. Today, it is a fast-growing state with an increasingly diverse economy and population. As of July 1, 2009, the population was estimated to be 9,380,884 (a 16.7% increase since April 1, 2000).[2] Recognizing eight Native American tribes, North Carolina has the largest population of Native Americans of any state east of the Mississippi River.

North Carolina has a wide range of elevations, from sea level on the coast to 6,684 feet (2,037 m) in the mountains. The coastal plains are strongly influenced by the Atlantic Ocean. Most of the state falls in the humid subtropical zone. More than 300 miles (500 km) from the coast, the western, mountainous part of the state has a subtropical highland climate.

As of 2008 (the most current numbers available), North Carolina was the fourth-fastest growing state in the United States and the fastest growing state east of the Mississippi River.[7]

Contents

Geography

North Carolina topographic map

North Carolina is bordered by South Carolina on the south, Georgia on the southwest, Tennessee on the west, Virginia on the north, and the Atlantic Ocean on the east. The United States Census Bureau classifies North Carolina as a southern state in the subcategory of being one of the South Atlantic States.

North Carolina consists of three main geographic sections: the coastal plain, which occupies the eastern 45% of the state; the Piedmont region, which contains the middle 35%; and the Appalachian Mountains and foothills. The extreme eastern section of the state contains the Outer Banks, a string of sandy, narrow islands which form a barrier between the Atlantic Ocean and inland waterways. The Outer Banks form two sounds—Albemarle Sound in the north and Pamlico Sound in the south. They are the two largest landlocked sounds in the United States.

Immediately inland, the coastal plain is relatively flat, with rich soils ideal for growing tobacco, soybeans, melons, and cotton. The coastal plain is North Carolina's most rural section, with few large towns or cities. Agriculture remains an important industry. The major rivers of the coastal plain: the Neuse, Tar, Pamlico, and Cape Fear, tend to be slow-moving and wide.

The coastal plain transitions to the Piedmont region along the "fall line", a line which marks the elevation at which waterfalls first appear on streams and rivers. The Piedmont region of central North Carolina is the state's most urbanized and densely populated section. It consists of gently rolling countryside frequently broken by hills or low mountain ridges. A number of small, isolated, and deeply eroded mountain ranges and peaks are located in the Piedmont, including the Sauratown Mountains, Pilot Mountain, the Uwharrie Mountains, Crowder's Mountain, King's Pinnacle, the Brushy Mountains, and the South Mountains. The Piedmont ranges from about 300–400 feet (90–120 m) elevation in the east to over 1,000 feet (300 m) in the west. Due to the rapid population growth of the Piedmont, many of the farms and much of the rural countryside in this region is being replaced by suburbanization: shopping centers, housing developments, and large corporate office parks. Agriculture is steadily declining in importance in this region. The major rivers of the Piedmont, such as the Yadkin and Catawba, tend to be fast-flowing, shallow, and narrow.

The Western North Carolina mountains as seen from Sunset Rock in Highlands, North Carolina.

The western section of the state is part of the Appalachian Mountain range. Among the subranges of the Appalachians located in the state are the Great Smoky Mountains, Blue Ridge Mountains, Great Balsam Mountains, and the Black Mountains. The Black Mountains are the highest in the Eastern United States, and culminate in Mount Mitchell at 6,684 feet (2,037 m).[4] It is the highest point east of the Mississippi River. Although agriculture remains important, tourism has become the dominant industry in the mountains. One agricultural pursuit which has prospered and grown in recent decades is the growing and selling of Christmas Trees. Due to the higher altitude of the mountains, the climate often differs markedly from the rest of the state. Winters in western North Carolina typically feature significant snowfall and subfreezing temperatures more akin to a midwestern state than a southern one.

North Carolina has 17 major river basins. All the others flow to the Atlantic Ocean. Of the 17 basins, 11 originate within the state of North Carolina, but only four are contained entirely within the state's borders - the Cape Fear, Neuse, White Oak and Tar-Pamlico.[8]

Climate

The geographical divisions of North Carolina are useful when discussing the climate of the state.

The Coastal Plain is influenced by the Atlantic Ocean which keeps temperatures mild in winter and moderate in the summer. Daytime high temperatures on the coast average less than 89 °F (31.6 °C) during the summer. In the winter, the coast has the mildest temperatures in the state, with daytime temperatures rarely dropping below 40 °F (4.4 °C); the average daytime winter temperature in the coastal plain is usually in the mid-60's. Temperatures in the coastal plain rarely drop below freezing even at night. The coastal plain usually receives only one inch (2.5 cm) of snow and/or ice annually, and in some years there may be no snow or ice at all.

Bodie Island Lighthouse, one of the Outer Banks attractions.

The Atlantic Ocean has less influence on the Piedmont region, and as a result the Piedmont has hotter summers and colder winters than the coast. Daytime highs in the Piedmont often average over 90 °F (32.2 °C) in the summer. While it is not common for temperatures to reach over 100 °F (37.8 °C) in North Carolina, when it happens, the highest temperatures are to be found in the lower areas of the Piedmont, especially around the city of Fayetteville. Additionally, the weaker influence of the Atlantic Ocean means that temperatures in the Piedmont often fluctuate more widely than the coast.

In the winter, the Piedmont is much less mild than the coast, with daytime temperatures that are usually in the mid 50's, and temperatures often drop below freezing at night. The region averages from 3–5 inches of snowfall annually in the Charlotte area to 6–8 inches in the Raleigh–Durham area. The Piedmont is especially notorious for sleet and freezing rain. It can be heavy enough in some storms to snarl traffic and collapse trees and power lines. Annual precipitation and humidity is lower in the Piedmont than either the mountains or the coast, but even at its lowest, the precipitation is a generous 40 in (102 cm) per year.

The Blue Ridge Mountains in the foreground with Grandfather Mountain in the extreme background as seen from Blowing Rock, North Carolina.

The Appalachian Mountains are the coolest area of the state, with daytime temperatures averaging in the low 40's and upper 30's for highs in the winter and often falling into the teens (−9 °C) or lower on winter nights. Relatively cool summers have temperatures rarely rising above 80 °F (26.7 °C). Snowfall in the mountains is usually 14–20 in (36–51 cm) per year, but it is often greater in the higher elevations. For example, during the Blizzard of 1993 more than 50 inches (130 cm) of snow fell on Mount Mitchell over a period of three days. Additionally, Mount Mitchell has received snow in every month of the year.

Severe weather occurs regularly in North Carolina. On average, the state receives a direct hit from a hurricane once a decade. Tropical storms arrive every 3 or 4 years. In some years, several hurricanes or tropical storms can directly strike the state or brush across the coastal areas. Only Florida and Louisiana are hit by hurricanes more often. Although many people believe that hurricanes menace only coastal areas, the rare hurricane which moves inland quickly enough can cause severe damage. In 1989 Hurricane Hugo caused heavy damage in Charlotte and even as far inland as the Blue Ridge Mountains in the northwestern part of the state. On average, North Carolina has 50 days of thunderstorm activity per year, with some storms becoming severe enough to produce hail, flash floods, and damaging winds.

North Carolina averages fewer than 20 tornadoes per year. Many of these are produced by hurricanes or tropical storms along the coastal plain. Tornadoes from thunderstorms are a risk, especially in the eastern part of the state. The western piedmont is often protected by the mountains breaking storms up as they try to cross over them. The storms will often reform farther east. Also a weather feature known as "cold air damming" occurs in the western part of the state. This can also weaken storms but can also lead to major ice events in winter."[9]

Monthly normal high and low temperatures (Fahrenheit) for various North Carolina cities.
City Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Asheville 46/26 50/28 58/35 66/42 74/51 80/58 83/63 82/62 76/55 67/43 57/35 49/29
Cape Hatteras 54/39 55/39 60/44 68/52 75/60 82/68 85/73 85/72 81/68 73/59 65/50 57/43
Charlotte 51/32 56/34 64/42 73/49 80/58 87/66 90/71 88/69 82/63 73/51 63/42 54/35
Fayetteville 52/31 56/33 64/39 73/47 80/56 87/65 90/70 89/69 83/63 74/49 65/41 56/34
Greensboro 47/28 52/31 60/38 70/46 77/55 84/64 88/68 86/67 79/60 70/48 60/39 51/31
Raleigh 50/30 54/32 62/39 72/46 79/55 86/64 89/68 87/67 81/61 72/48 62/40 53/33
Wilmington 56/36 60/38 66/44 74/51 81/60 86/68 90/72 88/71 84/66 76/54 68/45 60/38
[2]|[3]

History

Native Americans, Lost Colonies and Permanent Settlement

North Carolina was originally inhabited by many different prehistoric native cultures. Before 200 AD, they were building earthwork mounds, which were used for ceremonial and religious purposes. Succeeding peoples, including those of the ancient Mississippian culture established by 1000 AD in the Piedmont, continued to build or add on to such mounds. In the 500–700 years preceding European contact, the Mississippian culture built large, complex cities and maintained farflung regional trading networks. Historically documented tribes in the North Carolina region included Cherokee, Tuscarora, Cheraw, Pamlico, Meherrin, Coree, Machapunga, Cape Fear Indians, Waxhaw, Saponi, Tutelo, Waccamaw, Coharie, and Catawba.

Spanish explorers' traveling inland in the 16th century met the Mississippian culture people at Joara, a regional chiefdom near present-day Morganton. Records of Hernando de Soto attested to his meeting with them in 1540. In 1567 Captain Juan Pardo led an expedition into the interior to claim the area for the Spanish colony, as well as establish another route to protect silver mines in Mexico. Pardo made a winter base at Joara, which he renamed Cuenca. The expedition built Fort San Juan and left 30 men, while Pardo traveled further, and built and staffed five other forts. He returned by a different route to Santa Elena on Parris Island, South Carolina, then a center of Spanish Florida. In the spring of 1568, natives killed all the soldiers and burned the six forts in the interior, including the one at Fort San Juan. Although the Spanish never returned to the interior, this marked the first European attempt at colonization of the interior of what became the United States. A 16th-century journal by Pardo's scribe Bandera and archaeological findings since 1986 at Joara have confirmed the settlement.[10][11]

Sir Walter Raleigh returns to find the colony abandoned

In 1584, Elizabeth I, granted a charter to Sir Walter Raleigh, for whom the state capital is named, for land in present-day North Carolina (then Virginia).[12] Raleigh established two colonies on the coast in the late 1580s, both ending in failure. It was the second American territory the British attempted to colonize. The demise of one, the "Lost Colony" of Roanoke Island, remains one of the mysteries of American history. Virginia Dare, the first English child to be born in North America, was born on Roanoke Island on August 18, 1587. Dare County is named for her.

As early as 1650, colonists from the Virginia colony moved into the area of Albemarle Sound. By 1663, King Charles II of England granted a charter to start a new colony on the North American continent which generally established its borders. He named it Carolina in honor of his father Charles I.[13] By 1665, a second charter was issued to attempt to resolve territorial questions. In 1710, due to disputes over governance, the Carolina colony began to split into North Carolina and South Carolina. The latter became a crown colony in 1729. Smallpox took a heavy toll in the South. The 1738 epidemic was said to have killed one-half of the Cherokee, with other tribes of the area suffering equally.[14]

Colonial Period and Revolutionary War

Reconstructed royal governor's mansion Tryon Palace in New Bern

The first permanent European settlers of North Carolina were British colonists who migrated south from Virginia, following a rapid growth of the colony and the subsequent shortage of available farmland. Nathaniel Batts was documented as one of the first of these Virginian migrants. He settled south of the Chowan River and east of the Great Dismal Swamp in 1655.[15] By 1663, this northeastern area of the Province of Carolina, known as the Albemarle Settlements, was undergoing full-scale British settlement.[16] During the same period, the English monarch Charles II gave the province to the Lords Proprietors, a group of noblemen who had helped restore Charles to the throne in 1660. The new province of "Carolina" was named in honor and memory of King Charles I (Latin: Carolus). In 1712, North Carolina became a separate colony. Except for the Earl Granville holdings, it became a royal colony seventeen years later.[17]

Differences in the settlement patterns of eastern and western North Carolina, or the low country and uplands, affected the political, economic, and social life of the state from the eighteenth until the twentieth century. The Tidewater in eastern North Carolina was settled chiefly by immigrants from England and the Scottish Highlands. The upcountry of western North Carolina was settled chiefly by Scots-Irish, British and German Protestants, the so-called "cohee". Arriving during the mid-to-late 18th century, the Scots-Irish from Ireland were the largest immigrant group before the Revolution. During the Revolutionary War, the English and Highland Scots of eastern North Carolina tended to remain loyal to the British Crown, because of longstanding business and personal connections with Great Britain. The English, Welsh, Scots-Irish and German settlers of western North Carolina tended to favor American independence from Britain.

Most of the English colonists arrived as indentured servants, hiring themselves out as laborers for a fixed period to pay for their passage. In the early years the line between indentured servants and African slaves or laborers was fluid. Some Africans were allowed to earn their freedom before slavery became a lifelong status. Most of the free colored families formed in North Carolina before the Revolution were descended from relationships or marriages between free white women and enslaved or free African or African-American men. Many had migrated or were descendants of migrants from colonial Virginia.[18] As the flow of indentured laborers to the colony decreased with improving economic conditions in Great Britain, more slaves were imported and the state's restrictions on slavery hardened. The economy's growth and prosperity was based on slave labor, devoted first to the production of tobacco.

On April 12, 1776, the colony became the first to instruct its delegates to the Continental Congress to vote for independence from the British crown, through the Halifax Resolves passed by the North Carolina Provincial Congress. The dates of both of these events are memorialized on the state flag and state seal.[19] Throughout the Revolutionary War, fierce guerilla warfare erupted between bands of pro-independence and pro-British colonists. In some cases the war was also an excuse to settle private grudges and rivalries. A major American victory in the war took place at King's Mountain along the North Carolina–South Carolina border. On October 7, 1780 a force of 1000 mountain men from western North Carolina (including what is today the State of Tennessee) overwhelmed a force of some 1000 British troops led by Major Patrick Ferguson. Most of the British soldiers in this battle were Carolinians who had remained loyal to the British Crown (they were called "Tories"). The American victory at Kings Mountain gave the advantage to colonists who favored American independence, and it prevented the British Army from recruiting new soldiers from the Tories.

The road to Yorktown and America's independence from Great Britain led through North Carolina. As the British Army moved north from victories in Charleston and Camden, South Carolina, the Southern Division of the Continental Army and local militia prepared to meet them. Following General Daniel Morgan's victory over the British Cavalry Commander Banastre Tarleton at the Battle of Cowpens on January 17, 1781, southern commander Nathanael Greene led British Lord Charles Cornwallis across the heartland of North Carolina, and away from Cornwallis's base of supply in Charleston, South Carolina. This campaign is known as "The Race to the Dan" or "The Race for the River."[17]

Generals Greene and Cornwallis finally met at the Battle of Guilford Courthouse in present-day Greensboro on March 15, 1781. Although the British troops held the field at the end of the battle, their casualties at the hands of the numerically superior American Army were crippling. Following this "Pyrrhic victory", Cornwallis chose to move to the Virginia coastline to get reinforcements, and to allow the Royal Navy to protect his battered army. This decision would result in Cornwallis's eventual defeat at Yorktown, Virginia later in 1781. The Patriots' victory there guaranteed American independence.

Antebellum Period

On November 21, 1789, North Carolina became the twelfth state to ratify the Constitution. In 1840, it completed the state capitol building in Raleigh, still standing today. Most of North Carolina's slave owners and large plantations were located in the eastern portion of the state. Although North Carolina's plantation system was smaller and less cohesive than those of Virginia, Georgia or South Carolina, there were significant numbers of planters concentrated in the counties around the port cities of Wilmington and Edenton, as well as suburban planters around the cities of Raleigh, Charlotte and Durham. Planters owning large estates wielded significant political and socio-economic power in antebellum North Carolina, often to the derision of the generally non-slave holding "yeoman" farmers of Western North Carolina. In mid-century, the state's rural and commercial areas were connected by the construction of a 129–mile (208 km) wooden plank road, known as a "farmer's railroad", from Fayetteville in the east to Bethania (northwest of Winston-Salem).[17]

Besides slaves, there were a number of free people of color in the state. Most were descended from free African Americans who had migrated along with neighbors from Virginia during the eighteenth century. After the Revolution, Quakers and Mennonites worked to persuade slaveholders to free their slaves. Enough were inspired by their efforts and the language of men's rights, and arranged for manumission of their slaves. The number of free people of color rose in the first couple of decades after the Revolution.[20]

On October 25, 1836 construction began on the Wilmington and Raleigh Railroad[21] to connect the port city of Wilmington with the state capital of Raleigh. In 1849 the North Carolina Railroad was created by act of the legislature to extend that railroad west to Greensboro, High Point, and Charlotte. During the Civil War the Wilmington-to-Raleigh stretch of the railroad would be vital to the Confederate war effort; supplies shipped into Wilmington would be moved by rail through Raleigh to the Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia.

During the antebellum period North Carolina was an overwhelmingly rural state, even by Southern standards. In 1860 only one North Carolina town, the port city of Wilmington, had a population of more than 10,000. Raleigh, the state capital, had barely more than 5,000 residents.

While slaveholding was slightly less concentrated than in some Southern states, according to the 1860 census, more than 330,000 people, or 33% of the population of 992,622 were enslaved African-Americans. They lived and worked chiefly on plantations in the eastern Tidewater. In addition, 30,463 free people of color lived in the state. They were also concentrated in the eastern coastal plain, especially at port cities such as Wilmington and New Bern where they had access to a variety of jobs. Free African Americans were allowed to vote until 1835, when the state rescinded their suffrage.

American Civil War

In 1860, North Carolina was a slave state, in which about one-third of the population of 992,622 were enslaved African Americans. This was a smaller proportion than many Southern states. In addition, the state had just over 30,000 Free Negroes.[22] The state did not vote to join the Confederacy until President Abraham Lincoln called on it to invade its sister-state, South Carolina, becoming the last or second to last state to officially join the Confederacy. The title of "last to join the Confederacy" has been disputed because Tennessee informally seceded on May 7, 1861, making North Carolina the last to secede on May 20, 1861.[23][24] However, the Tennessee legislature did not formally vote to secede until June 8, 1861.[25]

North Carolina was the site of few battles, but it provided at least 125,000 troops to the Confederacy— far more than any other state. Approximately 40,000 of those troops never returned home, dying of disease, battlefield wounds, and starvation. North Carolina also supplied about 15,000 Union troops.[26] Elected in 1862, Governor Zebulon Baird Vance tried to maintain state autonomy against Confederate President Jefferson Davis in Richmond.

Even after secession, some North Carolinians refused to support the Confederacy. This was particularly true of non-slave-owning farmers in the state's mountains and western Piedmont region. Some of these farmers remained neutral during the war, while some covertly supported the Union cause during the conflict. Approximately 2,000 North Carolinians from western North Carolina enlisted in the Union Army and fought for the North in the war, and two additional Union Army regiments were raised in the coastal areas of the state that were occupied by Union forces in 1862 and 1863. Even so, Confederate troops from all parts of North Carolina served in virtually all the major battles of the Army of Northern Virginia, the Confederacy's most famous army. The largest battle fought in North Carolina was at Bentonville, which was a futile attempt by Confederate General Joseph Johnston to slow Union General William Tecumseh Sherman's advance through the Carolinas in the spring of 1865.[17] In April 1865 after losing the Battle of Morrisville, Johnston surrendered to Sherman at Bennett Place, in what is today Durham, North Carolina. This was the last major Confederate Army to surrender. North Carolina's port city of Wilmington was the last Confederate port to fall to the Union. It fell in the spring of 1865 after the nearby Second Battle of Fort Fisher.

The first Confederate soldier to be killed in the Civil War was Private Henry Wyatt, a North Carolinian. He was killed in the Battle of Big Buthel in June 1861. At the Battle of Gettysburg in July 1863, the 26th North Carolina Regiment participated in Pickett/Pettigrew's Charge and advanced the farthest into the Northern lines of any Confederate regiment. During the Battle of Chickamauga the 58th North Carolina Regiment advanced farther than any other regiment on Snodgrass Hill to push back the remaining Union forces from the battlefield. At Appomattox Court House in Virginia in April 1865, the 75th North Carolina Regiment, a cavalry unit, fired the last shots of the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia in the Civil War. For many years, North Carolinians proudly boasted that they had been "First at Bethel, Farthest at Gettysburg and Chickamauga, and Last at Appomattox."

Demographics

Center of Population in between Seagrove and Cheeks, NC

North Carolina Population Density in 2008.
With two-thirds of North Carolina's population living in the middle one-third of its landmass, the middle third of the state is about four times more densely populated than the remaining two-thirds.
Change in population from 2000 to 2008, using census estimates. Note the large-scale area of net population loss in the inland northeastern part of the state; these counties are all related to each other in that they contain the highest percentage of African-Americans, according to the Census 2000 data. [1]

The United States Census Bureau, as of July 1, 2009, estimated North Carolina's population at 9,380,884[2] which represents an increase of 1,340,334, or 16.7%, since the last census in 2000.[27] This exceeds the rate of growth for the United States as a whole. The growth comprises a natural increase since the last census of 412,906 people (that is 1,015,065 births minus 602,159 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of 783,382 people into the state.[27] Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 192,099 people, and migration within the country produced a net gain of 591,283 people.[27] Between 2005 and 2006, North Carolina passed New Jersey to become the 10th most populous state.[28] The state's population reported as under 5 years old was 6.7%, 24.4% were under 18, and 12.0% were 65 or older. Females made up approximately 51% of the population.

Metropolitan Areas

North Carolina has three major Metropolitan Combined Statistical Areas with populations of more than 1 million (U.S. Census Bureau 2008 estimates):[29]

  • The Metrolina: Charlotte-Gastonia-Salisbury, North Carolina-SC - population 2,338,289
  • The Triangle: Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, North Carolina- population 1,690,557
  • The Piedmont Triad: Greensboro—Winston-Salem—High Point, North Carolina - population 1,603,101

North Carolina has nine municipalities with populations of more than 100,000 (U.S. Census Bureau 2008 estimates):[30]

  • Charlotte: Mecklenburg County - population 687,456
  • Raleigh: Wake County - population 392,552
  • Greensboro: Guilford County - population 250,642
  • Winston-Salem: Forsyth County - population 227.834
  • Durham: Durham County - population 223,800
  • Fayetteville: Cumberland County - population 174,091
  • Cary: Wake County - population 134,545
  • High Point: Guilford County - population 101,835
  • Wilmington: New Hanover County - population 100,192

Racial makeup and population trends

Historical populations
Census Pop.  %±
1790 393,751
1850 869,039
1860 992,622 14.2%
1870 1,071,361 7.9%
1880 1,399,750 30.7%
1890 1,617,949 15.6%
1900 1,893,810 17.1%
1910 2,206,287 16.5%
1920 2,559,123 16.0%
1930 3,170,276 23.9%
1940 3,571,623 12.7%
1950 4,061,929 13.7%
1960 4,556,155 12.2%
1970 5,082,059 11.5%
1980 5,881,766 15.7%
1990 6,628,637 12.7%
2000 8,040,550 21.3%
Est. 2009 9,380,884 [2] 16.7%
Ancestry Percentage Main article:
African (21.6%) Of Total) See African American
American (13.9%) See United States
English (9.5%) See English American
German (9.5%) See German American
Irish (7.4%) See Irish American
Scots-Irish (3.2%) See Scots-Irish American
Italian (2.3%) See Italian American
Scottish (2.2%) See Scottish American
County Seat 2010 Projection[31]
Mecklenburg Charlotte 936,874
Wake Raleigh 920,298
Guilford Greensboro 480,028
Forsyth Winston-Salem 352,810
Cumberland Fayetteville 317,094
Durham Durham 267,086
Buncombe Asheville 234,800
Union Monroe 207,738
Gaston Gastonia 207,696
New Hanover Wilmington 202,411
Demographics of North Carolina (csv)
By race White Black AIAN* Asian NHPI*
2000 (total population) 75.27% 22.20% 1.65% 1.70% 0.11%
2000 (Hispanic only) 4.28% 0.33% 0.10% 0.05% 0.03%
2005 (total population) 74.95% 22.29% 1.65% 2.06% 0.12%
2005 (Hispanic only) 5.89% 0.37% 0.12% 0.05% 0.03%
Growth 2000–05 (total population) 7.41% 8.31% 7.51% 30.62% 17.92%
Growth 2000–05 (non-Hispanic only) 4.93% 8.13% 6.31% 30.71% 16.84%
Growth 2000–05 (Hispanic only) 48.62% 20.36% 25.79% 27.15% 21.63%
* AIAN is American Indian or Alaskan Native; NHPI is Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander

In 2007, the U.S. Census estimated that the racial makeup of North Carolina was as follows: 70% White American, 25.3% African-American, and 1.2% American Indian; 6.5% were Hispanic or Latino (of any race). North Carolina has historically been a rural state, with most of the population living on farms or in small towns. However, over the last 30 years the state has undergone rapid urbanization, and today most of North Carolina's residents live in urban and suburban areas, as in most of the United States. In particular, the cities of Charlotte and Raleigh have become major urban centers, with large, diverse, mainly affluent and rapidly growing populations. The state has received considerable immigration from Latin America, India, and Southeast Asia.[32]

African-Americans

African-Americans make up nearly a quarter of North Carolina's population. The number of middle-class African-Americans has increased since the 1970s. African-Americans are concentrated in the state's eastern Coastal Plain and in parts of the Piedmont Plateau, where they had historically worked and where the most new job opportunities are. African-American communities number by the hundreds in rural counties in the south-central and northeast, and in predominantly African neighborhoods in the cities: Charlotte, Raleigh, Durham, Greensboro, Fayetteville, Wilmington and Winston-Salem.

Asian Americans

The state has a rapidly growing proportion of Asian Americans, specifically those of Indian, Vietnamese descent; these groups nearly quintupled and tripled, respectively, between 1990 and 2002, as people arrived in the state for new jobs in the growing economy. Recent estimates suggest that the state's Asian-American population has increased significantly since 2000.

European Americans

Settled first, the coastal region attracted primarily English immigrants of the early migrations, including indentured servants transported to the colonies and descendants of English who migrated from Virginia. In addition, there were waves of Protestant European immigration, including the British, many Scots Irish, French Huguenots,[33] and Swiss Germans who settled New Bern; many Pennsylvania Germans came down the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia on the Great Wagon Road and settled in the western Piedmont and the foothills of the Blue Ridge. There is a high concentration of Scots-Irish in western North Carolina. A concentration of Welsh (usually included with others from Britain and Ireland) settled east of present Fayetteville in the 18th century. For a long time the wealthier, educated planters of the coastal region dominated state government.

Hispanics/Latinos

Since 1990 the state has seen an increase in the number of Hispanics/Latinos. Once chiefly employed as migrant labor, Hispanic residents of the 1990s and early 2000s have been attracted to low-skilled jobs that are the first step on the economic ladder. As a result, growing numbers of Hispanic immigrants are settling in the state.

Native Americans

North Carolina has the largest American Indian population of any state on the East Coast. The estimated population figures for Native Americans in North Carolina (as of 2004) is 110,198. To date, North Carolina recognizes eight Native American tribal nations within its state borders. Those tribes are the Coharie, Eastern Band of the Cherokee, Haliwa-Saponi, Lumbee, Meherrin, Sappony, Occaneechi Band of the Saponi Nation and Waccamaw-Siouan.[34]

Religion

Religious affiliation
Christian 84%
Evangelical Protestant 41%
Mainline Protestant 21%
Black Protestant 13%
Roman Catholic  9%
Buddhist 1%
Other religions 3%
Non-religious 12%
Data as of 2007[35]

North Carolina, as other Southern states, has traditionally been overwhelmingly Protestant, mostly with denominations of British or American origin. The eighteenth-century Moravian settlements in the western Piedmont have provided an interesting variation, as has the late-nineteenth-century Italian Protestant Waldensian settlement in Valdese. By the late nineteenth century, the largest Protestant denomination was the Southern Baptists.

The rapid influx of northerners, people from Florida and immigrants from Latin America, which began in the late twentieth century, is steadily increasing the number of Roman Catholics and Jews in the state, and refugees and other recent immigrants from Asia have brought Buddhism with them. The Baptists do remain the single largest denomination in the state, however.

The religious affiliations of the people of North Carolina, as of 2007, are shown in the chart.

Economy

North Carolina quarter, reverse side, 2001.jpg

According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the state's 2008 total gross state product was $400.2 billion, it is the ninth wealthiest state in terms of gross domestic product.[36] Its 2007 per capita personal income was $33,735, placing 36th in the nation.[37] North Carolina's agricultural outputs include poultry and eggs, tobacco, hogs, milk, nursery stock, cattle, sweet potatoes, and soybeans. However, North Carolina has recently been affected by offshoring and industrial growth in countries like China; one in five manufacturing jobs in the state has been lost to overseas competition.[38] There has been a distinct difference in the economic growth of North Carolina's urban and rural areas. While large cities such as Charlotte, Raleigh, Greensboro, and others have experienced rapid population and economic growth over the last thirty years, many of the state's small towns have suffered from loss of jobs and population. Most of North Carolina's small towns historically developed around textile and furniture factories. As these factories closed and moved to low-wage markets in Asia and Latin America, the small towns that depended upon them have suffered.

The first gold nugget found in the U.S. was found in Cabarrus County in 1799.[39] The first gold dollar minted in the U.S. was minted at the Bechtler Mint in Rutherford County.

Agriculture and manufacturing

Over the past century, North Carolina has grown to become a national leader in agriculture, financial services, and manufacturing. The state's industrial output—mainly textiles, chemicals, electrical equipment, paper and pulp and paper products—ranked eighth in the nation in the early 1990s. The textile industry, which was once a mainstay of the state's economy, has been steadily losing jobs to producers in Latin America and Asia for the past 25 years, though the state remains the largest textile employer in the United States.[40] Over the past few years, another important Carolina industry, furniture production, has also been hard hit by jobs moving to Asia (especially China). North Carolina is the leading producer of tobacco in the country.[41] As one of North Carolina's earliest sources of revenue, it remains vital to the local economy, although concerns about whether the federal government will continue to support subsidies for tobacco farmers has led some growers to switch to other crops like grapes for wine or leave farming altogether.[42] Agriculture in the western counties of North Carolina (particularly Buncombe and surrounding counties) is presently experiencing a revitalization coupled with a shift to niche marketing, fueled by the growing demand for organic and local products.[43]

Finance, technology and research

Charlotte's growing skyline

Charlotte, North Carolina's largest city, continues to experience rapid growth, in large part due to the banking & finance industry. Charlotte is now the second largest banking center in the United States (after New York), and is home to Bank of America and Wells Fargo subsidiary, Wachovia. The Charlotte metro area is also home to 5 other Fortune 500 companies.

BB&T (Branch Banking & Trust), one of America's largest banks, was founded in Wilson, North Carolina in 1872. Today, BB&T's headquarters is in Winston-Salem, although some operations still take place in Wilson.

The information and biotechnology industries have been steadily on the rise since the creation of the Research Triangle Park (RTP) in the 1950s. Located between Raleigh, Durham, and Chapel Hill (mostly in Durham County), it is a globally prominent research center home to over 170 companies and federal agencies and is the largest and oldest continuously operating research and science park in the United States.[44] Anchored by UNC (Chapel Hill), Duke (Durham), and NC State (Raleigh), the park's proximity to these research universities has no doubt helped to fuel growth.

Raleigh, the growing capital of North Carolina

The North Carolina Research Campus underway in Kannapolis (approx. 30 miles (48 km) northeast of Charlotte) aims to enrich and bolster the Charlotte area in the same way that RTP changed the Raleigh-Durham region.[45] Encompassing 5,800,000 square feet (539,000 m2), the complex is a collaborative project involving Duke University, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and N.C. State University, along with private and corporate investors and developers. The facility incorporates corporate, academic, commercial and residential space, oriented toward research and development (R&D) and biotechnology. Similarly, in downtown Winston-Salem, the Piedmont Triad Research Park is undergoing an expansion. Approximately thirty miles to the east of Winston Salem's research park, the University of North Carolina at Greensboro and North Carolina A&T State University have joined forces to create the Gateway University Research Park, a technology-based research entity which will focus its efforts on areas such as nanotechnology, biotechnology & biochemistry, environmental sciences, and genetics among other science-based disciplines.

Film and the arts

Film studios are located in Shelby, Raleigh, Durham, Charlotte, Asheville, Wilmington, and Winston-Salem. Some of the best-known films and television shows filmed in the state include: All the Real Girls, The Secret Life of Bees, Being There, Blue Velvet, Bull Durham, A Walk to Remember, Glory, The Color Purple, Cabin Fever, Super Mario Bros., Cape Fear, Children of the Corn, The Crow, Cyborg (film), Dawson's Creek, Dirty Dancing, Evil Dead 2, The Fugitive, The Green Mile, Hannibal, The Last of the Mohicans, Nell, One Tree Hill, Patch Adams, Shallow Hal, Talladega Nights: The Ballad of Ricky Bobby, Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles 3, Leatherheads, Nights in Rodanthe and 28 Days. Half of Steven King's movies were filmed in North Carolina. The television show most associated with North Carolina is The Andy Griffith Show, which aired on CBS-TV from 1960 to 1968. The series is set in the fictional small town of Mayberry, North Carolina, and was based on the real-life town of Mount Airy, North Carolina, although it was filmed in California. Mount Airy is the hometown of actor Andy Griffith. The show is still popular in reruns and is frequently shown in syndication around the nation. North Carolina is also home to some of the Southeast's biggest film festivals, including the National Black Theatre Festival and the RiverRun International Film Festival in Winston-Salem, and the Full Frame Documentary Film Festival in Durham, North Carolina.

Tourism

Tourism destinations in the state include amusement parks, golf, wineries, beaches, meetings and conventions and sports venues. The North Carolina tourism industry employs more than 190,000 people. The state is the 6th most visited in the country (preceded by Florida, California, New York, Nevada and Pennsylvania).[46] The North Carolina Department of Commerce maintains a Tourism Services providing matching funds and consultation for development tourism in the state including rural tourism.[47]

Tax revenue

North Carolina personal income tax is slightly progressive, with four incremental brackets ranging from 6.0% to 8.25%. The base state sales tax is 4.25%.[48] Most taxable sales or purchases are subject to the state tax as well as the 2.5% local tax rate levied by all counties, for a combined 6.75%. Mecklenburg County has an additional 0.5% local tax for public transportation, bringing sales taxes there to a total 7.25%. The total local rate of tax in Dare County is 3.5%, producing a combined state and local rate there of 7.75%.[49] In addition, there is a 30.2¢ tax per gallon of gas, a 30¢ tax per pack of cigarettes, a 79¢ tax on wine, and a 48¢ tax on beer. There are also additional taxes levied against food and prepared foods, normally totaling 2% and 8% respectively. The property tax in North Carolina is locally assessed and collected by the counties. The three main elements of the property tax system in North Carolina are real property, motor vehicles and personal property (inventories and household personal property are exempt). Estimated at 10.5% of income, North Carolina's state and local tax burden percentage ranks 23rd highest nationally (taxpayers pay an average of $3,526 per-capita), just below the national average of 10.6%.[50] North Carolina ranks 40th in the Tax Foundation's State Business Tax Climate Index with neighboring states ranked as follows: Tennessee (18th), Georgia (19th), South Carolina (26th) and Virginia (13th).[50]

Transportation

International/Regional Airports

Commerical Airports in North Carolina

Rail

Amtrak operates The Palmetto with service from New York to Florence to Savannah Georgia, as well as Silver Star from New York to Florence to Tampa via Raleigh, Cary, Southern Pines and Hamlet N.C., and Silver Meteor from New York to Florence to Miami via Rocky Mount N.C and Fayetteville N.C. The state subsidizes both the Piedmont and Carolinian intercity rail serving the Research Triangle. Amtrak has announced a third subsidized train that will run between Raleigh and Charlotte. This train will run midday to complement the Piedmont and Carolinian and include stops in Greensboro, Burlington, and High Point. There is also the Crescent which runs from New York to Atlanta during the early morning before dawn.

Mass transit

LYNX light rail car in Charlotte

Several cities are served by mass transit systems.

The Charlotte Area Transit System (CATS) operates a historical trolley line and 76 bus and shuttle routes serving Charlotte and its satellite cities. In 2007 it opened the LYNX light rail line connecting Charlotte with suburban Pineville. There are future plans to expand LYNX Light Rail as well as implementation of Commuter Rail and Streetcar.

The Fayetteville Area System of Transit (FAST) serves the city with ten bus routes and two shuttle routes.

The Triangle Transit Authority operates buses that serve the Triangle region and connect to municipal bus systems in Raleigh, Durham, and Chapel Hill; recent efforts to build a light rail from downtown Raleigh to downtown Durham failed as TTA's projected ridership did not meet federal standards.

Greensboro is serviced by the Greensboro Transit Authority (GTA), which operates 14 bus routes. Additionally, the Higher Education Area Transit (HEAT) system provides service to students who attend the following institutions: Bennett College, Elon University School of Law, Greensboro College, Guilford College, Guilford Technical Community College, North Carolina A&T State University, and University of North Carolina at Greensboro. The HEAT service provides transportation between campuses and various other destinations, including downtown Greensboro.

Winston-Salem Transit Authority (WSTA) operates 30 bus routes around the city of Winston-Salem; additionally, WSTA recently completed construction of a central downtown mult-modal transportation center with 16 covered bus bays adjacent to a large enclosed lobby/waiting area. There are future plans being discussed for a $52 million streetcar system connecting Piedmont Triad Research Park/Downtown with Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center.

Piedmont Authority for Regional Transportation (PART) is the Triad's 10-county regional organization with the goal of enhancing all forms of transportation through regional cooperation. PART Express Bus provides express shuttle service to each major Triad city from Piedmont Triad International Airport, while Connections Express connects the Triad to Duke and UNC Medical Centers. PART is also administering and developing several rail service studies that include both commuter and intercity rail.

Wilmington's Wave Transit operates six bus lines within the city as well as five shuttles to nearby areas and a downtown trolley.

In July 2008, Western Piedmont Regional Transit Authority began serving Burke, Caldwell, Catawba and Alexander counties in the region just west of Charlotte.[51]

Jacksonville recently began a trial bus system called the LOOP, which runs two routes through the city and nearby Camp Lejeune. But this loop has yet to be made permanent.

File:Arrowhead depot.jpg

Major highways

The North Carolina Highway System consists of a vast network of Interstate highways, U.S. routes, and state routes. North Carolina has the largest state maintained highway network in the United States.[52] Major highways include:

Politics and government

The governor, lieutenant governor, and eight elected executive department heads form the Council of State. Ten other executive department heads appointed by the governor form the North Carolina Cabinet. The state's current governor is Democrat Bev Perdue, the first female governor of the state. The North Carolina General Assembly, or Legislature, consists of two houses: a 50-member Senate and a 120-member House of Representatives. For the 2007–2008 session, the current President Pro Tempore of the Senate is Democrat Marc Basnight (the Lieutenant Governor of North Carolina is the President of the Senate); The House Speaker is Democrat Joe Hackney.

The Supreme Court of North Carolina is the state's highest appellate court; it numbers seven justices. The North Carolina Court of Appeals is the only intermediate appellate court in the state; it consists of fifteen judges who rule in rotating panels of three. Together, the Supreme Court and Court of Appeals constitute the appellate division of the court system. The trial division includes the Superior Court and the District Court. All felony criminal cases, civil cases involving more than $10,000 and misdemeanor and infraction appeals from District Court are tried in Superior Court. A jury of 12 hears the criminal cases. Civil cases—such as divorce, custody, child support, and cases involving less than $10,000—are heard in District Court, along with criminal cases involving misdemeanors and lesser infractions. The trial of a criminal case in District Court is always without a jury. The District Court also hears juvenile cases involving children under the age of 16 who are delinquent and children under the age of 18 who are undisciplined, dependent, neglected, or abused. Magistrates accept guilty pleas for minor misdemeanors, accept guilty pleas for traffic violations, and accept waivers of trial for worthless-check cases among other things. In civil cases, the magistrate is authorized to try small claims involving up to $5,000 including landlord eviction cases. Magistrates also perform civil marriages.

State constitution

The state constitution governs the structure and function of the North Carolina government. It is the highest legal document for the state and subjugates North Carolina law. Like all state constitutions in the United States, this constitution is subject to federal judicial review. Any provision of the state constitution can be nullified if it conflicts with federal law and the United States Constitution.

North Carolina has had three constitutions:

  • 1776: Ratified December 18, 1776, as the first constitution of the independent state. The Declaration of Rights was ratified the preceding day.
  • 1868: Framed in accordance with the Reconstruction Acts after North Carolina was readmitted into the Union. It was a major reorganization and modification of the original into fourteen articles. It also introduced townships which each county was required to create, the only southern state to do so.
  • 1971: Minor consolidation of the 1868 constitution and subsequent amendments.

Federal apportionments

North Carolina currently has 13 congressional districts, which, when combined with its two U.S. Senate seats, gives the state 15 electoral votes. In the 111th Congress, the state is represented by eight Democratic and five Republican members of congress, plus one Republican and one Democratic Senator.

Politics

North Carolina is politically dominated by the Democratic and Republican political parties. Since the 19th century, third parties, such as the Green Party and Libertarian Party, have had difficulty making inroads in state politics. They have both run candidates for office with neither party's winning a state office. After engaging in a lawsuit with the state over ballot access, the Libertarian Party[53] qualified to be on the ballot after submitting more than 70,000 petition signatures[54]

Historically, North Carolina was politically divided between the eastern and western parts of the state. Before the Civil War, the eastern half of North Carolina supported the Democratic Party, primarily because the region contained most of the state's planter slaveholders who profited from large cash crops. Yeomen farmers in the western Piedmont and mountains were not slaveholders and tended to support the Whig party, seen as more moderate on slavery and more supportive of business interests.

Following the Civil War, Republicans, including newly enfranchised freedmen, controlled the state government during Reconstruction. When federal troops were removed in the national compromise of 1877, the Democratic Party gained control of the state government, partly through white paramilitary groups conducting a campaign of violence against African-Americans to discourage them from voting, especially in the Piedmont counties. Despite that, the number of African-American officeholders peaked in the 1880s as they were elected to local offices in African-American-majority districts.[55]

Hard pressed poor cotton farmers created the Populist Party to challenge the establishment. Conditions turned much worse in the Panic of 1893, as cotton prices fell. In North Carolina, largely-black Republican Party formed a fusion ticket with the largely-white Populist, giving them control of the state legislature in 1894. In 1896 the Republican-Populist alliance took control of the governorship and many state offices. In response, many white Democrats began efforts to reduce voter rolls and turnout.[56] During the late 1890s, conservative Democrats began to pass legislation to restrict voter registration and reduce voting by African-Americans and poor whites.

With the first step accomplished in 1896 by making registration more complicated and reducing African-American voter turnout, in 1898 the state's Democratic Party regained control of the state government. Contemporary observers described the election as a "contest unquestionably accompanied by violence, intimidation and fraud - to what extent we do not know - in the securing of a majority of 60,000 for the new arrangement".[57] Using the slogan, "White Supremacy", and backed by influential newspapers such as the Raleigh News and Observer under publisher Josephus Daniels, the Democrats ousted the Populist-Republican majority. By 1900 new laws imposed poll taxes (voters had to pay a $1 tax, but not non-voters), residency requirements, and literacy tests. Initially the grandfather clause was used to exempt illiterate whites from the literacy test, but many were gradually disfranchised as well. By these efforts, by 1904 white Democratic legislators had completely eliminated African-American voter turnout in North Carolina.[58] Disfranchisement lasted until it was ended by the federal Voting Rights Act of 1965.

By 1900 North Carolina joined the "Solid Democratic South", with the blacks still members of the Republican Party but powerless in state and local affairs. However, some counties in North Carolina's western Piedmont and Appalachian Mountains continued to vote Republican, continuing a tradition that dated from their yeoman culture and opposition to secession before the Civil War. In 1952, aided by the presidential candidacy of popular war hero Dwight Eisenhower, the Republicans were successful in electing a U.S. Congressman, Charles R. Jonas.

In the mid-20th century Republicans began to attract white voters in North Carolina and other Southern states. This was after passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Voting Rights Act of 1965 under Democratic President Lyndon Johnson, which extended Federal protection and enforcement of civil rights for all American citizens. Because the Democratic Party had supported civil rights at the national level, most African-American voters (just under 25% of North Carolina's population in the 1960 census) initially aligned with the Democrats when they regained their franchise.[59] In 1972, aided by the landslide re-election of Richard Nixon, Republicans in North Carolina elected their first governor and U.S. senator of the twentieth century.

Senator Jesse Helms played a major role in renewing the Republican Party and turning North Carolina into a two-party state. Under his banner, many conservative white Democrats in the central and eastern parts of North Carolina began to vote Republican, at least in national elections. In part, this was due to dissatisfaction with the national Democratic Party's stance on issues of civil rights and racial integration. In later decades, conservatives rallied to Republicans over social issues such as prayer in school, gun rights, abortion rights, and gay rights.[citation needed]

Except for regional son Jimmy Carter's election in 1976, North Carolina voted Republican in every presidential election from 1968 to 2004. At the state level, however, the Democrats still control most of the elected offices. President George W. Bush carried North Carolina with 56% of the vote in 2004, but in 2008 Democratic presidential candidate Barack Obama narrowly defeated Republican candidate John McCain in North Carolina; he was the first Democratic presidential nominee to win the state in 32 years. The Democratic Party's strength is increasingly centered in densely-populated urban counties such as Mecklenburg, Wake, Durham, and Guilford, where the bulk of the state's population growth has occurred. The Republicans maintain a strong presence in many of North Carolina's rural and small-town counties, which have become heavily Republican. The suburban areas around the state's larger cities usually hold the balance of power and can vote both ways, and in 2008 trended towards the Democratic Party. State and local elections have become highly competitive compared to the previous one-party decades of the 20th century. For example, eastern North Carolina routinely elects Republican sheriffs and county commissioners, a shift that did not happen until the 1980s. Currently, each party holds a U.S. Senate seat. Democrats hold the governorship, majorities in both houses of the state legislature, state supreme court, and an eight to five majority of U.S. House seats from the state.

Two Presidents of the United States were born and raised in North Carolina, but both men began their political careers in neighboring Tennessee, and were elected President from that state. The two men were James K. Polk and Andrew Johnson. A third U.S. President, Andrew Jackson, may also have been born in North Carolina. However, as he was born almost precisely on the state line with South Carolina, both states claim him as a native son, and historians have debated for decades over the precise site of Jackson's birthplace. On the grounds of the old state capitol in Raleigh is a statue dedicated to the Presidents who were born in the state; Jackson is included in the statue. Jackson himself stated that he was born in what later became South Carolina, but at the time of his birth, the line between the states had not been surveyed.

North Carolina remains a control state. This is probably due to the state's strongly conservative Protestant heritage. Two of the state's counties - Graham and Yancey, which are both located in rural areas - remain "dry" (the sale of alcoholic beverages is illegal).[4] However, the remaining 98 North Carolina counties allow the sale and consumption of alcoholic beverages, as is the case in most of the United States. Even in rural areas, the opposition to selling and drinking alcoholic beverages is declining, as the decreasing number of "dry" counties indicates.

In 2005, following substantial political maneuvering, the state legislature voted to implement a state lottery, thus altering North Carolina's reputation as the "anti-lottery" state, where owning a lottery ticket from another state was once a felony. By 2005, every state surrounding North Carolina had a lottery in operation. The North Carolina Education Lottery began selling tickets on March 31, 2006. The lottery has had unexpectedly low sales since its inception.[60]

Notable Legislators and Politicians (past and present)

  • Jesse Alexander Helms, (October 18, 1921 – July 4, 2008), five-term Republican United States Senator, Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee from 1995 to 2001

Education

Elementary and secondary education

Elementary and secondary public schools are overseen by the North Carolina Department of Public Instruction. The North Carolina Superintendent of Public Instruction is the secretary of the North Carolina State Board of Education, but the board, rather than the superintendent, holds most of the legal authority for making public education policy. In 2009, the board's chairman also became the "chief executive officer" for the state's school system.[61][62] North Carolina has 115 public school systems,[63] each of which is overseen by a local school board. A county may have one or more systems within it. The largest school systems in North Carolina are the Charlotte-Mecklenburg Schools, Wake County Public School System, Guilford County Schools, Winston-Salem/Forsyth County Schools, and Cumberland County Schools. In total there are 2,338 public schools in the state, including 93 charter schools.[63]

The Old Well on the UNC-Chapel Hill campus

Colleges and universities

In 1795, North Carolina opened the first public university in the United States—the University of North Carolina (currently named the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill). More than 200 years later, the University of North Carolina system encompasses 17 public universities including UNC-Chapel Hill, North Carolina State University, East Carolina University, Western Carolina University, UNC Charlotte, UNC Greensboro, UNC Pembroke, UNC Wilmington and Appalachian State University. The system also supports several well-known historically African-American colleges and universities such as North Carolina A&T State University, North Carolina Central University, Winston-Salem State University, Elizabeth City State University, and Fayetteville State University. Along with its public universities, North Carolina has 58 public community colleges in its community college system.

Sports and recreation

Professional sports

Motorsports

The state is also a center in American motorsports, with more than 80% of NASCAR racing teams and related industries located in the Piedmont region. The largest race track in North Carolina is Charlotte Motor Speedway in Concord where the Sprint Cup Series holds three major races each year. The NASCAR Hall of Fame, located in Charlotte, is due to open in 2010. Many of NASCAR's most famous driver dynasties, the Pettys, Earnhardts, Allisons, Jarretts and Waltrips all live within an hour of Charlotte.

In off-road motocycle racing, the Grand National Cross Country series makes two stops in North Carolina, Morganton and Yadkinville; the only other state to host two GNCC events is Ohio. For sport amateurs, the state holds the State Games of North Carolina each year.

Football

Despite having over nine million people, North Carolina's population being spread out over three major metropolitan areas precluded attracting any major professional sports league teams until 1974, when the New York Stars of the World Football League was relocated to Charlotte in the middle of the season and renamed the Charlotte Hornets (although the team was referred to as the Charlotte Stars for the first game in Charlotte). The National Football League (NFL) is represented by the Carolina Panthers, who began play in 1995, and call Charlotte's Bank of America Stadium home. In 2004, the NBA returned to the state with the Charlotte Bobcats who play their home games in Time Warner Cable Arena. The Carolina RailHawks are a men's professional soccer team in the United Soccer Leagues, and their home field is the WakeMed Soccer Park in Cary. The American Indoor Football Association (AIFA) is represented by the Fayetteville Guard who plays at Crown Coliseum. North Carolina was home to the Charlotte Rage and the Carolina Cobras of the Arena Football League.

Basketball

Prior to that, the Carolina Cougars of the American Basketball Association played in various North Carolina cites (playing in the ABA for five seasons, ending in the spring of 1974). Current Charlotte Bobcats coach Larry Brown started his coaching career as head coach of the Cougars.

The first successful major professional sports team to be created in North Carolina were the Charlotte Hornets of the National Basketball Association (NBA), which began play in the 1987–88 season. The state remains without a Major League Baseball franchise despite numerous efforts to attract a team (including the 2006 push to relocate the Florida Marlins to Charlotte).

Hockey

Stanley Cup awards ceremony at the RBC Center

On June 19, 2006, the Carolina Hurricanes, a National Hockey League (NHL) franchise based in Raleigh, won the Stanley Cup. The Hurricanes, who call the RBC Center home, are the first major professional sports team from North Carolina to win their sport's highest championship. The team moved to the state in 1996 and played their games at the Greensboro Coliseum for their first 2 seasons in North Carolina before moving to their current home at the Entertainment and Sports Arena (later named the RBC Center) in Raleigh.

Baseball

Durham Bulls Athletic Park

North Carolina is a state known for minor league sports, notably the setting of the 1987 comedy Bull Durham about the Durham Bulls of the Carolina League. The state boasts over 30 minor league baseball teams in six different minor leagues, including the Triple-A International League teams in Charlotte and Durham. There are a number of indoor football, indoor soccer, minor league basketball, and minor league ice hockey teams throughout the state. North Carolina has become a top golf destination for players across the nation, notably in Pinehurst, and the community of Southern Pines of Moore County which is home to over 50 golf courses, as well as the coastal corridor between historic Wilmington, North Carolina and Myrtle Beach, South Carolina with over 110 golf courses.

Wrestling

From the 1930s to the early 1990s, the Mid Atlantic Championship Wrestling professional wrestling promotion, under the Crockett family, operated almost entirely out of Charlotte. Mid Atlantic was a long-time member of the National Wrestling Alliance and many of their top stars appeared on national television on NWA and later WCW events. Many retired or still-current wrestlers live in the Charlotte/Lake Norman area, including Ric Flair, Ricky Steamboat, Matt and Jeff Hardy, Stan Lane, Shannon Moore and R-Truth Also, the chairman of World Wrestling Entertainment, Vincent K. McMahon was born in Pinehurst, attended East Carolina University, and was married in New Bern.

Rodeo

North Carolina has become a hot bed for professional bull riding (PBR). It is the home of the 1995 PRCA World Champion Bull Rider Jerome Davis. It is also home to several professional stock contractors and bull owners including Thomas Teague of Teague Bucking Bulls. The Golden Belt Buckle state champion for 2009–2010 is Brad Ballew out of Asheville, North Carolina. The Southern Extreme Bull Riding Association SEBRA headquarters are located in Archdale.

College sports

Tip-off of a Duke-UNC basketball game at the Dean Smith Center

Although North Carolina did not have a major-league professional sports franchise until the 1980s, the state has long been known as a hotbed of college basketball. Since the formation of the Atlantic Coast Conference (ACC) in 1953, the conference's North Carolina member schools have excelled in conference play. The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), Duke University, and North Carolina State University are all located within 25 miles (40 km) of one another, creating fierce rivalries. Wake Forest University, another ACC member, is located less than 100 miles (160 km) to the west of these schools in Winston-Salem. UNC has won five NCAA national championships in basketball: 1957, 1982, 1993, 2005, and 2009. Duke has won three NCAA championships: 1991, 1992, and 2001. NC State has won two: 1974 and 1983. The Duke-UNC basketball rivalry has been called one of the best rivalries in sports and the two schools are often contenders for the national title. In addition to the ACC schools, the University of North Carolina at Charlotte went to the NCAA's Final Four in 1977, and Davidson College near Charlotte went to the NCAA's "Elite Eight" in 1968, 1969, and 2008.

North Carolina schools have also won multiple NCAA Division II basketball national championships. In 1967, Winston-Salem State University, led by future NBA star Earl Monroe and coached by the legendary Clarence "Big House" Gaines, was the first school in the state to win the Division II championship. In 1989, North Carolina Central University brought the title to the state a second time; winning the championship game by 27 points, which remains the largest margin of victory in its history. And in 2007, Barton College in Wilson returned the title to the state a third time.

Although basketball remains the dominant college sport in North Carolina, several schools have also enjoyed success in football and other sports. Wake Forest University has also enjoyed substantial success in football; in 2007 they won the ACC football championship and participated in the 2007 Orange Bowl in Miami, Florida. This was the first major bowl berth for a North Carolina–based ACC team since Duke defeated Arkansas in the 1961 Cotton Bowl Classic. East Carolina University also enjoys much success in football. Located in Greenville the Pirates have won both the 2008 and 2009 Conference USA Football Championship and have large passionate fan base. The East Carolina Pirates were the first back-to-back C-USA champions since divisional play was started in 2005. The Pirates played in the Auto Zone Liberty Bowl for a second consecutive year on January 2, 2010. Elon University made 4 trips to the NAIA National Championship in football game winning back to back championships in 1980 and 1981. Lenoir-Rhyne University won the 1960 NAIA National Championship in football. Appalachian State University, Elon University, Western Carolina University and North Carolina A&T State University have all made trips to the NCAA Football Championship Subdivision championship playoffs. Western Carolina University has made one trip to this championship game, while Appalachian State University became the first school to win the championship three years in a row from 2005 to 2007.

Recreation

The Blue Ridge Mountains of the Shining Rock Wilderness Area

Due to geography, rich history, and growing industry, North Carolina provides a large range of recreational activities from swimming at the beach[64] to skiing in the mountains. North Carolina offers fall colors, freshwater and saltwater fishing, hunting, birdwatching, agritourism, ATV trails, ballooning, rock climbing, biking, hiking, skiing, boating and sailing, camping, canoeing, caving (spelunking), gardens, and arboretums. North Carolina has theme parks, aquariums, zoos, museums, historic sites, lighthouses, elegant theaters, concert halls, and fine dining.[65]

North Carolinians enjoy outdoor recreation utilizing numerous local bike paths, 34 state parks, and 14 national parks which are the Appalachian National Scenic Trail, the Blue Ridge Parkway, Cape Hatteras National Seashore, Cape Lookout National Seashore, Carl Sandburg Home National Historic Site at Flat Rock, Croatan National Forest in Eastern North Carolina, Fort Raleigh National Historic Site at Manteo, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Guilford Courthouse National Military Park in Greensboro, Moores Creek National Battlefield near Currie, the Overmountain Victory National Historic Trail, Old Salem National Historic Site in Winston-Salem, the Trail of Tears National Historic Trail, Wright Brothers National Memorial in Kill Devil Hills, North Carolina, Uwharrie National Forest.

Other information

Music

North Carolina is known particularly for its tradition of old-time music, and many recordings were made in the early 20th century by folk song collector Bascom Lamar Lunsford. Musicians such as the North Carolina Ramblers helped solidify the sound of country music in the late 1920s, while the influential bluegrass musician Doc Watson also came from North Carolina. Both North and South Carolina are a hotbed for traditional rural blues, especially the style known as the Piedmont blues. Contemporary Jazz musician LeRoi Moore, now deceased, of the Dave Matthews Band was born in Durham, North Carolina.

The Triangle area has long been a well-known center for folk, rock, metal, and punk.[66] James Taylor grew up around Chapel Hill and his 1968 song "Carolina in My Mind" has been called an unofficial anthem for the state.[67][68][69]

Also coming from Chapel Hill is the band Squirrel Nut Zippers, who played a big part in the 1990s swing revival.

Famous food and drinks from North Carolina

A nationally-famous cuisine from North Carolina is pork barbecue. However, there are strong regional differences and rivalries over the sauces and method of preparation used in making the barbecue. Eastern North Carolina pork barbecue uses a vinegar and red pepper based sauce and the "whole hog" is cooked, thus using both white and dark meat. Western North Carolina pork barbecue uses a tomato-based sauce, and only the pork shoulder (dark meat) is used. Western North Carolina barbecue is commonly referred to as Lexington barbecue, after the Piedmont Triad town of Lexington, home of the Lexington Barbecue Festival which brings in over 100,000 visitors each October.[70][71]

North Carolina is the birthplace of Pepsi-Cola, first produced in 1890 in New Bern. A regional soft drink created and still based in the state is Cheerwine out of Salisbury. Krispy Kreme, a popular chain of doughnut stores, was started in North Carolina; the company's headquarters are in Winston-Salem. Despite its name, the hot sauce Texas Pete was created in North Carolina; its headquarters are also in Winston-Salem. The Hardees fast-food chain was started in Rocky Mount. Another fast-food chain, Bojangles', was started in Charlotte, and has its corporate headquarters there. A popular North Carolina restaurant chain is Golden Corral. Started in 1973, the chain was founded in Fayetteville, with headquarters located in Raleigh. Popular pickle brand Mount Olive Pickle Company was founded in Mount Olive in 1926. Cook Out, a popular fast food chain featuring burgers, hot dogs, and milkshakes in a wide variety of flavors, was founded in Greensboro in 1989 and operates exclusively in North Carolina.

Over the last decade, North Carolina has become a haven for wine and beer making as tobacco land has been converted to grape orchards while state laws regulating alcohol content in beer allowed a jump in ABV from 6% to 15%. The Yadkin Valley in particular has become a popular place for grape production while the city of Asheville recently won the recognition of being named 'Beer City USA.' Asheville boasts the largest breweries per capita of any city in the United States. Popular brands of beer in NC include Highland Brewing, Weeping Radish Brewery, Big Boss Brewing, Foothills Brewing and Carolina Brewing Company.

Ships named for the state

Several ships have been named for the state. Most famous is the USS North Carolina, a World War II battleship. The ship served in several battles against the forces of Imperial Japan in the Pacific theater during the war. Now decommissioned, it is part of the USS North Carolina Battleship Memorial in Wilmington. Another USS North Carolina, a nuclear attack submarine, was commissioned in Wilmington, North Carolina on May 3, 2008.[72]

Cardinal, North Carolina state bird
Dogwood, North Carolina state flower

State symbols

Armed Forces installations

According to former Governor Mike Easley, North Carolina is the "most military friendly state in the nation."[74] Fort Bragg, near Fayetteville, is the largest and most comprehensive military base in the United States and is the headquarters of the XVIII Airborne Corps, 82nd Airborne Division, and the U.S. Army Special Operations Command. Serving as the airwing for Fort Bragg is Pope Air Force Base also located near Fayetteville. Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune which, when combined with nearby bases Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS) Cherry Point, MCAS New River, Camp Geiger, Camp Johnson, Stone Bay and Courthouse Bay, makes up the largest concentration of Marines and sailors in the world. MCAS Cherry Point is home of the 2nd Marine Aircraft Wing. Located in Goldsboro, Seymour Johnson Air Force Base is home of the 4th Fighter Wing and 916th Air Refueling Wing. One of the busiest air stations in the United States Coast Guard is located at the Coast Guard Air Station in Elizabeth City. Also stationed in North Carolina is the Military Ocean Terminal Sunny Point in Southport.

See also

References

  1. ^ "North Carolina Climate and Geography". NC Kids Page. North Carolina Department of the Secretary of State. May 8, 2006. http://www.secretary.state.nc.us/kidspg/geog.htm. Retrieved 2006-11-07. 
  2. ^ a b c d "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2009". United States Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/popest/states/tables/NST-EST2009-01.csv. Retrieved 2010-01-04. 
  3. ^ a b Median Household Income, from U.S. Census Bureau (from 2007 American Community Survey, U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2009-04-09.
  4. ^ a b c "Elevations and Distances in the United States". U.S Geological Survey. April 29, 2005. http://erg.usgs.gov/isb/pubs/booklets/elvadist/elvadist.html#Highest. Retrieved 2006-11-06. 
  5. ^ Constance E. Richards, "Contact and Conflict", American Archaeologist, Spring 2008, p.14, accessed 26 June 2008
  6. ^ "The Colony At Roanoke". The National Center for Public Policy Research. http://www.nationalcenter.org/ColonyofRoanoke.html. Retrieved 2008-02-23. 
  7. ^ US Census Bureau
  8. ^ "Watersheds". NC Office of Environmental Education. 2007-02-16. http://www.eenorthcarolina.org/public/ecoaddress/riverbasins/riverbasinmapinteractive.htm. 
  9. ^ "NOAA National Climatic Data Center". http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/img/climate/research/tornado/small/avgt5304.gif. Retrieved 2006-10-24. 
  10. ^ David G. Moore, Robin A. Beck, Jr., and Christopher B. Rodning, "Joara and Fort San Juan: culture contact at the edge of the world", Antiquity, Vol.78, No. 229, March 2004, accessed 26 June 2008
  11. ^ Constance E. Richards, "Contact and Conflict" Warren Wilson College, American Archaeologist, Spring 2008, accessed 26 June 2008
  12. ^ Randinelli, Tracey. Tanglewood Park. Orlando, Florida: Harcourt. pp. 16. ISBN 0-15-333476-2. 
  13. ^ North Carolina State Library - North Carolina History
  14. ^ "Cherokee Indians". Encyclopedia of North Carolina.
  15. ^ Fenn and Wood, Natives and Newcomers, pp. 24–25
  16. ^ Powell, North Carolina Through Four Centuries, p. 105
  17. ^ a b c d Lefler and Newsome, (1973)
  18. ^ Paul Heinegg, Free African Americans in Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Maryland and Delaware, Accessed 15 February 2008
  19. ^ "The Great Seal of North Carolina". NETSTATE. http://www.netstate.com/states/syMbit/seals/nc_seal.htm. Retrieved 2006-09-12. 
  20. ^ John Hope Franklin, Free Negroes of North Carolina, 1789–1860, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1941, reprint, 1991
  21. ^ NC Business History
  22. ^ Historical Census Browser, 1860 US Census, University of Virginia, accessed 21 March 2008
  23. ^ Center for Civic Education
  24. ^ The University of North Carolina
  25. ^ Library of Congress
  26. ^ Classbrain.com
  27. ^ a b c U. S. Census Bureau (2008-12-15). "Cumulative Estimates of the Components of Population Change for the United States, Regions and States: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2008 (NST-EST2008-04)" (CSV). http://www.census.gov/popest/states/tables/NST-EST2008-04.csv. Retrieved 2009-01-16. 
  28. ^ Table 1: Estimates of Population Change for the United States and States, and for Puerto Rico and State Rankings: July 1, 2005 to July 1, 2006. United States Census Bureau. December 22, 2006. Last accessed December 22, 2006.
  29. ^ "Table 2: Annual Estimates of the Population of Combined Statistical Areas: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2008" (CSV). 2008 Population Estimates. United States Census Bureau, Population Division. July 1, 2008. http://www.census.gov/popest/metro/tables/2008/CBSA-EST2008-02.csv. Retrieved July 2, 2009. 
  30. ^ "Table 1: Annual Estimates of the Population for Incorporated Places Over 100,000, Ranked by July 1, 2008 Population: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2008" (CSV). 2008 Population Estimates. United States Census Bureau, Population Division. July 1, 2008. http://www.census.gov/popest/cities/tables/SUB-EST2008-01.csv. Retrieved July 2, 2009. 
  31. ^ "County Population Growth 2010–2020". North Carolina Office of State Budget and Management. http://www.osbm.state.nc.us/ncosbm/facts_and_figures/socioeconomic_data/population_estimates/demog/grow1020.html. Retrieved 2009-01-27. 
  32. ^ "Contemporary Migration in North Carolina" (PDF). http://www.ncmuseumofhistory.org/collateral/articles/S95.Contemp.Migration.pdf. 
  33. ^ North Carolina-Colonization-The Southern Colonies
  34. ^ "Tribes and Organizations". North Carolina Department of Administration. http://www.doa.state.nc.us/cia/tribesorg.htm. Retrieved 2008-02-23. 
  35. ^ Pewforum.org
  36. ^ U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA)
  37. ^ "Per Capita Personal Income". U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis. September 2006. http://bea.gov/bea/regional/spi/drill.cfm?satable=SA30&lc=110&years=2005&rformat=display. Retrieved 2006-10-23. 
  38. ^ Fishman, China, Inc.: How the Rise of the Next Superpower Challenges America and the World, p. 179
  39. ^ Lewis, Rebecca. "The North Carolina Gold Rush". North Carolina Museum of History. http://www.ncmuseumofhistory.org/collateral/articles/s06.gold.rush.pdf. Retrieved 2009-03-09. 
  40. ^ Duke University
  41. ^ Time for tobacco burning out in N.C.. Associated Press. April 29, 2007. 
  42. ^ NC Department of Commerce Wine and Grape Industry web site.
  43. ^ A Recipe for Change: North Carolina Goes Organic, One Farm at a Time. An interview with Molly Hamilton, Coordinator of the North Carolina Organic Grain Project at North Carolina State University. Retrieved on: 2009-12-30.
  44. ^ The Research Triangle Park
  45. ^ "North Carolina Research Campus". http://www.ncresearchcampus.net/theplan.html. Retrieved 2006-12-17. 
  46. ^ Gallagher, James (May 12, 2009). "Travelers spend $16.9B in N.C.; state now sixth most visited in U.S.". Triangle Business Journal. http://www.bizjournals.com/triangle/stories/2009/05/11/daily27.html?ana=from_rss. 
  47. ^ "Tourism Services". NC Department of Commerce. http://www.nccommerce.com/en/TourismServices/. 
  48. ^ "Sales and Use Tax". North Carolina Department of Revenue. 2006-10-18. http://www.dornc.com/taxes/sales/salesanduse.html. Retrieved 2006-12-13. 
  49. ^ Change in Dare County Sales and Use Tax Rate
  50. ^ a b "The Facts on North Carolina's Tax Climate". Tax Foundation. http://www.taxfoundation.org/research/topic/47.html. Retrieved 2006-12-18. 
  51. ^ Western Piedmont Regional Transit Authority
  52. ^ Hartgen, David T. and Ravi K. Karanam (2007). "16th Annual Report on the Performance of State Highway Systems" (PDF). Reason Foundation. p. 14 (in pdf), 8 (in printed report). http://www.reason.org/ps360.pdf. Retrieved 2007-10-20. 
  53. ^ Hogarth, Susan (2005). "Special LPNC Announcement: First victory in LPNC Lawsuit!!!". Libertarian Party of North Carolina. http://www.lpnc.org/announcements/2006/20060505.php. Retrieved 2008-07-22. 
  54. ^ NC Libertarians release candidate slate
  55. ^ Michael J. Klarman, From Jim Crow to Civil Rights: The Supreme Court and the Struggle for Racial Equality, New York: Oxford University Press, 2006, p.30
  56. ^ Richard H. Pildes, "Democracy, Anti-Democracy, and the Canon", Constitutional Commentary, Vol.17, 2000, p. 27, accessed 10 March 2008
  57. ^ Albert Shaw, The American Monthly Review of Reviews, Vol. XXII, July-December 1900, pp. 273–274, accessed 27 March 2008
  58. ^ Richard H. Pildes, "Democracy, Anti-Democracy, and the Canon", Constitutional Commentary, Vol.17, 2000, pp. 12–13, accessed 10 March 2008
  59. ^ Historical Census Browser, 1960 US Census, University of Virginia, accessed 13 March 2008
  60. ^ Lottery commissioner says games are doing well despite low sales | WWAY NewsChannel 3 | Wilmington NC News
  61. ^ "North Carolina Department of Public Instruction". http://www.ncpublicschools.org/. 
  62. ^ News & Observer: Perdue's choice to lead state's school system takes office
  63. ^ a b "North Carolina Public Schools Quick Facts". http://www.ncpublicschools.org/quickfacts/facts/. 
  64. ^ "Best of North Carolina Beaches". http://www.igovacation.com/search_rentals/stateinfo.asp?State=nc. 
  65. ^ "What To Do Across North Carolina". VisitNC.com. 2006. http://www.visitnc.com/what_to_do.asp. Retrieved 2006-12-18. 
  66. ^ Unterberger, Richie (1999). Music USA: The Rough Guide. The Rough Guides. ISBN 1-85828-421-X. 
  67. ^ "Hey, James Taylor – You've got a ... bridge?". Rome News-Tribune. May 21, 2002. http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=XuYGAAAAIBAJ&sjid=6TsDAAAAIBAJ&pg=3430,2859475&dq=carolina-in-my-mind+anthem. Retrieved June 28, 2009. 
  68. ^ Hoppenjans, Lisa (October 2, 2006). "You must forgive him if he's ...". The News & Observer. http://www.newsobserver.com/161/story/493529.html. Retrieved June 28, 2009. 
  69. ^ Waggoner, Martha (October 17, 2008). "James Taylor to play 5 free NC concerts for Obama". USA Today. Associated Press. http://www.usatoday.com/life/music/2008-10-17-2062938384_x.htm. Retrieved June 28, 2009. 
  70. ^ Garner, Bob (2007). Bob Garner's Guide to North Carolina Barbecue. John F. Blair, Publisher. http://books.google.com/books?id=PswNCQWI9RsC&printsec=frontcover&dq=north+carolina+barbecue&source=bll&ots=qYujuyf4_q&sig=v4D1RbYFNagi-FksfoTiBp2CWWg&hl=en&ei=6KF4S9nSLNOWtgek45GnCg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=17&ved=0CD0Q6AEwEA#. 
  71. ^ Craig, H. Kent (2006). "What is North Carolina-Style BBQ?". ncbbq.com. http://ncbbq.com/Modules/Articles/article.aspx?id=20. Retrieved 2010-02-15. 
  72. ^ "USS North Carolina 'brought to life' again". WRAL-TV. 2008-05-03. http://www.wral.com/news/local/story/2829981/. Retrieved 2010-02-04. 
  73. ^ Secretary of State of North Carolina.
  74. ^ State of North Carolina - Office of the Governor (2006-05-13). "Gov. easily vows to keep N.C. most military friendly state in the Nation". Press release. http://www.governor.state.nc.us/News_FullStory.asp?id=2048. Retrieved 2007-06-23. 

Further reading

  • Powell, William S. and Jay Mazzocchi, eds. Encyclopedia of North Carolina (2006) 1320pp; 2000 articles by 550 experts on all topics; ISBN 0807830712. The best starting point for most research.
  • Clay, James, and Douglas Orr, eds., North Carolina Atlas: Portrait of a Changing Southern State 1971
  • Crow; Jeffrey J. and Larry E. Tise; Writing North Carolina History (1979) online
  • Fleer; Jack D. North Carolina Government & Politics (1994) online political science textbook
  • Hawks; Francis L. History of North Carolina 2 vol 1857
  • Kersey, Marianne M., and Ran Coble, eds., North Carolina Focus: An Anthology on State Government, Politics, and Policy, 2d ed., (Raleigh: North Carolina Center for Public Policy Research, 1989).
  • Lefler; Hugh Talmage. A Guide to the Study and Reading of North Carolina History (1963) online
  • Lefler, Hugh Talmage, and Albert Ray Newsome, North Carolina: The History of a Southern State (1954, 1963, 1973), standard textbook
  • Link, William A. North Carolina: Change and Tradition in a Southern State (2009), 481pp history by leading scholar
  • Luebke, Paul. Tar Heel Politics: Myths and Realities (1990).
  • Powell William S. Dictionary of North Carolina Biography. Vol. 1, A-C; vol. 2, D-G; vol. 3, H-K. 1979-88.
  • Powell, William S. North Carolina Fiction, 1734-1957: An Annotated Bibliography 1958
  • Powell, William S. North Carolina through Four Centuries (1989), standard textbook
  • Ready, Milton. The Tar Heel State: A History of North Carolina (2005) excerpt and text search
  • WPA Federal Writers' Project. North Carolina: A Guide to the Old North State. 1939. famous WPA guide to every town

Primary sources

  • Hugh Lefler, North Carolina History Told by Contemporaries (University of North Carolina Press, numerous editions since 1934)
  • H. G. Jones, North Carolina Illustrated, 1524–1984 (University of North Carolina Press, 1984)
  • North Carolina Manual, published biennially by the Department of the Secretary of State since 1941.

External links

General
Government and education
Other
Preceded by
New York
List of U.S. states by date of statehood
Ratified Constitution on November 21, 1789 (12th)
Succeeded by
Rhode Island

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

North Carolina [1] is a quintessentially Southern state in the United States of America offering visitors endless variety with three distinct regions. Visitors can enjoy outdoor activities from hiking, mountain climbing, and skiing, along with a taste of Appalachian music and culture in the Blue Ridge and Smokey mountains. Increasingly diverse and fast-growing cities dot the Piedmont- from Charlotte's skyscrapers, Raleigh's museums and historic neighborhoods, and Chapel Hill's college nightlife. Kite-surfing, fishing, sun, and sand await visitors to the state's coastal region- with secluded barrier islands in the Outer Banks and the bustling beach-side city of Wilmington.

The state's temperate climate has four distinct seasons and is highly acclaimed for its year-round living comforts. Rainfall is adequate and dispersed over the entire year. More than 56 million visitors traveled to North Carolina in 2008, ranking the state sixth behind California, Florida, Texas, New York, and Pennsylvania. Eighty-nine percent of all travelers traveled to North Carolina by auto, truck or camper/RV.

As North Carolina lies in the center of the eastern seaboard of United States, nearly half of the country lives within a 500-mile radius of the state. Murphy is the westernmost town of significance and Manteo is the easternmost town of significance; "From Murphy to Manteo" is a popular saying.

"The Carolinas" are comprised of both North Carolina and South Carolina immediately to the south.

Mountains
home to Great Smoky Mountain National Park, the Blue Ridge Mountains, and the mountain towns of Asheville and Boone.
Piedmont
from fast-growing and diverse cities to rolling farmland, this region includes Charlotte, the largest metro area in the state, the Research Triangle of Raleigh, Durham, and Chapel Hill, a hub of high-tech research and both quaint (and not-so-quaint) college towns, and the Piedmont Triad of Greensboro, Winston-Salem, and High Point.
Coast
endless stretches of secluded beaches await visitors to the Outer Banks and the Crystal Coast, aviation history and the birthplace of flight in Kitty Hawk, the vibrant coastal city of Wilmington, as well as the military bases of the interior coast, including Camp Lejeune in Jacksonville.
  • Raleigh - North Carolina's capital city and the location of many of the state's cultural institutions.
  • Asheville - Scenic and very fun mountain city, with extensive cultural establishments, microbreweries and liberal culture.
  • Boone - A fun-loving mountain and college town along the Blue Ridge Mountains close to a variety of outdoor activities, including white water rafting.
  • Chapel Hill - One of the country's best college towns, with college basketball, live music venues, vibrant nightlife, world-class restaurants and a beautiful magnolia-lined campus.
  • Charlotte - North Carolina's largest city, known for financial sector, the Carolina Panthers, the Charlotte Bobcats, NASCAR, and other professional sports.
  • Durham - Home of Duke University, the Sarah P. Duke Gardens, and a revitalized downtown tobacco district.
  • Fayetteville - Home of Fort Bragg, one of the nation's largest and most important military bases.
  • Greensboro - Home to six colleges and universities, historic neighborhoods, civil rights history, and seasonal sports venues.
  • Wilmington - Colonial Port City, home of EUE Screen Gem studios. The main coastal city, a great destination for the beach lover.
  • Winston-Salem - Mid-sized city, home of a famous Moravian settlement (Old Salem), RJ Reynolds Tobacco Company, Wake Forest University and Krispy Kreme.
Image:Outer Banks- Ocracoke Beach.JPG
280px

Understand

North Carolina is a very old and traditional state. According to some, North Carolina can claim to be the first state. In 1775, the Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence was drafted and signed, even though North Carolina wasn't the first to ratify the Constitution.

Travelers familiar with the American South will find that North Carolina is typical of the area in terms of culture. To some degree, it is a "transition state" between the Deep South and the Mid-Atlantic area.

Climate

Summers can be warm, especially during July and August, but in general the climate of North Carolina is mild compared to its neighbors in the southeast. For example, the average July high in Charlotte, and most central NC cities, is 90 degrees Fahrenheit (32°C). In the mountains of Asheville, the average July high is only 84 degrees Fahrenheit (29°C), and highs below 90 degrees Fahrenheit are also found on the coast. For travelers coming from warmer climates, summers in North Carolina are quite nice, especially in the mountains.

During the summer, high humidity combined with summer temperatures above 90 degrees Fahrenheit may be hazardous for senior citizens and those of ill health. Between the months of June and August, heat advisories are not uncommon. The good news about the heat is the air and ocean water temperatures, particularly for the Southeast NC beaches, remain comfortable for swimming and beach-going well into September, if not October.

In general, for travelers coming from cooler climates, the heat and humidity of southern summers can be a shock, making spring and fall much more attractive. During the Fall season, the Blue Ridge Mountains are a popular destination due to the beauty of the foliage. It should be noted that construction on Highway 321 may involve delays. Please check your local traffic reports.

In the winter, the mountains of northwestern North Carolina offer skiing and other winter sports.

Talk

English, the state's official language, is almost universally spoken. The local dialect in some mountainous regions of the state can seem impenetrable, but not impossible.

Spanish spoken by a sizable minority population in some areas, and as a second-language throughout the state.

Cherokee is spoken by 15,000 to 20,000 people in western North Carolina, along with a number of other Native American languages.

In the cities of Charlotte and Raleigh you will also find a wide amount of languages spoken due to these cities' high immigrant populations.

Get in

By car

North Carolina borders Virginia, Tennessee, Georgia, and South Carolina. North Carolina has the largest state-maintained highway system in the nation, incorporating over 78,600 miles of highways. It provides same-day access to major eastern US markets. Seven major interstate highways intersect North Carolina: I-26, I-40, I-73, I-74, I-77, I-85 and I-95.

By plane

North Carolina has four international airports:

  • Charlotte Douglas International Airport (CLT) [2] in Charlotte
  • Piedmont Triad International Airport (GSO) [3] in Greensboro
  • Raleigh-Durham International Airport (RDU) [4] between Raleigh and Durham
  • Wilmington International Airport (ILM) [5] in Wilmington

North Carolina also has other passenger airports such as:

  • Ashville Regional Airport (AVL) [6] in Ashville
  • Fayetteville Regional Airport (FAY) [7] in Fayetteville

By boat

North Carolina’s ferry system on the Outer Banks/Coast is second largest in the nation and largest on the East Coast, operates 24 ferries. The ferry system annually transports nearly 2.5 million passengers and 1.3 million vehicles. For ferry information and reservations 1-800-BY FERRY

By train

Twelve daily Amtrak [8] passenger trains serve 17 North Carolina cities on six routes, including the northbound and southbound Carolinian, Piedmont, Silver Star, Silver Meteor, Crescent and Palmetto. The Carolinian and Piedmont are operated jointly by the State of North Carolina and Amtrak to provide daily, round-trip passenger rail service between Charlotte and Raleigh. The Carolinian continues service to the Northeast.

Get around

Compared to other American states, North Carolina has decent roads. Larger cities such as Charlotte and Raleigh tend to have lower-quality roads due to heavy traffic; still, they are tolerably well-kept. Some mountain areas still have unpaved roads, and some of the Outer Banks are inaccessible by automobile.

  • The Biltmore Estate, [9]. George Vanderbilt's 250-room Biltmore House, extensive gardens, and winery located in Asheville.
  • Andy Griffith, [10]. Located in Mt. Airy - entertainment, lodging, dining, shopping, and more in the town that inspired Andy Griffith's Mayberry in the classic television series.
  • The Lost Colony, [11]. A 400 year-old mystery haunts Roanoke Island on North Carolina's Outer Banks. There, in 1587, about 120 men, women and children established the first English colony in the New World -- then vanished without a trace, leaving historians and archaeologists with one of America's most perplexing mysteries.
  • The Blue Ridge Parkway, [12]. A beautiful 469 mile route.
  • Charlotte, home to several sports teams and historic sites. Charlotte is a good base for the Carolina traveler as it is in the heart of the Carolinas; 2 main interstates (I-77 and I-85) run though Charlotte. Charlotte is a very green city (in terms of grass and trees), it claims to be America's greenest city, and it may very well be. The state's first metro area, Metrolina, encompasses Gastonia, Concord, Monroe, and Rock Hill, South Carolina.
  • Asheville and the NC Appalachian Mountains, the most picturesque area of the state, Asheville is the main city. Mount Mitchell, the highest peak in the range, is also located in the extreme west of the state.
  • North Carolina Aquarium at Fort Fisher and adjacent Fort Fisher museum and recreation area, located 20 minutes south of Wilmington in Kure Beach.
  • Blandwood Mansion, [13]. Greensboro's National Historic Landmark that includes nineteenth-century Tuscan additions designed by New York archiect A. J. Davis. The home of two-term governor John Motley Morehead, significant for being the "Father of Modern North Carolina".

Do

Hiking and Camping: The Appalachian Mountains in the western part of the state provide extensive trails for hiking and many places allow for overnight camping. Go see Grandfather Mountain, a popular tourist spot with a fantastic view, or climb Mount Mitchell, the highest peak east of the Mississippi River.

College Sports and College Towns Four top universities (Duke, North Carolina, North Carolina State and Wake Forest) are located in the Piedmont. These schools have a tradition of college basketball excellence, and many North Carolinians are very devoted to following the sport. This statewide passion has helped make the Duke-North Carolina rivalry the most famous in college basketball. Carolina, NC State and Duke all have historic basketball arenas: Carmichael Auditorium (North Carolina) and Reynolds Coliseum (NC State) both host women's basketball games and other athletic events, but North Carolina men's basketball is played at the Dean E. Smith Center and NC State men's basketball is played at the RBC Center. Both Duke's men's and women's teams play at Cameron Indoor Stadium, named by Sports Illustrated (7 June 1999) as one of the top sporting venues in the world. Wake Forest plays at Lawrence Joel Veterans Memorial Coliseum in Winston-Salem. While North Carolinians love the drama of the NCAA Tournament, they are also devoted to the annual Atlantic Coast Conference Tournament held in early March. The Tournament does not affect businesses and schools in the way that it once did (many North Carolinians have fond memories of long work "breaks" and lunches or games being shown in classrooms), but do not expect much serious work to get done in a typical North Carolina office or school on ACC Friday! Attending the ACC Tournament when it is held in either Charlotte or (especially) Greensboro will allow you to experience a North Carolina institution.

For those who are not interested in basketball or are unable to travel to North Carolina during basketball season the four universities offer art museums, library exhibits, lectures from leading intellectuals, arts/culture events and attractions ranging from the Morehead Planetarium to the Duke Gardens. Chapel Hill, the home of the University of North Carolina, is also notable for its downtown district (especially Franklin Street) and its music scene. Cat's Cradle in next-door Carrboro regularly hosts major "indie" acts such as Super Furry Animals, Neko Case, and Wolf Parade as well as local and regional acts.

Professional Sports: North Carolina has a number of successful professional teams. In Charlotte, the National Football League's Carolina Panthers play at Bank of America stadium from August through December (though, as with most NFL teams, single tickets may be hard to come by and should be purchased well in advance of game day). Also in Charlotte, the Charlotte Bobcats represent the National Basketball Association (NBA). In Raleigh, the 2005-2006 Stanley Cup Champion Carolina Hurricanes tear up the ice as one of the few National Hockey League (NHL) teams in the South. Finally, for baseball action, check out the incredibly popular Durham Bulls, a minor league baseball team made famous by Kevin Costner's 1988 film, "Bull Durham."

Gambling: Feel free to also visit Harrah's Cherokee Casino located on the Cherokee Indian Reservation.

Eat

Down home Southern cooking style. North Carolina prides itself on its vast farming community, which produces a plethora of fresh produce and livestock. As the slogan says, "Goodness grows in North Carolina."

Hog farms are North Carolina's number-one commodity [14] and as such, the pig plays an important role in state cuisine. As in the rest of the South, pork meat (particularly ham, bacon, smoked ham hocks and salt pork) and pork fat (fatback and lard) are highly popular flavoring ingredients. Perhaps unsurprisingly, no part of the pig is wasted. Livermush, a delicacy that includes pig liver, parts of the head, and cornmeal is a favorite delicacy. The town of Shelby, NC has an annual festival celebrating the tradition of livermush and barbecue. A great local delicacy — albeit one that most people won't touch, if they weren't raised eating it — is chitterlings (most often abbreviated to chitlings or chitlins), aka pig intestines, which are thoroughly cleaned, boiled and fried. Small local companies like Neese's manufacture souse (also called headcheese), liver pudding, pickled pigs' feet and C-loaf (made from chitterlings). For the less adventurous, North Carolina offers plenty of mainstream ways to enjoy the humble pig:

  • The pig pickin' is a longstanding North Carolina tradition, usually to be found at large gatherings like a church supper or family reunion. An entire pig is split and slow-roasted all day over the fire, then pulled apart and served to the hungry crowd along with a wide variety of accompanying side dishes and desserts.
  • Barbecue tends to stir up strong emotions anywhere there's a prized local variation, and North Carolina is no different. Here the main split is between the east and the west. Western NC barbecue (or Lexington Style) favors only the pork shoulders, and the sauce (or dip) is vinegar- and tomato-based. Eastern NC barbecue roasts the entire pig, and uses a sauce made primarily from vinegar and hot red pepper. In North Carolina, the pork meat is pulled, or shredded (by hand or with forks) in the eastern part of the state, and chopped in the western part. Barbecue can be served all by itself on a plate (but usually with a generous serving of hushpuppies), but more commonly is piled atop a hamburger bun along with chopped coleslaw and eaten as a sandwich. A point about the slaw; in the eastern part of the state, the slaw is the familiar shredded cabbage and mayonnaise mixture you can buy in any grocery store, but the furter west of Triangle you get, the more likely you are to be served slaw of a different nature, BBQ slaw. BBQ slaw is made from the same, albeit more finely shredded, cabbage; but instead of mayonnaise and other spices, the same vinegar and tomato mixture (minus the hot sauce) that is used on the pork is added, along with sugar to give it a slightly sweet taste.
  • Country ham is thinly-sliced and heavily salted. It's usually pan-fried and eaten on a biscuit as a kind of breakfast sandwich. The drippings are mixed with black coffee to create red-eye gravy, which is served over the country ham or the other breakfast foods.

Chicken is also a highly popular food; while it may not be as ubiquitous as pork, it's much beloved. Fried chicken is commonly served as part of a traditional Sunday dinner (although a roast ham is an equally popular alternative). There's also the classic comfort-food of chicken and dumplings, and roast chicken is often served at a pig pickin' for those rare few who choose not to gorge on pork.

Thanks in large part to the African influences on the entire South, traditional Southern meals — particularly barbecues and buffets — are incomplete without a spread of vegetable side dishes, usually slow-cooked or deep-fried. These include greens (collard, turnip, mustard or kale, slow-cooked in a large pot with ham, and sometimes served with cider vinegar; the leftover liquid, or pot liquor, makes a side dish in itself), cabbage (boiled, or fried in bacon grease), green beans (slow-cooked with ham), okra (most often sliced thickly, dipped in cornmeal batter and deep-fried), tomatoes (sliced fresh if ripe, or deep-fried in cornmeal if green), potatoes (boiled if new, or made into potato salad with mayonnaise and seasonings), field peas (boiled with ham) and black-eyed peas (simmered with salt pork and hot pepper). Sweet potatoes are also a major North Carolina crop; although they don't figure hugely into local cuisine, you'll find them baked, served in casseroles, occasionally raw on salads, or as a delectable pumpkin-like pie filling.

One of the most prominent vegetables in North Carolina cuisine, and Southern cuisine in general, is corn. Aside from boiled or grilled corn-on-the-cob, cornmeal is frequently used to make local favorites:

  • Grits is made of coarsely-ground corn kernels. It's almost invariably boiled slowly like porridge, and served with salt, black pepper and butter as part of a Southern breakfast. Some people like to make cheese grits by mixing in Cheddar cheese, and in the coastal region, cheese grits are often garnished with fresh shrimp.
  • Cornbread is a crumbly bread made of stone-ground cornmeal and buttermilk, baked in a cast-iron skillet. It's usually eaten hot with butter, or crumbled into something soupy, like more buttermilk, pot liquor from cooked greens, or pinto beans.
  • Hush puppies are deep-fried cornmeal dumplings, either round or elongated, sometimes flavored with chopped onion and served alongside barbecue or fried seafood. Restaurants usually serve them with butter, as if you need to make them any oilier. They can be quite addictive, as well as heavy, so don't overdo it! Legend has it that they were named when a cook tossed some to a barking dog who was begging for food.

Also in the bread category are biscuits, which are round leavened breads usually made from buttermilk, and are often used as the litmus test for any good Southern cook. They're usually split down the middle and spread with butter and possibly some kind of jam, or used for making breakfast sandwiches.

Because of its large coastal area, seafood is also a popular item on North Carolina menus: fresh fish, shrimp, scallops, clams, oysters and crabs can be found across the state, particularly in the eastern half. Preparation tends to be simple rather than elaborate, emphasizing the fresh taste of the ingredients. Calabash-style seafood is popular throughout the state; this is dipped in evaporated milk, then a dry breading mixture, and deep-fried. There's also catfish, found in rivers throughout the state, usually served dredged in cornmeal and deep-fried.

Around the Winston-Salem area, there's a large Moravian settlement which specializes in local delicacies that aren't found elsewhere in the state. Moravian sugar cookies are paper-thin and extremely labor-intensive to make (recipes can be found online, for those of curious natures and muscular arms), and available in a wide variety of flavors including ginger, spice, lemon, Key lime, butterscotch, chocolate and black walnut, as well as regular sugar. Moravian sugar cake is a leavened cake topped with melted butter and cinnamon sugar. Lovefeast buns are tasty potato rolls flavored with mace and citrus peel, a favorite during the holiday season.

A snack which may have originated in North Carolina, and is certainly popular throughout the state, is cheese straws, crispy baked strips of extruded dough flavored with copious amounts of Cheddar cheese and hot sauce.

Popular throughout the South is pimiento cheese (often spelled "pimento") — at its simplest, a spreadable mixture of grated sharp cheddar cheese, pimiento strips and mayonnaise. It's usually made into sandwiches, often toasted so that it melts, and topped with lettuce and tomato; but you may also find it as a spread for crackers or celery sticks. It can be found in tubs at the grocery store or in convenience-store sandwiches, but the flavor tends to pale in comparison to homemade.

Perhaps North Carolina's most celebrated food is the addictive yeast-raised Krispy Kreme doughnut, a tradition in Winston-Salem since 1937. These light, fluffy, heavenly-tasting fried confections are now available all over the US and internationally; connoisseurs claim that they're the best doughnuts on the planet. If you're lucky enough to visit a town that has a Krispy Kreme store, you can stop by when the red light is on to watch the fresh, hot doughnuts go through the glazing machine, and buy one or a whole dozen of them before the glaze has even fully set. It's a treat not to be missed, if you're in the state.

Drink

North Carolina is an up-and-coming area for winemaking [15]. The Yadkin Valley American Viticultural Area is a relatively new wine-growing region in the northwestern part of the state. One particular specialty of the state is wine made from Scuppernong grapes, a fragrant variety of Muscadine, which gives it a remarkable flavor.

Not a wine, but named as if it were (owing to its burgundy color), is local cherry-flavored soft drink Cheerwine. It's been a North Carolina favorite since 1917, originating in the town of Salisbury. Until recently, it was difficult to find outside of the area, but its popularity has caught on and it's beginning to expand throughout the US.

Another drink native to North Carolina is Pepsi. It was made by a pharmacist, who sold it in his pharmacy, named Caleb Bradham in the early 1890's. It was first called Brad's Drink but was changed to Pepsi in 1903.

And, of course, there's always the ubiquitous Southern sweet iced tea. As in practically all of the South, sweet tea is the beverage of choice for a lot of people; the stronger and sweeter, the better. "Iced" is always assumed (ask for "hot tea" if you want it steaming) and "sweet" is the default, although people still tend to specify "sweet tea" when ordering. Most places do offer "unsweet" tea, but remember to ask for it if you want it.

The alcohol laws of North Carolina prohibit the sale of alcohol after 2AM Monday through Saturday, and from 2AM until noon on Sundays. Beer and wine are available for purchase at most markets, grocery stores and gas stations but keep in mind liquors are only sold at state-run ABC (Alcoholic Beverage Commission) stores, rather than at a traditional liquor store.

Stay safe

North Carolina isn't known for violence and most areas of the state have relatively low crime rates. As with any state, it is best to use common sense whenever visiting an unfamiliar place. In most areas, the greatest safety threats are bad drivers on the highway. Most cities in North Carolina are very safe compared to cities in other southern states and other parts of the country.

Stay healthy

Outside of the major metro areas, North Carolina is generally rural and undeveloped. You should be aware that this makes for dangerous wildlife and plants. If hiking, avoid straying from the marked trail. There are numerous venomous animals located in North Carolina. Please use common sense. Also, during the summer months, thunder storms increase and the potential for dangerous lightning should be acknowledged.

Near the ocean, shark attacks have been on the rise in recent times. Always take precautions while enjoying the beautiful Atlantic ocean.

Respect

The Southern drawl in language is generally charming to most outsiders. In most cases, mutual respect is expected and southern hospitality is a staple of the area. This is expressed in a number of ways: holding doors open for strangers, not honking a car horn unless necessary, and keeping one's voice down when in a crowded room.

As is common in other parts of the South, North Carolinians typically take offense at being stereotyped as "hicks" or "rednecks". While some rural residents might apply such labels to themselves as a matter of humor, it is not expected that outsiders will follow suit (this is similar to the double-standard common in American race relations, where a word may be taken as a complement or a slur depending upon the social status of the speaker). It is very strongly advised that visitors treat the locals with the same respect that you'd afford to any other group of people, and not attempt to make a joke out of age-old class discrimination.

Get out

Bordering North Carolina on the north, Virginia offers many things to see and do. Shenandoah National Park offers great scenery along the top of the Appalachian Mountains. Nearby is Monticello, the home of Thomas Jefferson, our third president.

Tennessee is to the west and shares the Great Smoky Mountains with North Carolina. Shopping and attractions abound in Gatlinburg and Pigeon Forge. Chattanooga is the home of Lookout Mountain.

South Carolina, to the south, is a haven for beach lovers. Myrtle Beach has a large number of hotels and restaurants. Charleston is rich in history, with historic homes and Fort Sumter, the site that dawned the Civil War.

Georgia, which borders the southwestern corner of North Carolina, is famous for its peaches; there's also the popular Alpine village of Helen and the historic riverside city of Savannah, with its deep-South ambience. Atlanta, the capitol, has Stone Mountain Park and Georgia Aquarium, the world's largest.

This is a usable article. It has information for getting in as well as some complete entries for restaurants and hotels. An adventurous person could use this article, but please plunge forward and help it grow!

Study guide

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North Carolina is a state in the Southeastern United states. It was one of the original thirteen colonies and now borders Virginia, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Georgia.


Size: 52,669 square miles (28th in country)

Nickname: Tar Heel State -- the origin is clothed in mystery, but it probably evolved from the fact that during the Colonial period, the colony’s chief exports were tar, pitch and turpentine.

Origin of Name: North Carolina is named in honor of King Charles I of England, from the Latin “Carolus.”

Song: “The Old North State” by Judge William Gaston

Rock: Granite

Vegetable: Sweet Potato

• The oldest town in the state is Bath, incorporated in 1705.

• On January 15, 1795, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill was the first state university in the country to open its doors for students.

• The first silver mine in the country was the Silver Hill Mine, which opened in 1833 about 10 miles from Lexington.

• Putt-Putt Golf(also known as mini golf) was invented in Fayetteville.

• The first forestry school in the United States was established in Transylvania County in 1898 by Dr. Carl A. Schenck.

• The first abbey cathedral in North America was Belmont Abbey – located in Belmont, North Carolina – established by a papal edict in 1910.

• Babe Ruth hit his first professional home run in Fayetteville on March 7, 1914.

• The Tar Heel State has more paved miles of road than any other state in the United States – over 78,000 miles.

• The first state-supported institution to emphasize the performing arts was the North Carolina School of the Arts in Winston-Salem.

• Millions of years ago, the area was home to 50-foot-long alligators, and huge megalodon sharks roamed the waters.

• The New River, which runs through Ashe County, is the oldest river in North America and second oldest in the world.

• More than 120 species of trees are found in North Carolina – more than can be found from Scandinavia to the Mediterranean.

• North Carolina boasts more than 200 waterfalls, including the highest on the East Coast: the 411-foot-high, two-tiered Whitewater Falls in Transylvania County.

• North Carolina has 1,500 lakes 10 acres or more in size and 37,000 miles of fresh water streams.

• There are more than 1.2 million acres of national forest land in the Tar Heel State.

• Blackbeard, America’s most famous pirate, established a residence and married his 14th wife in Bath, NC, in 1718.

• At around 500 million years old, the North Carolina Uwharrie Mountains are the oldest in the nation and among the oldest in the world.

• Cape Hatteras lighthouse, built of brick in 1870, is 208 feet tall, making it the tallest brick lighthouse in the United States.


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

NORTH CAROLINA, a South Atlantic state of the United States of America, situated between latitudes 33° 5 1 ' 37" (the southernmost point of the southern boundary-35° is the northernmost) and about 3 6 ° 34' 2 5.5" N., and between longitudes 75° 27' W. and 84° zo' W. It is bounded N. by Virginia, E. and S.E. by the Atlantic Ocean, S. and S.W. by South Carolina, S. also by Georgia, and W. and N.W. by Tennessee. North Carolina has an extreme length from E. to W. of 5034 m., which is greater than that of any other state east of the Mississippi river. It total area is 52,426 sq. m., of which 3686 sq. m. are water surface.

Table of contents

Physical Features

The state lies wholly within the three leading topographical regions of the eastern portion of the United States: the Coastal Plain Region, which occupies approximately the eastern half, the Piedmont Plateau Region, which occupies about 20,000 sq. m. in the middle, and the Appalachian Region, which occupies about 6000 sq. m. in the west. At the eastern extremity of the Coastal Plain Region an outer coast line is formed by a chain of long narrow barrier beaches from which project capes Hatteras, Lookout and Fear, whose outlying shoals are known for their dangers to navigation. Between Hatteras and Lookout is Raleigh Bay and between Lookout and Fear is Onslow Bay; and between the chain of islands and the deeply indented mainland Currituck, Albemarle, Pamlico and other sounds form an extensive area, especially to the northward, of shallow, brackish and almost tideless water. Projecting into these sounds and between the estuaries of rivers flowing into them are extensive tracts of swamp land - the best known of these is Dismal Swamp, which lies mostly in Virginia and is about 3 o m. long and io m. wide. Through most of the Coastal Plain Region, which extends inland from 80 to i 50 m., the country continues very level or only slightly undulating, and rises to the westward at the rate of little more than 1 ft. to the mile. Along the W. border of this region, however, the slope becomes greater and there are some hills. The " Fall Line," the boundary between the Coastal Plain and the Piedmont Plateau, has a very irregular course across North Carolina, but lies in a general S.W. direction from the Falls of Roanoke between Halifax and Northampton counties to Anson county on the South Carolina border and marks a rapid increase in elevation of about 200 ft. The Piedmont Plateau Region extends from this line to the Blue Ridge Escarpment, toward which its mean elevation increases at the rate of about 32 ft. to the mile. It is traversed from N.E. to S.W. by a series of ridges which in the E. portion produce only a general undulating surface but to the westward become higher and steeper until the country assumes a bold and rugged aspect. The S.E. face of the Blue Ridge Escarpment, which rises precipitously1200-1500ft. or more above the Piedmont Plateau, forms the S.E. border of North Carolina's Appalachian Mountain Region, which includes the high Unaka Mountain Range, segments of which are known by such local names as Iron Mountains, Bald Mountains and Great Smoky Mountains. These ranges reach their culmination in this state, and with a series of more or less interrupted cross ranges constitute the greatest masses of mountains in the E. half of the United States. Four peaks along the Blue Ridge have an elevation exceeding 5000 ft. - one of these, the Grandfather, rises 5964 ft.; and about thirty peaks in the Unakas and in the several cross ranges exceed 6000 ft., the highest being Mount Mitchell or Mitchell Dome (6711 ft.), of the Black Mountains, a short cross range extending N. from the Blue Ridge through Yancey County. Other noteworthy peaks are Black Brother (6690 ft.) and Hairy Bear (6681 ft.), the next highest mountains. Many of the neighbouring mountain ridges have uniform crests, but a greater number terminate in numerous peaks, some sharp, rugged and rocky, but more of them rounded domes. Throughout the whole region the slopes vary greatly: the N.W. slope of the Blue Ridge is almost imperceptible, or confused with the numerous mountain slopes that rise above it. As a rule the mountain slopes are well graded and subdued, but a few are steep and some are rocky and precipitous. The numerous valleys are usually narrow and deep, though few, if any, descend to less than 2000 ft. above the sea.

The Blue Ridge is the principal water parting of the state. West of it the Hiwassee, the Little Tennessee and the French Broad rivers flow W. or N.W. into Tennessee. Farther N. are the headwaters of the New river, which flows N.E. and finds its way to the Ohio. On the S.E. slope of the Blue Ridge rise the Broad, the Catawba and the Yadkin, which flow for some distance a little N. of E., then, finding a passage across one of the ridges of the Piedmont Plateau, turn to. the S.S.E. and across the boundary line into South Carolina, in which state their waters reach the Atlantic. In the N.W. part of the Piedmont Plateau Region, and a little to the N. of the most N.E. course of the Yadkin rises the Dan, which in its N.E. course crosses the boundary into Virginia, where it becomes a tributary of the Roanoke, in which its waters are returned to North Carolina near the " Fall Line." The other principal rivers - the Cape Fear, the Neuse and the Tar - rise in the N.E. part of the Piedmont Plateau Region, have their S.E. courses wholly within the state, and, with the Roanoke, drain the Coastal Plain Region. In the Mountain Region and in the Piedmont Plateau Region the rivers have numerous falls and rapids which afford a total water power unequalled perhaps in any other state than Maine on the Atlantic Coast, the largest being on the Yadkin, Roanoke and Catawba; and in crossing some of the mountains, especially the Unakas, the streams have carved deep narrow gorges that are much admired for their scenery. In contrast with the rivers of these regions those of the Coastal Plain are sluggish, and toward their mouths expand into wide estuaries.

The Coastal Plain Region is the only part of the state that has any lakes, and these are chiefly shallow bodies of water, with sandy bottoms, in the midst of swamps. In all they number only about fifteen, and have an area estimated at 200 sq. m., about one-half of which is contained in Lake Mattamuskeet in Hyde county.

Flora

In North Carolina's flora are many species common to sub-tropical regions and many common to temperate regions, and the variety is consequently very great. In the swamps are the bald cypress, the white cedar and the live oak, usually draped in southern long moss; south of Cape Fear river are palmettos, magnolias, prickly ash, the American olive and mock orange; along streams in the Coastal Plain Region are the sour gum, the sweet bay and several species of oak; but the tree that is most predominant throughout the upland portion of this region is the long-leaf or southern pine. In the Piedmont Plateau Region oaks, hickories and elms are the most common. In the Mountain Region at the bases of the mountains are oaks, hickories, chestnuts and white poplars: above these are hemlocks, beeches, birches, elms, ashes, maples and limes; and still higher up are spruce, white pine and balsam; and all but a comparatively few of the higher mountains are forest-clad to their summits. All of the species of pine and of magnolia, and nearly all of the species of oak, of hickory and of spruce, indigenous to the United States, are found in North Carolina. On the dome-like tops of such mountains as are too high for trees are large clusters of rhododendrons and patches of grasses fringed with flowers. The forests throughout most of the state have a luxuriant undergrowth consisting of a great variety of shrubs, flowering plants, grasses, ferns and mosses, and the display of magnolias, azaleas, kalmias, golden rod, asters, jessamines, smilax, ferns and mosses is often one of unusual beauty. Venus's fly-trap (Dionaea muscipula), a rare plant, is found only south of the Neuse river; and there are several varieties of Sarracenia, carnivorous pitcher plants. Among the fruitbearing trees, shrubs, vines and plants the grape, the blue-berry, the cherry, the plum and the cranberry are indigenous and more or less common. Aromatic and medicinal herbs, of which the state has several hundred distinct species, have been obtained in larger ,quantities than from any other state in the Union.

Fauna

In North Carolina five of the seven life-zones into which North America has been divided are represented, but more of its area belongs to the upper-austral than to any other zone. The species of fauna that are at all characteristic of this part of the United States are found in the Piedmont Plateau Region and the western portion of the Coastal Plain Region. Among the song-birds are the mocking-bird, the Carolina wren and the cardinal grosbeak (or red bird); there are plenty of quail or " bob white " (called partridge in the South). Among the mammals are the opossum, raccoon, star-nosed mole (Condylura cristata), grey fox and fox squirrel. The mammals of the Mountain Region include the cotton-tail rabbit, red squirrel, lynx and woodchuck; and there is a considerable variety of migratory song-birds, which are common to the more northern states. In the eastern portion of the Coastal Plain Region are the cotton rat, rice-field rat, marsh rabbit, big-eared bat, brown pelican, swallow-tailed kite, black vulture and some rattlesnakes and cotton-mouth moccasin snakes, all of which are common farther south; and there are some turtles and terrapins, and many geese, swans, ducks, and other water-fowl. Large numbers of shad, blue fish, weak fish (squeteague), alewives, Spanish mackerel, perch, bass, croakers (Micropogon undulatus), mullet, menhaden, oysters and clams are caught in the sounds, in the lower courses of the rivers flowing into them, or in the neighbouring waters of the sea.

Climate

North Carolina has a climate which varies from that of the S.E. corner, which approaches the sub-tropical, to that of the Mountain Region, which is like the medium continental type, except that the summers are cooler and the rainfall is greater. The mean annual temperature for the state (below an elevation of 4000 ft.) is about 59° F. For the Coastal Plain Region it is 61° F.; for the Piedmont Plateau Region, 60° F.; for the Mountain Region, 56° F.; for Southport, in the S.E. corner of the state, 64° F.; and for Highlands, at an elevation of 3817 ft. in the S.W. corner, 50° F. January, the coldest month, has a mean temperature of 38° F. in the Mountain Region, of 41° F. on the Piedmont Plateau, and of 44° F. on the Coastal Plain; and in July, the warmest month, the mean is about 79° F. on both the Coastal Plain and the Piedmont Plateau and 74° F. in the Mountain Region. Extremes have ranged from - 19° F. at Highlands in 1899 to 107° F. at Chapel Hill, Orange county, in 1900 and again in 1902. The average precipitation for the state is about 52 in. a year, nearly all of it in the form of rain. For the Coastal Plain Region it is 54 in.; for the Piedmont Plateau Region, 48 in.; and for the Mountain Region, 53 in. On the E. slope of some of the mountains the rainfall is exceeded nowhere in the United States, save in the N. part of the Pacific Slope. At Highlands, Macon county, during 1898 it was 105.24 in., and during 1901 it was 106.17 in., 30.74 in. falling here during the month of August. The winds are variable and seldom violent, except along the coast during the sub-tropical storms of late summer and early autumn.

Soil

On the Coastal Plain the soil is generally sandy, but in nearly all parts of this region more or less marl abounds; south of the Neuse river the soil is mostly a loose sand, north of it there is more loam on the uplands, and in the lowlands the soil is usually compact with clay, silt or peat; toward the western border of the region the sand becomes coarser and some gravel is mixed with it. Throughout much of the Piedmont Plateau and Mountain regions the decomposition of felspar and of other aluminous minerals has resulted in a deep soil of clay with which more or less sand is mixed. It is deeper and more sandy where granite is the underlying rock, deeper and more fertile on the north-western than on the south-eastern mountain slopes, and shallower and more clayey where slate is the underlying rock.

Agriculture

Until the Civil War agriculture was about the only important industry in the state, and at the close of the 19th century it was still the leading one; but from 1880 to 11900 the ratio of agriculturists to all inhabitants of the state engaged in some gainful occupation decreased from 75.3 to 64.1%. The land included in farms amounted in 1900 to 22,745,356 acres or 73% of the total land surface of the state, and the percentage of farm land that was improved increased from 26.5 in 1870 to 36.6 in 1900. Throughout the colonial era the establishment of small estates was a part of the territorial policy of the government of North Carolina, 640 acres being the largest normal grant to any one person; as a consequence of this policy land holdings have always been much smaller here than in most of the other parts of the South, and since the Civil War the rise in the percentage of improved land, the development of truck farming, and the growth in number of negro holdings, have been accompanied by a further decrease in the average size of farms from 316 acres in 1860 to 101.3 acres in 1900. In the latter year there were in all 224,637 farms: of these 93,097 contained less than 50 acres, 55,028 between 50 and 100 acres, 44,052 between 100 and 175 acres, and 4224 over 500 acres. Of the total number of farms 128,978 were operated by owners or part owners, of whom 17,434 were coloured (including Indians); 19,916, by cash tenants, of whom 10,331 were coloured; and 73,092 by share tenants, of whom 26,892 were coloured. After the Civil War there have been several important changes in the crops raised: the development of cotton manufacturing in the South and the utilization of cotton-seed oil and meal gave impetus to cotton culture; and the discovery of the adaptability of much of the cotton land to the culture of tobacco of a superior quality resulted first in the development of a vast tobacco industry and then to a fluctuation in acreage of the crops of tobacco and of cotton, according as the price of either rose or fell. The destruction of pine forests to meet the demands for naval stores, and the introduction and increased use of the refrigerator car, resulted in much attention to the growth of garden produce for Northern markets. Peanut culture, introduced into the state from Virginia soon after the close of the Civil War, spread rapidly. In the meantime the crops of cereals increased little, and stock raising generally decreased.

The principal crops are cotton, Indian corn, tobacco, hay, wheat, sweet potatoes, apples and peanuts. The yield of cotton increased from 62,901,790 lb in 1869 to 307,500,000 lb in 1909. In 1909 2,898,000 acres were planted to Indian corn, with a crop of 48,686,000 bushels; 570,000 acres to wheat, with a crop of 5,415,000 bushels; and 196,000 acres to oats, with a crop of 3,234,000 bushels. In Caswell county, North Carolina, " lemon yellow " tobacco was first produced in 1852, and the demand for this " bright " variety became so great that except during the interruption of the Civil War its culture spread rapidly. In 1879 the state's crop amounted to 26,986,213 lb, in 1889 to 36,375,258 lb, in 1899 to 127,503,400 lb, and in 1909 to 144,000,000 lb. The hay and forage crop increased from 80,528 tons in 1879 to 246,820 tons in 1899; and in 1909 the hay crop was 242,000 tons. In the production of vegetables and fruits the state ranks high. Potatoes, cabbage and lettuce are much grown for the early Northern markets.

Farmers of the Piedmont Plateau formerly kept large numbers of horses and cattle from April to November in ranges in the Mountain Region, but with the opening of portions of that country to cultivation the business of pasturage declined, except as the cotton plantations demanded an increased supply of mules; there were 25,259 mules in 1850, 110,011 in 1890, 138,786 in 1900, and 181,000 in 1910. The number of horses was 192,000 in 1910; of dairy cows, 297,000; of hogs, 1,356,000; and of sheep, 215,000.

Cotton is grown most largely in the S. portion of the Piedmont Plateau and in a few counties along or near the W. border of the Coastal Plain; tobacco, in the N. portion of the Piedmont Plateau and in the central and N.W. portions of the Coastal Plain; rice, along the banks of rivers near the coast; wheat, in the valley of the Yadkin; orchard fruits, in the W. portion of the Piedmont Plateau and in the Mountain Region; vegetables and small fruits in the middle and S. portion of the Coastal Plain; peanuts, in the N. portion of the Coastal Plain; sorghum cane, almost wholly in Columbus county in the S. part of the Coastal Plain. The state government, through its Department of Agriculture, takes an active interest in the introduction of modern agricultural methods, and in the promotion of diversified farming; in 1899 it established the Edgecombe and in 1902 the Iredell test farm.

Forests

North Carolina had in 1900 about 35,300 sq. m. of woodland; great quantities of merchantable timber still remained, especially in the Mountain Region and on the Coastal Plain. The trees of the greatest commercial value are oak and chestnut at the foot of the mountains and yellow pine on the uplands of the Coastal Plain. But mixed with the oak and chestnut or higher up are considerable hickory, birch and maple; farther up the mountain sides are some hemlock and white pine; and on the swamp lands of the Coastal Plain are much cypress and some cedar, and on the Coastal Plain south of the Neuse there is much long-leaf pine from which resin is obtained. Several other pines are found, and among the less important timber trees are black spruce, Carolina balsam, beeches, ashes, sycamore or button wood, sweet gum and lindens. The value of the lumber and timber products was $1,074,003 in 1860; $5, 8 9 8 ,74 2 in 1890; $14,862,593 in 1900; and $15731,379 in 1905.

Fisheries

In the sounds along the coast, in the lower courses of the rivers that flow into them, and along the outer shores fishing is an important industry. The fisheries are chiefly of shad, oysters, mullet, alewives, clams, black bass, menhaden, croakers and bluefish. In 1908 the catch was valued at about $1,750,000. The State Geological and Economic Survey has made a careful study of the fishes of North Carolina, of the shad fisheries, of oyster culture, and of the development of terrapin. At Beaufort the United States Bureau of Fisheries has a marine biological laboratory, established in 1901 for the study of the aquatic fauna of the south-east coast.

Minerals

At the beginning of the 20th century a great number of minerals were found in the Piedmont Plateau and Mountain regions, but most of them in such small quantities as to be of little or no commercial value, and in 1902 the total value of the products of the mines and quarries was only $927,376; but in 1907 their value was $2,961,381, and in 1908, $2,145,947. During the first half of the 19th century North Carolina was a mining state of the first importance; in 1804 it was the only state in the United States from which gold was obtained. Operations ceased during the Civil War, and although resumed soon after its close, they became somewhat desultory. Probably the earliest large find was a 17-lb nugget on the Reed Plantation in Cabarrus county in 1799; in the same mine a 28-lb nugget, probably the largest found in eastern United States, was discovered in 1803. The production in Rutherford and Burke counties and their vicinity was so great, and transportation to the United States Mint at Philadelphia so difficult, that from 1831 to 1857 gold was privately coined in I, 22 and 5 dollar pieces bearing the mark of the coiner " C. Bechtler, Rutherford county, N.C." The coins were of standard purity (or higher); they are now very rare. A branch mint of the United States was established in 1837 at Charlotte. Silver, which is rarer in the state than gold, is found chiefly in the W. portion of the Piedmont Plateau. In 1902 the value of the gold and silver product combined was $71,287, and in 1908, when the Iola mine 6 m. E. of Troy, Montgomery county, was the most productive, the value of the gold alone was $97,945, that of the silver $668, and that of copper, $2560.

In 1870 North Carolina's mica mines were reopened, and they produce the best grade of sheet mica for glazing and a large percentage of the country's yield of this mineral. Most of it has been found in the N.E. portion of the Mountain Region; and that mica was mined here before any European settlement of the country seems proved by numerous excavations and by huge heaps on which are large oak and chestnut trees, some fallen and decayed. North Carolina is also the leading state in the Union in the production of monazite. The mining of corundum was begun at Corundum Hill in Macon county in 1871, and from 1880 to 1902 the output was considerable, but with the discovery of the Canadian corundum Scale, 1:2,500,000 English Miles 20 30 4 0 So County Seats e County Boundaries Railitlays Canals Swamps deposits the importance of those of North Carolina greatly declined. It was along the coast of North Carolina that Europeans in 1585 made the first discovery of iron ore within the present limits of the United States. Iron ores are widely distributed within the state, and there have been times since the eve of the War of Independence when the mining of it was an industry of relatively great importance. In 1908 the product amounted to 48,522 long tons (all magnetite), and was valued at $76,877; almost the entire product is from the Cranberry mines, near Cranberry, Mitchell county. The state has two small areas in which bituminous coal occurs; one in the basin of the Dan and one in the basin of the Deep. Very little coal was produced in the state until the Civil War, when, in 1862 and again in 1863, 30,000 short tons were obtained for the relief of the Confederate government, an amount which up to 1905, when the yield was only 1557 short tons (falling off from 7000 short tons in 1904), had not since been equalled; in 1906, in 1907 and in 1908 no coal was mined in the state. The most valuable immediate product of the state's mines and quarries for nearly every year from 1890 to 1908 was building stones of granite and gneiss, which are found in all parts of the state west of the " Fall Line "; the best grades of granite are quarried chiefly in Gaston, Iredell, Rowan, Surry and Wilkes counties. The value of the building stone increased from $150,000 in 1892 to $800,177 (of which $764,272 was the value of granite) in 1908. Talc also is widely distributed in the state; the most extensive beds are in the south-western counties, Swain and Cherokee.

Manufactures

During the quarter of a century between 1880 and 1905 a great change was wrought in the industrial life of the state by a phenomenal growth of cotton manufacturing. A cotton mill was erected in Lincoln county about 1813, and by 1840 about 25 small mills were in operation within the state. When the Civil War was over, the abnormally high price of cotton made cotton raising for more than a decade a great assistance to the people in recovering from ruin, but when the price had steadily declined from 23.98 cents a pound in 1870 to 10.38 cents a pound in 1879, they turned to the erection and operation of cotton mills. In 1880 the total value of the manufactured products of thestatewas$20,095,037 in 1900 the value of the cotton manufactures alone was $28,372,789, and in 1905 $47, 2 54, 0 54. The rapid extension of tobacco culture was accompanied by a corresponding growth in the manufacture of chewing and smoking tobacco and snuff, and some of the brands have a wide reputation. The product increased in value from $4,783,484 in 1890 to $25,488,721 in 1905. In 1890 the lumber and timber products, valued at $5,898,742, ranked second among the state's manufactures; by 1905 their value had increased to $15,731,379. The value of the state's factory product for 1900 was $85,274,083, and that for 1905, $142,520,776, an advance of 67.1%. The cotton mills are mostly in the Piedmont Plateau Region; durham|Durham, Durham county, and Winston, Forsyth county, are leading centres of tobacco manufacture; and High Point (pop. in 1900, 4163) in Randolph is noted for its manufacture of furniture.

Transportation

Railway building was begun in the state in 1836 with the Raleigh & Gaston line, opened from Raleigh to Gaston in 1844 and extended to Weldon in 1852. A longer line, that from Wilmington to Weldon, was completed in 1840. But the greatest period of building was from 1880 to 1890; during this decade the mileage was increased from 1486 m. to 3128 m., or 1642 m., which was more than one-third of all that had been built up to the year 1909, when the total mileage was 4464.14. The principal systems of railways are the Southern, the Atlantic Coast Line, the Norfolk & Southern and the Seaboard Air Line. By means of its navigable waters and safe harbours the state has an extensive coasting trade. The harbours along the sounds and in the estuaries of the rivers are well protected from the storms of the ocean by the long chain of narrow islands in front, but navigation by the largest vessels is interrupted by shoals in the sounds, and especially by bars crossing the inlets between islands. The channel leading to the harbour of Wilmington has been cleared to a depth of 20 ft. or more by dredging and by the construction of jetties and an immense dam, works which were begun by the state in 1823 but from 1828 were carried on from time to time by the national government. The Roanoke river is navigable to Weldon and the Cape Fear river to Fayetteville; the Neuse is navigable for small vessels only to Newbern.

Population

The population 1 of North Carolina increased from 1,399,750 in 1880 to 1, 61 7,949 in 1890, or 15.6%; to 1,893,810 in 1900, a further increase of 17.1%; and to 2,206,287 in 1910, an increase of 16.5% since 1900. Of the total in 1900 only 4492, or less than 4 of 1% were foreign-born, nearly half of these being natives of Germany and England, 1,263,664 were whites, 624,469 negroes, 5687 Indians and 51 Chinese. Nearly onefourth of the Indians are Cherokees, who occupy, for the most part, the Qualla Reservation in Swain and Jackson counties, not far from the south-western extremity of the state. The others, The population of the state was 393,75r in 1790; 478,103 in 1800; 555,500 in 1810; 638,829 in 1820; 737,987 in 1830; 753,419 in 1840; 869,039 in 1850; 992,622 in 1860; and 1,071,361 in 1870.

numbering in 1907 nearly 5000, living mostly in Robeson county, are of mixed breed and have been named the Croatans, on the assumption (probably baseless) that they are the descendants of John White's lost colony of 1587. The Cherokees have no ambition to accumulate property, but both they and the Croatans have been generally peaceable and many of them send their children to school - for the Croatans the state provides separate schools. The Baptist and Methodist churches are the leading religious denominations in the state; but there are also Presbyterians, Lutherans, members of the Christian Connexion (O'Kellyites), Disciples of Christ (Campbellites) Episcopalians, Friends, Roman Catholics, Moravians and members of other denominations. Until nearly a century after the founding of the Carolinas there was not a town in North Carolina that had a population of 1000, and the urban population of the state was exceptionally small at the beginning of the rapid rise of the manufacturing industries about 1880. In 1900 the urban population (in places having 4000 inhabitants or more) was 152,019, or 8% of the total; the semi-urban (in incorporated places having less than 4000 inhabitants) was 186,258 or 9.8% of the total; and the rural (outside of incorporated places) was 1,555,533 or 82.1% of the total. But between 1890 and 1900 the urban population increased 56.6% and the semiurban 61-6%, while the rural increased only 10.6%. The principal cities are Wilmington, Charlotte, Asheville, Raleigh (the capital), Greensboro, Winston and Newbern.

Administration

North Carolina has been governed under the charters of 1663 and 1665 (1663-1729), under commissions and instructions from the crown (1729-1776), and under the state constitutions of the 18th of December 1776 (amended in 1835, in 1856, and in the Secession Convention of 1861) and of April 1868 (amended in 1872-1873, 1875, 2 1819 i 1888 and 1899). The present constitution, as amended, prescribes that no convention of the people of the state may be called by the legislature unless by the concurrence of two-thirds of all the members of each house followed by an affirmative vote of a majority of the electors voting on the question; and that an amendment to the constitution may be adopted only by a three-fifths vote of each house followed by an affirmative vote of the majority of electors voting on the question. The suffrage provisions containing the famous " grandfather clause " (in Art vi. section 4), were adopted in the form of a constitutional amendment, ratified in August 1900, and in effect on the ist day of July 1902. All persons otherwise qualified may place their names on the voting register, provided they can read and write any section of the constitution in the English language and have paid on or before the ist of May the poll tax for the previous year. An exception to the educational requirement is made in favour of any male person who was, on the ist day of January 1867, or at any time prior thereto, entitled to vote under the laws of any state in the United States wherein he then resided, and in favour of lineal descendants of such persons. This exception remained in force until the ist of December 1908, after which time all who were on the list became (unless disqualified because convicted of felony) life voters, but new applicants had to stand the educational test.

Perhaps the most notable feature about the administration is the weakness of the governor's position. He is elected by popular vote 3 for four years, and cannot succeed himself in office. His power is limited by a council of state, a relic of colonial days. This body is not, however, a special board, as in Maine, New Hampshire, and Massachusetts, but a kind of administrative cabinet as in Iowa, consisting of the secretary of state, the auditor, the treasurer, and the superintendent of 2 The changes made in 1875 were adopted in a convention, were ratified in 1876, and were so numerous that the amended constitution is frequently referred to as the Constitution of 1876.

Up to 1835 he was elected annually by the two houses of the legislature, and no man could serve as governor for more than three years in any six successive years. Under an amendment of 1835 he was elected for two years by popular vote of electors for members of the House of Commons, and no man was eligible to serve for more than four years in any term of six years.

public instruction, and advising the governor in the administration of his office. Judges, heads of departments, and executive boards are elected, and even in the few instances in which the governor appoints to office the confirmation of the Senate is necessary. Furthermore, in North Carolina the governor has no veto power. In addition to the executive officials mentioned above there are a lieutenant-governor, an attorney-general, a Bureau of Labor Statistics, established in 1887, and a Corporation Commission, which in 1899 superseded the Railroad Commission, established in 1891. The governor and the lieutenant-governor must at the time of their election be at least thirty years of age, and must have been citizens of the United States for five years and residents of the state for two years.

Sessions of the General Assembly are held biennially, beginning on the Wednesday after the first Monday in January. The Senate is composed of fifty members elected biennially by senatorial districts as nearly as possible equal to one another in population, and the House of Representatives (in the Constitution of 1776 called the House of Commons) of one hundred and twenty, elected biennially and chosen by counties' according to their population, each county having at least one representative, no matter how small its population. A senator must at the time of his election be at least 25 years of age, and must have been a resident and citizen of the state for at least two years, and a resident in his district for one year immediately preceding his election; and a representative must be a qualified elector of the state and must have resided in his county for at least one year immediately preceding his election. The pay for both senators and representatives is four dollars per day for a period not exceeding sixty days; should the session be prolonged the extra service is without compensation. Extra sessions, called by the governor on the advice of the council of state, are limited to twenty days, but may be extended under the same limitations in regard to compensation. The Senate may sit as a court of impeachment to try cases presented by the House, and a twothirds vote is necessary for conviction.

There is a supreme court consisting of a chief justice and four associates, elected by popular vote for eight years, and a superior or circuit court, composed of sixteen judges elected by the people in each of sixteen districts for a term of eight years.

The county officials are the sheriff, a coroner, a treasurer, a register of deeds, a surveyor and five commissioners, elected for two years. The commissioners supervise the penal and charitable institutions, schools, roads, bridges and finances of the county. Subordinate to them are the township boards of trustees, composed of a clerk, and two justices of the peace.

By the constitution personal property to the value of $500 and any homestead to the value of $1000 is exempt from sale for debt, except for taxes on the homestead, or for obligations contracted for the purchase of said premises. Under the revised code (1905) a wife may hold property which she had acquired before marriage free from any obligation of her husband, but in general she is not permitted to make contracts affecting either her personal or real estate without the written consent of her husband. Neither can the husband convey real estate without the wife's consent, and a widow may dissent from her husband's will at any time within six months after the probate of the same, the effect of such dissent being to allow her the right of one-third of her deceased husband's property, including the dwelling house in which they usually resided. The constitution prescribes that " all marriages between a white person and a negro, or between a white person and a white person of negro descent to the third generation inclusive, are hereby forever prohibited." Until 1905 the only grounds for an absolute divorce were 1 Under the Constitution of 1776 senators were elected by counties, one for each county, and representatives also by counties, two for each county - in addition, the towns of Edenton, Newbern, Wilmington, Salisbury, Hillsboro and Halifax each elected one representative; and a property qualification - a freehold of 50 acres held for six months before an election - was imposed on electors of senators. Under amendments of 1835 senators were chosen by districts formed on the basis of public taxes paid into the state treasury, representatives were still chosen by counties, and were apportioned among them on the same basis as their Federal representation (i.e. counting three-fifths of the slaves), and free negroes or mulattoes " descended from negro ancestors to the fourth generation inclusive " were excluded from the suffrage. In 1856 the property qualification for electors of senators was removed.

adultery, natural impotence, and pregnancy of the wife at the time of marriage; but an amendment of 1907 allows a divorce whenever there has been a separation of husband and wife for ten successive years, provided the parties have lived in the state for that period and no children have been born of the marriage. The working of children under twelve years of age in any factory or manufacturing establishment is unlawful, the working of children between the ages of twelve and thirteen in such places is allowed only on condition that they be employed as apprentices and have attended school for at least four months during the preceding year; and no boy or girl under fourteen is to work in such places during night time. An antitrust law of 1907 makes it unlawful for any corporation controlling within the state the sale of 50% of an article to raise or lower the price of that article with the intention of injuring a competitor. On the 26th of May 1908 the people of the state voted " against the manufacture and sale of intoxicating liquors " in the state; the prohibition act thus approved went into effect on the 1st of January 1909. State prohibition had been defeated in 1881 by a vote of 100,000; in 1902 the Anti-Saloon League organized in the state; in 1903 the Watts Law enacted rural prohibition, giving towns local option, under which many of the towns voted " no licence "; and in 1905 severe police regulations were provided for towns in which saloons were licensed.

Charitable and Penal Institutions. the systematic care of the dependent and defective classes North Carolina was one of the pioneer states of the South. An institute for the deaf and dumb and blind was opened at Raleigh in 1845, and another for the deaf and dumb at Morganton in 1894; by a law of 1907 every deaf child. of sound mind must attend, between the ages of eight and fifteen, a school for the deaf at least five terms of nine months each; and by a law of 1908 every blind child (between seven and seventeen), if of sound mind and body, must attend some school for the blind for nine months of each year. The North Carolina State Hospital (for the insane) at Raleigh was opened in 1856 as a result of the labours of Miss Dorothea Lynde Dix (1805-1887); in connexion with it there is an epileptic colony. The State Hospital at Morganton, opened in 1883, completed in 1886, and intended for the use of the western part of the state, is perhaps the best equipped institution of its kind south of the Potomac. In 1901 a department for criminal insane was opened in a wing of the state prison at Raleigh. The Oxford Orphan Asylum at Oxford (1872) is supported partly by the Masonic Order and partly by the state. A movement begun by the Confederate Veterans Association in October 1889 resulted in the establishment in 1890 of a home for disabled veterans at Raleigh; this became a state institution in 1891. In 1908 a state tuberculosis sanatorium was opened near Aberdeen, Moore county. The state also takes good care of the unfortunates among the negro race. The Institute for the Colored Deaf, Dumb and Blind (1867) at Raleigh and the Eastern Insane Hospital (1880) near Goldsboro are the oldest institutions of the kind for negroes in the world; in connexion with the last there is an epileptic colony for negroes. There is also (at Oxford) an Orphanage for the Colored (1883), which was established by the " Wake and Shiloh Associations of the Colored Baptist Church," first received state aid in 1891, and is now supported chiefly by the state. The state prison is at Raleigh, although most of the convicts are distributed upon farms owned and operated by the state. The lease system does not prevail, but the farming out of convict labour is permitted by the constitution; such labour is used chiefly for the building of railways, the convicts so employed being at 'all times cared for and guarded by state officials. A re- formatory for white youth between the ages of seven and sixteen, under the name of the Stonewall Jackson Manual Training and Industrial School, was opened at Concord in 1909, and in March 1909 the Foulk Reformatory and Manual Training School for negro youth was provided for. Charitable and penal institutions are under the supervision of a Board of Public Charities, appointed by the governor for a period of six years, the terms of the different members expiring in different years. Private institutions for the care of the insane, idiots, feeble-minded and inebriates may be established, but must be licensed and regulated by the state board and become legally a part of the system of public charities.

Education

The public school system was established in 1839, being based on the programme for state education prepared in 1816-1817 by Archibald Debow Murphey (1777-1832), whose educational ideas were far in advance of his day. Calvin Henderson Wiley (1819-1887), the author of several romances dealing with life in North Carolina, such as Roanoke: or, Where is Utopia? (1866), and of Life in the South: a Companion to Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852), was superintendent of common schools in1853-1865(the executive head of the state's educational department having previously been a " literary board "), and won the name of the " Horace Mann of the South " by his wise reforms. He kept the public schools going through the Civil War, having advised against the disturbance of the school funds and their reinvestment in Confederate securities. The present school system is supervised by a state board of education consisting of the governor, lieutenant-governor, secretary of state, treasurer, auditor, attorney-general, and superintendent of public instruction. In the counties there is a board of education and there is also a local school committee of three in each township. The compulsory attendance at school of children between the ages of eight and fourteen for sixteen weeks each year by a state law is optional with each county. A state library commission was established in 1909.

At the head of the state system of education is the university of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, chartered in 1789 and opened in 1795, one of the oldest state universities in the country and one of the oldest universities in the South; it consists of the college, the graduate department, the law department, the department of medicine (1890, part of whose work is done at Raleigh) and the department of pharmacy (1897). In1907-1908it had 75 instructors and 775 students. Other state educational institutions are the College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts (1889) at West Raleigh, which in1907-1908had 42 instructors and 436 students; the State Normal and Industrial College (1892) for women, at Greensboro; and the East Carolina Teachers' Training School (1907), at Greenville. For the higher education of the negroes the state supports an Agricultural and Mechanical College (1891) at Greensboro, and normal and industrial schools at Fayetteville, Elizabeth City and Winston. The more important sectarian schools are Wake Forest College (Baptist, opened 1834 as a " manual labour and classical institute "; as a college, 1838) at Wake Forest, 16 m. north of Raleigh, with 371 students in 1907-1908; Davidson College (Presbyterian, 1837) at Davidson, with 308 students (1907-1908); Biddle University (Presbyterian) at Charlotte, for negroes; Greensboro Female College (Methodist Episcopal, South; 1846); Guilford College (coeducational; Society of Friends, 1837) near Greensboro; Trinity College (coeducational; Methodist, 1852) at Durham; Lenoir College (Lutheran, 1890) at Hickory; Catawba College (Reformed, 1851) at Newton; Weaverville College (Methodist Episcopal, 1873) at Weaverville; Elon College (Christian, 1890) at Elon; St Mary's College (Roman Catholic, 1877), under the charge of Benedictines, at Belmont; Shaw University (Baptist, 1865), for negroes, at Raleigh; and Livingston College (Methodist, 1879), for negroes, at Salisbury.

Finance

The revenues of the state come from two sources; about two-thirds from taxation and about one-third in all from the earnings of the penitentiary, from the fees collected by state officials, from the proceeds from the sale of state publications, and from the dividends from stock and bonds. The state owned, in 1909, 30,002 shares of stock in the North Carolina Railroad Company,' with a market value (1907) of $5,580,372 (the stock being quoted at 186), and an annual income of $210,014 and 12,666 shares of stock in the Atlantic & North Carolina Railroad Company, from which the annual income is $31,665. In addition to the ordinary general property tax, licences and polls, there are a tax on corporations and an income tax. North Carolina is one of the few states to experiment with the inheritance tax, but the last law dealing with that subject was repealed in 1899. The total receipts of the general fund for the fiscal year 1907 were $2,603,293, and the total disbursements for the same year were $2,655,282.

The state debt at the close of the fiscal year 1907 amounted to $6,880,950. It may be divided into three parts: that contracted between 1848 and 1861 for the construction of roads, railways and canals; that contracted during the Civil War for other than war purposes; and that contracted during the Reconstruction era, nominally in the form of loans to railway companies. In their impoverished condition it was impossible for the people to bear the burden, so an act was passed in 1879 scaling part of the debt 60%, part of it 75% and part of it 85%. The remainder, $12,805,000, and all arrears of interest were repudiated outright. This of course impaired the obligation of a contract, but under the Eleventh Amendment to the Constitution of the United States the bondholders could not bring suit against the state in the Federal courts. Another state could do so, however, and in 1904, certain creditors having given ten of their bonds to South Dakota, the case of South Dakota versus North Carolina came before the Supreme Court. The court decided, four judges dissenting, that North Carolina must pay the amount due or suffer her railway bonds to be seized and sold to satisfy the judgment (192 U.S. Reports, 286. See also 108 U.S. 76).

' The North Carolina Railroad from Goldsboro,. via Raleigh, Greensboro and Salisbury, to Charlotte, was an extension of the Raleigh & Gaston, which had come into the hands of the state; it was chartered in 1849, the act being passed by the casting vote of the speaker, whose action was the cause of his failure to be re-elected to that, or to be elected to any other office afterwards, since the poverty of the state did not warrant such an expenditure. The original stock of $3,000,000, of which the state was to subscribe $2,000,000, was increased in 1855 to $4,000,000, the state subscribing the added million. The road was leased in 1871 to the Richmond & Danville for thirty years at 6%; and in 1905 to the Southern Railway Company for ninety-nine years at 61. - % for the first six years and at 7% for the remainder of the term. The Atlantic & North Carolina, the second great internal improvement undertaken by the state, was chartered in 1853, and was opened from Goldsboro to Morehead City (95 m.) in 1858; it was in 1910 a part of the Norfolk & Southern system. Although the state of North Carolina owns 70.3% of the stock (besides this Craven county holds 7.7%; Lenoir, 2.8%; and Pamlico county, 1.13%), the state casts only 35 o votes to the 700 of the private stockholders.

History

The history of North Carolina may be divided into four main periods: the period of discovery and early colonization (1520-1663); the period of proprietary rule (1663-1729); the period of royal rule (1729-1776); and the period of statehood (from 1776).

It is possible that some of the early French and Spanish explorers visited the coast of North Carolina, but no serious attempt was made by Europeans to establish a settlement until near the close of the 16th century. After receiving from Queen Elizabeth a patent for colonization in the New World, Sir Walter Raleigh, in April 1584, sent Philip Amadas, or Amidas (1S501618), and Arthur Barlowe (c. 1550 - c. 1620) to discover in the region bordering on Florida a suitable location for a colony. They returned in September with a glowing account of what is now the coast of North Carolina, and on the 9th of April 1585 a colony of about 108 men under Ralph Lane (c. 1530-1603) sailed from Plymouth in a fleet of seven small vessels commanded by Sir Richard Grenville. The colony was established at the north end of Roanoke Island on the 17th of August, and about a week later Grenville returned to England. Threatened with famine and with destruction from hostile Indians, the entire colony left for England on the 19th of June 1586 on Sir Francis Drake's fleet. Only a few days after their departure Sir Richard Grenville arrived with supplies and more colonists, fifteen of whom remained when he sailed away. Although greatly disappointed at the return of the first colony, Raleigh despatched another company, consisting of 121 persons under John White, with instructions to remove the plantation to the shore of Chesapeake Bay. They arrived at Roanoke Island on the 2 2nd of July 1587 and were forced to remain there by the refusal of the sailors to carry them farther. Of the fifteen persons left by Grenville not one was found alive. White's grand-daughter, Virginia Dare (b. 18th August 1587), was the first English child born in America. White soon returned to England for supplies, and having been detained there until 1591 he found upon his return no trace of the colony except the word " Croatan " carved on a tree; hence the colony was supposed to have gone away with some friendly Indians, possibly the Hatteras tribe, and proof of the assumption that these whites mingled with Indians is sought in the presence in Robeson county of a mixed people with Indian habits and occasional English names, calling themselves Croatans. In 1629 Charles I. granted to his attorneygeneral, Sir Robert Heath, all the territory lying between the 31st and 36th parallels and extending through from sea to sea, but the patent was in time vacated, and in 1663 the same territory was granted to the earl of Clarendon (1609-1674), the duke of Albemarle (1608-1670), and six other favourites of Charles II. By a second charter issued in 1665 the limits were extended to 29° and 36° 30'.

The proprietors had all the powers of a county palatine and proposed to establish a feudal and aristocratic form of government. To this end John Locke drafted for them in 1669 the famous Fundamental Constitutions providing for the division of the province into eight counties and each county into seigniories, baronies, precincts and colonies, and the division of the land among hereditary nobles who were to grant three-fifths of it to their freemen and govern through an elaborate system of feudal courts. But these constitutions, several times revised, actually served only as a theoretical standard for the proprietors and were abrogated altogether in 1693, and the colonists were governed by instructions which granted them much greater privileges. From the very beginning the territory tended to divide into two distinct sections, a northern and a southern. The northern section was first called Albemarle, then " that part of our province of Carolina that lies north and east of Cape Fear," and about 1689 North Carolina. Settled largely by people from Pennsylvania, this section came to be closely associated with the continental colonies. The southern section, influenced by its location, by the early settlers from Barbados, and by its trade connexions, was brought into rather more intimate relations with the island colonies and with the mother country. The proprietors struggled in vain to bring about a closer union. In 1691 one governor was placed over both settlements, but it was found necessary to appoint a deputy for North Carolina, and finally in 1712 again to allow her a governor of her own. So long as the intervening territory was a wilderness no effort was made to define the boundary line. The first steps were taken in that direction just after the close of the proprietary period in 1729, but the work was not completed until 1815.1 The first permanent English colony in North Carolina was established at Albemarle on the Chowan river about 1660 by people from Virginia. The colony grew rapidly, and at the close of the colonial period (1776) the population numbered approximately 300,000, including English, Scotch, Scotch;Irish, Swiss, French Protestants, Moravians, and about 40,000 negroes. According to Dr Weeks " the earliest settlers. .. were not religious refugees,. .. they came to the province not from religious but economic motives." The proprietary period (1663-1729) was a turbulent one, in spite of the supposedly peaceful influence of the Quakers. Six out of sixteen governors or deputy-governors were driven from office between 1674 and 1712, and there were two uprisings which have been deemed worthy of the term rebellion. The first under John Culpeper in 1677 was primarily economic in character, the chief grievance being the payment of an export duty on tobacco. It was evidently influenced by the recent uprising in Virginia under Nathaniel Bacon. The insurrection of dissenters (1708-1711), which was headed by Thomas Carey, who was deputy-governor while the trouble was brewing, was in opposition to the establishment of the Church of England; it was ultimately unsuccessful, the Church was established in 1711, a law was passed which deprived Quakers of the privilege of serving on juries or holding public office, and the establishment was continued until the War of Independence. A war with the Tuscarora Indians, in 1711-1713, resulted in the defeat of the Indians and the removal of the greater part of the tribe to New York, where they became the sixth nation of the Iroquois confederacy.

North Carolina did not join South Carolina in the revolution of 1719 (see South Carolina), but remained under proprietary rule until 1729. In that year an act was passed by parliament establishing an agreement with seven of the Lords Proprietors for the surrender of their claims to both provinces. They were allowed £17,500 for their rights and £5000 for arrears of quit rents. Lord Carteret refused to sell and continued to hold a one-eighth undivided share until 1744, when he gave up his claim in return for a large strip of land in North Carolina lying between latitude 35° 34' and the Virginia line (36° 30'). So that while the king was governmental head of the whole of North Carolina from 1729 to 1776 he was, after 1744, territorial lord of only the southern half. The political history during the royal period is, like that of the other colonies, the story of a constant struggle between the representatives of the people and the representatives of the crown. The struggle was especially bitter during the administrations of the last three royal governors, Arthur Dobbs (1684-1765), William Tryon (1729-1788) and Josiah Martin (1737-1786). There were disputes over questions of government, of commerce, of finance and of religion. The ship which brought stamps and stamped paper to Wilmington in 1766 was not permitted to land, and the stampmaster was compelled by the people to take an oath that he would not exercise the functions of his office. Through the vigilance of Governor Tryon, however, the Assembly was prevented from sending delegates to the Stamp Act Congress. The colonists were also angered by the attempt to 1 Between 1735 and 1746 the southern boundary was first definitely established by a joint commission of North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia. The line was resurveyed in 1764, and in 1772 was extended; parts of the line were resurveyed under acts of the assembly of 1803, 1804, 1806, 1813, 1814 and 1815, and by an act of 1819 the last extension, to the Tennessee line, was confirmed and established. According to the charter the northern boundary was to be the line of 36° 30', but the surveys (of 1728, 1749 and 1779) were not strictly accurate, and the actual line runs irregularly from 3 6 ° 33' 15" at its eastern to 3 6 ° 34' 2 5.5" at its western end. The boundary between North Carolina and Tennessee was surveyed in 1 799 and 1821.

enforce the acts of trade and navigation and by the parliamentary statute of 1764 forbidding the issue of bills of credit; and the Scotch-Irish among them in particular were aroused by the repeal of an act of 1771 allowing Presbyterian ministers to perform the marriage ceremony and of another act of the same year for the establishment of Queen's College in Mecklenburg county for Presbyterians. In the " back country " extortionate fees, excessive taxes, and the oppressive manner of collecting them brought about a popular uprising, known as the Regulation, which centred in Orange and Anson counties, but was strong also in Brown, Edgecombe, Johnson, Granville and Halifax counties. Hermon Husband (c. 1724-1795) was the chief agitator of measures for relief, but, since, as a Quaker, he discouraged violence, the cause was left without a recognized leader. Governor Tryon manifested no sympathy for the oppressed and sought only the thorough suppression of the disturbance, which was organized in the spring of 1768 by Regulators, " for regulating public grievances and abuses of power." The Regulators agreed to pay no more taxes until satisfied that they were in accordance with law, and to pay nothing in excess of the legal fees. Violence speedily followed; the local militia was called out, but since only a few would serve the only means found to quiet the people was an alleged promise from the governor that if they would petition him for redress and go to their homes he would see that justice was done. In reply to their petition the governor denied that he had made any promise in their behalf; and in September he had at his command a military force of 1153, about one-fourth of whom were officers. Although the Regulators assembled to the number of about 3700 they were not prepared to withstand the governor's force and again submitted without bloodshed, there being only a few arrests made. In the following year the Regulators attempted to elect new members to the assembly and petitioned the newly-elected house. But as little had been accomplished when the superior court met at Hillsboro, Orange county, in September 1770, the Regulators became desperate again, whipped the chief offender, Colonel Edmund Fanning, and demolished his residence. These riotous proceedings provoked the second military expedition of the governor, and on the 16th of May 1771, with a force of about r000 men and officers, he met about twice that number of Regulators on the banks of the Alamance, where, after two hours of fighting, with losses on each side nearly equal, the ammunition of the Regulators was exhausted and they were routed. About fifteen were taken prisoners, and of these seven were executed. This insurrection was in no sense a beginning of the War of Independence; on the contrary, during that war most of Tryon's militia who fought at Alamance were Patriots and the majority of the Regulators, who remained in the province, were Loyalists.

In August 1771 Governor Tryon was succeeded by Governor Josiah Martin, who was soon engaged in spirited controversies with the assembly on questions pertaining to taxes, the southern boundary, and the attachment of property belonging to nonresidents. So complete became the breach between them that in 1773 the royal government had nearly ceased to operate, and in 1774 the governor was deserted by his hitherto subservient council. The first Provincial Congress met at Newbern on the 25th of August 1774 and elected delegates to the Continental Congress. When the governor learned that a second Provincial Congress was called to meet in April 1775 he resolved to convene the assembly on the same day. But the assembly, the members of which were nearly the same as those of the congress, refused to interrupt the meeting of the congress, and in the next month the governor sought safety in flight, first to Fort Johnson on the Cape Fear below Wilmington and then to a man-of-war along the coast. On the 31st of May 1775 a committee representing the militia companies of Mecklenburg county passed a series of resolutions which declared that the royal commissions in the several colonies were null and void, that the constitution of each colony was wholly suspended, and that the legislative and executive powers of each colony were vested in its provincial congress subject to the direction of the Continental Congress; and the resolutions requested the inhabitants of the county to form a military and civil organization independent of the crown of Great Britain which should operate until the Provincial Congress should otherwise provide or the British parliament should " resign its unjust and arbitrary pretensions with respect to America." The " Mecklenburg Declaration," which it is alleged was passed on the 10th of the same month by the same committee, " dissolves the political bonds " which have connected the county with the mother country, " absolves " the citizens of that county " from all allegiance to the British Crown," declares them " a free and independent people," and abounds in other phrases which closely resemble phrases in the great Declaration of the 4th of July 1776.

The Resolutions were published in at least two newspapers only a few days after they were passed. As for the " Declaration," the original records of the transactions of Mecklenburg county were destroyed by fire in 1800, but it is claimed that a copy of the " Declaration " was made from memory in the same year, and when, in 1819, a controversy had arisen as to where the movement for independence originated, this copy was published, first in the Raleigh Register and North Carolina Gazette and then in many other newspapers. Several aged men also testified that they had heard a declaration of_independence read at Charlotte, the county-seat, in May 1775; and one of them stated that he had carried it to the Continental Congress. Thomas Jefferson and John Adams, however, declared that they had never heard of it before, and both believed it spurious. But Jefferson was charged with plagiarism by those who believed in the authenticity of the " Declaration," and in 1833 there was discovered a proclamation of Governor Martin, dated the 8th of August 1775, in which he mentioned a publication in the Cape Fear Mercury of a series of resolves by a committee of Mecklenburg county which declared " the entire dissolution of the laws, government and constitution of the country." Another stage of the controversy was reached in1838-1847when the Mecklenburg Resolutions of the 31st of May 1775 were discovered either in part or in full in newspaper files. There seems practically no basis for the contention that a declaration of independence was adopted on the 10th other than the tradition that independence was declared by the Mecklenburg Committee on that date, and the occasional. references in print, even before 1819, to a declaration of independence in the county in 1775. Those who believe the " Declaration " to be spurious argue that survivors remembered only one such document, that the Resolutions might easily be thought of as a declaration of independence, that Governor Martin in all probability had knowledge only of these and not of the alleged " Declaration," and that the dates of publication in the Raleigh and Charleston newspapers, and the politics of those papers, show that the Resolutions are authentic. In July 1905 there appeared in Collier's Weekly (New York) what purported to be a facsimile reproduction of a copy of the Cape Fear Mercury which was referred to by Governor Martin and which contained the " Declaration "; but this was proved a forgery.' The first and the second provincial congress did little except choose delegates to the Continental Congress and the management of affairs passed in large measure from the royal government to the several county committees. The third provincial congress, which met on the 21st of August 1775, still required its members to sign an oath of allegiance to King George III. but formed a provisional government consisting of a provincial council and six District Committees of Safety. The first sanction of independence by any body representing the whole province was given by the fourth Provincial Congress on the 12th of April 1776, and the same body immediately proceeded to the consideration of a new and permanent form of government. Their labours ended, however, in another provincial government by a Council of Safety, and the drafting of North Carolina's first state constitution was left to a constitutional convention which assembled at Halifax on the 12th of November.

North Carolinians fought under Washington at Brandywine and Monmouth and played a still more important part in the Southern campaigns of 1778-1781. The state was twice invaded, in 1776 and in 1780-1781, and two important battles were fought upon her soil, Moore's Creek on the 27th of February 1776 and Guilford Court House on the 15th of March 1781.

The territory now comprising the state of Tennessee belonged to Carolina under the charters of 1663 and 1665, and fell to North Carolina when the original province was divided. To this ' The 10th of May has been made a holiday in North Carolina, and the date appears on the state flag and the state seal; and a statue has been erected at Charlotte in memory of the signers of the " Declaration." territory settlers, many of them from North Carolina, had gone immediately before and during the War of Independence, and had organized a practically independent government. In 1776 this was formally annexed to North Carolina, but in 1784 the state ceded this district to the national government on condition that it should be accepted within two years. The inhabitants of the district, however, objected to the cession, especially to the terms, which, they contended, threatened them with two years of anarchy; declared their independence of North Carolina and organized for themselves the state of Franklin. But the new state was weakened by factions, and after a brief and precarious existence it was forced into submission to North Carolina by which in 1790 the territory was again ceded to the national government with the proviso that no regulation made or to be made by Congress should tend to the emancipation of slaves (see Tennessee).

North Carolina sent delegates to the Philadelphia Constitutional Convention of 1787, but the state convention, at Hillsboro, called to pass upon the constitution for North Carolina, did not meet until the 21st of July 1788, when ten states had already ratified. On the first day of this convention the opponents to the constitution, among whom were most of the delegates from the western counties, were ready to reject it without debate, but yielded to a proposal for discussing it clause by clause. In this discussion, which was continued for nine days, the document was most strongly opposed because it contained no bill of rights and on the ground that it would provide for such a strong central government that the state governments would ultimately be sacrificed. At the conclusion of the debate the convention by a vote of 184 to 84 declared itself unwilling to ratify the constitution until a bill of rights had been added and it had been amended in several other particulars so as to guarantee certain powers to the states. By reason of this rejection the relations of North Carolina with the other states were severed upon the dissolution of the Confederation, and it took no part in the first election or in the organization of the new government. However, there was a speedy reaction against the oppositon which had in no small measure been inspired by fear of a requirement that debts be paid in gold and silver. A second convention met at Fayetteville in November 1789 and the constitution was speedily ratified (on the 13th) by a vote of 195 to 77.

The period from 1790 to 1835 was marked by a prolonged contest between the eastern and the western counties. When the state constitution of 1776 was adopted the counties were so nearly equal in population that they were given equal representation in the General Assembly, but the equality in population disappeared in the general westward movement, and in 1790 the West began to urge a new division of the state into representative districts according to population and taxation. This was stubbornly resisted, and the West assumed a threatening attitude as the East opposed its projects for internal improvements for which the West had the greater need. In 1823 the West called an extra-legal convention to meet at Raleigh, and delegates from 24 of the 28 western counties responded, but those from the far West, in which there were practically no slaves, wished free white population to be made the basis of representation, while those from the Middle West demanded the adoption of the basis for the national House of Representatives and the convention made only a divided appeal to the people. Ten years later, however, at the election of assemblymen, 33 of the western counties polled an extra-legal vote on the question of calling a constitutional convention, and 30,000 votes were cast for it to only l000 against it. The effect of this was that in January 1835 the legislature passed a bill for submitting the question legally to all the voters of the state, although this bill itself limited the proposed convention's power relating to representation by providing that it should so amend the constitution that senators be chosen by districts according to public taxes, and that commoners be apportioned by districts according to Federal representation, i.e. five slaves to be counted equal to three whites. When the popular vote was taken, in the following April, every eastern county gave a majority against the convention, but the West, even with the limitation which was decidedly xix. 25 a favourable to the East, voted strongly for it and carried the election with a total majority in the state of 5856 votes. Again, however, the advantage was with the East, for the delegates were chosen by counties, two from each; but in the convention, which was in session at Raleigh from the 4th of June to the filth of July, the East made some concessions: such as the popular election of the governor (who had previously been elected by the two houses of the legislature), the disfranchisement of free negroes, and the abolition of representation from 6 boroughs, 4 of which were in the East. The number of senators was reduced to 50, the number of commoners to 120, and the manner of choosing senators and commoners was changed as directed in the act providing for the convention. The electorate gave its approval to the revision by a vote of 26,771 to 21,606, and with this the agitation over representation ceased.

The fundamental points of difference between North Carolina and South Carolina were exemplified in the slavery conflict. South Carolina led the extreme radical element in the South and was the first state to secede. North Carolina held back, worked for a compromise, sent delegates to the Washington Peace Convention in February 1861, and did not secede until the 20th of May 1861, after President Lincoln's call for troops to preserve the Union. Liberal support was given to the Confederacy, both in men and supplies, but Governor Vance, one of the ablest of the Southern war governors, engaged in acrimonious controversies with President Jefferson Davis, contending that the general government of the Confederacy was encroaching upon the prerogatives of the separate states. Owing to its distance from the border, the state escaped serious invasion until near the close of the war. Wilmington was captured by the Federals in February 1865; General Sherman's army crossed the southern boundary in March; a battle was fought at Bentonville, March 19-21; Raleigh was entered on April 13; and the Confederates under General Joseph E. Johnston surrendered near Durham Station, in Durham county, on the 26th.

Reconstruction was a costly experience here as in other Southern states. Jonathan Worth (1802-1869), elected governor under the presidential plan in 1865, was an honest and capable official, but the government established in accordance with the views of Congress in 1868 was corrupt, inefficient and tyrannical. Carpet-baggers, negroes and unscrupulous native whites, known as scalawags, were in control of affairs, while the people of wealth, refinement and education were disfranchised. Governor William Woods Holden (1818-1892; governor 1868-1870) was so weak and tyrannical that he was impeached by the legislature in December 1870. Under his successor, Tod R. Caldwell (1818-1874), there was some improvement in the condition of affairs, and in 1875 a constitutional convention, in session at Raleigh, with the Democrats slightly in the majority, amended the constitution, their work being ratified by the people at the state election in 1876. The native white element completely regained possession of the government in the following year, when the Democrats came into office under Governor Zebulon B. Vance. Since that time the most interesting feature in the political history has been the rise and fall of the People's party. The hard times which followed the financial panic of 1893 made it possible for them, in alliance with the Republicans, to carry the state in the election of 1894. Afterwards their strength declined, because the people became more prosperous, because the national Democratic party in 1896 and 1900 adopted their views on the money question, and because of the unpopularity of a coalition with Republicans, which made it necessary to give the coloured people a share of the offices. The race question was the chief issue in the election of 1898, the Democrats were successful, and what amounted to a negro-disfranchising amendment to the constitution was adopted in August 1900. In 1907 there was a serious clash between the state authorities and the Federal judiciary, arising from an act of the legislature of that year which fixed the maximum railway fare at 21 cents a mile and imposed enormous fines for .its violation. The two principal railway corporations, the Southern and the Seaboard Air Line, contended that the act was clearly contrary to the Eighth Amendment to the Constitution of the United States, which forbids the imposition of excessive fines. The promise of the railways to give every purchaser of a ticket a rebate check until the question of the validity of the act should be decided by the courts was not satisfactory to the state authorities, who arrested a ticket agent of the Southern railway, convicted him of violating the law, and sentenced him to the chain-gang for thirty days. Thereupon the attorneys for the railway applied to Judge Jeter Connelly Pritchard (b. 1857) of the United States Circuit Court for a writ of habeas corpus; this was granted and the prisoner was released. The governor of the state, Robert Brodnax Glenn (b. 1854), nevertheless urged the state courts and attorneys to proceed with the prosecution of other ticket agents, and threatened to resist with the force of the state any further interference of Federal judiciary; but in March 1908 the Supreme Court of the United States declared the North Carolina rate law unconstitutional on the ground that it was confiscatory.

Governors Of North Carolina Proprietary Period (1663-1729).

William Drummond .

Samuel Stephens Peter Carteret. John Jenkins, president of the council .

Thomas Eastchurch. Thomas Miller, president of the council. John Harvey, president of the council. John Jenkins .

Henry Wilkinson Seth Sothel Philip Ludwell .

Alexander Lillington, deputy-governor. Thomas Harvey, deputy-governor.. Henderson Walker, president of the council .

Robert Daniel, deputy-governor .

Thomas Carey, deputy-governor .

William Glover, president of the council .

Thomas Carey contestants (Carey's rebellion) William Glover Edward Hyde, deputy-governor Thomas Pollock, president of the council. Charles Eden .

Thomas Pollock, president of the council William Reid, president of the council. George Burrington Edward Mosely, president of the council. Sir Richard Everard.. .

Royal Period (1729-1776). George Burrington". Nathaniel Rice, president of the council .

Gabriel Johnston.. Nathaniel Rice, president of the council. Matthew Rowan, president of the council Arthur Dobbs .

William Tryon James Hasell, president of the council Josiah Martin. .

Statehood Period (1776Richard Caswell .

Abner Nash.. Thomas Burke. Alexander Martin Richard Caswell. Samuel Johnston .

Alexander Martin Federalist Samuel Ashe. .

Richard Dobbs Spaight, Sr. Dem.-Repub.

William Richardson Davie.

Benjamin Williams James Turner Nathaniel Alexander Benjamin Williams David Stone.. Benjamin Smith. William Hawkins .

William Miller .

John Branch. .

Burrington was appointed in 1730, but did not arrive in the province until February 1731. Either Everard held over or the president of the council was acting-governor from 1729-1731.

Jesse Franklin .

Dem.-Repub. 1820-1821

Gabriel Holmes .

1821-1824

Hutchings G. Burton

1824-1827

James I. redell

„ 1827-1828

John Owen. .

Democrat 1828-1830

Montford Stokes .

„ 1830-1832

David Lowry Swain. .

1832-1835

Richard Dobbs Spaight, Jr.

„ 1835-1837

Edward Bishop Dudley

Whig 1837-1841

John Motley Morehead .

1841-1845

William Alexander Graham

1845-1849

Charles Manly

„ 1849-1851

David Settle Reid

Democrat 1851-1854

Warren Winslow (ex-officio)

1854-1855

Thomas Bragg .

1855-1859

John Willis Ellis. .

1859-1861

Henry Toole Clark (ex-officio) .

1861-1862

Zebulon Baird Vance .

„ 1862-1865

William Woods Holden .

Provisional 1865

Jonathan Worth. .

Conservative 1865-1867

Gen. Daniel Edgar Sickles. .

Military 1867

Gen. Ed. Richard Sprigg Canby

„ 1867-1868

William Woods Holden. .

Republican 1868-1870

Tod R. Caldwell. .

„ 1870-1874

Curtis Hooks Brogden .

„ 1874-1877

Zebulon Baird Vance .

Democrat 1877-1879

Thomas Jordan Jarvis

1879-1885

Alfred Moore Scales .

1885-1889

Daniel Gould Fowle .

1889-1891

Thomas Michael Holt .

1891-1893

Elias Carr

„ 1893-1897

Daniel Lindsay Russell

Republican 1897-1901

Charles Brantley Aycock .

Democrat 1901-1905

Robert Brodnax Glenn

„ 1905-1909

William Walton Kitchin

1909-

)

1663-1667-1667-16691669-1673-1673-16761676-1677-1677-16781678-1679-1679-16811681-1683-1683-16891689-1691-1691-16941694-1699-1699-17041704-1705-1705-17061706-1707-1707-17101710-1712-1712-17141714-1722 1722-1722-17241724-1725 1725-1725-17291731-1734 1734-1734-17521752-1753-1753-17541754-1765-1765-177117711771-1775-1777-17791779-1781-1781-17821782-1784-1784-17871787-1789-1789-17921791-1795-1795-17981798-1799-1799-18021802-1805-1805-18071807-1808-1808-18101810-1811-1811-18141814-1817-1817-1820 Bibliography. - For physical description, resources, industries, &c., see State Board of Agriculture, North Carolina and its Resources (Raleigh, 1896); North Carolina Geological Survey Reports (Raleigh, 1852, sqq.); the publications of the North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey (Raleigh, 1893, sqq.), e.g. Water Powers in North Carolina (1899), by G. F. Swain, Joseph H. Holmes and E. W. Myers, Gold Mining in North Carolina and other Appalachian States (1897), by H. B. C. Nitze and A. J. Wilkins, The Tin Deposits of the Carolinas (1905), by J. H. Pratt and D. B. Sterrett, Building and Ornamental Stones of North Carolina (1907), by T. L. Watson and others, The Fishes of North Carolina (1907), by Hugh M. Smith, and History of the Gems found in North Carolina (1908), by G. F. Kunz; Report of the Secretary of Agriculture in Relation to the Forests, Rivers and Mountains of the Southern Appalachian Region (Washington, 1902); Climatology of North Carolina (Raleigh, 1892); and H. Thompson, From the Cotton Field to the Cotton Mill, a Study of the Industrial Transition in North Carolina (New York, 1906), contains some interesting observations on the changes in social conditions resulting from the growth of the cotton-manufacturing industry. John W. Moore, History of North Carolina (2 vols., Raleigh, 1880); S. A'Court Ashe, History of North Carolina (2 vols., Greensboro, 1908) are general surveys. Cornelia P. Spencer, First Steps in North Carolina History (6th ed., Raleigh, 1893), is a brief elementary book written for use in the public schools. For the colonial and revolutionary periods there are some excellent studies. C. L. Raper, North Carolina: a Study in English Colonial Government (New York, 1904), treats of the royal period (1729-1776) from the legal point of view; J. S. Bassett, Constitutional Beginnings of North Carolina (Baltimore, 1894); The Regulators of North Carolina (Washington, 1894); and Slavery in the State of North Carolina (Baltimore, 1899), are all trustworthy. S. B. Weeks deals with the religious history in his Religious Development in the Province of North Carolina (Baltimore, 1892), Church and State in North Carolina (Baltimore, 1893) and Southern Quakers and Slavery (Baltimore, 1896); he is anti-Anglican, but judicial. E. W. Sikes, The Transition of North Carolina from Colony to Commonwealth (Baltimore, 1898), based on the public records, is accurate, though dull. There is a considerable controversial literature concerning the Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence; W. H. Hoyt's The Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence (New York, 1907) is the best presentation of the view generally adopted by competent historians that the alleged Declaration of the 10th of May 1775 is spurious; G. W. Graham, The Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence (New York, 1905), and J. W. Moore, Defence of the Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence (1909), are perhaps the best of the attempts to prove the same Declaration genuine. The older histories of the colony are: Hugh Williamson, History of North Carolina (2 vols. Philadelphia, 1812), which deals with the period before 1771 and is meagre and full of errors; F. X. Martin, History of North Carolina (2 vols., New Orleans, 1829), which deals with the period before 1776, contains much irrelevant matter and is of little value; F. L. Hawks, History of North Carolina (2 vols. Fayetteville, N.C., 1857-1858), written from the established church point of view, the best and fullest treatment of the proprietary period (1663-1729); and W. D. Cooke (ed.), Revolutionary History of North Carolina (Raleigh and New York, 1853), containing a defence of the Regulators. For the Reconstruction period see J. G. de Roulhac Hamilton, Reconstruction in North Carolina (Raleigh, 1906); Report of the Joint Select Committee to Inquire into the Condition of Affairs in the late Insurrectionary States, being the 42nd Congress, 2nd session, House Report 22 (13 vols., Washington, 1872; vol. ii. deals with North Carolina); and Hilary A. Herbert et al. Why the Solid South? or Reconstruction and its Results (Baltimore, 1890). The chief published sources are The Colonial Records of North Carolina (10 vols., Raleigh, 1886-1890); and The State Records of North Carolina (vols. 11 -20, 1776-1788; other vols., in continuation of the colonial series, Winston (11-15) and Goldsboro (16-20), 1895-1902; the series is to be continued). The best bibliography is S. B. Weeks, Bibliography of Historical Literature of North Carolina (Cambridge, 1895).


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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

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Map of US highlighting North Carolina

Etymology

From Latin Carolus, Latin form of King Charles I of England.

Pronunciation

  • (GenAm) IPA: /ˌnɔɹθ kɛɹəˈlaɪnə/, enPR: nôrth kĕrəlīnə
  •  Audio (GenAm)help, file
  • (Southern US) IPA: /ˌnɔɚθ kaɪɹəˈlaɪnə/

Proper noun

Singular
North Carolina

Plural
-

North Carolina

  1. A state of the United States of America situated on the east coast of the North American mainland north of South Carolina and south of Virginia. Capital: Raleigh.

Derived terms

Translations

See also

External links


Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Familypedia

The State of North Carolina
Flag of North Carolina State seal of North Carolina
Flag of North Carolina SealImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
Nickname(s)Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif: Tar Heel State; Old North State;
The Rip Van Winkle State
Motto(s)Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif: Esse quam videri

(Latin: To be, rather than to seem)

Map of the United States with North Carolina highlighted
Official language(s)Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif English
CapitalImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Raleigh
Largest cityImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Charlotte
Largest metro areaImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Charlotte metro area
AreaImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  Ranked 28thImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
 - Total 53,865 sq miImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
(139,509 km²Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif)
 - Width 150 miles (240 kmImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif)
 - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)
 - % water 9.5
 - Latitude 33° 50′ N to 36° 35′ N
 - Longitude 75° 28′ W to 84° 19′ W
PopulationImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  Ranked 10thImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
 - Total (2000Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif) 8,049,313
 - DensityImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif 165.24/sq mi 
63.80/km² (17th)
ElevationImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  
 - Highest point Mt. Mitchell[2]
6,684 ft  (2,038 m)
 - Mean 705 ft  (215 m)
 - Lowest point Atlantic Ocean[2]
0 ft  (0 m)
Admission to UnionImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  November 21, 1789 (12th)
GovernorImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Mike Easley (D)
U.S. SenatorsImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Elizabeth Dole (R)
Richard Burr (R)
Congressional DelegationImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif ListImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
Time zoneImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Eastern: UTC-5/-4
Abbreviations NCImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif US-NCImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
Web site www.nc.gov

North Carolina (IPA: /ˌnɔrθˌkɛrəˈlaɪnə/) is a state located on the Atlantic Seaboard in the southern region of the United States of America. It was one of the original Thirteen Colonies, originally known as Carolina, and the home of the first English colony in the Americas. On 20 May, 1861, it became the last of the Confederate states to secede from the Union, and was readmitted on 4 July, 1868. It was also the location of the first successful powered heavier-than-air flight by Orville and Wilbur Wright at Kill Devil Hills near Kitty Hawk in 1903. Today, it is a fast-growing state with an increasingly diverse economy and population. As of 1 July, 2006, the population estimate is 8,856,505 (a 10% increase since 1 April, 2000)[3], and the capital is Raleigh.

North Carolina has a wide range of elevation, from sea level on the coast to almost 6,700 feet (2,042 m) in the mountains. The climate in the coastal and Piedmont regions of eastern and central North Carolina is similar to other southern states such as Georgia and South Carolina, while the climate in the western mountains is closer to that found in New England or the upper Midwest. While the coastal plains, especially the tidewater areas, are strongly influenced by the Atlantic Ocean, the western, mountainous part of the state is more than 300 miles (500 km) from the coast, resulting in considerably less maritime influence. As such, the climate of the state ranges from a warm, humid subtropical climate near the coast to a humid continental climate in the mountains. Most of the state falls in the humid subtropical zone.

Contents

Geography

The Blue Ridge Mountains in the foreground with Grandfather Mountain in the extreme background as seen from Blowing Rock, NC.
The Western North Carolina mountains as seen from Sunset Rock in Highlands.
Bodie Island Lighthouse, one of the Outer Banks attractions.

North Carolina is bordered by South Carolina on the south, Georgia on the southwest, Tennessee on the west, Virginia on the north, and the Atlantic Ocean on the east. The United States Census Bureau classifies North Carolina as a southern state in the subcategory of being one of the South Atlantic States.

North Carolina topographic map

North Carolina consists of three main geographic sections: the coastal plain, which occupies the eastern 45% of the state; the Piedmont region, which contains the middle 35%; and the Appalachian Mountains and foothills. The extreme eastern section of the state contains The Outer Banks, a string of sandy, narrow islands which form a barrier between the Atlantic Ocean and inland waterways. The Outer Banks form two sounds—Albemarle Sound in the north and Pamlico Sound in the south. They are the two largest landlocked sounds in the United States. Immediately inland, the coastal plain is relatively flat, with rich soils ideal for growing tobacco, soybeans, and cotton. The coastal plain is North Carolina's most rural section, with few large towns or cities. Agriculture remains an important industry. The major rivers of this section, the Neuse River, Tar River, Pamlico River, and the Cape Fear River, tend to be slow-moving and wide.

The coastal plain transitions to the Piedmont region along the "fall line", a line which marks the elevation at which waterfalls first appear on streams and rivers. The Piedmont region of central North Carolina is the state's most urbanized and densely populated section - all five of the state's largest cities are located in the Piedmont. It consists of gently rolling countryside frequently broken by hills or low mountain ridges. A number of small, isolated, and deeply eroded mountain ranges and peaks are located in the Piedmont, including the Sauratown Mountains, Pilot Mountain, the Uwharrie Mountains, Crowder's Mountain, King's Pinnacle, the Brushy Mountains, and the South Mountains. The Piedmont ranges from about 300–400 feet (90–120 m) elevation in the east to over 1,000 feet (300 m) in the west. The major rivers of the Piedmont, such as the Yadkin and Catawba, tend to be fast-flowing, shallow, and narrow.

The western section of the state is part of the Appalachian Mountain range. Among the subranges of the Appalachians located in the state are the Great Smoky Mountains, Blue Ridge Mountains, Great Balsam Mountains, Pisgah Mountains, and the Black Mountains. The Black Mountains are the highest in the Eastern United States, and culminate in Mount Mitchell at 6,684 feet (2,037 m).[2] It is the highest point east of the Mississippi River. Although agriculture remains important, tourism has become the dominant industry in the mountains. Due to the higher altitude in the mountains, the climate often differs starkly from the rest of the state. Winters in western North Carolina typically feature significant snowfall and subfreezing temperatures more akin to a northern state than a southern one.

North Carolina has 17 major river basins. Five of the state's river basins - the Hiwassee, Little Tennessee, French Broad, Watauga and New - are part of the Mississippi River Basin, which drains to the Gulf of Mexico. All the others flow to the Atlantic Ocean. Of the 17 basins, 11 originate within the state of North Carolina, but only four are contained entirely within the state's borders - the Cape Fear, Neuse, White Oak and Tar-Pamlico.[4]

Climate

The three geographical divisions of North Carolina are useful when discussing the climate of the state.

The coastal plain is influenced by the Atlantic Ocean, which keeps temperatures mild in the winter and moderate in the summer. Daytime high temperatures on the coast average less than 89 °F (31.6 °C) during the summer. In the winter, the coast has the mildest temperatures in the state, with daytime temperatures rarely dropping below 40 °F (4.4 °C). The coastal plain usually receives only one inch (2.5 cm) of snow and/or ice annually, and in some years there may be no snow or ice at all.

The Atlantic Ocean has less influence on the Piedmont region, and as a result the Piedmont has hotter summers and colder winters than the coast. Daytime highs in the Piedmont usually average over 90 °F (32.2 °C) in the summer. While it is not common for temperatures to reach over 100 °F (37.8 °C) in North Carolina, when it happens, the highest temperatures are to be found in the lower areas of the Piedmont, especially around the city of Fayetteville.

In the winter, the Piedmont is much less mild than the coast, with daytime temperatures that usually reach in the mid to upper 50's, while low to mid 60's are common winter highs around the coast. The region averages from 3-5 inches of snowfall annually in the Charlotte area to 6-8 inches in the Raleigh-Durham area. The Piedmont is especially notorious for sleet and freezing rain. It can be heavy enough in some storms to snarl traffic and collapse trees and power lines. Annual precipitation and humidity is lower in the Piedmont than either the mountains or the coast, but even at its lowest, the precipitation is a generous 40 in (102 cm) per year.

The Appalachian Mountains are the coolest area of the state, with daytime temperatures averaging in the 40's for highs in the winter and often falling into the teens (−9 °C) or lower in winter nights. Relatively cool summers have temperatures rarely rising above 80 °F (26.7 °C). Snowfall in the mountains is usually 14–20 in (36–51 cm) per year, but it is often greater in the higher elevations. For example, during the Blizzard of 1993 more than 50 inches of snow fell on Mount Mitchell.

Severe weather is not a rare event in North Carolina. On average, the state receives a direct hit from a hurricane once a decade. Tropical storms arrive every 3 or 4 years. In some years several hurricanes or tropical storms can directly hit the state or brush across the coastal areas. Only Florida and Louisiana are hit by hurricanes more often. On average, North Carolina has 50 days of thunderstorm activity per year, with some storms becoming severe enough to produce hail and damaging winds. Although many people believe that hurricanes only menace coastal areas, the rare hurricane which moves inland quickly enough can cause severe damage. In 1989 Hurricane Hugo caused heavy damage in Charlotte and even as far inland as the Blue Ridge Mountains in the northwestern part of the state. North Carolina averages less than 20 tornadoes per year. Many of these are produced by hurricanes or tropical storms along the coastal plain. Tornadoes from thunderstorms are a risk, especially in the Piedmont region of central North Carolina.[5]

Monthly normal high and low temperatures (Fahrenheit) for various North Carolina cities.
City Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Asheville 46/26 50/28 58/35 66/42 74/51 80/58 83/63 82/62 76/55 67/43 57/35 49/29
Cape Hatteras 54/39 55/39 60/44 68/52 75/60 82/68 85/73 85/72 81/68 73/59 65/50 57/43
Charlotte 51/32 56/34 64/42 73/49 80/58 87/66 90/71 88/69 82/63 73/51 63/42 54/35
Greensboro 47/28 52/31 60/38 70/46 77/55 84/64 88/68 86/67 79/60 70/48 60/39 51/31
Raleigh 50/30 54/32 62/39 72/46 79/55 86/64 89/68 87/67 81/61 72/48 62/40 53/33
Wilmington 56/36 60/38 66/44 74/51 81/60 86/68 90/72 88/71 84/66 76/54 68/45 60/38
[1]

History

Native Americans, The Lost Colony and Permanent Settlement

Sir Walter Raleigh and his son
Main articles: Native Americans in the United States and Roanoke Island

North Carolina was originally inhabited by many different native peoples, including the Cherokee, Tuscarora, Cheraw, Pamlico, Meherrin, Coree, Machapunga, Cape Fear Indians, Waxhaw, Saponi, Tutelo, Waccamaw, Coharie, and Catawba. In 1584, Elizabeth I, granted a charter to Sir Walter Raleigh, for whom the state capital is named, for land in present-day North Carolina (then Virginia).[6] Raleigh established two colonies on the coast in the late 1580s, both ending in failure. It was the second American territory the British attempted to colonize. The demise of one, the "Lost Colony" of Roanoke Island, remains one of the great mysteries of American history. Virginia Dare, the first English child to be born in North America, was born in North Carolina. Dare County is named for her.

Main article: Province of Carolina

As early as 1650, colonists from the Virginia colony moved into the area of Albemarle Sound. By 1663, Charles II granted a charter to establish a new colony on the North American continent which generally established its borders. He named it Carolina in honor of his father Charles I. [7] By 1665, a second charter was issued to attempt to resolve territorial questions. In 1710, due to disputes over governance, the Carolina colony began to split into North Carolina and South Carolina. The latter became a crown colony in 1729.

Colonial Period and Revolutionary War

The first permanent European settlers of North Carolina were British colonists who migrated south from Virginia, following a rapid growth of the colony and the subsequent shortage of available farmland. Nathaniel Batts was documented as one of the first of these Virginian migrants. He settled south of the Chowan River and east of the Great Dismal Swamp in 1655.[8] By 1663, this northeastern area of the Province of Carolina, known as the Albemarle Settlements, was undergoing full-scale British settlement.[9] During the same period, the English monarch Charles II gave the province to the Lords Proprietors, a group of noblemen who had helped restore Charles to the throne in 1660. The new province of "Carolina" was named in honor and memory of King Charles I (Latin: Carolus). In 1712, North Carolina became a separate colony. With the exception of the Earl Granville holdings, it became a royal colony seventeen years later.[10] Differences in the settlement patterns of eastern and western North Carolina, or the Low country and uplands, would affect the political, economic, and social life of the state from the eighteenth until the twentieth century. The Tidewater in Eastern North Carolina was settled largely by immigrants from England and the Highland Scots. The upcountry of western North Carolina was settled largely by Scots-Irish and German Protestants, the so-called "cohee". During the Revolutionary War the English and Highland Scots of eastern North Carolina tended to remain loyal to the British Crown, because of longstanding business connections with Great Britain. The Scots-Irish and German settlers of western North Carolina tended to favor American independence from Britain.

On April 12 1776, the colony became the first to instruct its delegates to the Continental Congress to vote for independence from the British crown, through the Halifax Resolves passed by the North Carolina Provincial Congress. The dates of both of these independence-related events are memorialized on the state flag and state seal.[11] Throughout the Revolutionary War, fierce guerilla warfare erupted between bands of pro-independence and pro-British colonists. In some cases the war was also an excuse to settle private grudges and rivalries. A major American victory in the war took place at King's Pinnacle along the North Carolina-South Carolina border. On October 7, 1780 a force of 1000 mountain men from western North Carolina (including what is today the State of Tennessee) overwhelmed a force of some 1000 British troops led by Major Patrick Ferguson. Most of the British soldiers in this battle were Carolinians who had remained loyal to the British Crown (they were called "Tories"). The American victory at Kings Mountain gave the advantage to colonists who favored American independence. It prevented the British Army from recruiting new soldiers from the Tories.

The road to Yorktown and America's independence from England led through North Carolina. As the British Army moved north from victories in Charleston and Camden, South Carolina, the Southern Division of the Continental Army and local militia prepared to meet them. Following General Daniel Morgan's victory over the British Cavalry Commander Banastre Tarleton at the Battle of Cowpens on January 17, 1781, southern commander Nathanael Greene led British Lord Charles Cornwallis across the heartland of North Carolina, and away from Cornwallis's base of supply in Charleston, South Carolina. This campaign is known as "The Race to the Dan" or "The Race for the River."[12]

Generals Greene and Cornwallis finally met at the Battle of Guilford Courthouse in present-day Greensboro on March 15, 1781. Although the British troops held the field at the end of the battle, their casualties at the hands of the numerically superior American Army were crippling. Following this "Pyhrric victory", Cornwallis chose to move to the Virginia coastline to get reinforcements, and to allow the British Navy to protect his battered army. This decision would result in Cornwallis's eventual defeat at Yorktown later in 1781. The Patriots' victory there guaranteed American independence.

Antebellum Period

On November 21, 1789, North Carolina became the twelfth state to ratify the Constitution. In 1840, it completed the state capitol building in Raleigh, still standing today. Unlike many other Southern states, North Carolina never developed a dominant slaveholding aristocracy, and middle-class yeomen tended to control the state government. Most of North Carolina's slaveowners and large plantations were located in the eastern Tidewater. Western North Carolinians tended to be non-slaveowning subsistence farmers. In mid-century, the state's rural and commercial areas were connected by the construction of a 129–mile (208 km) wooden plank road, known as a "farmer' railroad," from Fayetteville in the east to Bethania (northwest of Winston-Salem).[13]

0n October 25, 1836 construction began on the Wilmington and Raleigh Railroad [14] to connect the port city of Wilmington with the state capital of Raleigh. In 1849 the North Carolina Railroad was created by act of the legislature to extend that railroad west to Greensboro, High Point, and Charlotte. During the Civil War the Wilmington-to-Raleigh stretch of the railroad would be vital to the Confederate war effort; supplies shipped into Wilmington would be moved by rail through Raleigh to the Confederate capital of Richmond.

During the antebellum period North Carolina was an overwhelmingly rural state, even by Southern standards. In 1860 only one North Carolina town, the port city of Wilmington, had a population of more than 10,000. Raleigh, the state capital, had barely more than 5,000 residents. While slaveholding was less concentrated than in some Southern states, according to the 1860 census, 33% of the population of 992,622 were enslaved African Americans. They lived and worked chiefly on plantations in the Tidewater. In addition, 30,463 free blacks lived in the state.

Civil War

Main article: American Civil War

In 1860, North Carolina was a slave state with a relatively small slave population (compared to other Southern states). However, it refused to join the Confederacy until President Abraham Lincoln called on it to invade its sister-state, South Carolina. The state was the site of few battles, but it provided at least 125,000 troops to the Confederacy— far more than any other state. Approximately 40,000 of those troops never returned home, dead of battlefield wounds, disease, and privation. Governor Zebulon Baird Vance, elected in 1862, tried to maintain state autonomy against Confederate President Jefferson Davis in Richmond. Even after secession, some North Carolinians refused to support the Confederacy; this was particularly true of non-slave-owning farmers in the state's mountains and western Piedmont region. Some of these farmers remained neutral during the war, while some covertly supported the Union cause during the conflict. Even so, Confederate troops from all parts of North Carolina served in virtually all the major battles of the Army of Northern Virginia, the Confederacy's most famous army. The largest battle fought in North Carolina was at Bentonville, which was a futile attempt by Confederate General Joseph Johnston to slow Union General William Tecumseh Sherman's advance through the Carolinas in the spring of 1865.[15] In April 1865 Johnston surrendered to Sherman at Bennett Place, in what is today Durham. This was the last major Confederate Army to surrender. North Carolina's port city of Wilmington was the last Confederate port to fall to the Union, it fell in the spring of 1865 after the nearby Second Battle of Fort Fisher.

The first Confederate soldier to be killed in the Civil War was Private Henry Wyatt, a North Carolinian. He was killed in the Battle of Big Bethel in June 1861. At the Battle of Gettysburg in July 1863, the 26th North Carolina Regiment participated in Pickett/Pettigrew's Charge and advanced the farthest into the Northern lines of any Confederate regiment. At Appomattox Court House in Virginia in April 1865, the 75th North Carolina Regiment, a cavalry unit, fired the last shots of the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia in the Civil War. For many years, North Carolinians proudly boasted that they had been "First at Bethel, Farthest at Gettysburg, and Last at Appomattox."

Demographics

{{US DemogTable|North Carolina|03-37.csv|= | 75.27| 22.20| 1.65| 1.70| 0.11|= | 4.28| 0.33| 0.10| 0.05| 0.03|= | 74.95| 22.29| 1.65| 2.06| 0.12|= | 5.89| 0.37| 0.12| 0.05| 0.03|= | 7.41| 8.31| 7.51| 30.62| 17.92|= | 4.93| 8.13| 6.31| 30.71| 16.84|= | 48.62| 20.36| 25.79| 27.15| 21.63}} North Carolina has 3 Metropolitan Combined Statistical Areas with a population over 1 million:

  • The Metrolina: Charlotte-Gastonia-Salisbury, NC-SC - population 2,191,604
  • The Triangle: Raleigh-Durham-Cary, NC- population of 1,565,223
  • The Piedmont Triad: Greensboro--Winston-Salem--High Point, NC - population of 1,513,576
North Carolina Population Density Map
Two thirds of North Carolina's population resides in the middle one third of its landmass. This implies that the middle one third of North Carolina is about four times more densely populated than the remaining two thirds.

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, as of 2006, North Carolina has an estimated population of 8,856,505, which is an increase of 184,046, or 2.1%, from the prior year and an increase of 810,014, or 10.0%, since the year 2000. This exceeds the rate of growth for the United States as a whole. The growth comprises a natural increase since the last census of 293,761 people (that is 749,959 births minus 456,198 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of 527,991 people into the state. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 180,986 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 347,005 people. Between 2005 and 2006, North Carolina passed New Jersey to become the 10th most populous state.[16]

North Carolina has historically been a rural state, with most of the population living on farms and in small towns. However, over the last 30 years the state has undergone rapid urbanization, and today the residents of North Carolina live primarily in urban and suburban areas, as is the case in most of the United States. In particular, the cities of Charlotte and Raleigh have become major urban centers, with large, diverse, mainly affluent and rapidly-growing populations. Most of this growth in diversity has been fueled by immigrants from Latin America,[2] India, and Southeast Asia.[3]

The center of population of North Carolina is located in Randolph County, in the town of Seagrove.[17]

6.7% of North Carolina's population were reported as under 5 years old, 24.4% under 18, and 12.0% were 65 or older. Females made up approximately 51% of the population.

Ancestry Group

The largest ancestry groups in North Carolina are:

Ancestry Percentage Main article:
African (21.6%) Of Total) See African American
American (13.9%) See British American
English (9.5%) See English American
German (9.5%) See German American
Irish (7.4%) See Irish American
Scots-Irish (3.2%) See Scots-Irish American
Italian (2.3%) See Italian American
Scottish (2.2%) See Scottish American

Most populated counties

[4]

County Seat 2010 Projection
Mecklenburg Charlotte 925,084
Wake Raleigh 900,072
Guilford Greensboro 474,605
Forsyth Winston-Salem 350,784
Cumberland Fayetteville 311,777
Durham Durham 262,256
Buncombe Asheville 234,697
Gaston Gastonia 205,489
Union Monroe 203,527
New Hanover Wilmington 200,401


African Americans

African Americans make up a quarter of North Carolina's population and the state experienced a growth of middle-class blacks since the 1970s. African Americans are concentrated in the state's eastern Coastal Plain and in parts of the Piedmont Plateau where plantation agriculture was most dominant. Until the mid 1860s, North Carolina had more small farms and fewer plantations than adjacent South Carolina and Virginia. These "yeoman" farmers were non-slave-holding, private land owners of tracts of approximately 500 acres (2 km²) or less. African-American communities number by the hundreds in rural counties in the south-central and northeast, and in predominantly black neighborhoods in the cities: Charlotte, Raleigh, Durham, Greensboro, Fayetteville, Wilmington and Winston-Salem. By contrast, relatively few blacks live in the state's mountains and rural areas of the western Piedmont, and in some mountain counties the black population has historically numbered in the few dozens at most. North Carolina harbored the famous Greensboro sit-ins of 1960, an important event to the Civil Rights Movement.

European Americans

North Carolinians of Scots-Irish, Scottish and English ancestry are concentrated in the western mountains, coastal areas, and rural areas of the central Piedmont. In the Winston-Salem area, there is a substantial population of German ancestry from the migration of members of the Moravian Church during the mid-18th century. The coastal region attracted a history of European immigration, like Swiss-Germans who settled New Bern in the late 18th century.

Native Americans

Estimated population figures for Native American in North Carolina as of 2004 is 110,198. Only five states (California, Arizona, Oklahoma, New Mexico, and Texas) have a larger Native American population than North Carolina.[18] The total Native American and Alaska Native population in the United States is 2,824,751, or 0.95% of the total.

To date, North Carolina recognizes eight Native American tribal nations within its state borders:

  • The Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians were federally recognized in 1868 and received state recognition in 1889. The Eastern Cherokee live in eastern Swain County, as well as Graham and Jackson counties, and have roughly 13,400 enrolled members, most of whom live on a reservation properly called the Qualla Boundary. The Reservation is slightly more than 56,000 acres (230 km²), and is held in trust by the federal government specifically for the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians.
  • The Haliwa-Saponi Tribe of Native Americans received state recognition in 1965. The tribe is comprised of a little more than 3,800 enrolled members who reside in northeastern North Carolina's Halifax and Warren counties.
  • The almost 2,000 members of the Waccamaw Siouan Indian Tribe are located in the mid-atlantic North Carolina counties of Bladen, and Columbus and received state recognition in 1971.
  • The Coharie Tribe of Native Americans are located in Sampson and Harnett counties, and have a population of 1,781 enrolled members. The Coharie received state recognition in 1911. North Carolina rescinded recognition in 1913 but reinstated it in 1971.
  • The Sappony Indians of Person County received state recognition in 1911 and have 850 enrolled members.
  • The Occaneechi Band of the Saponi Nation have a population of 800 members who reside in Orange and Alamance counties and received state recognition in 2002.
  • The Meherrin are an Iroquoian-descent Native American tribe located primarily in rural northeastern Hertford, Bertie, and Gates counties, with a population of 557 enrolled members.

Hispanics/Latinos

Since 1990 the state has seen a boom in the number of Hispanics/Latinos. Once chiefly employed as migrant labor, the increase in Hispanics since 1990 can be attributed in part to the ease of access to low skilled jobs that are the first step on the economic ladder. As a result growing numbers of Hispanics are settling in the state, mainly from Mexico, Central America, and the Dominican Republic. Hispanic neighborhoods are found in the cities and there are sizable populations of Cuban Americans and Puerto Ricans in North Carolina. In 2005, the Pew Hispanic Center estimated that 300,000 — roughly 65 percent of North Carolina’s Latino population — are illegal immigrants, based on the Census Bureau’s population estimates.[19] The population has grown from 76,726 in 1990 to 517,617 in 2005, an average increase of 13.5% per year.[19]

Asian Americans

The state has one of the most rapid growing Asian American, specifically Indian and Vietnamese, populations in the country; the populations nearly quintupled and tripled, respectively, between 1990 and 2002. The earliest record of Asian immigration in North Carolina goes back to the mid 1800s when the first Chinese Americans were hired as agricultural workers. The famous Chinese-Malay American Siamese twins - Eng and Chang Bunker - settled in Wilkesboro in 1839. Japanese Americans, Filipino Americans, and Koreans arrived in the early and mid 20th century. Recent estimates suggest that the state's Asian American population has increased significantly since 2000. The Hmong population in North Carolina has grown by 12,000 since the 1980s.[20]

Religion

North Carolina, like other Southern states, has traditionally been overwhelmingly Protestant, with the largest Protestant denomination being the Southern Baptists. However, the rapid influx of northerners and immigrants from Latin America is steadily increasing the number of Roman Catholics and Jews in the state, and the numerical dominance of the Baptist Church is beginning to decline. This is especially evident in the urban areas of the state, where the population is more culturally diverse and the bulk of the growth has occurred. However, in many rural counties the Southern Baptists remain the dominant Christian church. The second-largest Protestant church in North Carolina are the Methodists, who are strong in the northern Piedmont, and especially in populous Guilford County. There are also substantial numbers of Quakers in Guilford County, and northeastern North Carolina. The Presbyterians have historically had a strong presence in Charlotte, the state's largest city. The current religious affiliations of the people of North Carolina are shown below:

Economy

According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the state's 2004 total gross state product was $336 billion.[21] Its 2005 per capita personal income was $31,029, 36th in the nation.[22] North Carolina's agricultural outputs include poultry and eggs, tobacco, hogs, milk, nursery stock, cattle, sweet potatoes, and soybeans. However, North Carolina is the state most affected by offshoring and industrial growth in countries like China; one in five North Carolina manufacturing jobs has been lost to overseas competition.[23] There has been a distinct difference in the economic growth of North Carolina's urban areas and its rural, small-town areas. While large cities such as Charlotte, Raleigh, Cary, and others have experienced rapid population and economic growth over the last thirty years, many of the state's small towns have suffered from job and population loss. Most of North Carolina's small towns historically developed around textile and furniture factories; as these factories have closed and moved to low-wage markets in Asia and Latin America the small towns that depended upon them have suffered.

Agriculture and manufacturing

Over the past century, North Carolina has grown to become a national leader in agriculture, financial services, and manufacturing. The state's industrial output—mainly textiles, chemicals, electrical equipment, paper and pulp/paper products—ranked eighth in the nation in the early 1990s. The textile industry, which was once a mainstay of the state's economy, has been steadily losing jobs to producers in Latin America and Asia for the past 25 years, though the state remains the largest textile employer in the United States.[24] Over the past few years, another important Carolina industry, furniture production, has also been hard-hit by jobs moving to Asia (especially China). Tobacco, one of North Carolina's earliest sources of revenue, remains vital to the local economy, although concerns about whether the federal government will continue to support subsidies for tobacco farmers has led some growers to switch to other crops like wine or leave farming altogether. North Carolina is the leading producer of tobacco in the country.[25]

Finance, Technology and Research

Charlotte's growing skyline

Charlotte, North Carolina's largest city, continues to experience rapid growth, in large part due to the banking & finance industry. Charlotte is now the second largest banking center in the United States (after New York), and is home to Bank of America and Wachovia. The Charlotte metro area is also home to 5 other Fortune 500 companies.

The information and biotechnology industries have been steadily on the rise since the creation of the Research Triangle Park (RTP) in the 1950s. Located between Raleigh and Durham (mostly in Durham County), its proximity to local research universities has no doubt helped to fuel growth. Meanwhile, beginning in the 1980s,

The North Carolina Research Campus underway in Kannapolis (approx. 30 miles northeast of Charlotte) promises to enrich and bolster the Charlotte area in the same way that RTP changed the Raleigh-Durham region.[26] Encompassing 5.8 million square feet, the complex is a collaborative project involving Duke University, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and N.C. State University, along with private and corporate investors and developers. The facility incorporates corporate, academic, commercial and residential space, oriented toward research and development (R&D) and biotechnology. Similarly, in downtown Winston-Salem, the Piedmont Triad Research Park is undergoing an expansion. Approximately thirty miles to the east of Winston Salem's research park, the University of North Carolina at Greensboro and North Carolina A&T State University have joined forces to create the Gateway University Research Park, a technology-based research entity which will focus its efforts on areas such as nanotechnology, biotechnology & biochemistry, environmental sciences, and genetics among other science-based disciplines.

Tax revenue

North Carolina personal income tax is slightly progressive, with four incremental brackets ranging from 6.0% to 8.25%. The state sales tax is 4.25%.[27] Most taxable sales or purchases are subject to the state tax as well as the 2.5% local tax rate levied by all counties, for a combined 6.75%. Mecklenburg County has an additional 0.5% local tax for public transportation, bringing sales taxes there to a total 7.25%. The total local rate of tax in Dare County is 3.5%, producing a combined state and local rate there of 7.75%.[28] In addition, there is a 29.9¢ tax per gallon of gas, a 30¢ tax per pack of cigarettes, a 79¢ tax on wine, and a 48¢ tax on beer. There are also additional taxes levied against food and prepared foods, normally totaling 2% and 8% respectively. The property tax in North Carolina is locally assessed and collected by the counties. The three main elements of the property tax system in North Carolina are real property, motor vehicles and personal property (inventories and household personal property are exempt). Estimated at 10.5% of income, North Carolina’s state/local tax burden percentage ranks 23rd highest nationally (taxpayers pay an average of $3,526 per-capita), just below the national average of 10.6%.[29] North Carolina ranks 40th in the Tax Foundation's State Business Tax Climate Index with neighboring states ranked as follows: Tennessee (18th), Georgia (19th), South Carolina (26th) and Virginia (13th).[29]

Politics and government

The governor, lieutenant governor, and eight elected executive department heads form the Council of State. Ten other executive department heads appointed by the governor form the North Carolina Cabinet. The state's current governor is Democrat Mike Easley. The North Carolina General Assembly, or Legislature, consists of two houses: a 50-member Senate and a 120-member House of Representatives. For the 2007–2008 session, the current President Pro Tempore of the Senate is Democrat Marc Basnight (the Lieutenant Governor of North Carolina is the President of the Senate); The House Speaker is Democrat Joe Hackney.

The Supreme Court of North Carolina is the state's highest appellate court; it numbers seven justices. The North Carolina Court of Appeals is the only intermediate appellate court in the state; it consists of fifteen judges who rule in rotating panels of three. Together, the Supreme Court and Court of Appeals constitute the appellate division of the court system. The trial division includes the Superior Court and the District Court. All felony criminal cases, civil cases involving more than $10,000 and misdemeanor and infraction appeals from District Court are tried in Superior Court. A jury of 12 hears the criminal cases. Civil cases—such as divorce, custody, child support, and cases involving less than $10,000—are heard in District Court, along with criminal cases involving misdemeanors and lesser infractions. The trial of a criminal case in District Court is always without a jury. The District Court also hears juvenile cases involving children under the age of 16 who are delinquent and children under the age of 18 who are undisciplined, dependent, neglected, or abused. Magistrates accept guilty pleas for minor misdemeanors, accept guilty pleas for traffic violations, and accept waivers of trial for worthless-check cases among other things. In civil cases, the magistrate is authorized to try small claims involving up to $4,000 including landlord eviction cases. Magistrates also perform civil marriages.

State constitution

Main article: North Carolina Constitution

The state constitution governs the structure and function of the North Carolina government. It is the highest legal document for the state and subjugates North Carolina law. Like all state constitutions in the United States, this constitution is subject to federal judicial review. Any provision of the state constitution can be nullified if it conflicts with federal law and the United States Constitution.

North Carolina has had three constitutions:

  • 1776: Ratified December 18, 1776, as the first constitution of the independent state. The Declaration of Rights was ratified the preceding day.
  • 1868: Framed in accordance with the Reconstruction Acts after North Carolina was readmitted into the Union. It was a major reorganization and modification of the original into fourteen articles. It also introduced townships which each county was required to create, the only southern state to do so.
  • 1971: Minor consolidation of the 1868 constitution and subsequent amendments.

Federal apportionments

North Carolina currently has 13 congressional districts, which, when combined with its two U.S. Senate seats, gives the state 15 electoral votes. In the 109th Congress, the state was represented by six Democratic and seven Republican members of congress, plus two Republican Senators. The Democrats picked up one seat (District 11) in the 2006 election for the 110th Congress.

Politics

North Carolina is politically dominated by the Democratic and Republican political parties. Third parties have had difficulty making inroads in state politics, including the Green Party and Libertarian Party. They have both run candidates for office with neither party successfully electing a candidate to a state office. The Libertarian party is currently engaged in a lawsuit with the state over ballot access.[30] Historically, North Carolina has been politically divided between the eastern and western parts of the state. Before the Civil War, the eastern half of North Carolina supported the Democratic Party, primarily because the region contained most of the state's slave owners and large cash crops. The western half of the state tended to support the Whig party, which was generally seen as being more moderate on the issue of slavery and was more supportive of business interests. Following the Civil War, the Republicans, backed by the victorious U.S. Army, controlled the state government. When federal troops were removed in the 1870s, the Democratic Party quickly gained control of the state government.

In 1894, the Republican and Populist parties formed an alliance, called an electoral fusion, which resulted in control of the state legislature and governorship. However, in 1898 the state's Democratic Party, in a blatantly racist campaign, regained control of the state government. Using the slogan, "White Supremacy", and backed by influential newspapers such as the Raleigh News and Observer under publisher Josephus Daniels, the Democrats ousted the Populist-Republican majority. With some notable exceptions, North Carolina then became a part of the "Solid Democratic South". However, some counties in the western Piedmont and Appalachian Mountains continued to vote Republican, continuing a tradition that dated from their opposition to secession before the Civil War. In 1952, aided by the presidential candidacy of popular war hero Dwight Eisenhower, the Republicans were successful in electing a U.S. Congressman, Charles R. Jonas. Republicans slowly made gains in the 1960s, and in 1972, aided by the landslide re-election of Richard Nixon, the Republicans elected their first governor and U.S. Senator of the twentieth century.

The Senator, Jesse Helms, played a major role in reviving the Republicans and turning North Carolina into a two-party state. Under his banner, many conservative Democrats in the central and eastern parts of North Carolina left the Democrats and began to vote increasingly Republican, at least at the national level. In part, this was due to dissatisfaction with the national Democratic Party's stance on the issues of civil rights and racial integration, and later to the leftward tilt on social issues such as prayer in school, gun rights, abortion rights, and gay rights. From 1968–2004 (excepting Jimmy Carter's election in 1976), North Carolina has voted Republican in every presidential election. At the state level, however, the Democrats still control most of the elected offices in the state government, and state and local elections are highly competitive compared to previous historical eras (for example, eastern North Carolina routinely elects a sizable number of Republican sheriffs and county commissioners, which did not happen until the 1980s). The Republicans hold both U.S. Senate seats, but the Democrats retain the governorship, majorities in both houses of the state legislature, state supreme court, and a 7-6 majority of U.S. House seats as of January 2007.

Modern North Carolina politics center less around the old east-west geographical split, and more on a growing urban-suburban-rural divide. Many of the state's rural and small-town areas, are now heavily Republican, while growing urban centers such as Charlotte, Raleigh, Durham and Greensboro are increasingly Democratic. The suburban areas around the cities usually hold the power, and vote both ways. Three Presidents of the United States were born and raised in North Carolina, but all three men began their political careers in neighboring Tennessee, and were elected President from that state. The three men were Andrew Jackson, James K. Polk, and Andrew Johnson.

North Carolina remains a control state. This is probably due to the state's strongly conservative Protestant heritage. Four of the state's counties - Clay, Graham, Mitchell, and Yancey, which are all located in rural areas - remain "dry" (the sale of alcoholic beverages is illegal).[5] However, the remaining 96 North Carolina counties allow the sale and consumption of alcoholic beverages, as is the case in most of the United States. Even in rural areas, the opposition to selling and drinking alcoholic beverages is declining, as the decreasing number of "dry" counties indicates.

North Carolina is one of the 12 states to decriminalize marijuana. In 1997 Marijuana and Tetrahydrocannabinols were moved from a schedule I to schedule IV . Transfer of less than 5 grams is not considered sale, and up to 1 1/2 ounces is a misdemeanor punishable by a fine or community service, at the judge's discretion, rather than imprisonment or a felony charge. [31]

In 2005, the state legislature voted to implement a state lottery, thus altering North Carolina's reputation as the "anti-lottery" state, where owning a lottery ticket from another state was once a felony. By 2005, every state surrounding North Carolina had a lottery in operation. The North Carolina Education Lottery began selling tickets on March 31, 2006. The lottery has had unexpectedly low sales since its inception.[6]

Education

Elementary and secondary education

Elementary and secondary public schools are overseen by the North Carolina Department of Public Instruction, which is headed by the North Carolina Superintendent of Public Instruction, who is also secretary of the North Carolina State Board of Education. This body holds most of the legal authority for making public education policy.[32] North Carolina has 115 public school systems, each of which is overseen by a local school board. A county may have one or more systems within it. The largest school systems in North Carolina are the Charlotte-Mecklenburg Schools,Wake County Public School System, Winston-Salem/Forsyth County Schools, Cumberland County Public School System,and Guilford County Schools. The state has also established charter schools, which fall outside the ordinary structure.

See also: List of school districts in North Carolina

Colleges and universities

For more details on this topic, see List of colleges and universities in North Carolina

In 1795, North Carolina opened the first public university in the United States - the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. More than 200 years later, the University of North Carolina system encompasses 16 public universities including the three largest East Carolina University, North Carolina State University, and University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. The system also supports several well-known historically black colleges and universities such as North Carolina A&T State University, Winston-Salem State University, and North Carolina Central University. Along with its public universities, North Carolina has 58 public community colleges in its community college system.

North Carolina's private universities and colleges include Davidson College, Duke University, Elon University, Wake Forest University, and Campbell University.

Sports and recreation

Professional sports

Despite having over eight million people, North Carolina's population being spread out over three major metropolitan areas precluded attracting any major professional sports league teams until the late 1980s. The first franchise from a major professional sports league to be created in North Carolina were the NBA's Charlotte Hornets, which began play in the 1987-1988 NBA season. North Carolina remains without a Major League Baseball team despite numerous efforts to attract a team to the state (including the 2006 push to relocate the Florida Marlins to Charlotte). North Carolina lacks its own team, and only one neighboring state (equally sized Georgia) has a team, the Atlanta Braves.

On June 19, 2006, the Carolina Hurricanes, a National Hockey League franchise based in Raleigh, won the Stanley Cup. The Hurricanes are the first professional sports team from North Carolina to win their sport's highest championship. Home games are played in the RBC Center, which was named by the Royal Bank of Canada. The National Football League (NFL) is represented by the Carolina Panthers, who play home games in the Bank of America Stadium in Charlotte. The NBA is represented by the Charlotte Bobcats; home games are played in the Charlotte Bobcats Arena in Charlotte. The Carolina Railhawks are a men's professional soccer team in the United Soccer Leagues, due to compete in their first season in 2007. Home field is the SAS Stadium in Cary. North Carolina was home to the now defunct AFL teams the Charlotte Rage from 1992 to 1996 and the Carolina Cobras from 2000 to 2004. The Rage's home games were played in the Charlotte Coliseum. The Cobras' home games were played in the RBC Center from 2000 to 2002. They then moved to the Charlotte Coliseum until being terminated by the league. The National Indoor Football League (NIFL) is represented by the Fayetteville Guard who plays at Crown Coliseum.

The state is also a center of American motorsports, with more than 80% of NASCAR racing teams and related industries located in the Piedmont region. The largest race track in North Carolina is the Lowe's Motor Speedway in Concord where the NASCAR's Nextel Cup holds three major races each year. NASCAR recently began construction on the NASCAR Hall of Fame will open late 2008 in Uptown Charlotte. There are also many motocross and off-road races in North Carolina. Many of NASCAR's most famous driver dynasties, the Pettys, Earnhardts, Allisons, Jarretts and Waltrips all live within an hour of Charlotte.

From the 1930s to the early 1990s, the Mid Atlantic Championship Wrestling professional wrestling promotion, under the Crockett family, operated almost entirely out of Charlotte. Mid Atlantic was a long-time member of the National Wrestling Alliance and many of their top stars appeared on national television on NWA and later WCW events. Many retired or still-current wrestlers live in the Charlotte/Lake Norman area, including Ric Flair, Ricky Steamboat, Matt and Jeff Hardy and Stan Lane.

North Carolina has become a hot bed for professional bull riding PBR. It is the home of the 1995 PRCA World Champion Bull Rider Jerome Davis. It is also home to several professional stock contractors and bull owners including Thomas Teague of Teague Bucking Bulls. The Southern Extreme Bull Riding Association SEBRA headquarters are located in Archdale.

The North Carolina Hare scramble Association hosts 16 races each year throughout North Carolina. In addition, the GNCC Racing series makes two stops in North Carolina, in Morganton and Yadkinville, the only other state to host 2 GNCCs is Ohio. For sport amateurs, the state holds the State Games of North Carolina each year.

North Carolina is a state known for minor league sports, notably the setting of the 1987 comedy Bull Durham about the Durham Bulls of the class A Carolina League. The state boasts over 30 minor league baseball teams in six different minor leagues, including the triple-A International League teams in Charlotte and Durham. There is a number of indoor football, indoor soccer, minor league basketball, and minor league ice hockey teams throughout the state. North Carolina has became a top golf destination for players across the nation, notably in Pinehurst, and the community of Southern Pines of Moore County which is home to over 50 golf courses.

Recreation

The Blue Ridge Mountains of the Shining Rock Wilderness Area

Due to geography, rich history, and growing industry, North Carolina provides a large range of recreational activities from swimming at the beach[33] to skiing in the mountains. North Carolina offers fall colors, freshwater and saltwater fishing, hunting, birdwatching, agritourism, ATV trails, ballooning, rock climbing, biking, hiking, skiing, boating and sailing, camping, canoeing, caving (spelunking), gardens, and arboretums. North Carolina has theme parks, aquariums, zoos, museums, historic sites, lighthouses, elegant theaters, concert halls, and fine dining.[34]

North Carolinians enjoy outdoor recreation utilizing numerous local bike paths, 34 state parks, and 14 national parks, including:

Other information

Famous food and drinks from North Carolina

A nationally-famous cuisine from North Carolina is pork barbecue. However, there are strong regional differences and rivalries over the sauces and method of preparation used in making the barbecue. Eastern North Carolina pork barbecue uses a vinegar-based sauce; the "capital" of eastern Carolina barbecue is usually considered to be the town of Wilson, near Raleigh. Western North Carolina pork barbecue uses a ketchup-based sauce; the "capital" of western Carolina barbecue is usually considered to be the town of Lexington, south of Winston-Salem. A third type of pork barbecue in North Carolina is "Shelby" barbecue, so named because it is made in the town of Shelby. Shelby pork barbecue uses a [ketchup,vinegar combination]-based sauce. North Carolina is the birthplace of Pepsi-Cola, it was first produced in 1890 in New Bern. Another popular soft drink created and still based in the state is Cheerwine. Krispy Kreme, a popular chain of doughnut stores, was started in North Carolina; the company's headquarters are in Winston-Salem. Despite its name, the hotsauce Texas Pete was created in North Carolina; its headquarters are in Winston-Salem. The Hardees fast-food chain was started in Greenville. Another fast-food chain, Bojangles', was started in Charlotte, and has its corporate headquarters there.

nc succed in 2009

State symbols

Strawberry, North Carolina state red berry

Armed Forces installations

According to Governor Easley, North Carolina is the "Most military friendly state in the nation".[36] Fort Bragg, near Fayetteville is the largest and most comprehensive military base in the United States and is the headquarters of the XVIII Airborne Corps, 82nd Airborne Division, and the U.S. Army Special Operations Command. Serving as the airwing for Fort Bragg is Pope Air Force Base also located near Fayetteville, NC. Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune which, when combined with nearby Marine bases Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS) Cherry Point, MCAS New River, Camp Geiger, Camp Johnson, Stone Bay and Courthouse Bay, makes up the largest concentration of Marines and sailors in the world. MCAS Cherry Point in Cherry Point, NC is home of the MC Harrier, USN F/A-18 Hornet, and USN F/A-18E/F Super Hornet squadrons Seymour Johnson Air Force Base is located in Goldsboro, NC. Also at this base is the Special Mission Training Center. One of the largest concentration of United States Coast Guard is at Coast Guard Air Station Elizabeth City. Other Coast Guard stations include, CG Station Hobuken, CG Station Oregon Inlet, CG Station Emerald Isle, CG Station Hatteras, CG Station Oak Island, CG Station Wrightsville Beach, and CG Station Ocracoke. Also there is the CG Base Fort Macon located at Atlantic Beach. There is a Marine Safety Unit located in Wilmington.

References

  1. ^ North Carolina Climate and Geography. NC Kids Page. North Carolina Department of the Secretary of State (May 8 2006). Retrieved on 2006-11-07.
  2. ^ a b c Elevations and Distances in the United States. U.S Geological Survey (29 April 2005). Retrieved on 2006-11-06.
  3. ^ national and state population estimates. Annual Population Estimates 2000 to 2006. US Census Bureau (2006-12-22). Retrieved on 2006-12-22.
  4. ^ Watersheds. NC Office of Environmental Education (2007-02-16).
  5. ^ NOAA National Climatic Data Center. Retrieved on 2006-10-24.
  6. ^ Randinelli, Tracey. Tanglewood Park. Orlando, Florida: Harcourt, 16. ISBN 0-15-333476-2. 
  7. ^ http://statelibrary.dcr.state.nc.us/NC/HISTORY/HISTORY.HTM North Carolina State Library - North Carolina History
  8. ^ Fenn and Wood, Natives and Newcomers, pp. 24-25
  9. ^ Powell, North Carolina Through Four Centuries, p. 105
  10. ^ Lefler and Newsome, (1973)
  11. ^ The Great Seal of North Carolina. NETSTATE. Retrieved on 2006-09-12.
  12. ^ Lefler and Newsome, (1973)
  13. ^ Lefler and Newsome, (1973)
  14. ^ NC Business History
  15. ^ Lefler and Newsome, (1973)
  16. ^ Table 1: Estimates of Population Change for the United States and States, and for Puerto Rico and State Rankings: July 1, 2005 to July 1, 2006. United States Census Bureau. December 22, 2006. Last accessed December 22, 2006.
  17. ^ State Centers.
  18. ^ State Rankings -- Statistical Abstract of the United States. U.S. Census Bureau (2004-07). Retrieved on 2006-12-17.
  19. ^ a b Martinez, Rick (2005-12-12). Immigration Hits ‘Critical Mass’ in NC. Carolina Journal. Retrieved on 2007-01-04.
  20. ^ See a report on immigration by The Center for New North Carolinians of the [[University of North Carolina, Greensboro|]], entitled Ethnic Groups in North Carolina. Retrieved July 29, 2007.
  21. ^ Gross State Product. U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis (2006-06-23). Retrieved on 2006-09-12.
  22. ^ Per Capita Personal Income. U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis (September 2006). Retrieved on 2006-10-23.
  23. ^ Fishman, China, Inc.: How the Rise of the Next Superpower Challenges America and the World, p. 179
  24. ^ http://www.soc.duke.edu/NC_GlobalEconomy/textiles/overview.php
  25. ^ (April 29, 2007) Time for tobacco burning out in N.C.. Associated Press. 
  26. ^ North Carolina Research Campus. Retrieved on 2006-12-17.
  27. ^ Sales and Use Tax. North Carolina Department of Revenue (10/18/06). Retrieved on 2006-12-13.
  28. ^ http://www.dornc.com/taxes/sales/dare_county_rate.html
  29. ^ a b {{cite web|url=http://www.taxfoundation.org/research/topic/47.html|title=The Facts on North Carolina’s Tax Climate|publisher=[[Tax Foundation|]]
  30. ^ Hogarth, Susan (2005). Special LPNC Announcement: First victory in LPNC Lawsuit!!!. Libertarian Party of North Carolina. Retrieved on 2006-12-13.
  31. ^ North Carolina State Legislature. (NC § 90‑94) / (NC § 90‑95 subs 4).
  32. ^ North Carolina Department of Public Instruction.
  33. ^ Best of North Carolina Beaches.
  34. ^ What To Do Across North Carolina. VisitNC.com (2006). Retrieved on 2006-12-18.
  35. ^ Secretary of State of North Carolina.
  36. ^ State of North Carolina - Office of the Governor (2006-05-13). GOV. EASLEY VOWS TO KEEP N.C. MOST MILITARY FRIENDLY STATE IN THE NATION. Press releaseImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif. Retrieved on 2007-06-23Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif.

Further reading

  • William S. Powell and Jay Mazzocchi, eds. Encyclopedia of North Carolina (2006) 1320pp; 2000 articles by 550 experts on all topics; ISBN 0-8078-3071-2
  • James Clay and Douglas Orr, eds., North Carolina Atlas: Portrait of a Changing Southern State (University of North Carolina Press, 1971).
  • Crow; Jeffrey J. and Larry E. Tise; Writing North Carolina History University of North Carolina Press, (1979) online
  • Fleer; Jack D. North Carolina Government & Politics University of Nebraska Press, (1994) online political science textbook
  • Marianne M. Kersey and Ran Coble, eds., North Carolina Focus: An Anthology on State Government, Politics, and Policy, 2d ed., (Raleigh: North Carolina Center for Public Policy Research, 1989).
  • Lefler; Hugh Talmage. A Guide to the Study and Reading of North Carolina History University of North Carolina Press, (1963) online
  • Hugh Talmage Lefler and Albert Ray Newsome, North Carolina: The History of a Southern State University of North Carolina Press (1954, 1963, 1973), college textbook
  • Paul Luebke, Tar Heel Politics: Myths and Realities (University of North Carolina Press, 1990).
  • William S. Powell, North Carolina through Four Centuries University of North Carolina Press (1989), college textbook.

Primary sources

  • Hugh Lefler, North Carolina History Told by Contemporaries (University of North Carolina Press, numerous editions since 1934)
  • H. G. Jones, North Carolina Illustrated, 1524-1984 (University of North Carolina Press, 1984)
  • North Carolina Manual, published biennially by the Department of the Secretary of State since 1941.

External links

All wikimedia projects
Articles on this topic in other Wikimedia projects can be found at: [[{{{1}}}| North Carolina]]

Government and education

Other links


Preceded by
New York
List of U.S. states by date of statehood
Ratified Constitution on November 21, 1789 (12th)
Succeeded by
Rhode Island


Template:U.S.A. State Congressional Delegation


CoordinatesImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif: 35.5° N 80° W

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Simple English

State of North Carolina
File:Flag of North File:North Carolina state
Flag of North Carolina Seal of North Carolina
Also called: Tar Heel State; Old North State;
Cackalacky or North Cackalacky;
The Goodliest Land; The Rip Van Winkle State
Saying(s): Esse quam videri
[[File:|center|Map of the United States with North Carolina highlighted]]
Official language(s) English
Capital Raleigh
Largest city Charlotte
Area  Ranked 28th
 - Total 53,865 sq mi
(139,509 km²)
 - Width 150 miles (240 km)
 - Length 560[1] miles (901 km)
 - % water 9.5
 - Latitude 34°N to 36°21'N
 - Longitude 75°30'W to 84°15'W
Number of people  Ranked 10th
 - Total (2010) {{{2010Pop}}}
 - Density {{{2010DensityUS}}}/sq mi 
{{{2010Density}}}/km² (17th)
Height above sea level  
 - Highest point Mt. Mitchell[2]
6,684 ft  (2,038 m)
 - Average 705 ft  (215 m)
 - Lowest point Atlantic Ocean[2]
0 ft  (0 m)
Became part of the U.S.  November 21, 1789 (12th)
Governor Bev Perdue (D)
U.S. Senators Richard Burr (R)
Kay Hagan (D)
Time zone Eastern: UTC-5/-4
Abbreviations NC US-NC
Web site www.nc.gov

North Carolina is one of the fifty states in the United States. The capital of North Carolina is Raleigh and the biggest city in the state is Charlotte. North Carolina is split up into 100 counties and these counties are split up into many cities and towns.

North Carolina was one of the original thirteen colonies and was where the first English colony in America lived. As of July 1, 2007, there are about 9,061,032 people living in the state.[3]

Contents

Geography and Weather

File:North carolina
This is a map of North Carolina. The green part is the Coastal Plain, the yellow part is the Piedmont, and the red part is the Mountains

North Carolina is connected to South Carolina on the south, Georgia on the southwest, Tennessee on the west, Virginia on the north, and the Atlantic Ocean on the east. There are three main sections in North Carolina: the coastal plain, the piedmont, and the mountains. The coastal plain is the eastern part of the state, the piedmont is the middle, and the mountains are the western part of the state. North Carolina also has some islands that are called The Outer Banks. They are in the ocean to the east of the state.

North Carolina has many different kinds of weather in different parts of the state throughout the year.

Coastal Plain (East North Carolina)

The eastern part of the state is by the Atlantic Ocean, so it usually has comfortable temperatures all year long. The temperature usually does not go above 90 °F in the summer or under 40 °F in the winter. Most years there is less then one inch of snow in eastern North Carolina, and some years there is no snow at all. The coastal plain usually gets a tropical storm every 3 or 4 years.

Piedmont (Middle North Carolina)

The middle part of North Carolina is not as close to the ocean as the eastern part, so the weather is different. The temperature goes above 90 °F many times every summer and it goes below freezing many times in the winter. Sleet and freezing rain are common in this part of North Carolina.

Mountains (West North Carolina)

There are mountains in the western part of North Carolina, so the temperatures are usually cool for most of the year. The temperature almost never goes above 80 °F in the summer and is usually in the high 30’s or low 40’s in the winter. The mountains usually get 14 to 20 inches of snow each year.

History

The Beginning

At first, only Native Americans lived in North Carolina. In 1584, Sir Walter Raleigh made two colonies in North Carolina, but they both did not last long.[4] One of the colonies became known as the Lost Colony and is still one of the biggest mysteries in American history.

The first permanent settlers in North Carolina came from the state of Virginia in 1655 because there was not enough farmland in Virginia.[5]

The American Revolution

North Carolina was an important state during the American Revolutionary War.

The Civil War

In 1860, North Carolina was a slave state. About 1/3 of the people in the state were slaves. North Carolina fought as part of the Confederacy during the Civil War. The state sent about 125,000 troops to fight in the war and about 40,000 of them died. Even during the war some people in North Carolina did not support the Confederacy, mostly because the Confederacy believed in slavery. The first Confederate soldier to be killed was from North Carolina.

Economy

Farming and Manufacturing

Farmers in North Carolina grow many things, such as poultry and eggs, tobacco, hogs, milk, cattle, sweet potatoes, and soybeans. North Carolina grows more tobacco then any other state in the country. [6] Furniture making is an important industry in North Carolina, but over the past few years many jobs have moved to other countries like China and India.

Banking and Technology

Charlotte, the biggest city in North Carolina, is the second biggest banking center in the United States, making banking very important in North Carolina. BB&T, Bank of America, and Wachovia all have their main offices in the state.

Technology is also important in North Carolina. There are many companies that make computer software and video games in the state.

Transportation

Roads

There are many big roads in North Carolina. North Carolina has more state maintained roads than any other state in the United States. [7] The biggest roads are:

Airports

There are many airports major and international airports in North Carolina. These are:

  • Charlotte/Douglas International Airport (Charlotte)
  • Asheville Regional Airport (Asheville)
  • Fayetteville Regional Airport (Fayetteville)
  • Piedmont Triad International Airport (Greensboro/Winston-Salem/High Point)
  • Pitt-Greenville Airport (Greenville)
  • Moore County Airport (Pinehurst/Southern Pines)
  • Raleigh-Durham International Airport (Raleigh/Durham)
  • Craven County Regional Airport (New Bern)
  • Wilmington International Airport (Wilmington)

References

  1. "North Carolina Climate and Geography". NC Kids Page. North Carolina Department of the Secretary of State. May 8 2006. http://www.secretary.state.nc.us/kidspg/geog.htm. Retrieved 2006-11-07. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 "Elevations and Distances in the United States". U.S Geological Survey. 29 April 2005. http://erg.usgs.gov/isb/pubs/booklets/elvadist/elvadist.html#Highest. Retrieved 2006-11-06. 
  3. "national and state population estimates". Annual Population Estimates 2000 to 2006. US Census Bureau. 2006-12-22. http://www.census.gov/popest/states/NST-ann-est.html. Retrieved 2006-12-22. 
  4. Randinelli, Tracey. Tanglewood Park. Orlando, Florida: Harcourt. pp. 16. ISBN 0-15-333476-2. 
  5. Fenn and Wood, Natives and Newcomers, pp. 24-25
  6. Time for tobacco burning out in N.C.. Associated Press. April 29, 2007. 
  7. Hartgen, David T. and Ravi K. Karanam (2007). "16th Annual Report on the Performance of State Highway Systems" (PDF). Reason Foundation. p. 14 (in pdf), 8 (in printed report). http://www.reason.org/ps360.pdf. Retrieved 2007-10-20. 

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