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Northampton, Massachusetts
—  City  —
Northampton, Massachusetts Main Street

Nickname(s): Hamp, NoHo, NTown, Paradise City
Motto: caritas, educatio, justitia
Location in Hampshire County in Massachusetts
Coordinates: 42°19′30″N 72°38′30″W / 42.325°N 72.64167°W / 42.325; -72.64167
Country United States
State Massachusetts
County Hampshire
Settled and Charter granted 1654
Incorporated as a city 1884
 - Type Mayor-council city
 - Mayor Mary Clare Higgins
 - Total 35.6 sq mi (92.2 km2)
 - Land 34.5 sq mi (89.3 km2)
 - Water 1.1 sq mi (3.0 km2)
Elevation 140 ft (43 m)
Population (2000)
 - Total 28,978
 Density 841.0/sq mi (324.7/km2)
Time zone Eastern (UTC-5)
 - Summer (DST) Eastern (UTC-4)
ZIP code 01060
Area code(s) 413
FIPS code 25-46330
GNIS feature ID 0606674

Northampton is a city in Hampshire County, Massachusetts, United States. The population was 28,978 at the 2000 census. It is the county seat of Hampshire County. It is nicknamed The Paradise City.

Northampton is part of the Springfield, Massachusetts Metropolitan Statistical Area.



The area now known as Northampton was named Norwottuck, or Nonotuck, meaning "the mist of the river" by Native Americans. In 1653, land was purchased from the native inhabitants making up the bulk of modern Northampton.[1] Colonial Northampton was founded in 1654 by settlers from Springfield, Massachusetts.[2]

Northampton's territory would be enlarged beyond the original settlement, but later the outer portions would be carved up into separate cities and towns. Southampton was incorporated in 1775, including parts of the modern territories of Montgomery (which was itself incorporated in 1780) and Easthampton.[3] Westhampton was incorporated in 1778, and Easthampton in 1809.[4] A part of Northampton known as Smith's Ferry was separated from the rest of the town by Easthampton, and the shortest path to downtown was on a road near the Connecticut River oxbow, which was subject to frequent flooding. The neighborhood was ceded to Holyoke, Massachusetts in 1909.[5]

Initial cooperation between the settlers and the Natives gave way to conflict, evidence of which can today be seen most clearly in nearby Historic Deerfield. Northampton hosted its own witch trials in the 18th century, although no alleged witches were executed. Members of the community were present at the Constitutional Convention[6].

Colonial American Congregational preacher Jonathan Edwards led a spiritual revival in Northampton beginning in 1733. It reached such intensity, in the winter of 1734 and the following spring, as to threaten the business of the town. In the spring of 1735, the movement began to subside and a reaction set in. But the relapse was brief, and the Northampton revival, which had spread through the Connecticut River Valley and whose fame had reached England and Scotland, was followed in 1739–1740 by the Great Awakening, distinctively under the leadership of Edwards.

On August 29, 1786, Daniel Shays and a group of Revolutionary War Veterans called the Shaysites, or "Regulators", stopped the civil court from sitting in Northampton[7].

Northampton was linked to the sea by the Hampshire and Hampden Canal in 1835, but the canal enterprise foundered and after about a decade was replaced by a railroad running along the same route.[8] A flood on the Mill River on May 16, 1874, destroyed almost the entire village of Leeds in the township of Northampton.[9]

Northampton, which was incorporated as a city in 1883, developed into a thriving community and a local center for commerce, education, and the arts, even supporting a still-extant opera house, the Academy of Music, which functioned as an independent movie house until recently.[10] However, the 800 seat theatre now operates as a venue for rent for local and other productions. In 1851, opera singer Jenny Lind, the "Swedish Nightingale", declared Northampton to be the "Paradise of America." The first game of women's basketball was played in 1892 at Smith College. Immigrant groups that settled here in large numbers included Irish, Polish, and French-Canadian. Former President Calvin Coolidge retired to Northampton upon leaving the White House in 1929, and died there on January 5, 1933.

Hampshire County Courthouse in Northampton

The city experienced several decades of economic decline, peaking in the 1970s, and related to the emergence of the Rust Belt phenomenon. Though Western Massachusetts lies outside of the typical geographic bounds of the Rust Belt, the centrality of commerce and the arts in Northampton's economy left it economically vulnerable, as the decline of Springfield's manufacturing sector and Holyoke's paper industry immediately to the east coincided with massive plant closures in the upstate New York Capital District region to the west.

Attempts at revitalization in the 1970s and 1980s led to something of a demographic rift, as the primarily working-class established population saw an influx of young professionals. Therapists and other mental health workers were chief among these, as the reduction and closure of the Northampton State Hospital created an increased demand. The distinction between the long-established population and the more recent arrivals has today blurred somewhat, but remains in local nomenclature, where those who have moved to the region since the 1970s are likely to refer to the city as "NoHo," while to its multi-generational residents it is more commonly known as "Hamp." In local political discourse, the distinction blurs the lines between economic class discrepancies, family histories, and political alignment, as when an unexpected Hamp groundswell was credited with defeating a same-sex domestic partnership ordinance measure in the early 1990s.

Northampton today is a popular destination for tourists, who come to sample the city's shopping and restaurants. Since 1995 the city has been home to the twice-yearly Paradise City Arts Festival, held at the Three County Fairgrounds on Memorial Day Weekend and Columbus Day Weekend. The Festival is ranked the #1 arts fair in America, and is a national juried showcase for contemporary craft and fine art. Northampton is an open and tolerant community, and is home to a sizable lesbian community.

Northampton is also home to a vibrant music scene. This is the result of music venues such as the Calvin Theater, Pines Theater, Pearl Street, Iron Horse Music Hall, The Elevens, and The Academy of Music. Musicians and bands that refer to the Northampton area as "home" include Sonic Youth, Mobius Band, The Alchemystics, The Primate Fiasco, Erin McKeown, The Thungs, The Amity Front, The Nields, The Young@Heart Chorus, Ella Longpre, The Trials and Tribulations, Cordelia's Dad, Thrillpillow, Rusty Belle, The Novels, Los Hijos Unicos, Spanish for Hitchhiking, The Skeptics, Fountains of Wayne, Roger Salloom and the Winterpills


Northampton sits on the banks of the Connecticut River, in the Pioneer Valley of Western Massachusetts. It is located at 42°19′39″N 72°39′28″W / 42.3275°N 72.65778°W / 42.3275; -72.65778Coordinates: 42°19′39″N 72°39′28″W / 42.3275°N 72.65778°W / 42.3275; -72.65778.[11]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 35.6 square miles (92.2 km²), of which, 34.5 square miles (89.3 km²) of it is land and 1.1 square miles (3.0 km²) of it (3.20%) is water.

Within the city limits are the villages of Florence and Leeds. It is bordered to the north by the towns of Hatfield and Williamsburg, to the west by Westhampton, to the east by Hadley (across the Connecticut River), and to the south by Easthampton.


As of the census[12] of 2000, there were 28,978 people, 11,880 households, and 5,880 families residing in the city. Northampton has the most lesbian couples per capita of any city in the US.[13] The population density was 841.0 people per square mile (324.7/km²). There were 12,405 housing units at an average density of 360.0/sq mi (139.0/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 90.01% White, 2.08% African American, 0.30% Native American, 3.13% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 2.41% from other races, and 2.03% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.24% of the population.

There were 11,880 households out of which 22.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 36.7% were married couples living together, 10.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 50.5% were non-families. 37.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.14 and the average family size was 2.87.

In the city the population was spread out with 17.0% under the age of 18, 15.4% from 18 to 24, 29.9% from 25 to 44, 23.9% from 45 to 64, and 13.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 75.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 71.1 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $41,808, and the median income for a family was $56,844. Males had a median income of $37,264 versus $30,728 for females. The per capita income for the city was $24,022. About 5.7% of families and 9.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.4% of those under age 18 and 9.1% of those age 65 or over.

Northampton's public schools include four elementary schools (kindergarten through 5th grade), one middle school (6th to 8th grade), one high school (9th to 12th grade), and one vocational-agricultural high school (9th to 12th grade). There are a few charter schools and several private schools in Northampton and surrounding towns.


Northampton is also considered by many as something of a liberal mecca, due in part to the five colleges in the area and the city's large LGBT community. Smith College, which has an active and progressive lesbian community and a number of female-to-male transgendered students, is part of the center of the city's activities. The city has a non-discrimination ordinance in place which protects individuals from discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity and expression.

The city is home to the national office of the Bill of Rights Defense Committee, a civil liberties advocacy group; Free Press, a non-profit advocating media reform and citizen involvement in media public policy; The Freedom Center, an antipsychiatry community and advocacy group; and the National Priorities Project, a non-profit group that tracks federal spending, most notably by maintaining a web-based counter calculating the cost of the war in Iraq.

As of 2007, Mary Clare Higgins is the Mayor.[14] Previous mayors include former president Calvin Coolidge and James "Big Jim" Cahillane who served from 1954 to 1960. Also well known Judge Sean M. Dunphy was the youngest elected mayor in its history at age 28.

The Paradise City Forum was founded November, 2001 to provide a nonpartisan discussion tool for the community.

Public schools


Northampton is served by Interstate 91, which passes to the east of downtown along the Connecticut River. U.S. Route 5, Massachusetts Route 9, and Massachusetts Route 10 all intersect in the city's downtown area.

The Pioneer Valley Transit Authority operates several local passenger buses which originate in Northampton, with service to local towns such as Amherst, Williamsburg, Hadley, South Hadley and Holyoke, as well as nearby universities, such as Mount Holyoke College, Amherst College, University of Massachusetts Amherst and Hampshire College. The Franklin Regional Transit Authority operates a bus to Greenfield, Massachusetts. There is a Peter Pan Bus terminal with services to Springfield, Boston, and other locations in New England. The Vermont Transit Lines bus also serves this terminal.

At present, passenger railway service to the Northampton area is provided by Amtrak via the Springfield Train Station, about a 20-minute drive south of Northampton, or a short walk from the Peter Ban Bus terminal in Springfield. The only active rail line through Northampton is operated by a Class 2 railroad regional railway, Pan Am Railways (formerly known as Guilford Rail System). The Amtrak Montrealer was the last passenger train to run through Northampton in 1988. Part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 includes $8 billion for rail, of which $70 million will be spent to realign the Amtrak's Vermonter route. The Vermonter now travels from Springfield to Brattleboro, Vermont via Palmer, Massachusetts, but in the future will take the original more direct Montrealer route through Northampton. In addition to restoring the Northampton stop, stops will be added at Greenfield and possibly Holyoke.

Major domestic and limited international service is available 40 miles to the south at Bradley International Airport (BDL) in Windsor Locks, Connecticut. Northampton Airport, identified by the airport code 7B2, offers a 3365 X 50 foot runway and is within a mile-and-a-half walk from downtown.


The Daily Hampshire Gazette is based in Northampton, covering Hampshire and Franklin counties. Northampton is the city of license for three commercial radio stations: WLZX, WEIB and WHMP. Northampton is also home to WXOJ-LP, a low power community radio station owned and operated by Valley Free Radio. The station was built by more than 400 volunteers from Northampton and around the country in August 2005 at the eighth Prometheus Radio Project barnraising, in conjunction with the tenth annual Grassroots Radio Coalition conference. WXOJ broadcasts music, news, and public affairs to listeners at 103.3FM. Northampton is also the birthplace of The Rainbow Times, the only lesbian-owned LGBT newspaper (found in 2006), which serves all of MA, Rhode Island, north central CT & Southern VT. According to the U.S. Census 2000, Northampton is the second gayest zip code in Massachusetts, followed by Boston, MA. In addition, Northampton is home to Northampton Community Television, which has existed in numerous forms since the mid-1980s, but which experienced a radical change in 2006 when it became an independently run nonprofit community media center. After a new public unveiling in November 2007, NCTV grew to over 200 active members in less than 18 months and had already attracted statewide and national attention in the community media landscape.

Points of interest

The Connecticut River in Northampton
  • Clarke School For The Deaf specializes in oral education (speech and lip-reading, as opposed to signing), and holds an annual summer camp, the theme varying from summer to summer. Clarke is also the oldest oral school for the deaf in the country, being established in 1867 on Round Hill Road overlooking the Connecticut River Valley.
  • The Connecticut River and The Oxbow, are popular areas for boaters in the valley.
  • Fitzgerald Lake Conservation Area, Rainbow Beach, Roberts Hill Conservation Area, Mineral Hills Conservation Area, and Saw Mill Hills Conservation Area provide a portion of the protected open space that covers 15% of the City.[citation needed]
  • Look Park is a 150+ acre recreational park founded in 1930. Although Frank Newhall Look, who left the property to the city in his will, requested that the park would always have free admission for the public, the current annual membership fee is $25. Blanket picnicking is not permitted, although picnic tables may be rented for an additional fee.
  • Northampton is becoming a rail trail hub. Currently, the Norwottuck Rail Trail extends ten miles from Northampton to Amherst and Belchertown, the 2.5 mile Northampton Bike Path extends from downtown Northampton to Florence, and the Manhan Rail Trail Spur extends 0.5 miles from Route 66 to Florence Road. Four other rail trail extensions are under construction, in the bidding process, or planned for the short term.
  • The Botanic Garden of Smith College is a diverse outdoor collection of trees, shrubs, and plants, as well as a fine collection of plant conservatories for the tropics, semi-tropics, and desert regions. It also includes an indoor greenhouse.
  • The Three County Fair claims to be the "longest consecutive running agricultural fair in the country", having been established and incorporated in 1818.
  • Due to its relative proximity to Boston and its strong arts community,[citation needed] many musicians perform in Northampton at local venues such as the Calvin theater, the Iron Horse Music Hall, and the Pearl Street Nightclub.
  • The Northampton Independent Film Festival (NIFF) is held each fall. Founded as the Northampton Film Festival in 1995 by Howard Polonsky and Dee DeGeiso, it has continued to grow under a variety of directors. It is one of the largest in New England.
  • The Academy of Music, built in 1890 by Edward H.R. Lyman,[citation needed] is the only municipally owned theatre in the nation, and was the first to be so owned; it is also one of the six oldest theatres, nationally. Boris Karloff and Harry Houdini (who installed a trap door in the stage) performed here. The Academy is still in operation today.
  • Forbes Library The built in 1894 is the public library for Northampton. The second floor houses the unofficial Calvin Coolidge presidential library.
  • Mirage Studios, the Creators of the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles Franchise. In the TMNT series, the turtles and Casey Jones visit Casey Jones' grandmother's farm in Northampton, Massachusetts.
  • Northampton Community Music Center Each May, students from the (NCMC) fill the streets with music.
  • LGBT Pride On the first Saturday of May, Northampton marks the annual Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Pride March & Rallywith a colorful parade down Main St. (Route 9), ending with an all-day family-friendly festival at a designated location in town.
  • Thornes Marketplace in downtown Northampton contains shops, restaurants, a gallery and a performing space where local dance and theater performances occur regularly.
  • On a small hill overlooking the city, right by the site of the Northampton State Hospital, sits a simple stone monument marking the spot of the hangings of Daley and Halligan, two Irishmen wrongfully accused of murder in the early 1800s.[citation needed]
  • Sylvester's Restaurant - Located at 111 Pleasant Street. Sylvester's is located in the former home of Sylvester Graham, inventor of the Graham Cracker. Sylvester's claimed top honors for breakfast in the Valley Advocate's "Best Of" reader's poll and since then, Sylvester's has consistently ranked among the top 3 contenders for assorted restaurant categories.

Paradise Pond tra

  • Mill River Market Place located on route 10 towards Easthampton

Notable residents

Cultural references

Ryan Roberts is best known for his little league coaching career

The Stephen Walker movie Young @ Heart was filmed in Northhampton.



  • Kerry W. Buckley, ed. A Place Called Paradise: Culture and Community in Northampton, Massachusetts, 1654-2004. Northampton: Historic Northampton Museum and Education Center, in association with University of Massachusetts Press, 2004. ix + 523 pp. ISBN 978-1-55849-485-5. reprints 20 essays by scholars
  • Tracy Kidder. Home Town [1999], nonfiction by reporter

External links

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

NORTHAMPTON, a city and the county-seat of Hampshire county, Massachusetts, U.S.A., situated on the Connecticut river, about 16 m. N. of Springfield. Pop. (1910 census) 1 9,43 1. The city has an area of 35.3 sq. m. The chief village, Northampton, is on the New York, New Haven & Hartford, and the Boston & Maine railways. It lies on the border of the meadow-land, and with its irregular, semi-rural streets, and venerable trees is considered one of the prettiest villages in New England. About 2 m. S.E. of Northampton is Mount Holyoke (954 ft.), which may be ascended by carriage road and mountain railway, and the summit of which commands a magnificent view. The city is the seat of a state hospital for the insane; of the Clarke School for the Deaf (1867, founded by John Clarke of Northampton); of Smith College, one of the foremost colleges for women in the country; of the Mary A. Burnham School for Girls (1877), a preparatory school chiefly for Smith College, founded by Miss Mary A. Burnham; and of the Miss Capen School (preparatory) for girls. Besides the college library, there are in Northampton two public libraries, the Clarke (1850) and the Forbes (1894). The Forbes library was established with funds left by Charles E. Forbes (1795-1881), from 1848 to 1881 a justice of the state supreme court. The People's Institute was started as a Home-Culture Clubs movement by George W. Cable, who became a resident of Northampton in 1886. The Smith Charities is a peculiar institution, endowed by Oliver Smith (1766-1845) of Hatfield, who left an estate valued at $370,000, to be administered by a board of three trustees, chosen by electors representing the towns of Northampton, Hadley, Hatfield, Amherst and Williamsburg in Hampshire county and Greenfield and Whately in Franklin county - the beneficiaries of the will. The will was contested by Smith's heirs, but in 1847 was sustained by the supreme judicial court of Massachusetts. Of the total sum, $200,000 was to accumulate until it became $400,000. Of this $30,000 was to found Smith's Agricultural School at Northampton, which opened for instruction in 1908; an income of $10,000 was to be paid to the American Colonization Society, but this society failed to comply with the restrictions imposed by the will, and the $Io,000 was incorporated with the Agricultural School fund; and $360,000 was devoted to indigent boys and girls, indigent young women and indigent wido«s. The remainder of Smith's property was constituted a contingent fund to defray expenses and keep the principal funds intact. Florence, a village on the Mill river in the city limits, is a manufacturing village, silk being its principal product, and cutlery and brushes being of minor importance. The value of the city's factory products increased from $4,706,820 in 1900 to $5,756,381 in 1905, or 22.3%. Northampton was first settled in 1654, became a township in 1656, and was incorporated as a city in 1883. In September 1786, at the time of the Shays Rebellion, the New Hampshire Gazette (still published; daily edition since 1890) was established here in the interest of the state administration. 'Jonathan Edwards was pastor here from 1727 to 1750. Caleb Strong (1745-1819), a member of the Federal Constitutional Convention of 1787, and governor of Massachusetts in1800-1807and 1812-1816; Joseph Hawley (1723-1788), one of the most prominent patriots of western Massachusetts; Timothy Dwight; Arthur (1786-1865), Benjamin, and Lewis (1788-1873) Tappan, prominent philanthropists and anti-slavery men; and William D. Whitney were natives of Northampton.

See J. R. Trumbull, History of Northam p ton (2 vols., Northampton, 1898-1902).

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