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North Sea
North Sea -
Location Atlantic Ocean
Coordinates 56°N 3°E / 56°N 03°E / 56; 03 (North Sea)Coordinates: 56°N 3°E / 56°N 03°E / 56; 03 (North Sea)
Primary sources Forth, Ythan, Elbe, Weser, Ems, Rhine/Waal, Meuse, Scheldt, Spey, Tay, Thames, Humber, Tees, Wear, Tyne
Basin countries Norway, Denmark, Germany, Netherlands, Belgium, France and the United Kingdom (England, Scotland)
Max length 960 km (600 mi)
Max width 580 km (360 mi)
Surface area 750,000 km2 (290,000 sq mi)
Average depth 95 m (310 ft)
Max depth 700 m (2,300 ft)
Water volume 94,000 km3 (23,000 cu mi)
Salinity 3.4 to 3.5%
Max temperature 17 °C (63 °F)
Min temperature 6 °C (43 °F)
References safety at sea and [1]

The North Sea is a marginal, epeiric sea on the European continental shelf. The Dover Strait and the English Channel in the south and the Norwegian Sea in the north connect it to the Atlantic Ocean. It is more than 970 kilometres (600 mi) long and 580 kilometres (360 mi) wide, with an area of around 750,000 square kilometres (290,000 sq mi). A large part of the European drainage basin empties into the North Sea including water from the Baltic Sea.

Much of the sea's coastal features are the result of glacial movements. Deep fjords and sheer cliffs mark the Norwegian and parts of the Scottish coastline, whereas the southern coasts consist of sandy beaches and mudflats. These flatter areas are particularly susceptible to flooding, especially as a result of storm tides. Elaborate systems of dikes have been constructed to protect coastal areas.

The Romans and the Vikings extended their territory across the sea. The Hanseatic League, the Netherlands, and finally the British sought to dominate commerce on the North Sea and through it to access the markets and resources of the world. Commercial enterprises, growing populations and limited resources gave the nations on the North Sea the desire to control or access it for their own commercial, military, and colonial ends.

In recent decades, its importance has shifted from the military and geopolitical to the purely economic. While traditional activities such as fishing and shipping have continued to grow, newer resources such as fossil fuels and wind and wave energy have also been discovered or developed.

Contents

Geography

The North Sea is bounded by the Orkney Islands and east coasts of England and Scotland to the west[2] and the northern and central European mainland to the east and south, including Norway, Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France.[3] In the southwest, beyond the Straits of Dover, the North Sea becomes the English Channel connecting to the Atlantic Ocean.[2][3] In the east, it connects to the Baltic Sea via the Skagerrak and Kattegat,[3] narrow straits that separate Denmark from Norway and Sweden respectively.[2] In the north it is bordered by the Shetland Islands, and connects with the Norwegian Sea, which lies in the very north-eastern part of the Atlantic.[2][4]

It is more than 970 kilometres (600 mi) long and 580 kilometres (360 mi) wide, with an area of 750,000 square kilometres (290,000 sq mi) and a volume of 94,000 cubic kilometres (23,000 cu mi).[5] Around the edges of the North Sea are sizeable islands and archipelagos, including Shetland, Orkney, and the Frisian Islands.[3] The North Sea receives freshwater from a number of European continental watersheds, as well as the British Isles island watersheds. A large part of the European drainage basin empties into the North Sea including water from the Baltic Sea. The largest and most important affecting the North Sea are the Elbe and the Rhine - Meuse watershed.[6] Around 184 million people live in the catchment area of the rivers that flow into the North Sea encompassing some highly industrialized areas.[7]

Major features

For the most part, the sea lies on the European continental shelf with a mean depth of 90 metres (300 ft).[2][8] The only exception is the Norwegian trench which extends parallel to the Norwegian shoreline from Oslo to an area north of Bergen.[2] It is between 20 and 30 kilometres (12 and 19 mi) wide[2] and has a maximum depth of 725 metres (2,380 ft).[8]

The Dogger Bank, a vast moraine, or accumulation of unconsolidated glacial debris, rises to a mere 15 to 30 metres (50–100 ft) below the surface.[9][10] This feature has produced the finest fishing location of the North Sea.[2] The Long Forties and the Broad Fourteens are large areas with roughly uniform depth in fathoms, (forty fathoms and fourteen fathoms or 73 and 26 m deep respectively). These great banks and others make the North Sea particularly hazardous to navigate,[11] which has been alleviated by the implementation of satellite navigation systems.[12] The Devil's Hole 200 miles (320 km) east of Dundee, Scotland. The feature is a series of asymmetrical trenches between 20 and 30 kilometres (12 and 19 mi) long, 1 and 2 kilometres (0.62 and 1.2 mi) wide and up to 230 metres (750 ft) deep. [13]

Extent

The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the North Sea as follows:[14]

On the Southwest. A line joining the Walde Lighthouse (France, 1°55'E) and Leathercoat Point (England, 51°10'N).

On the Northwest. From Dunnet Head (3°22'W) in Scotland to Tor Ness (58°47'N) in the Island of Hoy, thence through this island to the Kame of Hoy (58°55'N) on to Breck Ness on Mainland (58°58'N) through this island to Costa Head (3°14'W) and to Inga Ness (59'17'N) in Westray through Westray, to Bow Head, across to Mull Head (North point of Papa Westray) and on to Seal Skerry (North point of North Ronaldsay) and thence to Horse Island (South point of the Shetland Islands).

On the North. From the North point (Fethaland Point) of the Mainland of the Shetland Islands, across to Graveland Ness (60°39'N) in the Island of Yell, through Yell to Gloup Ness (1°04'W) and across to Spoo Ness (60°45'N) in Unst island, through Unst to Herma Ness (60°51'N), on to the SW point of the Rumblings and to Muckle Flugga (60°51′N 0°53′W / 60.85°N 0.883°W / 60.85; -0.883) all these being included in the North Sea area; thence up the meridian of 0°53' West to the parallel of 61°00' North and eastward along this parallel to the coast of Norway, the whole of Viking Bank being thus included in the North Sea.

On the East. The Western limit of the Skagerrak [A line joining Hanstholm (57°07′N 83°6′E / 57.117°N 83.1°E / 57.117; 83.1) and the Naze (Lindesnes, 58°N 7°E / 58°N 7°E / 58; 7)].

Hydrology

Temperature and salinity

The average temperature in summer is 17 °C (63 °F) and 6 °C (43 °F) in the winter.[5] Climate change has been attributed to a rise in the average temperature of the North Sea.[15] Air temperatures in January range on average between 0 to 4 °C (32 to 39 °F) and in July between 13 to 18 °C (55 to 64 °F). The winter months see frequent gales and storms.[2]

The salinity averages between 34 to 35 grams of salt per litre of water.[5] The salinity has the highest variability where there is fresh water inflow, such as at the Rhine and Elbe estuaries, the Baltic Sea exit and along the coast of Norway.[16]

Water circulation and tides

Ocean currents mainly entering via the north entrance exiting along Norwegian coast

The main pattern to the flow of water in the North Sea is an anti-clockwise rotation along the edges.[17]

The North Sea is an arm of the Atlantic Ocean receiving the majority of ocean current from the northwest opening, and a lesser portion of warm current from the smaller opening at the English Channel. These tidal currents leave along the Norwegian coast.[18] Surface and deep water currents may move in different directions. Low salinity surface coastal waters move offshore, and deeper, denser high salinity waters move in shore.[19]

The North Sea located on the continental shelf has different waves than those in deep ocean water. The wave speeds are diminished and the wave amplitudes are increased. In the North Sea there are two amphidromic systems and a third incomplete amphidromic system.[20][21] In the North Sea the average tide difference in wave amplitude is between 0 to 8 metres (0 to 26 ft).[5]

The Kelvin tide of the Atlantic ocean is a semidiurnal wave which travels northward. Some of the energy from this wave travels through the English Channel into the North Sea. The wave still travels northward in the Atlantic Ocean, and once past the British Isles, the Kelvin wave turns east and south and once again enters into the North Sea.[22]

Coasts

The German North Sea coast

The eastern and western coasts of the North Sea are jagged, formed by glaciers during the ice ages. The coastlines along the southernmost part are covered with the remains of deposited glacial sediment.[2] The Norwegian mountains plunge into the sea creating deep fjords and archipelagos. South of Stavanger, the coast softens, the islands become fewer.[2] The eastern Scottish coast is similar, though less severe than Norway. From north east of England, the cliffs become lower and are composed of less resistant moraine, which erodes more easily, so that the coasts have more rounded contours.[23][24] In Holland, Belgium and in the east of England (East Anglia) the littoral is low and marshy.[2] The east coast and south-east of the North Sea (Wadden Sea) have coastlines that are mainly sandy and straight owing to longshore drift, particularly along Belgium and Denmark.[25]

Coastal management

The Afsluitdijk (Closure-dike) is a major dam in the Netherlands

The southern coastal areas were originally amphibious flood plains and swampy land. In areas especially vulnerable to storm tides, people settled behind elevated levees and on natural areas of high ground such as spits and Geestland.[26]:[302,303] As early as 500 BC, people were constructing artificial dwelling hills higher than the prevailing flood levels.[26]:[306,308][27] It was only around the beginning of the High Middle Ages, in 1200 AD, that inhabitants began to connect single ring dikes into a dike line along the entire coast, thereby turning amphibious regions between the land and the sea into permanent solid ground.[26]

The modern form of the dikes supplemented by overflow and lateral diversion channels, began to appear in the 17th and 18th centuries, built in the Netherlands.[28] The North Sea Floods of 1953 and 1962 were impetus for further raising of the dikes as well as the shortening of the coast line so as to present as little surface area as possible to the punishment of the sea and the storms.[29] Currently, 27% of the Netherlands is below sea level protected by dikes, dunes, and beach flats.[30]

Coastal management today consists of several levels.[31] The dike slope reduces the energy of the incoming sea, so that the dike itself does not receive the full impact.[31] Dikes that lie directly on the sea are especially reinforced.[31] The dikes have, over the years, been repeatedly raised, sometimes up to 9 metres (30 ft) and have become flatter in order to better reduce the erosion of the waves.[32][33] Where the dunes are sufficient to protect the land behind them from the sea, these dunes are planted with beach grass to protect them from erosion by wind, water, and foot traffic.[34]

Storm tides

Storm tides threaten, in particular, the coasts of the Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, and Denmark and low lying areas of eastern England particularly around The Wash and Fens.[25] Storm surges are caused by changes in barometric pressure combined with strong wind created wave action.[35]

The first recorded storm tide flood was the Julianenflut, on 17 February 1164. In its wake the Jadebusen, (a bay on the coast of Germany), began to form. A storm tide in 1228 is recorded to have killed more than 100,000 people.[36] In 1362, the Second Marcellus Flood, also known as the Grote Manndränke, hit the entire southern coast of the North Sea. Chronicles of the time again record more than 100,000 deaths as large parts of the coast were lost permanently to the sea, including the now legendary lost city of Rungholt.[37] In the twentieth century, the North Sea flood of 1953 flooded several nations' coasts and cost more than 2,000 lives.[38] 315 citizens of Hamburg died in the North Sea flood of 1962.[39]:[79,86]

Tsunamis

The Storegga Slides were a series of underwater landslides, in which a piece of the Norwegian continental shelf slid into the Norwegian Sea. The immense landslips occurred between 8150 BC and 6000 BC, and caused a tsunami up to 20 metres (66 ft) high that swept through the North Sea, having the greatest effect on Scotland and the Faeroe Islands.[40][41] The Dover Straits earthquake of 1580 is among the first recorded earthquakes in the North Sea measuring between 5.3 and 5.9 on the Richter Scale. This event caused extensive damage in Calais both through its tremors and two tsunamis[42] The largest earthquake ever recorded in the United Kingdom was the 1931 Dogger Bank earthquake, which measured 6.1 on the Richter Scale and caused a tsunami that flooded parts of the British coast.[42][43]

Geology

Shallow epicontinental seas like the current North Sea have since long existed on the European continental shelf. The rifting that formed the northern part of the Atlantic Ocean during the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods, from about 150 million years ago, caused tectonic uplift in the British Isles.[44] Since then, a shallow sea has almost continuously existed between the highs of the Fennoscandian Shield and the British Isles.[45] This precursor of the current North Sea has grown and shrunk with the rise and fall of the eustatic sea level during geologic time. Sometimes it was connected with other shallow seas, such as the sea above the Paris Basin to the south-west, the Paratethys Sea to the south-east, or the Tethys Ocean to the south.[46]

The North Sea between 34 million years ago and 28 million years ago, as Central Europe became dry land

During the Late Cretaceous, about 85 million years ago, all of modern mainland Europe except for Scandinavia was a scattering of islands.[47] By the Early Oligocene, 34 to 28 million years ago, the emergence of Western and Central Europe had almost completely separated the North Sea from the Tethys Ocean, which gradually shrank to become the Mediterranean Sea as Southern Europe and South West Asia became dry land.[48] The North Sea was cut off from the English Channel by a narrow land bridge until that was breached by at least two catastrophic floods between 450,000 and 180,000 years ago.[49][50] Since the start of the Quarternary period about 2.6 million years ago, the eustatic sea level has fallen during each glacial period and then risen again. Every time the ice sheet reached its greatest extent, the North Sea became almost completely dry. The present-day coastline formed after the Last Glacial Maximum when the sea began to flood the European continental shelf.[51]

Natural history

Fish and shellfish

Pacific oysters, blue mussels and cockles in the Wadden Sea in the Netherlands.

Copepods and other zooplankton are plentiful in the North Sea. These tiny organisms are crucial elements of the food chain supporting many species of fish.[52] Over 230 species of fish live in the North Sea. Cod, haddock, whiting, saithe, plaice, sole, mackerel, herring, pouting, sprat, and sandeel are all very common and are those which are fished commercially.[52][53] Due to the various depths of the North Sea trenches and differences in salinity, temperature, and water movement, some fish such as blue-mouth redfish and rabbitfish reside only in small areas of the North Sea.[54]

Crustaceans are also commonly found throughout the sea. Norway lobster, deep-water prawns, and brown shrimp are all commercially fished, but other species of lobster, shrimp, oyster, mussels and clams all live in the North Sea.[52] Recently non-indigenous species have become established including the Pacific oyster and Atlantic jackknife clam.[53]

Birds

The coasts of the North Sea are home to nature reserves including the Ythan Estuary, Fowlsheugh Nature Preserve, and Farne Islands in the UK and The Wadden Sea National Parks in Germany.[52] These locations provide breeding habitat for dozens of bird species. Tens of millions of birds make use of the North Sea for breeding, feeding, or migratory stopovers every year. Populations of Black legged Kittiwakes, Atlantic Puffins, Northern fulmars, and species of petrels, gannets, seaducks, loons (divers), cormorants, gulls, auks, and terns, and many other seabirds make these coasts popular for birdwatching.[52][53]

Marine mammals

A female bottlenose dolphin with her young in Moray Firth, Scotland

The North Sea is also home to marine mammals. Common seals, and Harbour porpoises can be found along the coasts, at marine installations, and on islands. The very northern North Sea islands like the Shetlands are occasionally home to a larger variety of pinnipeds including bearded, harp, hooded and ringed seals, and even walrus.[55] North Sea cetaceans include various porpoise, dolphin and whale species.[53][56]

Flora

Phytoplankton bloom in the North Sea.

Plant species in the North Sea include species of wrack, among them bladder wrack, knotted wrack, and serrated wrack. Algae, macroalgal, and kelp, such as oarweed and laminaria hyperboria, and species of maerl are found as well.[53] Eelgrass, formerly common in the entirety of the Wadden Sea, was nearly wiped out in the 20th century by a disease.[57] Similarly, sea grass used to coat huge tracts of ocean floor, but have been damaged by trawling and dredging have diminished its habitat and prevented its return.[58] Invasive Japanese seaweed has spread along the shores of the sea clogging harbours and inlets and has become a nuisance.[59]

Biodiversity and conservation

Flamingos, pelicans, and Great Auk were once found along the southern shores of the North Sea, but went extinct over the 2nd millennium.[60] Gray whale also resided in the North Sea but were driven to extinction in the Atlantic in the 1600s[61] Other species have seen dramatic declines in population, though they are still to be found; right whales, sturgeon, shad, rays, skates and salmon among other species were common in the North Sea into the 20th century, when numbers declined due to overfishing.[62][63] Other factors like the introduction of non-indigenous species, industrial and agricultural pollution, trawling and dredging, human-induced eutrophication, construction on coastal breeding and feeding grounds, sand and gravel extraction, offshore construction, and heavy shipping traffic have also contributed to the decline.[53] The OSPAR commission manages the OSPAR convention to counteract the harmful effects of human activity on wildlife in the North Sea, preserve endangered species, and provide environmental protection.[64] All North Sea border states are signatories of the MARPOL 73/78 Accords which preserves the marine environment by preventing pollution from ships.[65] Germany, Denmark, and the Netherlands also have a trilateral agreement for the protection of the Wadden Sea, or mudflats, which run along the coasts of the three countries on the southern edge of the North Sea.[66]

History

Name

A 1490 recreation of a map from Ptolemy's Geography showing the "Oceanus Germanicus"

Through history various names have been used for the North Sea. One of the earliest recorded names was Septentrionalis Oceanus, or "Northern Ocean" which was cited by Pliny.[67]

Early history

The North Sea has provided waterway access for commerce and conquest. Many areas have access to the North Sea with its long coastline and European rivers which empty into it.[2] The British Isles had been protected from invasion by the North Sea waters[2] until the Roman conquest of Britain in 43 AD. The Romans established organised ports, shipping increased and sustained trade began.[68] When the Romans abandoned Britain in 410 the Germanic Angles, Saxons, and Jutes began the next great migration across the North Sea during the Migration Period invading England.[69]

The Viking Age began in 793 with the attack on Lindisfarne and for the next quarter-millennium the Vikings ruled the North Sea. In their superior longships, they raided, traded, and established colonies and outposts on the Sea's coasts. From the Middle Ages through the 15th century, the north European coastal ports exported domestic goods, dyes, linen, salt, metal goods and wine. The Scandinavian and Baltic areas shipped grain, fish, naval necessities, and timber. In turn the north Sea countries imported high grade cloths, spices, and fruits from the Mediterranean region[70] Commerce during this era was mainly undertaken by maritime trade due to underdeveloped roadways.[70]

In the 13th century the Hanseatic League, though centred on the Baltic Sea, started to control most of the trade through important members and outposts on the North Sea.[71] The League lost its dominance in the 16th century, as neighbouring states took control of former Hanseatic cities and outposts and internal conflict prevented effective cooperation and defence.[72] Furthermore, as the League lost control of its maritime cities new trade routes emerged which provided Europe with Asian, American, and African goods.[73][74]

Age of sail

The 17th century Dutch Golden Age during which Dutch herring, cod and whale fisheries reached an all time high[70] saw Dutch power at its zenith.[75][76] Important overseas colonies, a vast merchant marine, powerful navy and large profits made the Dutch the main challengers to an ambitious England. This rivalry led to the first three Anglo-Dutch Wars between 1652 and 1673 which ended with Dutch victories.[76] After the Glorious Revolution the Dutch prince William ascended to the English throne. With both countries united, commercial, military, and political power shifted from Amsterdam to London.[77] The Great Northern War(1700–21) and the War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714) were fought concurrently.[78] The British did not face a challenge to their dominance of the North Sea until the twentieth century.[79]

Modern era

German cruiser SMS Blücher sinks in the Battle of Dogger Bank on 25 January 1915.

Tensions in the North Sea were again heightened in 1904 by the Dogger Bank incident, in which Russian naval vessels mistook British fishing boats for Japanese ships and fired on them, and then upon each other.

During the First World War, Great Britain's Grand Fleet and Germany's Kaiserliche Marine faced each other on the North Sea,[80] which became the main theatre of the war for surface action.[80] Britain's larger fleet was able to establish an effective blockade for most of the war that restricted the Central Powers' access to many crucial resources.[81] Major battles included the Battle of Heligoland Bight,[82] the Battle of the Dogger Bank,[83] and the Battle of Jutland.[83] World War One was also the first in which submarine warfare was used extensively and a number of submarine actions occurred in the North Sea.[84]

The Second World War also saw action in the North Sea,[85] though it was restricted more to aircraft reconnaissances, aircraft fighter/bombers, submarines and smaller vessels such as minesweepers, and torpedo boats and similar vessels.[86]

In the last years of the war and the first years thereafter, hundreds of thousands of tons of weapons were disposed of by being sunk in the North Sea.[87]

After the war, the North Sea lost much of its military significance because it is bordered only by NATO member-states. However, it gained significant economic importance in the 1960s as the states on the North Sea began full-scale exploitation of its oil and gas resources.[88] The North Sea continues to be an active trade route.[89]

Economy

The Exclusive Economic Zones in the North Sea

Political status

The countries bordering the North Sea all claim the 12 nautical miles (22 km; 14 mi) of territorial waters within which they have exclusive fishing rights.[90] The Common Fisheries Policy of the European Union (EU) exists to coordinate fishing rights and assist with disputes between EU states and the EU border state of Norway.[91]

After the discovery of mineral resources in the North Sea, Convention on the Continental Shelf established country rights which are largely divided along the median line. The median line is defined as the line "every point of which is equidistant from the nearest points of the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea of each State is measured."[92] The ocean floor border between Germany, the Netherlands, and Denmark was only reapportioned after protracted negotiations and a judgement of the International Court of Justice.[90][93]

Oil and gas

As early as 1859, oil was discovered in onshore areas around the North Sea and natural gas as early as 1910.[47]

Oil platform Statfjord A with the flotel Polymarine

Test drilling began in 1966 and then, in 1969, Phillips Petroleum Company discovered the Ekofisk oil field[94] distinguished by valuable, low-sulphur oil.[95] Commercial exploitation began in 1971 with tankers and, after 1975, by a pipeline, first to Teesside, England and then, after 1977, also to Emden, Germany.[96]

The exploitation of the North Sea oil reserves began just before the 1973 oil crisis, and the climb of international oil prices made the large investments needed for extraction much more attractive.[97]

Although the production costs are relatively high, the quality of the oil, the political stability of the region, and the nearness of important markets in western Europe has made the North Sea an important oil producing region.[95] The largest single humanitarian catastrophe in the North Sea oil industry was the destruction of the offshore oil platform Piper Alpha in 1988 in which 167 people lost their lives.[98]

Semi-submersible drilling rig in North Sea

Besides the Ekofisk oil field, the Statfjord oil field is also notable as it was the cause of the first pipeline to span the Norwegian trench.[99] The largest natural gas field in the North Sea, Troll gas field, lies in the Norwegian trench dropping over 300 metres (980 ft) requiring the construction of the enormous Troll A platform to access it.

The price of Brent Crude, one of the first types of oil extracted from the North Sea, is used today as a standard price for comparison for crude oil from the rest of the world.[100] The North Sea contains western Europe's largest oil and natural gas reserves and is one of the world's key non-OPEC producing regions.[101]

Fishing

The North Sea is Europe's main fishery accounting for over five percent of international commercial fish caught.[2] Fishing in the North Sea is concentrated in the southern part of the coastal waters. The main method of fishing is trawling.[102]

A trawler in Nordstrand, Germany

In 1995, the total volume of fish and shellfish caught in the North Sea was approximately 3.5 million tonnes.[103] Besides fish, it is estimated that one million tonnes of unmarketable by-catch is caught and discarded each year.[104]

In recent decades, overfishing has left many fisheries unproductive, disturbing marine food chain dynamics and costing jobs in the fishing industry.[105] Herring, cod and plaice fisheries may soon face the same plight as mackerel fishing which ceased in the 1970s due to overfishing.[106] The objective of the European Union Common Fisheries Policy is to minimize the environmental impact associated with resource use by reducing fish discards, increasing productivity of fisheries, stabilising markets of fisheries and fish processing, and supplying fish at reasonable prices for the consumer.[107]

Mineral resources

Unpolished amber stones, in varying hues

In addition to oil, gas, and fish, the states along the North Sea also take millions of cubic metres per year of sand and gravel from the ocean floor. These are used for beach nourishment, land reclamation and construction.[108] Rolled pieces of amber, usually small but occasionally of very large size, may be picked up on the east coast of England.[109] It is also found at various localities along the amber belt of the Danish, Swedish and Frisian Island shorelines.[109]:[147,151][110]

Renewable energy

Horns Rev offshore wind farm

Due to the strong prevailing winds, countries on the North Sea, particularly Germany and Denmark, have used the areas near the coast for wind power since the 1990s.[111] Other wind farms have been commissioned, including Windpark Egmond aan Zee (OWEZ)[112] and Scroby Sands.[113] However, the usage of offshore wind farms has met some resistance. Concerns include shipping collisions,[114] reliability,[115] environmental effects on ocean ecology and wildlife such as fish and migratory birds,[116][117] and the rising costs of constructing wind farms.[118] Nonetheless, development of North Sea wind power is continuing, with plans for additional wind farms off the coasts of Germany, the Netherlands, and the UK.[119][120][121] There have also been proposals for a transnational power grid in the North Sea to connect new offshore wind farms.[122][123]

Energy production from tidal power is still in a pre-commercial stage. The European Marine Energy Centre has installed a wave testing system at Billia Croo on the Orkney mainland[124] and a tidal power testing station on the nearby island of Eday.[125] Since 2003, a prototype Wave Dragon energy converter has been in operation at Nissum Bredning fjord of northern Denmark.[126]

Tourism

The beach in Scheveningen, Netherlands in c. 1900

The beaches and coastal waters of the North Sea are popular destinations for tourists. The Belgian, Dutch, German and Danish coasts[127][128] are especially developed for tourism. The North Sea Trail is a long-distance trail linking seven countries around the North Sea.[129] Windsurfing and sailing[130] are popular sports because of the strong winds. Mudflat hiking,[131] recreational fishing and birdwatching[128] are among other popular activities.

The climatic conditions on the North Sea coast are often claimed to be especially healthful. As early as the 19th century, travellers used their stays on the North Sea coast as curative and restorative vacations. The sea air, temperature, wind, water, and sunshine are counted among the beneficial conditions that are said to activate the body's defences, improve circulation, strengthen the immune system, and have healing effects on the skin and the respiratory system.[132]

Marine traffic

The North Sea is important for marine traffic and its shipping lanes are among the busiest in the world.[90] Major ports are located along its coasts: Rotterdam, the third busiest port in the world, Antwerp and Hamburg, both in the top 25, Bremen/Bremerhaven and Felixstowe, both in the top 30 busiest container seaports,[133] as well as the Port of Bruges-Zeebrugge, Europe's leading RoRo port.[134]

Traffic in the North Sea can be difficult in high density traffic zones so ports regulate traffic and monitor vessels in the North Sea lanes.[135] Fishing boats, oil and gas platforms as well as merchant traffic from Baltic ports share routes on the North Sea. The Dover Strait sees more than 400 vessels a day.[136]

The North Sea coasts are home to numerous canals and canal systems to facilitate traffic between and among rivers, artificial harbours, and the sea. The Kiel Canal, connecting the North Sea with the Baltic Sea, is the most heavily used artificial seaway in the world.[137] It saves an average of 250 nautical miles (460 km; 290 mi), instead of the voyage around the Jutland Peninsula.[138] The North Sea Canal connects Amsterdam with the North Sea.[139]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "North Sea facts". MUMM. 1995-05-20. http://www.mumm.ac.be/EN/NorthSea/facts.php. Retrieved 2010-01-05.  
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o L.M.A. (1985). "Europe". in University of Chicago. Encyclopaedia Britannica Macropaedia. 18 (Fifteenth ed.). U.S.A.: Encyclopadia Britannica Inc.. pp. 832–835. ISBN 0-85229-423-9.  
  3. ^ a b c d Ripley, George; Charles Anderson Dana (1883) (Digitized 2007-10-11 by Google Books online). The American Cyclopaedia: A Popular Dictionary of General Knowledge. D. Appleton and company. p. 499. http://books.google.com/books?id=GEpMAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA499&dq=Norway,+Denmark,+Germany,+the+Netherlands,+Belgium,+and+France+%22North+Sea%22&lr=&as_brr=0&as_pt=ALLTYPES. Retrieved 2008-12-26.  
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References

Further reading

  • Starkey, David J.; Morten Hahn-Pedersen (2005). Bridging troubled waters: Conflict and co-operation in the North Sea Region since 1550. Esbjerg [Denmark]: Fiskeri-og Søfartsmuseets. ISBN 8790982304.  
  • Ilyina, Tatjana P (2007). The fate of persistent organic pollutants in the North Sea multiple year model simulations of [gamma]-HCH, [alpha]-HCH and PCB 153Tatjana P Ilyina;. Berlin ; New York: Springer. ISBN 9783540681632.  
  • Karlsdóttir, Hrefna M. (2005). Fishing on common grounds: the consequences of unregulated fisheries of North Sea Herring in the postwar period. Göteborg: Ekonomisk-Historiska Inst., Göteborg Univ.. ISBN 9185196622.  
  • Tiedeke, Thorsten; Werner Weiler (2007). North Sea coast: landscape panoramas. Nelson: NZ Visitor; Lancaster: Gazelle Drake Academic. ISBN 9781877339653.  
  • ed. by Erik Thoen ... (2007). Rural history in the North Sea area: a state of the art (Middle Ages – beginning 20th century). Turnhout: Brepols. ISBN 9782503510057.  
  • Waddington, Clive; Kristian Pedersen (2007). Mesolithic studies in the North Sea Basin and beyond: proceedings of a conference held at Newcastle in 2003. Oxford: Oxbow Books. ISBN 1842172247.  
  • Zeelenberg, Sjoerd (2005). Offshore wind energy in the North Sea Region: the state of affairs of offshore wind energy projects, national policies and economic, environmental and technological conditions in Denmark, Germany, The Netherlands, Belgium and the United Kingdom. Groningen: University of Groningen. OCLC 71640714.  

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

North Sea

The North Sea is a body of water. As Wikitravel only writes articles about bodies of water where they also refer to the land surrounding that body of water, you could be looking for one or more of the following pages:

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Great Britain

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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

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Wikipedia

Proper noun

Singular
North Sea

Plural
-

North Sea

  1. An inlet of the Atlantic Ocean between Britain (in the west), Scandinavia (in the east) and Germany, Netherlands, Belgium and France (in the south).

Translations

Synonyms

  • German Sea

Simple English

File:Nseamap.gif
The North Sea

The North Sea is a sea in northern Europe. It is part of the Atlantic ocean. The North Sea is between Norway and Denmark in the east, Scotland and England in the west, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium and France in the south.

Contents

Borders

The Skagerrak connects the North Sea to the Baltic Sea. In the south, the North Sea becomes the English Channel, a sea between England and France. This is called the Dover Straits and is very busy with ships.

The border between the North Sea and the Skagerrak is at an imagined line between Lindesnes in Norway, and Hanstholm in Denmark. In the North, the North sea is open towards the Atlantic. The border between the two is an imagined line from Northern Scotland, to the Shetlands, and then to Ålesund in Norway. According to the Oslo-Paris Treaty of 1962 it is a bit more to the west and the north though. The treaty puts it at 5° East longitude, and 62° North latitude. That is at the parallel of the Geirangerfjord in Norway.

Various statistical data

On average, the North Sea has a depth of only 94 metres. About 80 million people live near the North Sea, at most 150km away from the coast. Together with the English Channel in the south, the southern North Sea is the busiest body of water in the world. The most ships pass through it.

Rivers that drain into it

Well-known rivers that drain into the North Sea include the Tay (at Dundee), the Forth (at Edinburgh), the Tyne (Tynemouth, South Shields), the Wear (at Sunderland), the Elbe (at Cuxhaven), the Weser (at Bremerhaven), the Rhine and Meuse or Maas (at Rotterdam), the Scheldt (at Flushing or Vlissingen), the Thames, and the Humber (at Hull).

The Kiel Canal, one of the world's busiest artificial waterways, connects the North Sea with the Baltic.

Naming

Its name comes from its relationship to the land of the Frisians (see Frisia). They live directly to the south of the North Sea, and to the west of the East Sea (Oostzee, the Baltic Sea), the former South Sea (Zuiderzee, today's IJsselmeer) and the today reclaimed Middle Sea (Middelzee). But the spread of the naming could also be from the view of the cities of the Hanseatic League. Some of its main cities, like Lübeck, Bremen or Hamburg had basically the same view.

In classical times this body of water was also referred to as the Oceanum- or Mare Germanicum, meaning German Ocean or Sea. This name was commonly used in English and other languages along with the name North Sea, until the early eighteenth century. By the late nineteenth century, German Sea was a rare, scholarly usage even in Germany. In Danish the North Sea is also named Vesterhavet (besides Nordsøen), meaning Western Ocean as it is located west of Denmark.

Geographic divisions

[[File:|thumb|right|Satellite picture of the north sea. The area marked in red is the Doggerbank.]] Most of the North sea lies on the European Continental shelf. On average, the depth is about 93 to 94 meters only. In the south it is very shallow, only 25 to 35 meters. In the north in the bathyal zone north of the Shetlands, this depth increases to between 100 and 200 metres. In the south, the depth is at most 50 metres. An exception to this is the Norwegian Trench. It is deepest there, with a depth of 725 metres. The most shallow part of it is a sand bank called Dogger Bank. In the southern part, there are many sand banks.

Looking at the satellite picture it is easy to see the geographic divisions of the North Sea:

  • a generally shallow southern North Sea
  • the central North Sea
  • the northern North Sea, with the Norwegian Trench, near the Skagerrak.

The southern north sea is composed of the Southern Bight, before the coast of Belgium and the Netherlands and the German Bight before the coastline of Germany. The Dogger Bank is the limit between the southern and central parts. The Waddenzee runs all the way from Den Helder in the Netherlands to Esbjerg in Denmark.

The Dogger Bank covers an area about half the size of the Netherlands. There, the North Sea has a depth of between 13 and 20 metres only. The area is very famous for fishing. With some storms there are even waves breaking there.

The Norwegian Trench has an average depth of around 250 to 300 metres; at the entrance to the Skagerrak, the depth increases up to 725 meters. Along the trench is the Norwegian Current, which brings most of the waters of the North Sea into the Atlantic ocean. Also, most of the waters of the Baltic Sea flow northwards here.

About 200km east of the Scottish city of Dundee there are more trenches, known collectively as the Devil's hole. Generally, the water is about 90 meters deep there. The trenches very often are only a few kilometers in length. In these trenches, the depth increases to up to 230 meters.

In the Dover Strait the water is about 30 meters deep. At the end of the English Channel, this depth increases to about 100 meters.

History

In the last ice age the North Sea was covered by large areas of ice called glaciers. About 20,000 years ago the ice melted and the North Sea was formed (made).

North Sea oil

In the 1960s geologists found large areas of oil and natural gas under the North Sea. Most of the oil fields are owned by the United Kingdom and Norway but some belong to Denmark, the Netherlands and Germany. Drilling began in the 1960s and led to a famous argument between England and Scotland about how the revenue (money) from the oil should be spent.

Animal life

People have been fishing in the North Sea for thousands of years. However, so many fish are now caught there that new ones may not be able to grow fast enough to keep the fishery going.

Terns, Atlantic puffins, razorbills, kittiwakes and other seabirds live on the North Sea coast. Many coastal areas are protected nature reserves. frr:Weestsiie

rue:Северне море


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