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Northern Qi (北齊)

550–577
Capital Yecheng
Government Monarchy
Emperor
 - 550-559 Emperor Wenxuan of Northern Qi
 - 559-560 Emperor Fei of Northern Qi
 - 560-561 Emperor Xiaozhao of Northern Qi
 - 561-565 Emperor Wucheng of Northern Qi
 - 565-577 Gao Wei
 - 577 Gao Heng
History
 - Established 9 June 550[1][2] 550
 - Gao Wei and Gao Heng's capture by Northern Zhou, usually viewed as disestablishment 28 February 577[3][4] 577
 - Gao Shaoyi's capture by Northern Zhou 27 July 580[5][6]

The Northern Qi Dynasty (Chinese: 北齊; Běiqí) was one of the Northern dynasties of Chinese history and ruled northern China from 550 to 577. It was the successor state of the Xianbei state of Eastern Wei, as Eastern Wei's paramount general Gao Huan was succeeded by his sons Gao Cheng and Gao Yang, who took the throne from Emperor Xiaojing of Eastern Wei in 550 and established Northern Qi as its Emperor Wenxuan. As Northern Qi was plagued by violent and/or incompetent emperors (Emperor Wenxuan, Emperor Wucheng, and Gao Wei), corrupt officials, and deteriorating armies. Although it was the strongest state of the three main Chinese states (along with Northern Zhou and Chen Dynasty) when it was established, it gradually declined and was destroyed by Northern Zhou in 577. (Emperor Wenxuan's son Gao Shaoyi the Prince of Fanyang, under protection by Tujue, later declared himself the emperor of Northern Qi in exile, but in 580 was turned over by Tujue to Northern Zhou and exiled to modern Sichuan. It is a matter of controversy whether Gao Shaoyi should properly be considered a Northern Qi emperor, but in any case the 577 date is generally used by historians as the ending date for Northern Qi.)

Emperors

Posthumous Names ( Shi Hao 諡號) Born Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their according range of years
Northern Qi Dynasty 550-577
Convention: Northern Qi + posthumous name
Wen Xuan Di (文宣帝 wén xuān dì) Gao Yang (高洋 gāo yáng) 550-559 Tianbao (天保 tiān bǎo) 550-559
Fei Di (廢帝 fèi dì) Gao Yin (高殷 gāo yīn) 559-560 Qianming (乾明 qián míng) 560
Xiao Zhao Di (孝昭帝 xiào zhāo dì) Gao Yan (高演 gāo yǎn) 560-561 Huangjian (皇建 huáng jiàn) 560-561
Wu Cheng Di (武成帝 wǔ chéng dì) Gao Dan (高湛 gāo dān) 561-565 Taining (太寧 tài níng) 561-562
Heqing (河清 hé qīng) 562-565
Hou Zhu (後主 hòu zhǔ) Gao Wei (高緯 gāo wěi) 565-577[7] Tiantong (天統 tiān tǒng) 565-569
Wuping (武平 wǔ píng) 570-576
Longhua (隆化 lóng huà) 576
You Zhu (幼主 yòu zhǔ) Gao Heng (高恆 gāo héng) 577[8][9] Chengguang (承光 chéng guāng) 577
Asia in 565 AD, showing Northern Qi lands and their neighbors.

See also

Notes and references

Northern Qi Bodhisattva.
  1. ^ http://www.sinica.edu.tw/ftms-bin/kiwi1/luso.sh?lstype=2&dyna=%ABn%B1%E7&king=%C2%B2%A4%E5%AB%D2&reign=%A4j%C4_&yy=1&ycanzi=&mm=5&dd=&dcanzi=%A5%B3%A4%C8
  2. ^ Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 163.
  3. ^ http://www.sinica.edu.tw/ftms-bin/kiwi1/luso.sh?lstype=2&dyna=%B3%AF&king=%AB%C5%AB%D2&reign=%A4%D3%AB%D8&yy=9&ycanzi=&mm=1&dd=&dcanzi=%A4v%A5%E8
  4. ^ Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 173.
  5. ^ http://www.sinica.edu.tw/ftms-bin/kiwi1/luso.sh?lstype=2&dyna=%B3%AF&king=%AB%C5%AB%D2&reign=%A4%D3%AB%D8&yy=12&ycanzi=&mm=7&dd=&dcanzi=%A5%D2%A5%D3
  6. ^ Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 174.
  7. ^ Gao Wei's cousin Gao Yanzong the Prince of Ande (Gao Cheng's son) briefly declared himself emperor around the new year 577 after the soldiers guarding the city of Jinyang (晉陽, in modern Taiyuan, Shanxi) demanded that he claim the title when Gao Wei abandoned Jinyang. Gao Yanzong, however, was almost immediately defeated and captured by Northern Zhou troops, and therefore is generally not considered a true Northern Qi emperor.
  8. ^ In 577, Gao Wei, then with the title Taishang Huang (retired emperor), tried to issue an edict on his son's behalf yielding the throne to his uncle (Gao Huan's son) Gao Jie (高湝) the Prince of Rencheng, but the officials he sent to deliver the edict to Gao Jie surrendered to Northern Zhou rather than delivering the edict to Gao Jie, who was subsequently also captured by Northern Zhou troops. It is questionable whether Gao Jie was even aware of the edict, and in any case, Gao Jie never used imperial title.
  9. ^ As noted above, Emperor Wenxuan's son Gao Shaoyi tried to establish a Northern Qi court in exile on Tujue's territory, but was not successful in his efforts in recapturing formerly Northern Qi territory, and was eventually turned over by Tujue to Northern Zhou. Most historians do not consider him a true Northern Qi emperor, although the matter remains in controversy.
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