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Northern America
Northern America (orthographic projection).svg
Area 21 780 142 km²
Population (2007) 334 659 631 [1]
GDP $16 trillion
(PPP, 2008 est.)[2]
Major languages English, Spanish, French, Danish, Greenlandic, and various Recognised regional languages.
Timezone UTC (Danmarkshavn, Greenland) to
UTC -10:00 (west Aleutians)
Largest urban agglomerations

Northern America (French: Amérique septentrionale) is the northernmost region of the Americas, and is part of the North American continent. It lies directly north of the region of Middle America;[1] the land border between the two regions coincides with the border between the United States and Mexico. Geopolitically, according to the scheme of geographic regions and subregions used by the United Nations, Northern America consists of:[2][3]

Canada Canada

United States United States

Greenland Greenland, a self-governing island of Denmark

Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint-Pierre and Miquelon, an overseas territory of France

Bermuda Bermuda, an overseas territory of the United Kingdom


Maps using the term Northern America date back to 1755, when the region was occupied by France, Great Britain, and Spain.[4] The Solemn Act of the Declaration of Independence of Northern America in 1813 applied to Mexico. Today, Northern America includes the Canada-US dyad, developed countries that exhibit very high human development and intense economic integration while sharing many socioeconomic characteristics, including increasingly divergent demographic patterns (e.g., fertility levels).[5]

Hawaii is a US state located in the central Pacific Ocean, southwest of the continental US on the North American mainland. Physiographically and ethnologically, the Hawaiian archipelago is often included with the other Polynesian territories of Oceania.


  1. ^ Gonzalez, Joseph. 2004. "Northern America: Land of Opportunity" (ch. 6). The Complete Idiot's Guide to Geography. (ISBN 1592571883) New York: Alpha Books; pp. 57-8
  2. ^ Definition of major areas and regions, from World Migrant Stock: The 2005 Revision Population Database, United Nations Population Division. Accessed on line October 3, 2007.
  3. ^ Composition of macro geographical (continental) regions, geographical sub-regions, and selected economic and other groupings, UN Statistics Division. Accessed on line October 3, 2007. (French)
  4. ^ Bellin, Jacques-Nicolas. 1755. Carte de l'Amerique septentrionale (Map of Northern America). Item NMC 21057: Library and Archives Canada.
  5. ^ Torrey, Barbara Boyle & Eberstadt, Nicholas. 2005 (Aug./Sep.). "The Northern America Fertility Divide." Hoover Institution Policy Review. No. 132.

See also



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