Northamptonshire: Wikis

  
  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Coordinates: 52°17′N 0°50′W / 52.283°N 0.833°W / 52.283; -0.833

Northamptonshire
Northamptonshire Flag.PNG
EnglandNorthamptonshire.png
Geography
Status Ceremonial & Non-metropolitan county
Region East Midlands
Area
- Total
- Admin. council
Ranked 24th
2,364 km2 (913 sq mi)
Ranked 22nd
Admin HQ Northampton
ISO 3166-2 GB-NTH
ONS code 34
NUTS 3 UKF23
Demography
Population
- Total (2008 est.)
- Density
- Admin. council
Ranked 33rd
685,000
290 /km2 (751/sq mi)
Ranked 15th
Ethnicity 95.1% White
2.0% South Asian
1.2% Black British.
Politics
Arms of Northamptonshire County Council
Northamptonshire County Council
http://www.northamptonshire.gov.uk/
Executive Conservative
Members of Parliament
Districts
NorthamptonshireNumbered.png
  1. South Northamptonshire
  2. Northampton
  3. Daventry
  4. Wellingborough
  5. Kettering
  6. Corby
  7. East Northamptonshire

Northamptonshire (or, archaically, the County of Northampton; pronounced /nɔrˈθæmptənʃər/ or /nɔrθˈhæmptənʃɪər/; abbreviated Northants. or N/hants) is a landlocked county in the English East Midlands, with a population of 629,676 as at the 2001 census. It has boundaries with Warwickshire to the west, Leicestershire and Rutland to the north, Cambridgeshire (including the city of Peterborough) to the east, Bedfordshire to the south-east, Buckinghamshire (including the borough of Milton Keynes) to the south, Oxfordshire to the south-west, and Lincolnshire to the north-east – England's shortest county boundary at 19 metres (21 yd).[1] The county town is Northampton.

Northamptonshire's county flower is the cowslip.

Contents

Geography

Northamptonshire is an inland county in the East Midlands region.[2] It contains the watershed between the Severn and The Wash. Several important rivers have their sources in the north-west of the county, including the River Nene, which flows north-eastwards to The Wash, and the "Warwickshire Avon", which flows south-west to the Severn. In 1830 it was boasted that "not a single brook, however insignificant, flows into it from any other district".[3] The highest point in the county is Arbury Hill at 225 metres (738 ft).[4]

Northampton is the largest town in the county, with a population of 189,474 people at the time of the 2001 census. This is followed by Wellingborough (72,519), Kettering (51,063), Corby (49,222), Rushden (25,849), and Daventry (22,367). Most of the county's population is concentrated in a central north–south band which includes the four largest towns (corresponding to districts 2, 4, 5 & 6 on the map). The west (districts 1 & 3) and east (district 7) are predominantly rural with small towns and many villages. Northamptonshire is a long, thin county (more so with the Soke of Peterborough), running from south-west to north-east. The county's location and shape, as well as the increasing importance of distribution to the local economy, has led to it being known as "England's Pancreas".

Places

These are the main settlements in Northamptonshire with a town charter, a population over 5,000, or which are otherwise notable.

Peterborough

The Soke of Peterborough was historically associated with Northamptonshire, as the county diocese is focused upon the cathedral there.[5] However, Peterborough had its own county council, and in 1965 was merged with the neighbouring small county of Huntingdonshire.[6] Under the Local Government Act 1972 the city of Peterborough became a district of Cambridgeshire.[7]

History

Much of Northamptonshire’s countryside appears to have remained somewhat intractable with regards to early human occupation, resulting in an apparently sparse population and relatively few finds from the Palaeolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic periods.[8] About 500 BC the Iron Age was introduced into the area by a continental people in the form of the Hallstatt culture,[9] and over the next century a series of hill-forts were constructed at Arbury Camp, Rainsborough camp, Borough Hill, Castle Dykes, Guilsborough, Irthlingborough, and most notably of all, Hunsbury Hill. There are two more possible hill-forts at Arbury Hill (Badby) and Thenford.[9]

In the 1st century BC, most of what later became Northamptonshire became part of the territory of the Catuvellauni, a Belgic tribe, the Northamptonshire area forming their most northerly possession.[9] The Catuvellauni were in turn conquered by the Romans in 43 AD.[10]

The Roman road of Watling Street passed through the county, and an important Roman settlement, Lactodorum, stood on the site of modern-day Towcester. There were other Roman settlements at Northampton, Kettering and along the Nene Valley near Raunds. A large fort was built at Longthorpe.[9]

After the Romans left, the area eventually became part of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Mercia, and Northampton functioned as an administrative centre. The Mercians converted to Christianity in 654 AD with the death of the pagan king Penda.[11] From about 889 the area was conquered by the Danes (as at one point was almost all of England except for Athelney marsh in Somerset) and became part of the Danelaw - with Watling Street serving as the boundary - until being recaptured by the English under the Wessex king Edward the Elder, son of Alfred the Great, in 917. Northamptonshire was conquered again in 940, this time by the Vikings of York, who devastated the area, only for the county to be retaken by the English in 942.[12] Consequently, it is one of the few counties in England to have both Saxon and Danish town-names and settlements.[citation needed]

The county was first recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (1011), as Hamtunscire: the scire (shire) of Hamtun (the homestead). The "North" was added to distinguish Northampton from the other important Hamtun further south: Southampton.[13]

Rockingham Castle was built for William the Conqueror[14] and was used as a Royal fortress until Elizabethan times. The now-ruined Fotheringhay Castle was used to imprison Mary, Queen of Scots, before her execution.[15] In 1460, during the Wars of the Roses, the Battle of Northampton took place and King Henry VI was captured.[16]

John Speed's 17th century map of Northamptonshire.

George Washington, the first President of the United States of America, was born into the Washington family who had migrated to America from Northamptonshire in 1656. George Washington's great-great-great-great-great grandfather, Lawrence Washington, was Mayor of Northampton on several occasions and it was he who bought Sulgrave Manor from Henry VIII in 1539. It was George Washington's great-grandfather, John Washington, who emigrated in 1656 from Northants to Virginia. Before Washington's ancestors moved to Sulgrave, they lived in Warton, Lancashire.[17]

During the English Civil War Northamptonshire strongly supported the Parliamentarian cause, and the Royalist forces suffered a crushing defeat at the Battle of Naseby in 1645 in the north of the county. King Charles I was imprisoned at Holdenby House in 1647.[18]

In 1823 Northamptonshire was said to "[enjoy] a very pure and wholesome air" because of its dryness and distance from the sea. Its livestock were celebrated: "Horned cattle, and other animals, are fed to extraordinary sizes: and many horses of the large black breed are reared."[19]

Nine years later, the county was described as "a county enjoying the reputation of being one of the healthiest and pleasantest parts of England" although the towns were "of small importance" with the exceptions of Peterborough and Northampton. In summer, the county hosted "a great number of wealthy families... country seats and villas are to be seen a every step."[20] Northamptonshire is still referred to as the county of "spires and squires" because of the numbers of stately homes and ancient churches.[21]

In the 18th and 19th centuries, parts of Northamptonshire and the surrounding area became industrialised. The local specialisation was shoemaking and the leather industry and by the end of the 19th century it was almost definitively the boot and shoe making capital of the world.[citation needed] In the north of the county a large ironstone quarrying industry developed from 1850.[22] During the 1930s, the town of Corby was established as a major centre of the steel industry. Much of Northamptonshire nevertheless remains largely rural.[citation needed]

Corby was designated a new town in 1950[23] and Northampton followed in 1968.[24] As of 2005 the government is encouraging development in the South Midlands area, including Northamptonshire.[25]

Governance

National representation

Northamptonshire returns six members of Parliament:[26]

Constituency Member of Parliament Political party
Corby Phil Hope Labour
Daventry Tim Boswell Conservative
Kettering Philip Hollobone Conservative
Northampton North Sally Keeble Labour
Northampton South Brian Binley Conservative
Wellingborough Peter Bone Conservative

Local government

Like most English shire counties, Northamptonshire has a two-tier structure of local government. The county has an elected county council based in Northampton, and is also divided into seven districts each with their own district or borough councils:[27]

Council Where based
Corby Borough Council Corby
Daventry District Council Daventry
East Northamptonshire District Council Thrapston
Kettering Borough Council Kettering
Northampton Borough Council Northampton
South Northamptonshire District Council Towcester
Borough Council of Wellingborough Wellingborough

Northamptonshire also has a large number of civil parishes. (see List of civil parishes in Northamptonshire.)

From 1993 until 2005, Northamptonshire County Council[28] for which each of the 73 electoral divisions in the county elects a single councillor, had been held by the Labour Party; previously it had been under no overall control since 1981. The councils of the rural districts – Daventry, East Northamptonshire, and South Northamptonshire – are strongly Conservative, whereas the political composition of the urban districts is more mixed. At the 2003 local elections, Labour lost control of Kettering, Northampton, and Wellingborough, retaining only Corby. Elections for the entire County Council are held every four years – the last were held on 5 May 2005 when control of the County Council changed from the Labour Party to the Conservatives. The County Council uses a leader and cabinet executive system and has recently (from April 2006) abolished its area committees.

Northampton itself is the most populous urban district in England not to be administered as a unitary authority (even though several smaller districts are unitary). During the 1990s local government reform, Northampton Borough Council petitioned strongly for unitary status, which led to fractured relations with the County Council.[citation needed]

Northamptonshire is policed by Northamptonshire Police, and is covered by Northamptonshire Fire and Rescue Service.

Before 1974, the Soke of Peterborough was considered geographically part of Northamptonshire, although it had had a separate county council since the late nineteenth century and separate Quarter Sessions courts before then. Now part of Cambridgeshire, the city of Peterborough became a unitary authority in 1998, but it continues to form part of that county for ceremonial purposes.[29]

Economy

Historically, Northamptonshire's main industry was the manufacture of boots and shoes;[30] R Griggs and Co Ltd, the manufacturer of Dr. Martens, still has its UK base in Wollaston near Wellingborough.[31] Weetabix breakfast cereal is made at Burton Latimer near Kettering, and Carlsberg beer is brewed in Northampton. Other major employers in the county include Avon Cosmetics, Siemens, Barclaycard, Saxby Bros Ltd and Golden Wonder.[32][33] North of Daventry is the Daventry International Railfreight Terminal;[34] Wellingborough has a smaller railfreight depot on Finedon Road.[35]

This is a chart of trend of the regional gross value added of Northamptonshire at current basic prices in millions of British Pounds Sterling (correct on 21 December 2005):[36]

Year Regional Gross Value Added[37] Agriculture[38] Industry[39] Services[40]
1995 6,139 112 2,157 3,870
2000 9,743 79 3,035 6,630
2003 10,901 90 3,260 7,551

Motor racing

The area of Northamptonshire, Oxfordshire and South Midlands has been described as "Motorsport Valley... a global hub" for the industry.[41][42] The Mercedes GP[43] and Force India[44] Formula One teams have their bases at Brackley and Silverstone respectively, while Cosworth[45] and Mercedes-Benz High Performance Engines[46] are also in the county at Northampton and Brixworth.

International motor racing takes place at Silverstone Circuit[47] and Rockingham Motor Speedway;[48] Santa Pod Raceway is just over the border in Bedfordshire but has a Northants postcode.[49] A study commissioned by Northamptonshire Enterprise Ltd (NEL) reported that Northamptonshire's motorsport sites attract more than 2.1 million visitors per year who spend a total of more than £131 million in the county.[50]

Education

Northamptonshire County Council operates a complete comprehensive system with 42 state secondary schools.[51] The county's music and performing arts service provides peripatetic music teaching to schools. It also supports 15 local Saturday morning music and performing arts centres around the county[52] and provides a range of county level music groups.[53]

Colleges

The Tresham College of Further and Higher Education, which has campuses in Wellingborough, Kettering and Corby,[54] provides further education and offers vocational courses, GCSEs and A Levels.[55] It also offers Higher Education options in conjunction with several universities[56] and has recently announced its intention to seek university status from the government and to open a Higher Education campus in Kettering.[citation needed]

University

The University of Northampton has 10,000 students and two campuses 2.5 miles (4.0 km) apart.[57] It offers courses for needs and interests from foundation and undergraduate level to postgraduate, professional and doctoral qualifications. Subjects include traditional arts, humanities and sciences subjects, as well as entrepreneurship, product design and advertising.[58]

Healthcare

Hospitals

Northampton has several NHS branches, the main acute NHS hospitals in the county being Northampton and Kettering General Hospitals. In the south-west of the county, the town of Brackley and surrounding villages are serviced by the Horton General Hospital in Banbury in the neighbouring county of Oxfordshire for any acute medical needs. A similar arrangement is in place in the north-west of the county for the town of Oundle and nearby villages, being serviced by Peterborough District Hospital.

In the east of county, Kettering General Hospital has seen increasing pressure on its services. In January 2009, Irthlingborough was earmarked by the hospital to have a new satellite out-patient centre to provide over 48,000 appointments a year, as well as a minor injury unit to serve East Northamptonshire.[59]

Water contamination

In June 2008, Anglian Water found traces of Cryptosporidium in water supplies of Northamptonshire. The local reservoir, Pitsford, was investigated to find a rabbit which had strayed into it,[60] causing the problem. About 250,000 residents were affected;[61] by 14 July 2008, 13 cases of cryptosporidiosis attributed to water in Northampton had been reported.[62] Following the end of the investigation, Anglian Water lifted its boil notice for all affected areas on 4 July 2008.[63] Anglian Water revealed that it will pay up to £30 per household as compensation for customers hit by the water crisis.[64]

Transport

The gap in the hills at Watford Gap meant that many south-east to north-west routes passed through Northamptonshire. The Roman Road Watling Street (now part of the A5) passes through here, as did later canals, railways and major roads.

Roads

Major national roads including the M1 motorway and the A14, provide Northamptonshire with transport links, both north–south and east–west. The A43 joins the M1 to the M40, passing through the south of the county to the Junction west of Brackley and the A45 links Northampton with Wellingborough and Peterborough.

Rivers and canals

The Grand Union Canal at Braunston

Two major canals – the Oxford and the Grand Union – join in the county at Braunston. Notable features include a flight of 17 locks on the Grand Union at Rothersthorpe, the canal museum at Stoke Bruerne, and a tunnel at Blisworth which, at 2,813 metres (3,076 yd), is the third-longest navigable canal tunnel on the UK canal network [65].

A branch of the Grand Union Canal connects to the River Nene in Northampton and has been upgraded to a "wide canal" in places and is known as the Nene Navigation. It is famous for its guillotine locks.

For the last five years Northamptonshire County Council has been in partnership with WS Atkins, Europe's largest Engineering Consultants to manage and maintain all highway functions.

Railways

The West Coast Main Line running alongside the M1 motorway near Daventry

Two trunk railway routes, the West Coast Main Line and the Midland Main Line traverse the county. At its peak, Northamptonshire had 75 railway stations. It now has only six, at Northampton and Long Buckby on the West Coast Main Line, Kettering, Wellingborough and Corby on the Midland Main Line, along with King's Sutton, which is a few metres from the boundary with Oxfordshire on the Chiltern Main Line.

Before nationalization of the railways in 1948 and the creation of British Railways), three of the "Big Four" railway companies operated in Northamptonshire: the London, Midland and Scottish Railway, London and North Eastern Railway and Great Western Railway. Only the Southern Railway was not represented. After rail privatisation, it is served by Virgin, London Midland, Chiltern Railways and East Midland Trains. From being served by 75 stations in 1948 and three operators, in 2009 it has 6 stations with four operators.

Corby rail history

Corby was been described as one of the largest towns in Britain without a railway station.[66] The railway running through the town from Kettering to Oakham in Rutland, was previously used only by freight traffic and occasional diverted passenger trains that did not stop at the station. The line through Corby was once part of a main line to Nottingham through Melton Mowbray but the stretch between Melton and Nottingham was closed in 1968. In the 1980s, an experimental passenger shuttle service between Corby and Kettering but was withdrawn a few years later.[67] A bus link operated by East Midlands Trains provides access to Corby from Kettering station. On 23 February 2009, a new Corby railway station opened providing direct hourly access to London St Pancras.

Closed lines and stations

Railway services in Northamptonshire were reduced by the Beeching Axe in the 1960s.[68] Closure of the line connecting Northampton to Peterborough by way of Wellingborough, Thrapston, and Oundle left eastern Northamptonshire devoid of railways. Part of this route has been re-opened in 1977 as the Nene Valley Railway. A section of one of the closed lines, the Northampton to Market Harborough line, is now the Northampton & Lamport heritage railway, while the route as a whole forms a part of the National Cycle Network, as the Brampton Valley Way.

As early as 1897 Northamptonshire would have had its own Channel Tunnel rail link with the creation of the Great Central Railway, which was intended to connect to a tunnel under the English Channel. Although the complete project never came to fruition, the rail link through Northamptonshire was constructed, and had stations at Charwelton, Woodford Halse, Helmdon, and Brackley. It became part of the London and North Eastern Railway in 1923 (and of British Railways in 1948) before its closure in 1966.[citation needed]

Future

In June 2009 The Association of train operating companies (ATOC) recommended opening a new station on the former Irchester railway station site, for Rushden, Higham Ferrers and Irchester called Rushden Parkway.[69] Network Rail is looking at electrifying the Midland Main Line north of Bedford, this would provide have less carbon emissions.[70] A open accees company have approached Network Rail for services to Oakham in Rutland to London via the county.[70]

The Rushden, Higham and Wellingborough Railway would like to see the railway fully reopen between Wellingborough and Higham Ferrers.

Buses

Most buses are operated by Stagecoach in Northants and First Northampton. Some town area routes have been named the Corby Star, Connect Kettering, Connect Wellingborough and Daventry Dart, the last three of these routes have route designations that include a letter, such as A, D1, W1, W2, and so on.[71][72]

Airports

Northamptonshire has Sywell Aerodrome, which is situated on the edge of Sywell village. The airport has three grass runways, but is soon to get a concrete runway so it can be used in all weathers.[73]

Media

Newspapers

The two main newspapers in the county are the Northamptonshire Evening Telegraph and the Northampton Chronicle & Echo.

BBC Regions

In BBC regional radio and television terms, the Northampton, Kettering and Wellingborough parts of the county is not usually considered as part of the East Midlands; but as part of East Anglia with the BBC East's regional news BBC Look East being accessed in this area. BBC East Midlands's regional news BBC East Midlands Today covers Corby areas and BBC Oxford's regional news BBC Oxford News covers South Northamptonshire.

In pockets of the west of the county near the Warwickshire border, TV transmissions are received from the Sutton Coldfield transmitting station near Birmingham and receive local news coverage from the West Midlands. Even though in these areas this may provide viewers with the strongest TV signal and picture quality, it is not considered part of the BBC West Midlands area and does not cover news in the county and limited to nearby Warwickshire.

BBC Radio Northampton, broadcasts on two FM frequencies: 104.2 MHz for the south and west of the county (including Northampton and surrounding area) and 103.6 MHz for the north of the county (including Kettering, Wellingborough and Corby). BBC Radio Northampton is located in Abington Street, Northampton. These services are broadcast from the Sandy Heath transmitter.

ITV Regions

Most of Northamptonshire is covered by ITV's Anglia Television while in the southwest of the county, primarily Brackley and the surrounding villages, broadcasts can be received from the Oxford transmitter, from ITV Meridian.

Other Radio

There are three commercial radio stations, the former Kettering and Corby Broadcasting Company (KCBC) station now called Connect Radio (97.2 and 107.4 MHZ FM) following a merger with Wellingborough-based station of the same name. While both Heart Northants (96.6 MHz FM) and AM station Gold (1557 kHz) air very little local content as they form part of a national network. National digital radio is also available in Northamptonshire, though coverage is limited.

Sport

Rugby Union

Northamptonshire's most successful sporting participation is in rugby union; its premier team, Northampton Saints, compete in the Guinness Premiership and achieved the status of European champions in 2000 by defeating Munster for the Heineken Cup, 9-8. Saints are based at the 13,600 capacity Franklin's Gardens.

Football

Northamptonshire has several football teams, the most prominent being the League Two side Northampton Town. Other football teams include Kettering Town and Rushden & Diamonds, which are in the Conference National. Wellingborough Town claims to be the sixth oldest club in the country.

Cricket

Northamptonshire County Cricket Club is presently in Division Two of the County Championship. Northamptonshire Cricket Club has recently signed overseas professionals such as Sourav Ganguly.

Motor Sport

Silverstone is a major motor racing circuit, most notably used for the British Grand Prix. There is also a dedicated radio station for the circuit which broadcasts on 87.7 FM or 1602 MW when events are taking place. Rockingham Speedway near Corby is the largest stadium in the UK with 130,000 seats. It is a US-style elliptical racing circuit (the largest of its kind outside of the US), and is used extensively for all kinds of motor racing events. The Santa Pod drag racing circuit, venue for the FIA European Drag Racing Championships is just across the border in Bedfordshire but has a NN postcode.

Music

Northampton has had a varied musical history. Its most famous export is Bauhaus, a revered Rock band active between the late-1970s and mid-1980s.

More recently music has flourished around the now closed Soundhaus and Labour Club. The Departure were the most famous recent band. However, New Cassettes, The Retro Spankees, The Weimar Republic, Winston Echo, Columbus and Crewsoe, Kowalski and Magic Skool Bus have prospered here.

Places of interest

Annual events

See also

References

  1. ^ http://www.thebythams.org.uk/localgovernment/lincolnshire-cc/index.html
  2. ^ Northamptonshire - Let yourself grow: Media information about Northamptonshire. Retrieved 15 August 2009
  3. ^ UK Genealogy Archives: Transcript from Pigot & Co's Commercial Directory, 1830. Retrieved 15 August 2009
  4. ^ Northamptonshire Genealogy: Bartholomew's Gazetteer of the British Isles, 1887. Retrieved 15 August 2009
  5. ^ Peterborough Diocesan Registry. Retrieved 15 August 2009
  6. ^ The Huntingdon and Peterborough Order 1964 (SI 1964/367), see Local Government Commission for England (1958-1967), Report and Proposals for the East Midlands General Review Area (Report No.3), 31 July 1961 and Report and Proposals for the Lincolnshire and East Anglia General Review Area (Report No.9), 7 May 1965
  7. ^ The English Non-Metropolitan Districts (Definition) Order 1972 (SI 1972/2039) Part 5: County of Cambridgeshire
  8. ^ Greenall, R. L. (1979) A History of Northamptonshire Phillimore & Co. Ltd, p.19. ISBN 1 86077 147 5.
  9. ^ a b c d Greenall, R. L. (1979) A History of Northamptonshire Phillimore & Co. Ltd. p.20. ISBN 1 86077 147 5.
  10. ^ BBC - History - Tribes of Britain. Retrieved 16 August 2009
  11. ^ Greenall, R. L. (1979) A History of Northamptonshire p.29., Phillimore & Co. Ltd, ISBN 1 86077 147 5.
  12. ^ Wood, Michael (1986) The Domesday Quest p. 90, BBC Books, 1986 ISBN 0 563 52274 7.
  13. ^ Mills, A.D. (1998). A Dictionary of English Place-names. Second Edition. Oxford University Press, Oxford. p256. ISBN 0-19-280074-4
  14. ^ Rockingham Castle. Retrieved 16 August 2009
  15. ^ Mott, Allan. BBC - Cambridgeshire - History: Mary Queen of Scots' last days. Retrieved 16 August 2009
  16. ^ Stearns, Peter N., Langer. William L. The Encyclopedia of world history: ancient, medieval, and modern. Retrieved 16 August 2009
  17. ^ The Writings of George Washington: Life of Washington. Retrieved 16 August 2009
  18. ^ Edmonds. 1848. Notes on English history for the use of juvenile pupils. Retrieved 16 August 2009
  19. ^ Brookes, R., Whittaker, W.B. The general gazetteer, or, Compendious geographical dictionary, in miniature. 1823. Retrieved 5 September 2009
  20. ^ Malte-Brun, C. Universal geography: or, A description of all parts of the world. 1832. Retrieved 5 September 2009
  21. ^ Andrews, R., Teller, M. The Rough Guide to Britain 2004. Rough Guides. Retrieved 5 September 2009
  22. ^ GENUKI: Northamptonshire Genealogy: Bartholomew's Gazetteer of the British Isles, 1887. 11 August 2008. Retrieved 5 September 2009
  23. ^ Corby - English Partnerships. Retrieved 16 August 2009
  24. ^ Northampton - English Partnerships. Retrieved 16 August 2009
  25. ^ Northamptonshire Chamber :: Milton Keynes & South Midlands Growth Plan. Retrieved 16 August 2009
  26. ^ Northamptonshire County Council: Members of Parliament. 27 April 2009. Retrieved 22 August 2009
  27. ^ Northamptonshire County Council: District and Borough Councils. 2008. Retrieved 22 August 2009
  28. ^ "Northamptonshire County Council website". http://www.northamptonshire.gov.uk/. Retrieved 4 June 2009. 
  29. ^ The Cambridgeshire (City of Peterborough) (Structural, Boundary and Electoral Changes) Order 1996 (SI 1996/1878), see Local Government Commission for England (1992), Final Recommendations for the Future Local Government of Cambridgeshire, October 1994 and Final Recommendations on the Future Local Government of Basildon & Thurrock, Blackburn & Blackpool, Broxtowe, Gedling & Rushcliffe, Dartford & Gravesham, Gillingham & Rochester upon Medway, Exeter, Gloucester, Halton & Warrington, Huntingdonshire & Peterborough, Northampton, Norwich, Spelthorne and the Wrekin, December 1995
  30. ^ GENUKI: Northamptonshire Genealogy: Bartholomew's Gazetteer of the British Isles. 1887. Retrieved 22 August 2009
  31. ^ Kellysearch.co.uk: R Griggs & Co. Ltd. Retrieved 22 August 2009
  32. ^ Northamptonshire Chamber: Major Northamptonshire employers. Retrieved 22 August 2009
  33. ^ [1] Retrieved 23 August 2009
  34. ^ Prologis RFI Dirft Daventry. Retrieved 22 August 2009
  35. ^ FirstGBRf: FirstGBRf opens unique depot at Wellingborough. 12 June 2007. Retrieved 22 August 2009
  36. ^ Regional Gross Value Added.Office for National Statistics. pp 240–253. 21 December 2005. Retrieved 22 August 2009
  37. ^ Components may not sum to totals due to rounding
  38. ^ includes hunting and forestry
  39. ^ includes energy and construction
  40. ^ includes financial intermediation services indirectly measured
  41. ^ Coe, N.M., Kelly, P.F, Wai-Chung Yeung, H. Economic geography: a contemporary introduction. Wiley-Blackwell, 2007. pp 141-143. Retrieved 22 August 2009
  42. ^ Russell Hotten. Motor racing battles to stay out of pits. TimesOnline. 27 March 2009. Retrieved 22 August 2009
  43. ^ Official site of Mercedes GP Formula One Team: Contact us Retrieved 4 March 2010
  44. ^ Force India F1 Team: Contact us. Retrieved 22 August 2009
  45. ^ Cosworth: Contact. Retrieved 22 August 2009
  46. ^ Mercedes-Benz High Performance Engines Ltd: Contact. Retrieved 22 August 2009
  47. ^ Silverstone Official Website: Contact Numbers. Retrieved 22 August 2009
  48. ^ Getting to Rockingham. Retrieved 22 August 2009
  49. ^ Santa Pod Raceway: Contact/find us/postcode. Retrieved 22 August 2009
  50. ^ Motorsport to grow 30% in next decade. Northants Evening Telegraph. 25 June 2009. Retrieved 22 August 2009
  51. ^ Northamptonshire County Council: Northamptonshire Schools Directory. Retrieved 8 August 2009
  52. ^ Northamptonshire County Council: Saturday Music and Performing Arts Centres. Retrieved 8 August 2009
  53. ^ Northamptonshire County Council: Music Service: Youth Groups. Retrieved 8 August 2009
  54. ^ Tresham College: Our Campuses. Retrieved 8 August 2009
  55. ^ Tresham College: Our Courses. Retrieved 8 August 2009
  56. ^ Tresham College: Higher Education. Retrieved 8 August 2009
  57. ^ The University of Northampton: About Us. Retrieved 8 August 2009
  58. ^ The University of Northampton: Course finder. Retrieved 8 August 2009
  59. ^ New outpatients in Irthlingborough
  60. ^ Tite, Nick (2008-07-14). "Rabbit caused water contamination at Pitsford - Northants ET". Northants Evening Telegraph. http://www.northantset.co.uk/news/Rabbit-caused-water-contamination-at.4286344.jp. Retrieved 2008-08-22. 
  61. ^ "Sickness bug found in tap water". BBC. 2008-06-25. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/northamptonshire/7472619.stm. Retrieved 2008-07-15. 
  62. ^ "BBC News". News at Ten, BBC One (BBC). 2008-07-14. 
  63. ^ "Anglian Water", Press Release
  64. ^ "Water crisis: All clear for tap water - and up to £30 compensation! - Northampton Chronicle and Echo". Chronicle & Echo. 2008-07-05. http://www.northamptonchron.co.uk/news/25-each-compensation-for-water.4255069.jp. Retrieved 2008-08-22. 
  65. ^ http://www.freebase.com/view/en/blisworth_tunnel?domain=%2Fbase%2Fengineering
  66. ^ Corby station
  67. ^ Network South East routes
  68. ^ SMJR
  69. ^ [2] ATOC Connecting Communities Report
  70. ^ a b Network Rail: East Midlands Draft Route Utilisation Strategy Access date: 4th January 2010]
  71. ^ Stagecoach Northants
  72. ^ First Northampton: Timetables
  73. ^ Sywell

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Contents

Northamptonshire, or Northants, is a county in England.

Map of Northamptonshire
Map of Northamptonshire

There are many towns within Northamptonshire but as of yet no cities. Northampton itself applied for city status at the turn of the Millennium, but lost out to [Wolverhampton].

Understand

Traditionally Northampton has been a major centre of shoemaking and other leather related industries. Shoemaking has virtually ceased, though the back streets of the town still show the pattern of small shoe factories surrounded by terraced houses for the outworkers. The main industries now include distribution and finance.

  • Train from Euston, London to Northampton. Takes ~ 45mins
  • The famous Express Lifts Tower
  • Grand Union Canal, including Blisworth Tunnel and the Stoke Bruerne Canal Museum.
  • Northampton Balloon Festival
  • Silverstone F1 British Grand Prix
  • Althorp Estate where Princess Diana is buried.
This article is an outline and needs more content. It has a template, but there is not enough information present. Please plunge forward and help it grow!

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

NORTHAMPTONSHIRE, an east midland county of England, bounded N. by Lincolnshire, N.W. by Rutland and Leicestershire, W. by Warwickshire, S.W. and S. by Oxfordshire, S.E. by Buckinghamshire, and E. by Bedfordshire, Huntingdonshire and Cambridgeshire. The area is Io03 I sq. m. The surface is undulating and somewhat monotonous, notwithstanding that the country is richly cultivated and in some parts finely wooded. Elevations over 700 ft. are few. The most picturesque scenery is found in the western and south-western districts. For long Northamptonshire has been famed for its ash trees, and there are also some very old oaks, such as that associated with Cowper's posthumous poem "Yardley Oak," in Yardley Chase near Northampton, as well as a few fine avenues of elm. The north-eastern extremity belongs to the great Fen district. The county forms the principal watershed of central England, nearly all the more important rivers of this region having their sources within its boundaries. The Avon, with a westward course, forms for some distance the northern boundary of the county, till near Lilbourne it passes into Warwickshire. The Nene passes southward past Northampton, whence it takes an easterly course, skirting the eastern boundary of the county. The Welland flows in an easterly direction, forming the boundary of the county with Leicester, Rutland and Lincoln. The Cherwell, rising in a spring at Charwelton, where it is crossed by a very ancient bridge, passes into Oxfordshire, and then forms for a considerable distance the southernmost portion of the boundary of Northamptonshire with that county; the Leam forms a portion of the boundary with Warwickshire. The Ouse, which rises near Brackley, soon afterwards leaves the county,rbut again touches it near Stony Stratford, separating it for some distance from Buckinghamshire.

Table of contents

Geology

With the exception of the superficial glacial and river deposits, all the rocks exposed in the county are of Jurassic age; they all dip in a general way towards the S.E., the strike of the outcrops being from south-west to north-east. The oldest rocks exposed belong to the Liassic formation; they come to the surface over a large area in the south-west and centre, around Banbury, Daventry and Market Harborough, and by the removal of the overlying Oolitic strata they are exposed along the rivers and stream courses near Towcester, Northampton, Wellingborough and Kettering. The Lower Lias, blue clay with limestone bands and cement stones, has few exposures; it has been cut through by the railways at Kilsby and Catesby, and at Braunston it is dug for brick-making. The Middle Lias consists of grey micaceous marls, sandstones and clays, often ferruginous; ironstone appears near King's Sutton; at the top is the marlstone or "rock bed," used as a building stone and for road metal. The Upper Lias is again a blue argillaceous series of strata, with limestones and cement stones; it is employed for brick-making. Through the middle of the county from northeast to south-west is an elevated tract of Oolitic rocks which contrasts strongly with the low-lying grass-covered Liassic ground. The lowest subdivision of the Inferior Oolite, sands, sandstone and calcareous beds, is an important source of iron ore, with from 9 to 12 ft. of workable beds at Blisworth, Kettering, Northampton, Thrapstone, Towcester and Wellingborough. The flaggy sandstone of Duston (Duston slate) belongs to this series. The upper part of the Northampton sands is known as the Lower Estuarine Beds; these are white and reddish clays and sands. In the north-eastern part of the county from about Maidwell, the Lincolnshire Limestone is developed at the expense of the Northampton Sand; the wellknown building stone of Barnack (Barnack Rag) and Weldon belong to this horizon; a hard shelly variety is known as Weldon or Stamford marble. Locally at the base is a series of flaggy strata, the Collyweston slates. The Great Oolite series comprise the Upper Estuarine Beds, the Great Oolite Limestone, Great Oolite Clay, Forest Marble and Cornbrash (very fossiliferous at Rushden). On the south-east border a belt of Oxford Clay occupies the surface; good exposures occur in the brick-fields about Peterborough. Glacial sands and gravels, including the great Chalky Boulder Clay, occur in patches on the older rocks, as at Hillmorton, and fill up old channels of the rivers sometimes to a considerable depth, as in the old valley of the Ouse at Furtho, where the Boulder Clay is loo ft. thick, Borings have revealed the existence of Rhaetic and Keuper rocks resting on an ancient quartz-porphyrite beneath the Lias at Orton; and at Gayton and Northampton the Carboniferous and possibly Old Red Sandstone strata have been proved, but no Coal Measures were encountered. The water-bearing strata of Northamptonshire include the marlstone of the Lias, the Lincolnshire Limestone, Collyweston beds and ironstone beds of the Inferior Oolite, and the Cornbrash and Great Oolite Limestone.

Climate and Agriculture

The climate of Northamptonshire is mild and°genial, while the absence of lofty hills renders it much drier than many other inland districts. The mean annual rainfall at Wellingborough is 27.2 ins. The prevailing soil is a rich brown but light and crumbling mould, sometimes with a rocky subsoil. The richest soil is the black mould of the fen district, which is specially suited for grass, as are all the heavier soils. Nearly all the land is capable of cultivation, although there is some stiff wet soil on the slopes of the hills. Nearly nine-tenths of the total area, a high proportion, is under cultivation, and of this considerably over three-fifths is in permanent pasture, the acreage devoted to this use increasing steadily. Less than one-fifth is under grain crops, and the area decreases. Wheat and barley are the principal grain crops. The fattening of cattle is the chief occupation of the Northamptonshire farmer. The favourite stock for breeding purposes is the shorthorn, but the most common custom is to buy in Hereford, Scotch, Welsh and Irish cattle in the spring and fatten them on the rich pastures, a few being retained and fed for the Christmas market. In autumn additional cattle are bought in to eat the coarse grass off the pastures, and these are usually retained during winter. The most common breed of sheep on the rich pastures is the improved Leicester, which is preferred on account of its length of wool; but the Southdown, on account of its superior flesh, is also largely kept.

Manufactures

The iron industry is of considerable importance, though only a small proportion of the metal is smelted in the county. The industry is carried on in the central part of the county, as in the Kettering, Wellingborough and Thrapston districts, and in the north near Stamford. But Northamptonshire is more famous for its manufacture of boots and shoes, which is chiefly prosecuted in the towns and villages of the central and southern districts, and along the eastern border. This trade occupies some three-quarters of the total number of hands employed in factories in the county.

Communications

The main line of the London & North Western railway passes through the south-western portion of the county, with an alternative route to Northampton, and branches to Peterborough and elsewhere. With it are connected at Blisworth Junction the East and West Junction railway to Towcester, Woodford and Stratford-on-Avon, and the Northampton and Banbury Junction railway. The Great Central main line, crossing the county in the south, has connexion with the Great Westen railway at Banbury from Woodford. The Midland railway serves Wellingborough, Kettering and Northampton, and an important junction of systems is effected at Peterborough, which is on the main line of the Great Northern railway. Branch lines of this and the Midland system complete the railway communications of the county. The Grand Junction Canal, which is connected with the Oxford Canal, enters the county at Braunston on the borders of Warwickshire, and passes by Daventry and Blisworth into Buckinghamshire, a branch connecting it with Northampton. The Grand Union Canal unites with the Grand Junction near Daventry, and runs north until it joins the Leicester Canal at Foxton, branches passing to Welford and Market Harborough.

Population and Administration

The area of the county is 641,992 acres, with a population in 1891 of 302,183 and in 1901 of 338,088. The area of the administrative county of Northampton is 585,148 acres, and that of the administrative county of the soke of Peterborough 53,464 acres. In Domesday the county is mentioned as containing 30 hundreds, but it then included a considerable part of Rutland. These divisions were first reduced to 28, and in the reign of Henry II. to 20, their present number. The administrative counties include four municipal boroughs, namely, Brackley (pop. 2467), Daventry (3780), Higham Ferrers (2540) and Peterborough (30,872), together with the municipal and county borough of Northampton (87,021). The urban districts are: Desborough (3573), Finedon (4129), Irthlingborough (4314), Kettering (28,653), Oundle (2404), Raunds (3811), Rothwell (4193), Rushden (12,453), Wellingborough (18,412). There are one court of quarter sessions and nine petty sessional divisions. The borough of Northampton and the liberty of the soke of Peterborough have each a separate court of quarter sessions and a separate commission of the peace. The total number of civil parishes is 346, of which 33 are in the soke of Peterborough. The ancient county contains 297 entire ecclesiastical parishes or districts, wholly or in part, most of them being in the diocese of Peterborough; but small parts of the county fall within the dioceses of Oxford, Ely and Worcester. For parliamentary purposes the county is divided into four divisions (Northern, Eastern, Mid and Southern), and includes the parliamentary borough of Northampton, and part of the parliamentary borough of Peterborough, each returning one member, except the borough of Northampton, which returns two members.

History

At some time in the 7th century the district which is now Northamptonshire suffered a simultaneous invasion by the West Saxons from the south and the Anglian tribes from the north, and relics discovered in the county testify to a mingling of races, at the same time showing that West Saxon influence never spread farther north than a line from Daventry to Warwick, and with the extension of the Mercian kingdom under Penda and the conversion of the midland districts ceased altogether. The abbey at Medehamstede (now Peterborough) was begun by Peada in 655, and about the same time foundations were established at Peakirk, Weedon Beck, Castor and Oundle. In 870 the district was overrun by the Danes, and Northampton was one of the five Danish boroughs, until in 921 it was recovered by Edward the Elder, who fortified Towcester in that year.

In the nth century Northamptonshire was included in Tostig's northern earldom; but in 1065, together with Huntingdonshire, it was detached from Northumbria and bestowed on Waltheof. The only monastic foundation which survived the Conquest was Peterborough. Norman castles existed at Rockingham, Barnwell, Lilbourne and Northampton.

As a shire Northamptonshire was probably of Danish origin, representing in the 10th century the area which owed allegiance to Northampton as a political and administrative centre. In 921 this area extended to the Welland, the present northern limit of the county, and at the time of the Domesday Survey the boundaries were approximately those of the present day. Northamptonshire is first mentioned by name in the Historia Eliensis, in connexion with events which occurred at the. close of the 10th century.

The Geld roll of the time of William I. and the Domesday Survey of 1086 mention 28 hundreds in Northamptonshire, and part of Rutland is assessed under this county. By 1316 the divisions had undergone considerable changes, both in name and in extent, and had been reduced to their present number, 20, since which date they have remained practically unaltered. The names of the hundreds point to primitive meeting-places gradually superseded by villages and towns, and the court for Fawsley hundred met under a large beech tree in Fawsley Park until the beginning of the 18th century, when it was transferred to Everdon. The shire-court originally met at Northampton.

Northamptonshire was originally included in the diocese of Lincoln. The archdeaconry of Northampton is mentioned in the 12th century, and in 1291 included the deaneries of Peterborough, Northampton, Brackley, Oundle, Higham, Daventry, Preston, Weldon, Rothwell and Haddon. The diocese of Peterborough was created in 1541, and in 1875 the archdeaconry of Oakham was formed and included in this county the first and second deaneries of Peterborough and the deaneries of Oundle, Weldon and Higham Ferrers. Northampton archdeaconry now includes the first, second and third deaneries of Brackwell and Rothwell; the first and second deaneries of Haddon and Preston, and the deaneries of Daventry, Northampton and Weldon.

At the time of the Domesday Survey the chief lay-tenant in Northamptonshire was Robert, earl of Mortain, whose fief escheated to the crown in 1106. The estates of William Peverel founder of the abbey of St James at Northampton, also escheated to the crown in the 12th century. Holdenby House was built by Sir Christopher Hatton, privy councillor to Queen Elizabeth, and Yardley Hastings was named from the Hastings, formerly earls of Pembroke. Higham Ferrers was the seat of the Ferrers family; Braybrook Castle was built by Robert de Braybrook, a favourite of King John; and Burghley House gave the title of baron to William Cecil.

Northampton was a favourite meeting-place of the councils and parliaments of the Norman and Plantagenet kings. In 1215 John was besieged in Northampton Castle by the barons, and in 1264 Henry III. captured the castle from the younger Simon de Montfort. During the Wars of the Roses Henry VI. was defeated at Northampton in 1460. In the Civil War of the r 7th century the county declared almost unanimously for the parliament. A royalist garrison was placed at Towcester by Prince Rupert in 1644, but almost immediately withdrawn.

The iron-mines and stone-quarries of Northamptonshire were worked in Roman times, but the former were entirely neglected from the Plantagenet period until their rediscovery in 1850, while the two most famous quarries, those of Barnack and Stanion, were exhausted about the 16th century. The wool and leather industries flourished in Norman times. In the 17th century the weaving industry declined in the Northampton district, but became very flourishing about Kettering. Other early industries were charcoal-burning, brick and tile manufacture and brewing. The industries of whip-making, pipe-making, silk-weaving and paper-making were introduced in the 17th and 18th centuries.

In 1290 Northamptonshire returned two members to parliament, and in 1295 Northampton also returned two members.

In 1547 Brackley and Peterborough returned each two members, and in 1557 Higham Ferrers returned one member. Under the act of 1832 the county returned four members in two divisions, and Brackley and Higham Ferrers were disfranchised.

Antiquities

Although Northamptonshire was rich in monastic foundations, remains, except of the abbey-church of Peterborough, afterwards the cathedral, are of small importance. At Geddington, and also at Hardingstone, near Northampton, there is an Eleanor cross, erected by Edward I. to the memory of his queen, in good preservation. For the architecture of its churches Northampton holds a place scarcely inferior to any other English county. To the Saxon period belong the tower of Earls Barton church, which stands on an eminence, probably the mound of an old English strong-house; the tower and other portions at Brigstock; the ground plan and other portions at Wittering; the remarkable tower at Barnack; and Brixworth church, constructed in part of Roman materials, and by some believed to include part of a Roman basilica. Of Norman, besides the cathedral of Peterborough, the finest examples are St Peter's and St Sepulchre's, Northampton, and the tower of Castor church. St Mary's church, Higham Ferrers, formerly collegiate, Early English and Decorated, is one of the finest churches in the county, and, as specially noteworthy among many beautiful buildings, there may be mentioned the churches at Irthlingborough and Lowick, with their lantern towers, Warmington, a very fine specimen of Early English work, Rushden, Finedon, Raunds and Fotheringhay. Of the church at Easton Maudit, Percy, author of the Reliques, and afterwards Bishop of Dromore, was rector.

A gateway at Rockingham, and earth-works at Higham Ferrers and Brackley are worthy of mention. Some castellated ruins remain of the castle at Fotheringhay, famous as the scene of the imprisonment, trial and execution of Mary, Queen of Scots. Barnwell Castle, founded by William the Conqueror, an interesting example of the defensive construction of the period, is still a fine ruin, which includes four of the round towers and an imposing gateway. Holdenby Manor House, where Sir Christopher Hatton 0540-1591) was born, and where Charles I. was staying when he was carried away by Cornet Joyce, is largely restored. Among ancient mansions are Castle Ashby, the seat of the Comptons, the oldest portion belonging to the reign of Henry VIII.; Althorp, the seat of the Spencers, of various dates; Drayton House, of the time of Henry VI.; the vast pile of Burghley House, Stamford, founded by Lord Burleigh (1553), but more than once altered and enlarged; and Kirby Hall, a beautiful Elizabethan building once the residence of Sir Christopher Hatton.

See Victoria County History, Northamptonshire; G. Baker, History and Antiquities of the County of Northampton (2 vols., London, 1822-1841); John Bridges, History and Antiquities of Northamptonshire, compiled by Rev. Peter Whalley (2 vols., Oxford, 1791); John Norden, Speculi Britanniae, pars altera, or A Delineation of Northamptonshire (London, 1720); Francis Whellan, History, Topography and Directory of Northamptonshire (2nd ed., London, 1874).


<< Northampton, Massachusetts

North Berwick >>


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

English

Wikipedia-logo.png
Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

Proper noun

Singular
Northamptonshire

Plural
-

Northamptonshire

  1. An midland county of England bordered by Leicestershire, Rutland, Lincolnshire, Cambridgeshire, Huntingdonshire, Bedfordshire, Buckinghamshire, Oxfordshire and Warwickshire.

Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Familypedia

This article requires significantly more historical detail on the particular phases of this location's historical development. The ideal article for a place will give the reader a feel for what it was like to live at that location at the time their relatives were alive there..
Please help to improve this page yourself if you can..
Northamptonshire
File:EnglandNorthamptonshire.png
Geography
Status Ceremonial & Non-metropolitan county
Region East Midlands
Area
- Total
- Admin. council
Ranked 24th
2,364 km² (912.7 sq mi)
Ranked 22nd

<tr><th>Admin HQ</th><td class="label">Northampton</td></tr><tr><th>ISO 3166-2</th><td>GB-NTH</td></tr>

ONS code 34
NUTS 3 UKF23
Demographics
Population
- Total (2006 est.)
- Density
- Admin. council
Ranked 33rd Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
669,300
283/km² (733/sq mi)
Ranked 16th Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
Ethnicity 95.1% White
2.0% S.Asian
1.2% Black British.
Politics
File:Northants arms.png
Northamptonshire County Council
http://www.northamptonshire.gov.uk/

<tr><th>Executive</th><td>Conservative </td></tr>

Members of Parliament
Districts
File:NorthamptonshireNumbered.png
  1. South Northamptonshire
  2. Northampton
  3. Daventry
  4. Wellingborough
  5. Kettering
  6. Corby
  7. East Northamptonshire

Northamptonshire (abbreviated Northants or N'hants) is a landlocked county in central England with a population of 629,676 (2001 census). It has borders with Warwickshire, Leicestershire, Rutland, Cambridgeshire, Bedfordshire, Buckinghamshire (including the Borough of Milton Keynes), Oxfordshire, and Lincolnshire (England's shortest county boundary: 19 metres). The county town is Northampton.

Northamptonshire has often been called the county of "squires and spires" due to its wide variety of historic buildings and country houses. The county has also been described as "England's Pancreas", most notably by the popular presenter Alan Titchmarsh in his 2007 series The Nature of Britain. This is due to its shape and location within the UK, and because it is regularly overlooked, especially compared to neighbouring Warwickshire, known as "The Heart of England".

Northamptonshire's county flower is the Cowslip.

Contents

Geography

By the standards of the English Midlands, Northamptonshire is an upland county. It includes the watershed between the Severn and The Wash. Several important rivers have their sources in the north west of the county, these include the River Nene (to The Wash) and the "Warwickshire Avon" (to the Severn). In the 1820s it was boasted that "not a single brook, however insignificant, flows into it from any other district". The highest point in the county is nevertheless the modest Arbury Hill at 225 m (738 ft).

Northampton is the largest town in the county, with a population of 194,122. This is followed by Corby (53,500), Kettering (51,063), Wellingborough (46,959 ), Rushden (25,849) and Daventry (22,367). Most of the county's population is concentrated in a central north-south band which includes the four largest towns (corresponding to districts 2, 4, 5 & 6 on the map). The west (districts 1 & 3) and east (district 7) are predominantly rural with small towns and many villages. Northamptonshire is a long, thin county (more so with the Soke of Peterborough), running from south-west to north-east.

Places

These are the main settlements in Northamptonshire with a town charter, a population over 5,000, or otherwise notable. For a complete list of settlements see List of places in Northamptonshire

Peterborough

The Soke of Peterborough, including the City of Peterborough, was historically associated with Northamptonshire as the county diocese is focused upon the cathedral there. Under the Local Government Act 1972 Peterborough became a district of Cambridgeshire.

History

Main article History of Northamptonshire

Pre-Celtic and Celtic peoples settled in the region, and there are some traces of Roman settlements and roads. Most notably the Watling Street passed through the county, and there was an important Roman settlement called Lactodorum on the site of modern day Towcester. There were other Roman settlements at the site of Northampton, and along the Nene Valley near Raunds.

After the Romans left, the area became part of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Mercia, and Northampton functioned as an administrative centre. The area was overrun by the Danes (Vikings) in the 9th century and briefly became part of the Danelaw, but was later re-claimed by the Saxons. Consequently, it is one of the few counties in England to have both Saxon and Danish town-names and settlements.

The county was first recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (1011), as Hamtunscire: the scire (shire) of Hamtun (the homestead). The "North" was added to distinguish Northampton from the other important Hamtun further south: Southampton.

Later, Rockingham Castle was built for William the Conqueror and was used as a Royal fortress until Elizabethan times. The now-ruined Fotheringhay castle was used to imprison Mary, Queen of Scots before her execution. In 1460, during the Wars of the Roses, the Battle of Northampton took place and King Henry VI was captured.

File:Speed Northampton.jpg

During the English Civil War Northamptonshire strongly supported the Parliamentarian cause, and the Royalist forces suffered a crushing defeat at the Battle of Naseby in 1645 in the north of the county. King Charles I was later imprisoned at Holdenby House.

In the 18th and 19th centuries, parts of Northamptonshire became industrialized. Northampton and its surrounding areas, gained a sizeable shoe making and leather industry and by the end of the nineteenth century it was almost definitely the boot and shoe making capital of the world. And in the north of the county a large ironstone quarrying industry developed. In the 20th century, during the 1930s, the town of Corby was established as a major centre of the steel industry. Much of Northamptonshire nevertheless remains largely rural.

After the Second World War Northampton and Corby were designated as new towns. As of 2005 the government is encouraging development in the South Midlands area, including Kettering and Corby.

Politics

National representation

Northamptonshire returns six members of Parliament. Following the 2005 general election, four MPs belong to the Conservative Party, while the other two represent the Labour Party.

Local government

Like most English shire counties, Northamptonshire has a two-tier structure of local government. The county has an elected county council based in Northampton, and is also divided into seven districts each with their own district councils.

These districts are: Corby, Daventry district, East Northamptonshire, Kettering, Northampton, South Northamptonshire, Wellingborough (see map). The district council offices for East Northamptonshire are based in Thrapston, and those for South Northamptonshire are based in Towcester. Northamptonshire also has a large number of civil parishes.

Until 2005, Northamptonshire County Council, for which each of the 73 electoral divisions in the county elects a single councillor, had been held by the Labour Party since 1993; before then it had been under no overall control since 1981. The councils of the rural districts — Daventry, East Northamptonshire, and South Northamptonshire — are strongly Conservative, whereas composition in the urban districts is more mixed. At the 2003 local elections, Labour lost control of Kettering, Northampton, and Wellingborough, retaining only Corby. Elections for the entire County Council are held every four years — the last were held on 5 May 2005 when control of the County Council changed from the Labour Party to the Conservatives. The County Council uses a leader and cabinet executive system and has recently (from April 2006) abolished its area committees.

Northampton itself is somewhat unusual in being the most populous urban district in England not to be administered as a unitary authority (even though several smaller districts are unitary). During the 1990s local government reform, Northampton Borough Council petitioned strongly for unitary status, which led to fractured relations with the County Council.

Northamptonshire is policed by Northamptonshire Police, and is covered by Northamptonshire Fire and Rescue Service.

Before 1974, the Soke of Peterborough was considered part of Northamptonshire for ceremonial purposes, although it had had a separate county council since the 19th century, and separate Quarter Sessions courts before then. The City of Peterborough is now part of the county of Cambridgeshire.

Economy

This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of Northamptonshire at current basic prices published (pp.240-253) by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling.

Year Regional Gross Value Added[1] Agriculture[2] Industry[3] Services[4]
1995 6,139 112 2,157 3,870
2000 9,743 79 3,035 6,630
2003 10,901 90 3,260 7,551
  1. ^ Components may not sum to totals due to rounding
  2. ^ includes hunting and forestry
  3. ^ includes energy and construction
  4. ^ includes financial intermediation services indirectly measured

Northamptonshire has some nationally important companies. Historically, it is home to footwear manufacturing companies. The Dr. Martens company in the UK is based in Wollaston near Wellingborough, where the boots used to be made. Weetabix is made at Burton Latimer near Kettering. Carlsberg is brewed in Northampton. Daventry has many distribution centres.

Education

Northamptonshire operates a complete comprehensive system with 30 state secondary schools and 4 independent schools. There are no selective schools. However, selection by house price instead may be taking place. At GCSE, for those obtaining 5 GCSEs at grades A-C including Maths and English, the England average is 45.8%; the Northamptonshire average is 42.1% - below average. The best state school in Northamptonshire is Brooke Weston CTC in Corby with 89%, followed by the Bishop Stopford School in Kettering with 81% and then the Northampton School For Boys with 80%. These are excellent results for comprehensive schools. For the Brooke Weston result, this is substantially (three times) better than other schools in Corby, and Brooke Weston is often in the top five comprehensives in England. It is almost like a selective system in Corby. The same could be said for Northampton, with only the Northampton schools for boys and girls producing good results. Wellingborough is also the same to a lesser extent, with only the Sir Christopher Hatton School producing good results. At A level, the best state schools are the Campion School in Bugbrooke, South Northamptonshire; followed by the Ferrers Specialist Arts College in Higham Ferrers; then the Moulton Schools and Science College in Moulton, Daventry district; and then the Northampton School for Boys. These produce good results for comprehensives. The Brooke Weston CTC does not achieve particularly high results at A level, but above average. Overall at A-level, the independent Northampton High School (girls school) in Hardingstone is the best.

Northamptonshire boasts an extensive music and performing arts service that provides peripatetic music teaching to schools in the area. It also supports 15 local Saturday morning music and performing arts centres around the county as well as providing a range of county level music groups.

Average score at GCSE by council district (%)

% of pupils with 5 grades A-C including English and Maths; compare this table to average house price by district.

  • 1. South Northamptonshire 51.5
  • 2. East Northamptonshire 48.4
  • 3. Kettering 47.8
  • 4. Daventry 44.0
  • 5. Northampton 37.5
  • 6. Corby 36.2
  • 7. Wellingborough 34.8

Transport

The gap in the hills at Watford Gap meant that many southeast to northwest routes passed through Northamptonshire. The Roman Road Watling Street (now part of the A5) passed through here, as did later canals, railways and major roads.

Roads

Major roads such as the M1 motorway and the A14 provide Northamptonshire with valuable transport links, both north-south and east-west. The A43 joins the M1 to the M40, passing through the south of the county to the Junction west of Brackley. The former steelworks town of Corby is now home to large areas of warehousing and distribution companies.

Rivers and Canals

File:Grand Union Canal at Braunston.jpg See also: Rivers in Northamptonshire

Two major canals - the Oxford and the Grand Union — join in the county at Braunston. Notable features include a flight of 17 locks on the Grand Union at Rothersthorpe, the canal museum at Stoke Bruerne, and a tunnel at Blisworth which, at 3076 yards (2813 m), is the third-longest navigable canal tunnel on the UK canal network.

A branch of the Grand Union Canal connects to the River Nene in Northampton and has been upgraded to a "wide canal" in places and is known as the Nene Navigation. It is famous for its guillotine locks.

For last five years Northamptonshire County Council is in partnership with WS Atkins, Europe's largest Engineering Consultants to manage and maintain all highways functions.

Railways

File:WCML and M1.jpg Two trunk railway routes, the West Coast Main Line and the Midland Main Line traverse the county. At its peak, Northamptonshire had 75 railway stations. It now has only five, at Northampton and Long Buckby (on the WCML), Kettering and Wellingborough (on the Midland Main Line), along with King's Sutton, which is a matter of yards from the boundary with Oxfordshire on the London-Banbury line.

Corby is one of the largest towns in Britain without a railway station. A railway runs through the town (from Kettering to Oakham in Rutland), but is currently used only by freight traffic and occasional diverted passenger trains (which do not call). The line through Corby was once part of a main line to Nottingham via Melton Mowbray but the stretch between Melton and Nottingham was closed in 1968. In the 1980s, an experimental passenger shuttle service was tried between Corby and Kettering, but this was proved unsuccessful. A bus link operated by Midland Mainline provides access to Corby from Kettering station. As of 2005, there are plans to build a new station in Corby - one providing direct access to St Pancras in London and not just a branch line service to Kettering, but these are not yet off the ground.

Northamptonshire was hit hard by the Beeching Axe in the 1960s, with stations such as Towcester's being slowly left to rot. [1] One of the most notable closures was that of the line connecting Northampton to Peterborough by way of Wellingborough, Thrapston, and Oundle. Its closure left eastern Northamptonshire devoid of railways. Part of this route has been re-opened as the Nene Valley Railway, with a small section of line, and the station at Yarwell junction being within Northamptonshire.

A section of one of the closed lines, the Northampton to Market Harborough line, is now the Northampton & Lamport heritage railway, while the route as a whole forms a part of the National Cycle Network, as the Brampton Valley Way.

As early as 1897 Northamptonshire had its own putative Channel Tunnel rail link with the creation of the Great Central Railway, which was intended to connect to a tunnel under the English Channel. Although the complete project never came to fruition, the rail link through Northamptonshire was constructed, and had stations at Charwelton, Woodford Halse, Helmdon, and Brackley. It became part of the London and North Eastern Railway in 1923 (and of British Railways in 1948) before its closure in 1966.

Before nationalization of the railways in 1948 and the creation of British Railways), Northamptonshire was home to three of the "Big Four" railway companies; the London, London and North Eastern Railway and Great Western Railway. Only the Southern Railway was not represented. Post nationalisation, it is served by Silverlink, London Midland, Chiltern Railways and Midland Mainline. So from having 75 stations in 1948 and three operators it has 5 stations with four operators.

Media

Northamptonshire has a local BBC radio station, BBC Radio Northampton, which broadcasts on two FM frequencies — 104.2 MHz for the south and west of the county (including Northampton and surrounding area) and 103.6 MHz for the north of the county (including Kettering and Corby). There are three commercial radio stations. Northants 96 (96.6 MHz FM) is part of GCap Media, whilst AM station Classic Gold (1557 kHz) also forms part of a national network. The former Kettering and Corby Broadcasting Company (KCBC) station originally broadcast on 1530 (later 1584) kHz AM before eventually moving to 107.4 MHz FM. Its studios and FM frequency are still in use following a merger with Wellingborough-based Connect FM which now broadcasts on 97.2 and 107.4 MHz.

National digital radio is also available in Northamptonshire, though coverage is limited. As of 2005 a multiplex for local DAB stations had yet to be set up.

In regional radio and television terms, the county is not usually considered as part of the East Midlands; unusually, it is associated with East Anglia, being part of the BBC East region and the Anglia Television region of ITV, the latter having an office adjacent to BBC Radio Northampton in Abington Street, Northampton. These services are broadcast from the Sandy Heath transmitter.

Sport

Northamptonshire is home to a number of football teams, the most prominent being the professional sides Northampton Town F.C. of League One and Rushden & Diamonds F.C., who are in the Football Conference. Other teams include Kettering Town F.C., who play in the Conference North, though having been higher. Wellingborough Town F.C. claims to be the sixth oldest in the country.

Northamptonshire is more successful in rugby union, though Northampton Saints were relegated from the Guinness Premiership (the highest league) at the end of the 2006/2007 season. Northamptonshire County Cricket Club is presently in Division Two of the County Championship.

Silverstone has a major motor racing circuit, notably used for the British Grand Prix.

Rockingham Speedway in Corby is the largest stadium in the UK with 130,000 seats. It is a US-style elliptical racing circuit (the largest of its kind outside of the US), and is used extensively for all kinds of Motor Racing events.

Places of interest

see also Visitor attractions in Northamptonshire

Key
Image:AP_Icon.PNG Abbey/Priory/Cathedral
Accessible open space Accessible open space
Amusement/Theme Park
Image:CL_icon.PNG Castle
Country Park Country Park
Image:EH icon.png English Heritage
Image:FC icon.png Forestry Commission
Heritage railway Heritage railway
Historic house Historic House
Museum (free)
Museum
Museums (free/not free)
National Trust National Trust
Zoo

Annual events

Colleges

See also

External links


This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia. The original content was at Northamptonshire. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License.

This article uses material from the "Northamptonshire" article on the Genealogy wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

Simple English

[[File:|thumb|Northamptonshire in England]]

Northamptonshire (abbreviated Northants or N'hants) is a county in central England with a population of 629,676 (2001 census). It has borders with Warwickshire, Leicestershire, Rutland, Cambridgeshire, Peterborough, Bedfordshire, Buckinghamshire (including the Borough of Milton Keynes), Oxfordshire, and Lincolnshire (England's shortest county boundary: 19 metres). The county town is Northampton.

Northamptonshire has often been called the county of "squires and spires" due to its wide variety of historic buildings and country houses.

Northampton is by far the largest town in the county, with a population of 194,122. This is followed by Corby (53,174), Wellingborough (48,428), Kettering (47,000), Rushden (25,849) and Daventry (22,367). Most of the county's population is concentrated in a central north-south.

Cherwell Edge in Northamptonshire (52°6′N 1°17′W / 52.1°N 1.283°W / 52.1; -1.283) is near the River Cherwell, north-west of Banbury, England. The once heavily wooded hill and valley was mostly cleared many years ago. The area now also covers the near by Cherwell Edge Golf Club that was recently built by it too.[1][2] The golf club is used by various local residents.

Contents

= Places

=

File:King's Sutton`
A photo-montage of the village of King's Sutton in western Northamptonshire. It lies just south east of Banbury in Oxfordshire.
File:Kings sutton station
A photo-montage of the village of King's Sutton railway station in western Northamptonshire. It is served by both First Great Western and Chiltern Railways servaces to and from Banbury.

These are the main settlements in Northamptonshire with a town charter, a population over 5,000, or otherwise notable.

  • Brackley
  • Braunston
  • Brixworth
  • Corby
  • Daventry
  • Kettering
  • Long Buckby
  • Naseby
  • Northampton
  • Oundle
  • Pitsford
  • Raunds
  • Rothwell
  • Rushden
  • Silverstone
  • Towcester
  • Thrapston
  • Weedon Bec
  • Wellingborough

Two major canals - the Oxford and the Grand Union — join in the county at Braunston. A branch of the Grand Union Canal connects to the River Nene in Northampton. Two trunk railway routes, the West Coast Main Line and the Midland Main Line traverse the county. Before nationalisation of the railways in 1948 and the creation of British Railways), Northamptonshire was home to three of the "Big Four" railway companies; the London, Midland and Scottish Railway, London and North Eastern Railway and Great Western Railway. Only the Southern Railway was not represented.

Other pages

References

Other websites








Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message