North West England: Wikis

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North West England
North West
North West region shown within England
Geography
Status Region
Area
— Total
Ranked 6th
14,165 km²
5,469 sq mi
NUTS 1 UKD
Demographics
Population
— Total
— Density
Ranked 3rd
6,853,200 (2006)
475/km²
GDP per capita £17,433 (6th)
Government
HQ Manchester
Leadership North West Regional Leaders Board
Regional development Northwest
European parliament North West England
Website

North West England is one of the nine official regions of England. It has a population of 6,853,200[1] and comprises five ceremonial counties of EnglandCumbria, Lancashire, Greater Manchester, Merseyside, and Cheshire.

North West England is bounded on the west by the Irish Sea and on the east by The Pennines mountain range. The region extends from the Scottish Borders in the north to the Welsh Mountains in the south. The highest point in North West England (and the highest peak in England) is Scafell Pike, Cumbria, at a height of 3,209 feet (978 m).

Two large conurbations, centred on the cities of Liverpool and Manchester, occupy the south of the region and are its largest centres of population. The north of the region, including northern Lancashire and Cumbria, is largely rural.

Contents

Local government

England
Coat of Arms of the UK Government.

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The official region consists of the following subdivisions:

Ceremonial county County/Unitary Districts
Cheshire Cheshire East U.A.
Cheshire West and Chester U.A.
Halton U.A.
Warrington U.A.
Cumbria Barrow-in-Furness, South Lakeland, Copeland, Allerdale, Eden, Carlisle
Greater Manchester * Bolton, Bury, Manchester, Oldham, Rochdale, Salford, Stockport, Tameside, Trafford, Wigan
Lancashire Lancashire † West Lancashire, Chorley, South Ribble, Fylde, Preston, Wyre, Lancaster, Ribble Valley, Pendle, Burnley, Rossendale, Hyndburn
Blackpool U.A.
Blackburn with Darwen U.A.
Merseyside * Knowsley, Liverpool, St. Helens, Sefton, Wirral

Key: shire county = † | metropolitan county = *

After abolition of the Greater Manchester and Merseyside County Councils in 1986, power was transferred to the Metropolitan Boroughs, effectively making them Unitary Authorities.

Demographics

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Population, density and settlements

Region/County Population Population Density Largest town/city Largest urban area
North West England 6,853,200 475/km² Manchester (458,100) Greater Manchester Urban Area (2,240,230)
Greater Manchester 2,553,800 1,997/km² Manchester (458,100) Greater Manchester Urban Area (2,240,230)
Lancashire 1,449,600 468/km² Preston (184,836 ) Preston/Chorley/Leyland urban Area (335,000)
Merseyside 1,353,600 2,118/km² Liverpool (436,100) Liverpool Urban Area (816,000)
Cheshire 1,003,600 424/km² Chester (77,040) Warrington (194,700)
Cumbria 496,200 73/km² Carlisle (71,773) City of Carlisle (105,200)

North West England's population accounts for just over 13% of England's overall population. 37.86% of the North West's population resides in Greater Manchester, 21.39% in Lancashire, 20.30% in Merseyside, 14.76% in Cheshire and 7.41% live in the largest county geographically, Cumbria.

Ethnicity

This data is based on 2007 estimates.[2]

92.1% (6,324,600) of people in the region belong to any 'White' background. 89.4% (6,137,800) of the overall regional population is White British, 1.0% (69,800) White Irish and 1.7% (117,000) White Other.

The Mixed Race population makes up 1.2% (85,400) of the region's population. There are 304,200 South Asians in the region, making up 4.4% of the population, and 1.1% Blacks (75,200). 0.7% of the population (46,200) is Chinese and 0.4% (28,700) of people classified themselves as 'Other' in the census.[3]

North West England is a very diverse region, and cities such as Manchester and Liverpool are amongst the most diverse in Europe. 19.4% of Blackburn with Darwen's population are Muslim, the third highest among all local authorities in the United Kingdom and the highest outside London and a significant South Asian population of over 20%. Areas such as Moss Side in Greater Manchester are home to over a 30% Black British population. Even isolated towns such as Barrow-in-Furness (considered to be at the end of England's largest cul-de-sac) have significant and ever increasing ethnic minority populations, the town now has higher proportions of people belonging to the 'Other' ethnic group than the UK average which can only be said for a few North West towns. The town of St. Helens within Merseyside unusually for a city-area has the lowest percentage of ethnic minorities in the whole of England. The City of Liverpool is now over 800 years old, and is one of the few places in Britain where ethnic minority populations can be traced back over dozens of generations, being one of the closest English cities to Ireland it is home to a significant Irish population, and links to the British Slave Trade resulted in the city being home to one of the first ever Afro-Caribbean communities in the UK.

Summarised

  • There are around 400,000 people living in the North West of any Asian ethnicity (5.8% of regions population), England average is around 9%
  • Around 125,000 people from the North West are of full or partial Sub-African and/or Caribbean descent (1.8% of regions population), England average is around 4%
  • The single largest non-white ethnic group in the North West are Pakistanis, numbering at least 143,900

Place of birth

Please note that the list below is not how many people belong to each ethnic group (i.e. there are over 25,000 ethnic Italians in Manchester alone,[4] whilst only 6,000 Italian born people live in the North West), please note also that due to recent immigration to the UK, the numbers below are likely to be substantially lower than the current populations, and countries such as Poland would most certainly make the top 5. The fifteen most common countries of birth in 2001 for North West citizens were as follows (also note that the five most common foreign places of birth, as estimated in 2008 are stated in brackets):[5][6]

  • England - 6,169,753
  • Scotland - 109,163
  • Wales - 73,850
  • Ireland - 56,887 (51,000 in 2008)
  • Pakistan - 46,529 (58,000 in 2008)
  • Northern Ireland - 34,879
  • India - 34,600 (48,000 in 2008)
  • Germany - 19,931 (25,000 in 2008)
  • China and Hong Kong - 15,491
  • Bangladesh - 13,746
  • South Africa - 7,740
  • United States - 7,037
  • Jamaica - 6,661
  • Italy - 6,325
  • Australia - 5,880
  • Poland - (37,000 in 2008)

Religion

The table below is based in the 2001 UK Census.

Region Christian Muslim Hindu Sikh Jewish Buddhist Other No Religion/ Not Stated
North West England 78.0% 3.0% 0.4% 0.1% 0.4% 0.2% 0.2% 17.7%
United Kingdom 71.6% 2.7% 1.0% 0.6% 0.5% 0.3% 0.3% 23.2%

Teenage pregnancy

For top-tier authorities, Manchester has the highest teenage pregnancy rate in the region. For council districts, Burnley has the highest rate, closely followed by Hyndburn, both in Lancashire. For top-tier authorities, Cheshire has the lowest teenage pregnancy rate. For council districts, Eden has the lowest rate closely followed by South Lakeland, both in Cumbria.

Language and dialect

Up until the 12th Century, Cumbric (a Celtic language), was spoken throughout Northwest England. This language was gradually replaced by Old/Middle English, but the language still survives in various placenames throughout the North West, and reconstructions of the language are being attempted. In modern times, English is the most spoken language in the North West, with a large percentage of the population being fluent in it, and close to 100% being conversational in it. To the north-east of the region, within the historic boundaries of Cumberland, the Cumbrian dialect is dominant. The historical county of Lancashire covered a vast amount of land, and the Lancashire dialect and accent is still predominant throughout the county, and stretches as far north as Furness in South Cumbria to parts of north Greater Manchester in the south of the region. The region boasts some of the most distinctive accents in the Scouse accent which originates from the Merseyside area and the Manc accent deriving from the central Manchester district. The region's accents are among those referred to as 'Northern English'.

Large immigrant populations in the North West result in the presence of significant immigrant languages. South Asian languages such as Urdu, Hindi and Punjabi are considerably widespread, with the largest amount of speakers resideing in Preston, Blackburn and Manchester. The Chinese once made up the largest minority in the region (due to Liverpool having one of the oldest if not the oldest Chinese settlement in Europe), and still do to the far north where Chinese is spoken by small but significant communities. Since the expansion of the EU over 1 million Poles have immigrated to the UK, with a large amount settling in the North West, places such as Crewe alongside the larger cities make Polish written information available for the public, to much controversy. Other immigrant languages with a presence in the North West are Spanish, mainly amongst the Latin American communities in Barrow-in-Furness, Lancaster, Liverpool and Manchester, as well as various other Eastern European and Asian languages.

The most taught languages in schools across the North West are English, French and German. Spanish and Italian are available at older levels, and in cities such as Manchester and Liverpool, even Urdu and Mandarin are being taught to help maintain links between the local minority populations.

Cities and towns

Liverpool skyline across the River Mersey
Salford Skyline
Blackpool seen along the Irish Sea Coast
Oldham town centre
Lancaster city centre
Barrow-in-Furness central skyline
Blackburn townscape
Preston skyline viewed from the east
Southport Marine Lake
Chester city centre with medieval buildings

Population > 400,000

Population > 100,000

Population > 70,000

Population > 50,000

Population > 30,000

Population > 20,000

Metropolitan areas

The five largest urban in the North West are as follows:

Elected regional assembly

Proposed flag for the region designed by Peter Saville.

It is one of the two regions (along with Yorkshire and the Humber) that were expected to hold a referendum on the establishment of an elected regional assembly. However, when the North East region of England rejected having an elected regional assembly in a referendum, further referendums where cancelled and the proposals for elected regional assemblies in England put on hold. The regional leaders forum, 4NW, an unelected quango, is based on Waterside Drive in Wigan.

European Parliament

The North West England European Parliament constituency has the same boundaries as the Region.

History

Ten English regions were established by the government in 1994. At that time, Merseyside, which already had its own Government Office, formerly the Merseyside Task Force, was regarded as a separate region. In 1998, Merseyside was merged into the North West region. This action was controversial in some quarters.[citation needed]

Transport

Transport policy

As part of the national transport planning system, the Regional Assembly is required to produce a Regional Transport Strategy (RTS) to provide long term planning for transport in the region. This involves region wide transport schemes such as those carried out by the Highways Agency and Network Rail.[7] Within the region the local transport authorities plan for the future by producing Local Transport Plans (LTP) which outline their strategies, policies and implementation programmes.[8] The most recent LTP is that for the period 2006-11. In the North West region the following transport authorities have published their LTP online: Blackburn with Darwen U.A,[9] Blackpool U.A.,[10] Cheshire,[11] Cumbria,[12] Greater Manchester,[13] Halton U.A.,[12] Lancashire,[14] Merseyside[15] and Warrington U.A..[16] Since 1 April 2009, when the county of Cheshire was split into two unitary councils[17] the Cheshire transport authority ceased to exist, however it is the most recent LTP for the area.

Road

The M6 motorway is one of the North West's primary roads

Regionwide

Regionwide the principal road link is the M6, this runs all the way from Carlisle and Scotland in the north to Warrington in the south, connecting such towns and cities as Penrith, Kendal, Lancaster, Preston, Liverpool and Manchester. The M6 intersects many of the North West's motorways and A-roads, and carries almost 120,000 vehicles per day (41,975,000 per year).[18]

Old meets new at the Stockport Viaduct.

Greater Manchester and Merseyside

The Greater Manchester and Merseyside areas are home to almost 4 million people, and over half the region's population. The road networks intertwining these metropolitan areas are extremely important to the economy and are largely motorway, including the M62 which crosses the entire country (east to west – Hull to Liverpool), this motorway directly connects the cities of Manchester and Liverpool. The M62 sees 78,000 vehicles using the motorway in the North West per day.[19] The Merseyside-Manchester region has many motorways, that serve many millions on a daily basis, other include the M61 which connects Manchester to Preston, the M56 which runs south of Manchester to Cheshire and Wales, The M57 and M58 motorways run north of Liverpool, and connect towns such as St Helens and Wigan. The M60 is Manchester's ring road, the M67 and M66 motorways run east and north respectively, both of these motorways are under 10 miles (16 km) and link Manchester to smaller outlying settlements. On top of this there are countless numbers of A-roads, B-roads and minor roads which circle, entwine and serve these two major metropolises. For more information, see: Transport in Manchester.

A sign marking entry to Scotland located on the M6 motorway crossing the border.

Cumbria

In Cumbria the M6 runs all the way down the east of the county connecting the very north of England to the Lancashire border. The A590 links Barrow-in-Furness to Kendal with around 14,000 vehicles per day.[20] The A595 runs all the way along the West Cumbrian coast beginning near Barrow and ending in Carlisle, linking towns such as Whitehaven and Workington. The A591 road runs from Kendal to the centre of the county connecting Lake District settlements like Windermere, Ambleside and Keswick. Other important A-roads include the A5092, A66, A596 and formerly the A74, until this was upgraded to motorway standard as an extension of the M6 between 2006 and 2008 to meet the A74(M) at the Scottish border.

Lancashire

The Lancashire economy relies strongly on the M6 which also runs from north to south (Lancaster to Chorley). Other motorways in the region include the fairly short M55 which connects the city of Preston and the town of Blackpool at 11.5 miles (18.3 km) in length. The M65 motorway runs from east to west starting in the town of Colne, running through Burnley, Accrington, Blackburn and terminating in Preston. Lancashire is home to many A-roads. The Lancaster-Morecambe area is served by the A683, A6 and A589 roads, the Blackpool-Fylde-Fleetwood area is home to the A587, A584, A583 and A585 roads. The city of Preston and its surroundings are served by the A6, A59, A585, A584, A583, A582 and to the very south-east, the M61 motorway. To the east of the county are the A59, A6119, A677, A679, A666, A680, A56, A646 and A682.

Cheshire

Silver Jubilee Bridge over the Mersey

In Cheshire there are four motorways the M6, the M56 (linking Chester to the east), the M53 (linking Chester to Birkenhead) and the M62, which runs just along the county's northern border with Merseyside and Greater Manchester. The Cheshire road system is made up of 3417 miles (5500 km) of highway, and the principal one (M6) carries 140,000[21] vehicles in the county daily, linking the North West to the West Midlands. The county town of Chester is served by the A55, A483 and A494 roads which lead to all directions of the UK including Wales, which part of the city lies in. To the west of the M6, Crewe, Northwich and Sandbach are served by the A54, A51, A49, A533 and A530 roads, these all eventually link up connecting the towns to the larger cities, including Stoke-on-Trent to the south. To the east of the M6 in Cheshire lies the Peak District, and towns such as Macclesfield and Congleton which are served by the A6, A537, A536, A34, A523 and A566 roads.

Air

The primary international airport in the region is Manchester Airport, which served 22.1 million passengers in 2007 (18.7 million of which were international),[22] more than some of the world's major aviation hubs, including Los Angeles International Airport. The airport is home to three terminals (plus the World Freight Terminal), which serve destinations worldwide. The largest airlines at the airport in terms of flights in 2007 were Flybe, BMI, British Airways, Jet2.com and Lufthansa, although several long-haul carriers such as American Airlines, Delta Air Lines, Virgin Atlantic, Singapore Airlines and Emirates also operate from the airport.

In 2007 Manchester had a recorded 222,703 aircraft movements,[22] the airport is also a hub for major holiday airlines such as Thomas Cook Airlines, Monarch Airlines, First Choice Airways and Thomson Airways.

The regions second largest, but fastest growing airport is Liverpool John Lennon Airport, where passenger numbers have increased from around 690,000 in 1997 to nearly 5.5 million in 2007.[22] The airport serves destinations primarily in the UK and Europe and is a major hub for EasyJet and Ryanair.

The only other significant passenger airport in the region is Blackpool Airport, which was refurbished in 2006 and handles around half a million passengers annually. Destinations range from the Canary Islands in Spain to the Republic of Ireland.

Manchester Airport aerial view

Cheshire

Cumbria

Greater Manchester

Tutor aircraft at RAF Woodvale

Lancashire

Merseyside

  • Liverpool John Lennon Airport – International airport operated by Liverpool Airport plc, destinations worldwide
  • RAF Woodvale – Operated by the Royal Air Force, military use
  • Southport Birkdale Sands airstrip – Sand runway located on Southport beach (infrequent use, subject to prior permission)

Rail

Manchester's Piccadilly station is the largest train station in the region.

The main connection by train is the West Coast Main Line (Virgin Trains), connecting most of the North West. Other important lines are the Liverpool to Manchester Lines and the North TransPennine which connects Liverpool to Manchester through Warrington. East-west connections in Lancashire are carried via the Caldervale Line to Blackpool.

Sea

Sea ferries depart from Liverpool (Gladstone Dock) to Dublin (P&O Irish Sea) and to Douglas on the Isle of Man (Isle of Man Steam Packet); Birkenhead (Twelve Quays Terminal) to Belfast and Dublin (Norfolkline Irish Sea Ferries – former Norse Merchant Ferries); Fleetwood to Larne (Stena Line) in Northern Ireland; and Heysham to Douglas (Isle of Man Steam Packet).

Economy

The North West is historically linked with the textiles industry, mainly before the mid 20th century. The area's electricity, formerly looked after by MANWEB and NORWEB, is now looked after by ScottishPower Energy Networks and United Utilities respectively.

According to research by Cushman and Wakefield in 2008, Manchester is the second best city to locate a business in the UK whilst Liverpool is the eleventh best city.[23]

Cheshire

Cheshire is linked with the salt industry. Ineos (the site was previously owned by ICI Chemicals) has a large plant in Runcorn. AstraZeneca is in Macclesfield. BNFL and its subsidiary Sellafield Ltd (former British Nuclear Group), and ABB UK are based in Daresbury near Runcorn, although most of BNG's operations take place at Sellafield in Cumbria. Vauxhall, home of the Astra, on a former airfield next to the M53, and Shell are in Ellesmere Port. Lex Vehicle Leasing, the UK's largest vehicle leasing company is in Chester. Quinn Glass UK is at Elton. Sandbach used to be home of ERF and Fodens trucks. Brunner Mond has a large works in Winnington, just west of Northwich. British Salt is in Middlewich; Bisto used to be made there, but production moved to Worksop (Nottinghamshire) in 2008. Henkel UK (maker of Pritt and Sellotape) is in Winsford, home of the UK's largest salt mine at Meadowbank run by Salt Union, who are owned by Compass Minerals. Focus, Mornflake and Bentley Motors are in Crewe. Betfred and United Utilities are based in Warrington, and Unilever makes Persil and Surf next to the Bank Quay train station. Bensons for Beds is based nearby to the north in Burtonwood and Westbrook next to the M62 and Burtonwood services. Diageo bottles Guinness at Preston Brook, next to the M56. Konftel UK is at Thelwall. Pets at Home is at Handforth near Wilmslow.

Vauxhall's plant in Ellesmere Port

Lancashire

The main private employer in Lancashire is BAE Systems Military Air Solutions who have two sites either side of Preston (Warton and Samlesbury) for the manufacture of military aircraft. Silentnight is in Barnoldswick. Crown Paints is in Darwen. The boiler firm BAXI originates from Preston also, and InBev have a brewery nearby in Samlesbury (former Whitbread). Leyland Trucks manufactures several highly popular truck ranges from Leyland, home of Enterprise Plc. Whilst other brands originating from Lancashire include: TVR, Reebok, Jaguar Cars and Warburtons to name a few. Nationwide fashion retailer Matalan has its head office and main distribution centre in Skelmersdale, which is where Walker's make Monster Munch at West Pimbo. B & M Retail is in Blackpool, as is the Federation of Small Businesses (FSB), Premium Bonds and National Savings and Investments. Victrex make PEEK (a thermoplastic) just north of Blackpool at Cleveleys.

Greater Manchester

PG Tips are made on Trafford Park

Kelloggs is in Trafford Park (Manchester), and nearby the Brooke Bond division of Unilever make PG Tips, and TDG plc is on the industrial estate. Robertson's (now owned by Premier Foods since it was bought from Rank Hovis McDougall) moved their marmalade (Golden Shred) and jam processing from Droylsden to Histon and Impington (Cambridgeshire) in October 2008. Makro is in Eccles. JJB Sports is in Wigan. JD Sports is in Bury as is Birthdays. Scottish & Newcastle have their large Royal Brewery in Manchester. The Co-op is based in Manchester and Rochdale as is Zen Internet. Heinz, although based in Hayes in Middlesex, has the largest food processing complex in Europe at a 55 acre site at Kitt Green in Wigan, which produces 1.4 billion cans of food each year. Also in Wigan are The Tote, Shearings Holidays and Girobank, and R&R Ice Cream (former Richmond Foods) make De Roma ice cream. Sock Shop is in Bolton, and MBDA (former BAe Dynamics) makes missiles in Lostock near junction 6 of the M61. BAE Systems build aircraft in Chadderton and Woodford in Manchester, and Warton and Samlesbury near Preston. PZ Cussons, MAN B&W Diesel, the Institute of Advanced Motorists, National Tyre Service, Umbro and the internet bank Smile are in Stockport. Adidas UK is in Hazel Grove. BASF UK is in Cheadle Hulme next to the A34. Russell Hobbs is in Failsworth. Inventive Leisure, who own the Revolution pub chain, are in Ashton-under-Lyne. Timpson is in Wythenshawe; Sharwood's used to make their sauces there until Premier Foods moved production to Bury St Edmunds in 2008. Nearby in Moss Nook is Franke UK, the world's largest manufacturer of domestic sinks. Sarson's make vinegar in Middleton. Cotton Traders are in Altrincham, and Dulux Decorator Centres is in West Timperley. McVitie's make their Jaffa Cakes, Penguins and chocolate digestives at a factory in South Manchester.[24]

Merseyside

Littlewood's Building

Pilkington is in St Helens. Littlewoods are in Garston, who are owned by the Shop Direct Group in Speke. Princes, Johnsons Cleaners UK, Maersk Line UK, the Beetham Organization, Home Bargains, the Royal Liver Assurance and T J Hughes have their headquarters in Liverpool. Towards Aintree, Jacob's and their crackers are historically based, and also make Twiglets at their site at Hartley's Village in Fazakerley, and nearby is Sportech PLC, owner of the football pools. Dairy Crest makes Vitalite and Utterly Butterly in Kirkby. Ethel Austin is in Knowsley, near junction 4 of the M57.

Jaguar Land Rover has a main production site (formerly owned by Ford) in Halewood. Halewood International, who make Lambrini, Red Square, Lamb's Navy Rum and some alcopops, are in Whitefield Lane End, in the south of Huyton at the M62/M57 junction. Belling Ltd (owned by Glen Dimplex) is in Whiston, next to the large Whiston Hospital. Pontins is in Ainsdale, Sefton. Ty·phoo tea is made in Moreton, and there is a factory of Burton's Foods who make Cadbury's cakes. Cereal Partners (Nestlé) make Cheerios and Golden Nuggets at Bromborough. At Port Sunlight, Unilever make and research detergents and shampoo, such as Timotei and Sunsilk.

Cumbria

Royal Navy submarines and ships are made by BAE Systems Submarine Solutions in Barrow-in-Furness. The Lake District is popular with holiday makers. The Nuclear Decommissioning Authority is near Whitehaven.

Education

Secondary Education

Secondary schools are mostly comprehensive, except Trafford retains a wholly selective school system, and there are some other grammar schools in Lancashire, Wirral, Liverpool and Cumbria. At GCSE, the lowest performing area by far is Knowsley, one of the worst performing in the UK. Other low performing areas in Greater Merseyside are Halton and Liverpool. Sefton performs much better than its neighbour, Liverpool. Warrington is the best performing area, followed by Wirral. In Greater Manchester, Manchester performs the worst, followed by Salford then Oldham. The best performing area is Trafford (one of the best in the UK), followed by Stockport and Bury. In the Lancashire area, Blackpool is low performing. Bury, Cheshire, Lancashire, Stockport, Trafford, Warrington and Wirral perform higher than the UK average. At A level, Trafford performs the best, and again like GCSE is one of the best areas in the UK. The lowest performing area is, again, Knowsley but followed by Rochdale. Areas performing above the UK average are Lancashire, Bury, Wigan, Blackpool, Cheshire, and Wirral. Blackpool performs not particularly well at GCSE, yet produces much better results at A level – even better than Cheshire.

Winstanley College
Clitheroe Royal Grammar School
Sir John Deane's College

Top thirty state schools in the North West (2008 A level results)

[25]

Colleges

Carmel College
Blackburn College
Trafford College
Manchester College, Northenden

Universities

Manchester Metropolitan University's Hollings Campus - the Toast Rack

There are many universities sited across the region, with the majority belonging to the south around Liverpool and Manchester, every university in the North West is listed below:

Local media

Granada TV in Castlefield, Manchester

Local media include:

mediacity:uk being built at Salford Quays

Town and City Twinnings

Ashton-under-Lyne France Chaumont, France
Blackburn Germany Altena, Germany
France Péronne, France
Blackpool Germany Bottrop, Germany
Bolton France Le Mans, France
Germany Paderborn, Germany
Burnley France Vitry Sur Seine, France
Bury France Angoulême, France
People's Republic of China Datong, China
France Tulle, France
Germany Schorndorf, Germany
United States Woodbury, New Jersey, USA
Carlisle Germany Flensburg, Germany
Poland Słupsk, Poland
Carnforth France Sailly-sur-la-Lys, France
Chadderton Germany Geesthacht, Germany
Chester France Sens, France
Chorley Hungary Székesfehérvár, Hungary
Dalton-in-Furness United States Dalton, Pennsylvania, USA
Denton France Montigny-le-Bretonneux, France
Droylsden France Villemomble, France
Dukinfield France Champagnole, France
Ellesmere Port Germany Reutlingen, Germany
Failsworth Germany Landsberg am Lech, Germany
Fleetwood United States Fleetwood, Pennsylvania, USA
Halton Portugal Leiria, Portugal
Germany Marzahn-Hellersdorf, Germany
People's Republic of China Tongling, China
Czech Republic Ústí nad Labem, Czech Republic
Heywood Germany Peine, Germany
Kendal Republic of Ireland Killarney, Ireland
Germany Rinteln, Germany
Knowsley Germany Moers, Germany
Lancaster Denmark Aalborg, Denmark
Germany Rendsburg, Germany
Liverpool Germany Cologne, Germany
Republic of Ireland Dublin, Ireland
Ukraine Odessa, Ukraine
People's Republic of China Shanghai, China
Longdendale Germany Ruppichteroth, Germany
Manchester Netherlands Amsterdam, Netherlands
Germany Chemnitz, Germany
Spain Córdoba, Spain
Pakistan Faisalabad, Pakistan
United States Los Angeles, California, USA
Nicaragua Puerto Cabezas, Nicaragua
Israel Rehovot, Israel
Russia Saint Petersburg Russia
People's Republic of China Wuhan, China
Mossley France Hem, France
Oldham Slovenia Kranj, Slovenia
Oswaldtwistle Sweden Falkenberg, Sweden
Preston Netherlands Almelo, Netherlands
Poland Kalisz, Poland
France Nîmes, France
Germany Recklinghausen, Germany
Rochdale Germany Bielefeld, Germany
Ukraine Lviv, Ukraine
Pakistan Sahiwal, Pakistan
France Tourcoing, France
Salford France Clermont-Ferrand, France
Germany Lunen, Germany
France Narbonne, France
France Saint-Ouen, France
Sedbergh Slovenia Zreĉe, Slovenia
Sefton Poland Gdańsk, Poland
Belgium Mons, Belgium
United States Fort Lauderdale, USA
Stalybridge France Armentières, France
Stockport France Béziers, France
Germany Heilbronn, Germany
St Helens Germany Stuttgart, Germany
France Chalon-sur-Saône, France
Tameside People's Republic of China Bengbu, China
Zimbabwe Mutare, Zimbabwe
Ulverston France Albert, France
Warrington Germany Hilden, Germany
United States Lake County, Illinois, USA
Czech Republic Náchod, Czech Republic
Wigan France Angers, France
Workington Germany Selm, Germany
France Val-de-Reuil, France

Football

Here is a list of the Premier League and Football League teams in the North West ranked on their 2007-08 league position:

There are 21 Premier League and Football League teams in the North West with:
8 from Greater Manchester (38%)
6 from Lancashire (29%)
3 from Merseyside (14%)
3 from Cheshire (14%)
1 from Cumbria (5%)

Of all the teams in the Premier League and Football League 23% come from the North West. The next nearest region is Greater London with 10 teams (11%). The North West also has 8 teams in the Premier League, more than any other region. Greater London is the next nearest with 5 despite having a far greater population.

Teams in the North West have won 53 out of 109 English football League titles (49%), more than any other region.

Rugby League

Here is a list of the Super League and National League teams in the North West ranked on their 2007 league position:

See also

References

  1. ^ "Mid-2006 population estimates for the United Kingdom" (XLS). Office of National Statistics. 2007. http://www.statistics.gov.uk/statbase/Expodata/Spreadsheets/D9664.xls. Retrieved 2007-06-29. 
  2. ^ http://www.neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk/dissemination/LeadTableView.do?a=7&b=276778&c=manchester&d=13&e=13&g=351271&i=1001x1003x1004&m=0&r=1&s=1256832914930&enc=1&dsFamilyId=1809
  3. ^ http://www.cre.gov.uk/diversity/map/northwest/index.html
  4. ^ Green, David (29 November 2003). "Italians revolt over church closure". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/manchester/3223776.stm. 
  5. ^ http://neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk/dissemination/LeadTableView.do?a=3&b=276778&c=Manchester&d=13&e=13&g=351271&i=1001x1003x1004&o=198&m=0&r=1&s=1198759152617&enc=1&dsFamilyId=85
  6. ^ "Table 1.3: Estimated population resident in the United Kingdom, by foreign country of birth, 60 most common countries of birth, January 2008 to December 2008". Office for National Statistics. http://www.statistics.gov.uk/downloads/theme_population/Population-by-country-of-birth-and-nationality-Jan08-Dec08.zip. Retrieved 2009-10-20. 
  7. ^ "Regional Transport Strategy: the National Picture". Government Office for Yorkshire and The Humber. http://www.gos.gov.uk/gonw/Transport/RegionalTransportStrategy/?a=42496. Retrieved 2009-05-08. 
  8. ^ "The LTP Process". Department for Transport. http://www.dft.gov.uk/pgr/regional/ltp/theltpprocess. Retrieved 2009-05-08. 
  9. ^ "Blackburn with Darwen 2006-11 Local Transport Plan". Blackburn with Darwen Borough Council. http://www.blackburn.gov.uk/server.php?show=ConWebDoc.22943&viewPage=2. Retrieved 2009-05-08. 
  10. ^ "Blackpool 2006-11 Local Transport Plan". Blackpool Council. http://www.blackpool.gov.uk/Services/S-Z/TransportPolicy/FAQs/WhatisaLocalTransportPlan.htm. Retrieved 2009-05-08. 
  11. ^ "Cheshire 2006-11 Local Transport Plan". Cheshire County Council. http://www.cheshire.gov.uk/localtransportplan/home.htm#localtransportplan. Retrieved 2009-05-08. 
  12. ^ a b "Cumbria 2006-11 Local Transport Plan". Cumbria County Council. http://www.cumbria.gov.uk/roads-transport/transportplan/ltp2from2006.asp. Retrieved 2009-05-08. 
  13. ^ "Greater Manchester2006-11 Local Transport Plan". Greater Manchester LTP. http://www.gmltp.co.uk/. Retrieved 2009-05-08. 
  14. ^ "Lancashire 2006-11 Local Transport Plan". Lancashire County Council. http://www.lancashire.gov.uk/environment/ltp/. Retrieved 2009-05-08. 
  15. ^ "Merseyside 2006-11 Local Transport Plan". Merseyside LTP. http://www.letstravelwise.org/content83_The-Local-Transport-Plan.html. Retrieved 2009-05-08. 
  16. ^ "Warrington 2006-11 Local Transport Plan". Warrington Borough Council. http://www.warrington.gov.uk/Transportandstreets/Transportpolicy/Documents/LTP2.aspx. Retrieved 2009-05-08. 
  17. ^ "Cheshire County Council Home Page". Cheshire County Council. http://www.cheshire.gov.uk/. Retrieved 2009-05-08. 
  18. ^ "Final strategy report – Area 9, M6 (Jct 11a to Jct 20)". Route Management Strategy. Highways Agency. http://www.highways.gov.uk/roads/projects/7204.aspx. Retrieved 2007-10-16. 
  19. ^ "Road Traffic Statistics 2006" (XLS). Department for Transport. http://www.dft.gov.uk/172974/173025/221412/221546/227050/261688/roadtraffdata.xls. Retrieved 2007-10-16. 
  20. ^ "A590 High and Low Newton Bypass". Highways Agency. http://www.highways.gov.uk/roads/projects/5066.aspx. Retrieved 2007-10-16. 
  21. ^ "Road Policing". Cheshire Police Web Site. http://www.cheshire.police.uk/showcontent.php?pageid=76. Retrieved 2007-10-16. 
  22. ^ a b c CAA 2007 Annual Airport Statistics
  23. ^ "London and Manchester lead UK business survey". Cushman & Wakefield web pages. Cushman & Wakefield. 24 September 2008. http://www.cushwake.com/cwglobal/jsp/newsDetail.jsp?repId=c19200007p&LanId=EN&LocId=GLOBAL. Retrieved 2008-09-24. 
  24. ^ http://www.unitedbiscuits.com/about-us.php?rnd=qpGjks8QHry209i%2BlCRTLCzZ8OobKlHL1KTVtUSiR6g%3D
  25. ^ GCSE and A-level results for 2006 | Schools special reports | EducationGuardian.co.uk
  26. ^ http://www.sthelensreporter.co.uk/
  27. ^ http://www.sthelensstar.co.uk/

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to North West (England) article)

From Wikitravel

The North West [1] is a diverse region of northern England located to the north of the West Midlands and west of Yorkshire.

Map of North West England
Map of North West England
Cheshire
Cumbria
Greater Manchester
Lancashire
Merseyside

Cities and towns

North West England has many major towns and cities. For others, see county listing.

Understand

The North West is an area of varied landscapes ranging from beaches to lakes and forests to cities. It consists of the counties of Lancashire, Cumbria and Cheshire as well as Greater Manchester and Merseyside. The area consisting of Manchester, Liverpool and Warrington is primarily an urban conurbation. Lancashire and Cumbria are primarily rural with a few large town and cities, and Cheshire is mainly flat agricultural land.

The North West shows a wide diversity in people and dialect: the most common dialects in the region are Scouse (from Liverpool), Lancastrian, Mancunian (also known as Manc) and the Cumberland dialect (Cumbria). There is also North West English, which is a combination of the above mainly spoken outside the accent areas. Most visitors will be hard-pressed to notice significant differences between the dialects but there are many to the trained ear. The people are generally friendly and do welcome tourists.

In the 19th and 20th centuries, the main industry in the North West was textiles, and there is still evidence of this (especially in South Lancashire), but today the textile industry has all but disappeared from the region, giving way for the chemical industry (especially in Cheshire and Merseyside), and defence (especially around Barrow-in-Furness). Many big national and international retailers are headquartered in the region.

Nine times out of ten, the regional weather is mild and overcast, with frequent heavy outbreaks of rain. Temperatures on some summer days can reach the mid 20s Celsius. The best advice is to wear layers (it's very rare to see a North Westerner without a jacket on).

Get in

By plane

Most international flights to the region arrive into Manchester (approx 9 miles from Manchester city centre), where most of the regions key tourist destinations can be reached from the airport railway station, with Manchester Piccadilly about 15 minutes away by train.

There are also low cost intra-European flights availiable from Liverpool (approx 7.5 miles from Liverpool city centre) and Blackpool (about 3 miles from Blackpool town centre).

By car

The North West can be reached from other regions as follows

  • North East - A1 then M62
  • Yorkshire - M62
  • Midlands - M6
  • London and South East - M1 then M6
  • Scotland - M74 then M6
  • South West - M5 then M6
  • South Wales - M48, then M5, then M6
  • North Wales - A55

By bus

National Express and Megabus operate long distance coach services to the North West.

By train

The rail backbone of the region is the West Coast Main Line connecting London to Glasgow via the North West, these trains are operated by Virgin Trains. The hub of all other long distance trains is Manchester Piccadilly, from where you can connect to regional trains (either directly or via Manchester Victoria).

Liverpool while not as well connected as Manchester still gets direct rail links from London, Birmingham, East Anglia and the North East.

Other cities with long distance rail links include Warrington, Chester, Wigan, Preston and Carlisle.

Narrowboat
Narrowboat

By car

The North West is a small area and is easy to get around by car. It takes around three hours to travel from North to South and about two hours to travel East to West. There is a dense network of motorways and dual carriageway roads. However certain parts of the area are very densley populated, so traffic congestion is a common occurrance, especially between 7am and 9am and 4pm and 6pm. Also, as with everywhere else, the motorway frequently undergoes works, and accidents are an almost daily occurrance, so motorway can suffer congestion at any time.

By bus

Bus services are useful in rural areas where trains do not run, and for short journeys. They are cheap especially if "day tickets" are bought which allow travel all day in an area. There is also a place for buses within the major cities, as buses are fairly frequent. Bus travel can be slow owing to frequent stops and traffic congestion. Long distance coach services are infrequent in the North West apart from on the Liverpool-Manchester-Leeds route.

By train

The North West benefits from a good network of commuter and rural trains, most trains within the region are operated by [www.northernrail.org Northern Rail]. While trains are not as quick as those seen in Europe, they are normally quicker than travelling by car, and some lines are quite scenic (especially outside urban areas). If you intend on travelling around the region, then a North West Rail Ranger offering unlimited travel within the region (costing either £54.00 for four days travel in any eight or £66.00 for a week) is worthwhile.

Eat

The North West is home to wide varied range of foods. If in the North try Cumberland Sauasage, Cumberland being a former county which is now part of Cumbria, or Lamb from the Lake District. The coastal regions are a source of great fish and cockles and muscles which can be easily bought from a local chippy or at source in the fishing ports of Morecambe and Heysham.

The North West is also home to Lancashire and Cheshire Cheese, both have a crumbly feel and mild flavour both of which can hold their own against other 'superior' cheeses.

If however you prefer something more filling then there is always Fish and Chips avialiable in all towns in the North West, which can be had with Curry Sauce or Mushy Peas. But then there is Lancashire Hot Pot a dish of sliced onions and potatoes etc...

But if you prefer something sweeter then there is only one answer. Blackpool Rock, or Kendal Mint Cake, or Eccles Cakes, or Bakewell Tart from Manchester, or Chorley Cakes.

This article is an outline and needs more content. It has a template, but there is not enough information present. Please plunge forward and help it grow!

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Database error article)

From LoveToKnow 1911

(There is currently no text in this page)


Simple English

[[File:|thumb|The North West England Region]]

North West England is one of the regions of England in the United Kingdom. The cities of Liverpool and Manchester are located in the south of this region. The northern area (which includes Cumbria and part of Lancashire) is full of villages.

Local government

The official region consists of the following subdivisions:

Ceremonial county County/Unitary Districts
Cheshire Cheshire † a.) Ellesmere Port and Neston, b.) Chester, c.) Crewe and Nantwich, d.) Congleton, e.) Macclesfield, f.) Vale Royal
Warrington U.A.
Halton U.A.
Cumbria a.) Barrow-in-Furness, b.) South Lakeland, c.) Copeland, d.) Allerdale, e.) Eden, f.) Carlisle
Greater Manchester * a.) Bolton, b.) Bury, c.) Manchester, d.) Oldham, e.) Rochdale, f.) Salford, g.) Stockport, h.) Tameside, i.) Trafford, j.) Wigan
Lancashire Lancashire † a.) West Lancashire, b.) Chorley, c.) South Ribble, d.) Fylde, e.) Preston, f.) Wyre, g.) Lancaster, h.) Ribble Valley, i.) Pendle, j.) Burnley, k.) Rossendale, l.) Hyndburn
Blackpool U.A.
Blackburn with Darwen U.A.
Merseyside * a.) Knowsley, b.) Liverpool, c.) St. Helens, d.) Sefton, e.) Wirral


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