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Kingdom of Norway
Kongeriket Norge / Kongeriket Noreg
Flag Coat of arms
MottoRoyal: Alt for Norge / Alt for Noreg
("Everything for Norway")
1814 Eidsvoll oath: Enig og tro til Dovre faller
("United and loyal until the mountains of Dovre crumble")
AnthemJa, vi elsker dette landet
("Yes, we love this country")
Royal anthemKongesangen
("Song of the King")
Location of  Norway  (dark green)

on the European continent  (dark grey)  —  [Legend]

Capital
(and largest city)
Oslo
59°56′N 10°41′E / 59.933°N 10.683°E / 59.933; 10.683
Official language(s) Norwegian (Bokmål and Nynorsk)1
Ethnic groups  89.4% Norwegian and Sami
10.6% other (2009)[1]
Demonym Norwegian
Government Parliamentary democracy under constitutional monarchy
 -  King Harald V
 -  Prime Minister Jens Stoltenberg (Ap)
 -  President of the Storting Dag Terje Andersen (Ap)
 -  Chief Justice Tore Schei
 -  Current coalition Red-Green Coalition
Legislature The Storting
Establishment
 -  Unification 872 
 -  Constitution 17 May 1814 
 -  Dissolution of union with Sweden declared 7 June 1905 
 -  Start and end of Nazi German occupation 9 April 1940
8 May 1945 
Area
 -  Total 385,252 km2 (61st2)
148,746 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 7.0
Population
 -  2010 estimate 4,858,200[2] (115th)
 -  2001 census 4,503,436 
 -  Density 12.5/km2 (211th)
31/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $257.243 billion[3] (41st)
 -  Per capita $53,737[3] (3rd)
GDP (nominal) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $451.830 billion[3] (24th)
 -  Per capita $94,386[3] (2nd)
Gini (2000) 25.8 (low) (5th)
HDI (2007) 0.971[4] (very high) (1st)
Currency Norwegian krone (NOK)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 -  Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Date formats dd-mm-yyyy
Drives on the right
Internet TLD .no, .sj and .bv
Calling code 47
1 Northern Sami is used in the municipal administration of six municipalities, Lule Sami in one, Finnish/Kven in one, and Southern Sami in one.
2 Includes Svalbard and Jan Mayen.
3 This percentage is for the mainland and also includes glaciers[5]
4 Statistics Norway estimation (5 September 2006) using variant MMMM from Table 10[6]
5 .Two more TLDs have been assigned, but to date not used: .sj for Svalbard and Jan Mayen; .bv for Bouvet Island.^ Such areas, located more than 5 km from a major technical encroachment, constituted 12% of the country in 1994, compared with 48% inn 1990 (Svalbard and Jan Mayen are not included).
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.Norway (pronounced /ˈnɔrweɪ/ ( listen); Norwegian: Norge (Bokmål), Noreg (Nynorsk) or Norga (North Sami)), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic country in Northern Europe occupying the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula, as well as Jan Mayen and the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard.^ NORWAY ( Norge ), a kingdom of northern Europe , occupying the W. and smaller part of the Scandinavian peninsula.

^ Such areas, located more than 5 km from a major technical encroachment, constituted 12% of the country in 1994, compared with 48% inn 1990 (Svalbard and Jan Mayen are not included).
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Norway was thus the first sovereign country in Europe where the parliamentary vote was granted to women.

[note .1] Norway has a total area of 385,252 square kilometres (148,747 sq mi) and a population of about 4.8 million.^ About 70% of the total area of Norway is barren, and about 21% is forest land, but the small agricultural area employs, directly or indirectly, about 40% of the population.

^ Norway generates about 14 million tons of waste per year.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The total length of railways is only about 1600 m., Norway having the lowest railway mileage in proportion to area of any European state, though in proportion to population the length of lines is comparatively great.

[2] .The majority of the country shares a border to the east with Sweden; its northernmost region is bordered by Finland to the south and Russia to the east; and Denmark lies south of its southern tip across the Skagerrak Strait.^ The agreement stipulated a neutral zone on both sides of the southern border between the two countries, the Norwegians undertaking to dismantle some fortifications within that zone.

^ The regional and global aspects of the environmental challenge are important for developed and developing countries alike, and act as a reminder of the mutual responsibilities shared by all countries.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

The capital city of Norway is Oslo. .Norway's extensive coastline, facing the North Atlantic Ocean and the Barents Sea, is home to its famous fjords.^ On the N., W., S. and S.E. the boundary is the sea - the Arctic Ocean, that part of the Atlantic which is called the Norwegian Sea , the North Sea and the Skagerrack successively.

.After World War II, Norway experienced rapid economic growth, with the first two decades due to the Norwegian shipping and merchant marine and domestic industrialization, and from the early 1970s, a result of exploiting large oil and natural gas deposits that had been discovered in the North Sea and the Norwegian Sea.^ The Norwegians, in proportion to their numbers, are the first nation in the world in the mercantile marine industry.

^ A CO2 tax i also levied on the use of mineral oil and gas within the offshore sector in the North Sea.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Norway started the first assessment of its policies for sustainable development when the World Commission for Sustainable Development published "Our Common Future" in 1987.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.Today, Norway ranks as the wealthiest country in the world in monetary value,[8][9][10] with the largest capital reserve per capita of any nation.^ Additional comments relevant to this chapter Protected areas consists of 18 National Parks, 76 Landscape Protected Areas and 1172 Nature Reserves in Norway.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

Norway is the world’s seventh largest oil exporter,[11] and the petroleum industry accounts for around a quarter of its GDP.[12] .Following the ongoing financial crisis of 2007–2010, bankers have deemed the Norwegian krone to be one of the most solid currencies in the world.^ One of the most important infrastructural changes has been the reorganization of the Norwegian research council system.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

[13]
.Norway has rich resources of oil, natural gas, hydroelectric power, forests, and minerals, and was the second largest exporter of seafood (in value, after the People’s Republic of China) in 2006.[14] Other major industries include shipping, food processing, shipbuilding, the metal industry, chemicals, mining, fishing, and the pulp and paper products from forests.^ Norway is not rich in minerals.

^ A CO2 tax i also levied on the use of mineral oil and gas within the offshore sector in the North Sea.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Among other topics covered is coastal zone planning, urban land use planning and management of natural resources.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.Norway maintains a Scandinavian welfare model with universal health-care, subsidized higher education, and a comprehensive social security system.^ Norway will maintain its current high CO2-tax level, while adopting a more comprehensive approach to combating climate change.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A comprehensive, publicly initiated programme of education, "House and Health", aims at raising the level of knowledge in this area.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ All Norwegians have access to primary health care, clean water and sanitation and primary education.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.Norway was ranked highest of all countries in human development from 2001 to 2007,[15] and then again in 2009.[16] It was also rated the most peaceful country in the world in a 2007 survey by Global Peace Index.^ A special department in NORAD is in charge of developing and enhancing import to Norway from developing countries.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ MEANS OF IMPLEMENTATION: Norway has established a network of competence for the transfer of environmental knowledge and capacity-building to developing countries and countries in transition.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ NB: Developed countries, where domestic poverty alleviation is not a major concern may wish to briefly describe their position regarding global poverty alleviation.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

[17]
.Norway is a constitutional, hereditary monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with King Harald V as its Head of State.^ Norway is an independent, constitutional and hereditary monarchy, the union with Sweden having been dissolved on the 7th of June 1905, after lasting 91 years.

.It is a unitary state with administrative subdivisions on two levels known as counties (fylker) and municipalities (kommuner).^ Provided there are no objections from the county or affected state expert authorities, the plans may be finally approved by the municipal council.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Regional planning to ensure sustainable land use management is a main task at both the county and municipal level.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The report is meant to increase the decision-making basis at the municipal and county level by management of areas and resources.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

The Sámi people have a certain amount of self-determination and influence over traditional territories through the Sámi Parliament and the Finnmark Act. .Although having rejected European Union membership in two referenda, Norway maintains close ties with the union and its member countries, as well as with the United States.^ Not Paid rate: General Postal Union regulations state that the postage due is "double the rate levied in the country of destination on prepaid letters"; See : G.P.U.."
  • AskPhil -- Stamp Collecting starts here. 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.askphil.org [Source type: General]

^ Norway is actively supporting the work with environmental indicators in the OECD. Biannually, The Nordic Council of Ministers produces a report on the state of the environment in the Nordic countries based on indicators.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.Norway remains one of the biggest financial contributors to the UN,[18] and participates with UN forces in international missions, notably in Afghanistan, Kosovo, and Sudan.^ Furthermore Norway is actively participating in the work under-taken by the UN ECE on the Convention on EIA in a Transboundary Context.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The agreement was to remain in force for ten years, and could be renewed for a similar period, unless one of the countries gave notice to the contrary.

^ Norway participates in the ISO/TC 207 work on standards within environmental management and is responsible for chairing one sub-committee and one working group.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.Norway is a founding member of the UN, NATO, the Council of Europe, and the Nordic Council, and is a member of the European Economic Area, the WTO, and the OECD.^ Norway is actively supporting the work with environmental indicators in the OECD. Biannually, The Nordic Council of Ministers produces a report on the state of the environment in the Nordic countries based on indicators.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Regional/International Co-operation: Norway participates in the Conference of Ministers responsible for Regional Planning (CEMAT) under the Council of Europe.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ UNCHS, ECE Committee on Human Settlement and OECD, Norway also takes part in the "International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives" (ICLEI).
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

Contents

Etymology

Norway is officially called Kongeriket Norge in the Bokmål written norm, and Kongeriket Noreg in the Nynorsk written norm.
.The usual Old Norse form of Norway is Noregr, and the usual medieval Latin form Nor(th)vegia, though the earliest known written occurrence of the name is English (in the late-ninth-century account of the travels of Ohthere of Hålogaland), in the form norðweg.^ The old English poem Beowulf mentions a " Finnaland " which should perhaps be located in S. Norway in about the 6th century, and later on the ancient laws of this region forbid the practice of visiting the " Finns " to obtain knowledge of the future.

[19][20] Although some medieval texts attribute the name to a mythical King Nórr, it is conventionally derived today from Old Norse *norðvegr, meaning "the northern route" (the way northwards). .There is, however, some possibility that medieval forms in norð-, north- are folk-etymologizations and that the name has other origins.^ There are also a few Finns (about half the number of Lapps), whom the Norwegians call Kvaner, a name of early origin.

^ There is a tendency toward the accumulation of these problems and other problems connected with living conditions in some cities.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

[20]

History

Prehistory

.Archaeological findings indicate the area currently constituting Norway has been inhabited since at least the 10th millennium BC.[21] The indigenous people of Northern Norway and Central Norway are the Sámi people, though Norse culture arrived very early also.^ The Ministry of Environment is presently working on a strategy on how to implement LA 21 in Norway, and the workers and trade unions have a central role in this work.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ About 70% of the total area of Norway is barren, and about 21% is forest land, but the small agricultural area employs, directly or indirectly, about 40% of the population.

^ Holberg, though he flourished outside Norway, was at least born there, and by stemming the tide of German influence he made the future of Norwegian literature possible.

.The current monarch of Norway has stated that the kingdom was founded upon the territories of two peoples – the Norwegians and the Sámi.^ In the preamble to the act it is clearly stated that the union between the two peoples was accomplished " not by force of arms, but by free conviction," and the Swedish foreign minister declared to the European Powers, on behalf of Sweden, that the treaty of Kiel had been abandoned, and that it was not to this treaty, but to the confidence of the Norwegian people in the Swedish, that the latter owed the union with Norway.

^ In a century and a half the number of the Norwegian people was doubled, so that by 1814 Norway comprised some 90o,000 souls.

^ The lowest winter average temperature is found in a centre of cold in the N. which extends over Swedish and Russian territory as well as Norwegian.

[22]
.In the first centuries CE, Norway consisted of a number of petty kingdoms.^ In a century and a half the number of the Norwegian people was doubled, so that by 1814 Norway comprised some 90o,000 souls.

^ Thus he decided that in all documents concerning the internal government of the country Norway should stand first where reference was made to the king as sovereign of the two kingdoms.

According to Jared Diamond, around AD 600 the Norse obtained the knowledge of sailing.

Viking Age

Leif Ericson discovers America.
The Viking Age, 8–11th centuries CE, was characterized by expansion and emigration by Viking seafarers. .According to tradition, Harald Fairhair (Harald Hårfagre) unified them into one in 872 CE after the Battle of Hafrsfjord in Stavanger, thus becoming the first king of a united Norway.^ An extraordinary Storthing was then summoned at Christiania, and on the 4th of November 1814 Norway was declared to be " a free, independent, and indivisible kingdom, united with Sweden under one king."

^ Norway was thus the first sovereign country in Europe where the parliamentary vote was granted to women.

^ According to the constitu- of Carl tion, the king had the power to appoint a viceroy for XV. Norway, who might be either a Norwegian or Swede.

(The date of 872 may be somewhat arbitrary. In fact, the actual date may be just prior to 900 CE.[23] Harald's realm was mainly a South Norwegian coastal state. .Harald Fairhair ruled with a strong hand and, according to the sagas, many Norwegians left the country to live in Iceland, the Faroe Islands, Greenland, and parts of Britain and Ireland.^ Norwegian coast, many of them taking refuge in Iceland ; and the earldom of the Orkneys and Shetlands became an appanage of the Norwegian Crown.

^ This island fringe, which has its counter - gaard or part in a modified form along the Swedish coast, is called in Norwegian the skjcergaard (skerry-fence, pronounced shargoord).

^ The main goal in Norwegian housing policy has for many years been that everyone should live in satisfactory homes in a good residential environment.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

The modern-day Irish cities of Limerick, Dublin, and Waterford were founded by Norwegian settlers.[24] Norse traditions were slowly replaced by Christianity in the 10th and 11th centuries. This is largely attributed to the missionary kings Olav Tryggvasson and St. Olav. .Haakon the Good was Norway's first Christian king, in the mid tenth century, though his attempt to introduce the religion was rejected.^ In 1343 Magnus handed over the greater part of Norway to his son Haakon VI., who married Margrete, daughter of King Valdemar III. of Denmark .

^ On the 18th of November the Storthing unanimously elected Prince Charles as king of Norway, he taking the name of Haakon VII .

^ When in 1448 Karl Knutsson was chosen king by the Swedes, and Christian of Oldenburg by the Danes, it was by force that Norway fell to the latter.

Born sometime in between 963–969 CE, Olav Tryggvasson set off raiding in England with 390 ships. He even attacked London during this raiding. .Arriving back in Norway, Olav landed in Moster,[25] In 995 CE. in Moster, Olav built a church which became the first Christian church ever built in Norway.^ First, in 1450, the triple bond gave place to a union in which Norway became more firmly joined to Denmark.

[26] From Moster, Olav sailed north to Trondheim were he has acclaimed King of Norway by the Eyrathing in 995 CE.[27]
Just as in Sweden, feudalism never really developed in Norway, as it did in the rest of Europe.[28] However, the administration of government took on a very conservative feudal character.[29] The Hanseatic League forced the royalty to cede to them greater and greater concessions over foreign trade and the economy.[30] .The League had this hold over the royalty because of the loans the Hansa had made to the royalty and the large debt the kings were carrying.^ This proposal was carried by a large majority on the 9th of June 1880, but the king and his ministers in reply declared that they would not recognize the validity of the resolution.

[31] .The League's monopolistic control over the economy of Norway put the squeeze on all classes, especially the peasantry, to the degree that no real burgher class existed in Norway.^ This paralysis of the aristocracy is no doubt partly to be ascribed to the civil wars, but i in part also to the gradual impoverishment of the country, which told especially upon this class.

[32]

Kalmar Union

The Kingdom of Norway (green) at its medieval height, c. 1265.
.Upon the death of Haakon V, King of Norway, in 1319, three year-old Magnus Erickson inherited the throne as King Magnus VII of Norway.^ Haakon's daughter Ingeborg had married Duke Erik of Sweden, and on Haakon's death in 1319 their three-year-old son Magnus succeeded to the Norwegian and Swedish thrones, the two countries entering into a union which was not definitely broken till 1371.

^ Erik had claims on the Swedish and Danish thrones, and in 1397, at Kalmar , he was solemnly crowned king over the three countries, which entered into a union " never to be dissolved."

^ Their young son Olaf V., already king of Denmark, succeeded to his father's throne on Haakon's death in 1380, but died in 1387, leaving the royal line extinct, and the nearest successor to the throne the hostile King Albrecht of Sweden, of the Mecklenburg family.

[33] .At the same time a movement to make Magnus King of Sweden proved successful.^ From this time the relations between the king and the Norwegian people began to improve, whereas in Sweden he was, in his later years, not a little disliked.

[33] .(At this time both the kings of Sweden and of Denmark were elected to the throne by their respective nobles.^ The position of earls is vague, but it is noticeable that both those of whom we hear in Harald Haarfager's time take the opposite side to their king.

^ Their young son Olaf V., already king of Denmark, succeeded to his father's throne on Haakon's death in 1380, but died in 1387, leaving the royal line extinct, and the nearest successor to the throne the hostile King Albrecht of Sweden, of the Mecklenburg family.

^ Some time previously Sweden had joined the allies in their ;the struggle against Napoleon, while Denmark had, unwith wisely, sided with the French.

)[33] Thus, with his election to the throne of Sweden, both Sweden and Norway were united under King Magnus VII.[33]
.Meanwhile, in 1349, the Black Death radically altered the landscape of Norway killing between 50% and 60% of the population,[34] resulting in a period of decline, both socially and economically.^ The growth of both may be judged from periodic averages Great Britain and Germany are the countries principally trading with Norway.

^ The Acreage and Cultural Landscape Scheme has replaced production-oriented subsidies, and is turning agricultural farming practices in a sustainable direction, both ecologically and economically.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ STATUS REPORT: National debate on the linkages between population and environmental issues has been initiated both at governmental level, in Parliament, and with the public at large.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

[35] The plague left Norway in a very poor economic condition.[36] .Although the death rate was comparable with the rest of Europe, economic recovery took much longer because of the small thinly scattered population.^ The excess of births over deaths, about as 1.4 to 1, is much above the European average; the death-rate is also unusually low.

^ Norway is, as a whole, the most thinly populated of the political divisions of Europe.

[35] .Even before the plague, the population was only about 500,000 people, [37] and afterwards, many farms lay idle while the population slowly recovered.^ Only about 2.4% of the population are dissenters.

^ The annual value of imports is about £16,500,000, and of exports about £io,000,000.

[35] The few surviving farms tenants found their bargaining position with the landlord greatly strengthened.[35]
.King Magnus VII, noted above, ruled Norway until 1350, when his son, Haakon, was placed on the throne as Haakon VI.[37] In 1363, Haakon VI married Margaret, the daughter of Danish King Valdemar.^ In 1343 Magnus handed over the greater part of Norway to his son Haakon VI., who married Margrete, daughter of King Valdemar III. of Denmark .

^ After a union of nearly 400 years between Norway and Denmark, the Danish king, Frederick VI., without consulting the Norwegians, ceded Norway to Sweden by the treaty of Kiel (January 14, 1814).

^ Erik had claims on the Swedish and Danish thrones, and in 1397, at Kalmar , he was solemnly crowned king over the three countries, which entered into a union " never to be dissolved."

[35] .Upon the death of Haakon VI, in 1379, his son, Olaf V was only 10 years-old.^ In 1343 Magnus handed over the greater part of Norway to his son Haakon VI., who married Margrete, daughter of King Valdemar III. of Denmark .

^ Haakon's daughter Ingeborg had married Duke Erik of Sweden, and on Haakon's death in 1319 their three-year-old son Magnus succeeded to the Norwegian and Swedish thrones, the two countries entering into a union which was not definitely broken till 1371.

^ He was the last undoubted representative of Harald Haarfager's race, for on his death Haakon another son, Haakon (q.v.

[35] .Olaf had already been elected to the throne of Denmark on May 3, 1376.[35] Thus, upon his ascension to the throne of Norway, Olaf united Denmark and Norway under a single throne.^ An extraordinary Storthing was then summoned at Christiania, and on the 4th of November 1814 Norway was declared to be " a free, independent, and indivisible kingdom, united with Sweden under one king."

^ The difficulty was met by filling the throne by election - an innovation in Norway, though it was the custom in Sweden and Denmark.

^ New Guinea, West: formerly Netherlands New Guinea 1962, Oct.1-May 1, 1963: under United Nations administration, first stamps.
  • AskPhil -- Stamp Collecting starts here. 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.askphil.org [Source type: General]

[37] .Olaf's mother and widow of Haakon VI, Queen Margaret, managed the foreign affairs of Denmark and Norway during the minority of Olaf V.[35] Margaret was working toward a union of Sweden with Denmark and Norway by having Olaf elected to the Swedish throne.^ He was a /vergerepublican in politics, and the most zealous upholder of the national independence of Norway and of her full equality with Sweden in the union.

^ After a union of nearly 400 years between Norway and Denmark, the Danish king, Frederick VI., without consulting the Norwegians, ceded Norway to Sweden by the treaty of Kiel (January 14, 1814).

^ Towards the close of the session an The address to the king was agreed to, in which the Storthing urged that steps should be taken to place Norway in political respects upon an equal footing with Sweden, especially in the conduct of diplomatic affairs with foreign countries.

She was on the verge of achieving this goal when Olaf V suddenly died.[35] It looked as though Queen Margaret's plans were permanently ended. However, Denmark made her temporary ruler upon the death of Olaf. On February 2, 1388, Norway followed suit and crowned Margaret.[35] .Queen Margaret knew that her power would be more secure if she were able to find a king to rule in her place.^ The changes, in fact, were the same as he had suggested in his circular note to the Powers, and which he knew would be hailed with approval by his Swedish subjects.

^ King Carl was himself in favour of a defensive alliance with Denmark, but the Norwegian Storthing would only consent to this if an alliance could also be effected with at least one of the western powers.

She settled on Erik of Pomerania, grandson of her sister. .Thus at an all-Scandinavian meeting held at Kalmar, Erik of Pomerania was crowned king of all three Scandinavian countries—four countries in actuality because Finland was part of Sweden at this time.^ Erik had claims on the Swedish and Danish thrones, and in 1397, at Kalmar , he was solemnly crowned king over the three countries, which entered into a union " never to be dissolved."

^ The king kept the country for over four months without a responsible government, during which time the crisis had become more acute than ever.

^ Attack by land was impossible, and Harald had to gather men and ships for three years before he could meet the fleet of the allied kings at Hafsfjord.

.Thus, royal politics resulted in personal unions between the Nordic countries, eventually bringing the thrones of Norway, Denmark, and Sweden under the control of Queen Margrethe I of Denmark when the country entered into the Kalmar Union.^ He was a /vergerepublican in politics, and the most zealous upholder of the national independence of Norway and of her full equality with Sweden in the union.

^ After a union of nearly 400 years between Norway and Denmark, the Danish king, Frederick VI., without consulting the Norwegians, ceded Norway to Sweden by the treaty of Kiel (January 14, 1814).

^ Towards the close of the session an The address to the king was agreed to, in which the Storthing urged that steps should be taken to place Norway in political respects upon an equal footing with Sweden, especially in the conduct of diplomatic affairs with foreign countries.

Denmark-Norway Union

.After Sweden broke out of the Kalmar Union in 1521, Norway remained with Denmark until 1814, a total of 436 years.^ The following year trouble broke out again.

^ He was a /vergerepublican in politics, and the most zealous upholder of the national independence of Norway and of her full equality with Sweden in the union.

^ After a union of nearly 400 years between Norway and Denmark, the Danish king, Frederick VI., without consulting the Norwegians, ceded Norway to Sweden by the treaty of Kiel (January 14, 1814).

.During the national romanticism of the 19th century, this period was by some referred to as the "400-Year Night", since all of the kingdom's royal, intellectual, and administrative power was centered in Copenhagen in Denmark.^ Tourist Traffic and Communications.-During the later decades of the 19th century Norway was rapidly opened up to British, American and German visitors.

^ The Norwegian national movement was to render a decade at the beginning of the 19th century more memorable in Norwegian history than any century which had passed since the Calmar Union.

^ It is a national goal that, as a general principle, all measures to modernize the municipal sector should be completed by the year 2000.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.With the introduction of Protestantism in 1536, the archbishopric in Trondheim was dissolved, and Norway effectually became a tributary to Denmark, and the church's incomes were distributed to the court in Copenhagen instead.^ First, in 1450, the triple bond gave place to a union in which Norway became more firmly joined to Denmark.

^ Adjustment programmes and Norway's assistance in this area continue to focus on the programmes' effects on income distribution and on the social situation in the countries.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

Norway lost the steady stream of pilgrims to the relics of St. Olav at the Nidaros shrine, and with them, much of the contact with cultural and economic life in the rest of Europe. .Additionally, Norway saw its land area decrease in the 17th century with the loss of the provinces Båhuslen, Jemtland, and Herjedalen to Sweden, as a result of numerous wars between Denmark–Norway and Sweden.^ After a union of nearly 400 years between Norway and Denmark, the Danish king, Frederick VI., without consulting the Norwegians, ceded Norway to Sweden by the treaty of Kiel (January 14, 1814).

^ About 70% of the total area of Norway is barren, and about 21% is forest land, but the small agricultural area employs, directly or indirectly, about 40% of the population.

^ He reformed its government and strove to develop its resources, but his policy involved Norway in the loss of the provinces of Jemtland and Herjedalen, which were ceded to the Swedes by the peace of Brdmsebro (1645).

.To the north, however, its territory was increased by the acquisition of the northern provinces of Troms and Finnmark, at the expense of Sweden and Russia.^ The Norwegian Assistance Programme for Nuclear Safety is focused on measures to increase nuclear safety and prevent radioactive pollution, primarily in North-West Russia.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

Union with Sweden (19th century)

The 1814 constitutional assembly, painted by Oscar Wergeland.
.After Denmark–Norway was attacked by the United Kingdom, at the Battle of Copenhagen it entered into an alliance with Napoleon, with the war leading to dire conditions and mass starvation in 1812. As the Danish kingdom found itself on the losing side in 1814, it was forced, under terms of the Treaty of Kiel, to cede Norway to the king of Sweden, while the old Danish-Norwegian provinces of Iceland, Greenland and the Faroe Islands remained with the Danish crown.^ After a union of nearly 400 years between Norway and Denmark, the Danish king, Frederick VI., without consulting the Norwegians, ceded Norway to Sweden by the treaty of Kiel (January 14, 1814).

^ An extraordinary Storthing was then summoned at Christiania, and on the 4th of November 1814 Norway was declared to be " a free, independent, and indivisible kingdom, united with Sweden under one king."

^ But the Norwegians, who had not been consulted in the matter, refused to acknowledge the treaty, declaring that, while the Danish king might renounce his right to the Norwegian crown, it was contrary to international law to dispose of an entire kingdom without the consent of its people.

[38] .Norway took this opportunity to declare independence, adopted a constitution based on American and French models, and elected the crown prince of Denmark-Norway Christian Frederik as king on 17 May 1814. This is the famous Syttende Mai (Seventeenth of May) holiday celebrated by Norwegians and Norwegian-Americans alike.^ The Danish governor of Norway, Prince Christian Frederick , was unanimously elected king.

^ For several years the Norwegians had been celebrating the 17th of May as their day of independence, it being the anniversary of the adoption of the constitution of 1814; but as the tension between the Norwegians and the king increased, the latter began to look upon the celebration in the encies.

^ A month previously Prince Christian Frederick had laid down his crown and left the country.

.Syttende Mai is also called Norwegian Constitution Day.^ For several years the Norwegians had been celebrating the 17th of May as their day of independence, it being the anniversary of the adoption of the constitution of 1814; but as the tension between the Norwegians and the king increased, the latter began to look upon the celebration in the encies.

.However, the decision to link Norway with Sweden caused the Norwegian-Swedish War to break out between Sweden and Norway, but as Sweden's military was not strong enough to defeat the Norwegian forces outright and Norway's treasury was not large enough to support a protracted war, and as British and Russian navies blockaded the Norwegian coast,[39] both Norway and Sweden were forced to negotiate a settlement.^ In the preamble to the act it is clearly stated that the union between the two peoples was accomplished " not by force of arms, but by free conviction," and the Swedish foreign minister declared to the European Powers, on behalf of Sweden, that the treaty of Kiel had been abandoned, and that it was not to this treaty, but to the confidence of the Norwegian people in the Swedish, that the latter owed the union with Norway.

^ New Zealand military served in the South African War, but used British Forces Postal Services, 1907, Oct.
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^ This island fringe, which has its counter - gaard or part in a modified form along the Swedish coast, is called in Norwegian the skjcergaard (skerry-fence, pronounced shargoord).

.Accordingly, on November 4, 1814, Norway was forced into entering the union with Sweden.^ He was a /vergerepublican in politics, and the most zealous upholder of the national independence of Norway and of her full equality with Sweden in the union.

^ After a union of nearly 400 years between Norway and Denmark, the Danish king, Frederick VI., without consulting the Norwegians, ceded Norway to Sweden by the treaty of Kiel (January 14, 1814).

^ In Sweden the people received only an imperfect and erroneous insight into the nature of the union, and for a long time believed it to be an achievement of the Swedish arms.

[40] .Under this arrangement, Norway did, however, keep its liberal constitution and kept control of its own independent institutions, except for the foreign service.^ This arrangement did not always prove satisfactory to the Norwegians, especially as the Swedish foreign minister could not be held responsible to the Norwegian government or parliament.

^ An extraordinary Storthing was then summoned at Christiania, and on the 4th of November 1814 Norway was declared to be " a free, independent, and indivisible kingdom, united with Sweden under one king."

.Following the Union with Sweden economic development of Norway remained slow.^ They had hoped to make Norway a province of Sweden, and now they had entered into a union in which both countries were equally independent.

^ The history of Norway from 1397 down to the union with Sweden in 1814 falls naturally into four divisions.

^ Remains of pure Early English work are occasionally found, as at Ogne in Ja deren, but the later Gothic styles were not developed in Norway.

[41]
This period also saw the rise of the Norwegian romantic nationalism, as Norwegians sought to define and express a distinct national character. .The movement covered all branches of culture, including literature (Henrik Wergeland [1808–1845], Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson [1832–1910], Peter Christen Asbjørnsen [1812–1845], Jørgen Moe [1813–1882]), painting (Hans Gude [1825–1903], Adolph Tidemand [1814–1876]), music (Edvard Grieg [1843–1907]), and even language policy, where attempts to define a native written language for Norway led to today's two official written forms for Norwegian: Bokmål and Nynorsk.^ The valley which opens from Odde at the head of a branch (Sor fjord) of Hardanger Fjord, is noted as containing two of the finest waterfalls in Norway.

^ About this time the peasant party found a champion in the youthful poet Henrik Wergeland , who soon became one of the leaders of the " Young Norway " party.

^ In 1991, Norway introduced a CO2-tax which at present is applied to sources of 60% of Norwegian CO2 emissions, but covers almost all energy related emissions.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.King Karl XIV Johan who came to the throne of Norway/Sweden in 1818 was the first king following Norway's break from Denmark and the union with Sweden.^ In the interest of Denmark, the allied powers asked for a speedy settlement, and in order to escape their collective intervention, Bernadotte, who had now succeeded to the throne of Sweden and Norway, on the death (February 5, 1818) of the old king Carl XIII., accepted England's mediation, and was enabled in September 1819 to conclude a convention with Denmark, according to which Norway was held liable for only 3,000,000 specie dollars (nearly 70o,000).

^ According to the constitu- of Carl tion, the king had the power to appoint a viceroy for XV. Norway, who might be either a Norwegian or Swede.

^ He was a /vergerepublican in politics, and the most zealous upholder of the national independence of Norway and of her full equality with Sweden in the union.

.Karl Johan was a complex man whose long reign extended to 1844. King Karl Johan protected the constitution and liberties of Norway/Sweden during the age of Metternich.^ During the Schleswig-Holstein rebellion (1848-1850) and the Crimean War King Oscar succeeded in maintaining the neutrality of Norway and Sweden, by which Norwegian shipping especially benefited.

^ During Magnus's reign we hear of a larger council, occasionally called palliment (parliament), which is summoned at the king's wish.

^ When in 1448 Karl Knutsson was chosen king by the Swedes, and Christian of Oldenburg by the Danes, it was by force that Norway fell to the latter.

As such he was regarded as a liberal monarch for that age. .However, he was ruthless in his use of paid informers, the secret police and restrictions on the freedom of the press to put down public movements for reform—especially the Norwegian national independence movement.^ The Norwegian national movement was to render a decade at the beginning of the 19th century more memorable in Norwegian history than any century which had passed since the Calmar Union.

^ In 1995, the Norwegian Research Council received approximately 8 mill USD in national funding for research in subjects related to biodiversity conservation and sustainable use.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

[42]
.During the Romantic Era that followed the reign of King Karl Johan brought some significant social/political reforms.^ During Magnus's reign we hear of a larger council, occasionally called palliment (parliament), which is summoned at the king's wish.

^ During the following years a series of important reforms was carried through.

.In 1854 women were given the right to inherit property in their own right just like men.^ The electoral franchise for local council election is for men the same as the parliamentary franchise, and, like it, is extended in a limited degree to women.

[43] In 1863, the last trace of keeping unmarried women in the status of minors was removed.[44] .Furthermore, different occupations were opened up to women—in particular teaching in common schools.^ Biodiversity is increasingly integrated into the educational system at different levels from primary school up to the universities.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

[45] However, by mid-century Norway was still far from a "democracy." Voting was limited to officials, property owners, leaseholders, and burghers of incorporated towns.[46] There was some dissatisfaction with this backwardness. Still Norway remained a conservative society. .Life in Norway (especially economic life) was "dominated by the aristocracy of professional men who filled most of the important posts in the central government."^ The most important organisation with which Norway co-operates in this field is the EU. Through the EEA agreement, Norway has implemented several EU directives/regulations in the chemical field.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ One of the most important aims is to enable parents to combine family life with participation in working life.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Finance: The most important economic plan-documents presented by the Norwegian Government to the Parliament at regular intervals are: The Long-Term Programme - presented every fourth year.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

[47] .There was no strong bourgeosie class in Norway to press for a breakdown of this aristocratic control of the economy.^ Even in the extreme S. of Norway there is no darkness from the end of April to the middle of August.

[48] .Thus, even while revolution swept over most of the countries of Europe in 1848, Norway was pretty much unaffected by revolts that year.^ By the July Revolution of 1830 the political situation in Europe became completely changed, and the lessons derived from that great movement reached also to Norway.

^ Norway was thus the first sovereign country in Europe where the parliamentary vote was granted to women.

^ Norway is, as a whole, the most thinly populated of the political divisions of Europe.

Most revolts broke themselves on the granite conservativism of the Norwegian society.[49] Indeed the Thrane movement was the only "revolt" that broke out in Norway in 1848.
Marcus Thrane was a utopian socialist.[50] Marcus Thrane made his appeal to the laboring classes urging a change of social structure "from below upwards."[51] In 1848, he organized a labor society in Drammen. In just a few months this society had a membership of five hundred and the society was publishing its own newspaper.[52] .Within two years 300 societies had been organized all over Norway with a total membershiop of 20,000 persons.^ Thus he decided that in all documents concerning the internal government of the country Norway should stand first where reference was made to the king as sovereign of the two kingdoms.

^ By the year 2000, practically all hazardous waste generated in Norway shall be recovered or otherwise treated in approved Norwegian installations for deposit or refuse disposal.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

[53] The membership was drawn form the lower classes of both the town and country.[54] .For the first time these two groups felt they had common cause with each other.^ These plans have two strategic features in common: they focus on the local community and they involve cooperation across professional and sectoral divisions.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Several other projects regarding drinking water supply and sanitation in these two countries are also being funded.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ When these plans conflict with national, regional and environmental policy goals they are reviewed by the Ministry of Environment which makes a final decision in consultation with the other ministries concerned.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

[55] .In the end, the revolt was easily crushed, Thrane was captured and sentenced to three years in jail for crimes against the safety of the state.^ In the end the The minis- Rigsret sentenced the prime minister and seven of his try sen- ministers to be deprived of their offices, while three, tenced by who had either recommended the king to sanction the Rigsret.

.Upon his release from jail, after serving his sentence, Marcus Thrane immigrated to the United States of America.^ The vast majority of Norwegian emigrants go to the United States of America .

^ United States of America: New Hampshire Custom House revenue seal.
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Independence

Scenes from the Norwegian Campaign in 1940.
.Christian Michelsen, a shipping magnate and statesman, Prime Minister of Norway from 1905 to 1907, played a central role in the peaceful separation of Norway from Sweden on 7 June 1905. After a national referendum confirmed the people's preference for a monarchy over a republic, the Norwegian government offered the throne of Norway to the Danish Prince Carl, and Parliament unanimously elected him king, the first king of a fully independent Norway in 586 years.^ The Danish governor of Norway, Prince Christian Frederick , was unanimously elected king.

^ Norway is an independent, constitutional and hereditary monarchy, the union with Sweden having been dissolved on the 7th of June 1905, after lasting 91 years.

^ On the 25th of July the report of the committee was laid before the Riksdag, in which it was stated that Sweden could have no objection to enter into negotiations about the severance of the union, when a vote to that effect had been given by a newly-elected Storthing or by a national vote in the form of a referendum by the Norwegian people.

.He took the name of Haakon VII, after the medieval kings of independent Norway.^ In 1343 Magnus handed over the greater part of Norway to his son Haakon VI., who married Margrete, daughter of King Valdemar III. of Denmark .

^ On the 18th of November the Storthing unanimously elected Prince Charles as king of Norway, he taking the name of Haakon VII .

^ An extraordinary Storthing was then summoned at Christiania, and on the 4th of November 1814 Norway was declared to be " a free, independent, and indivisible kingdom, united with Sweden under one king."

In 1898, all men were granted universal suffrage, followed by all women in 1913.

World Wars I and II

.During World War I, Norway was a neutral country.^ During the Schleswig-Holstein rebellion (1848-1850) and the Crimean War King Oscar succeeded in maintaining the neutrality of Norway and Sweden, by which Norwegian shipping especially benefited.

^ During this period the differences between the two countries were somewhat thrust into the background by the Danish complications in 1863-1864, which threatened to draw the two kingdoms into war.

.In reality, however, Norway had been pressured by Great Britain to hand over increasingly large parts of its massive merchant fleet to Britain at low rates, as well as to join the trade blockade against Germany.^ At the close of the century Hans Nielson Hauge, the Wesley of Norway, appeared, while the growth of the timber trade with England gave rise to a great increase in wealth and population.

^ In 1343 Magnus handed over the greater part of Norway to his son Haakon VI., who married Margrete, daughter of King Valdemar III. of Denmark .

^ The growth of both may be judged from periodic averages Great Britain and Germany are the countries principally trading with Norway.

.September 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Norwegian merchant marines ship with Norwegian sailors were then required to sail under the British flag and risk being sunk by German submarines.^ German occupation, 1942-45: government in exile issued stamps for use on Norwegian ships, 1945, Feb.
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[56] Many Norwegian sailors and ships were, thus, lost.[57] .Thus, the world ranking of the Norwegian merchant marine fell from fourth place in the world to sixth place in the world.^ The Norwegians, in proportion to their numbers, are the first nation in the world in the mercantile marine industry.

[58]
.Norway also proclaimed its neutrality during World War II, but Norway was invaded by German forces on 9 April 1940. Norway was unprepared for the German surprise attack, so military and naval resistance only lasted for two months.^ Tourist Traffic and Communications.-During the later decades of the 19th century Norway was rapidly opened up to British, American and German visitors.

^ During the Schleswig-Holstein rebellion (1848-1850) and the Crimean War King Oscar succeeded in maintaining the neutrality of Norway and Sweden, by which Norwegian shipping especially benefited.

^ During this period the differences between the two countries were somewhat thrust into the background by the Danish complications in 1863-1864, which threatened to draw the two kingdoms into war.

.The armed forces in the north launched an offensive against the German forces in the Battles of Narvik, until they were forced to surrender on June 10 after losing British help following the Fall of France.^ N.F.: "Nyasaland Force", overprint on stamps of Nyasaland Protectorate, for British occupation of German East Africa, 1916.
  • AskPhil -- Stamp Collecting starts here. 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.askphil.org [Source type: General]

^ Nigerias, The: 1851 occupied by treaty, 1861: became a British Crown Colony, used stamps of Lagos, 1874, June 10: first stamps, 1906, Feb.
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.King Haakon and the Norwegian government escaped to Rotherhithe, London, England, and they supported the fight through inspirational radio speeches from London and by supporting clandestine military actions in Norway against the Nazis.^ Since 1993, Norway has assisted the Zambezi River Action Plan (ZACPLAN) in Zambia, supported the setting up of the River Board in Tanzania, and indicated willingness to support the Government of Zimbabwe in its efforts to commence work on a national water strategy.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ According to the constitu- of Carl tion, the king had the power to appoint a viceroy for XV. Norway, who might be either a Norwegian or Swede.

^ An attempt was made by the Swedish crown prince, acting as Prince Regent during the king's illness, to enter into new negotiations with the Norwegian government, but the proposals were not favourably received in Norway.

.On the day of the invasion, the collaborative leader of the small National-Socialist party Nasjonal Samling — Vidkun Quisling — tried to seize power but was forced by the German occupiers to step aside.^ "Nationalist Socialist German Workers Party", inscription on stamps of Germany as a franchise issue, 1938.
  • AskPhil -- Stamp Collecting starts here. 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.askphil.org [Source type: General]

^ N.S.D.A.P.: National Socialist Workers' Party, German stamps issued in 1938 and 1942 for Nazi Party official use.
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Real power was wielded by the leader of the German occupation authority, Reichskommissar Josef Terboven. .Quisling, as minister president, later formed a collaborationist government under German control.^ According to Bostrom's proposals the Norwegian consuls were to be placed under the control of the Swedish foreign minister, who was to have the power to remove any Norwegian consul .

There were also many Norwegians, and those of Norwegian descent, that joined the allied forces as well as the Free Norwegian Forces. .From the small group that had left Norway in June 1940 consisting of 13 ships, five aircraft and 500 men from the Royal Norwegian Navy who followed the King to the United Kingdom the force had grown by the end of the war to 58 ships and 7,500 men in service in the Norwegian Navy; 5 Squadrons of aircraft (including Spitfires, Sunderland flying boats and Mosquitos) in the newly formed Norwegian Air Force; and land forces including the Norwegian Independent Company 1 & 5 Troop as well as No.10 Commandos.^ New Zealand military served in the South African War, but used British Forces Postal Services, 1907, Oct.
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^ According to the constitu- of Carl tion, the king had the power to appoint a viceroy for XV. Norway, who might be either a Norwegian or Swede.

^ There can be no doubt that Harald introduced a feudal view of obligations towards the king, and landowning families, who had regarded their odd , or inherited property, as absolutely their own, resented being forced to pay dues on it.

.During the five years of Nazi occupation, Norwegians built a resistance movement which fought the German occupation forces with both armed resistance and civil disobedience.^ German occupation, 1942-45: government in exile issued stamps for use on Norwegian ships, 1945, Feb.
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^ A national EIA Research Centre and a Network Centre on Planning Research have been established at the Norwegian Institute of Urban and Regional Research during the last few years.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The franchise is extended to every Norwegian male who has passed his twenty-fifth year, has resided five years in the country, and fulfils the legal conditions of citizenship.

More important to the Allied war effort, however, was the role of the Norwegian Merchant Marine. .At the time of the invasion, Norway had the fourth largest merchant marine fleet in the world.^ The abolition of the English navigation acts in 1850 was of great importance to Norway, and opened up a great future for its merchant fleet.

.It was led by the Norwegian shipping company Nortraship under the Allies throughout the war and took part in every war operation from the evacuation of Dunkirk to the Normandy landings.^ In these circumstances the " lawyers' party," under the leadership of Johan Sverdrup , who was to play such a prominent part in Norwegian politics, and the " peasant party," led by Soren Relations delimited; but in spite of this treaty Russia in 1851 with Russia.

.Each December Norway gives a Christmas tree to the United Kingdom as thanks for the British assistance during World War II. A ceremony takes place to erect the tree in London's famous Trafalgar Square.^ Norway-London E.M.S.: United Kingdom postal strike; local post 1971.
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^ Tourist Traffic and Communications.-During the later decades of the 19th century Norway was rapidly opened up to British, American and German visitors.

^ North West London E.P.: United Kingdom postal strike; local post 1971.
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[59]

Post-war history

From 1945 to 1961, the Labour Party held an absolute majority in the parliament. .The government, led by prime minister Einar Gerhardsen, embarked on a program inspired by Keynesian economics, emphasizing state financed industrialization, cooperation between trade unions and employers' organizations.^ The Agricultural Agreement, which is negotiated annually between the Government and The farmers unions, consists of a broad range of instruments to promote sustainable policies.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ To ensure that GRIP's work reflects the views of a wide range of organizations, its board includes representatives from the Norwegian Confederation of Industry, the Norwegian Confederation of Trade Unions, the Norwegian Confederation of Trade and Service Businesses, the Norwegian Association of Local Authorities, The Norwegian Society for the Conservation of Nature and the State Pollution Control Authority.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A 3-year project, with representatives from forest owner organizations, forest industries, trade unions, forest extension services, the consumers' organisation, NGOs and the government, has the objective of contributing to basing the roundwood supply to the Norwegian forest industry on environmentally sustainable forestry.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

Many measures of state control of the economy imposed during the war were continued, although the rationing of dairy products was lifted in 1949, while price control and rationing of housing and cars continued as long as until 1960.
.The wartime alliance with Great Britain and the United States was continued in the post-war years.^ Actually their mercantile marine is only exceeded by those of Great Britain, Germany and the United States.

Although pursuing the goal of a socialist economy, the Labour Party distanced itself from the communists (especially after Soviet seizure of power in Czechoslovakia in 1948), and strengthened its foreign policy and defence policy ties with the U.S. Norway received Marshall Plan aid from the United States starting in 1947, joined the OEEC one year later and became a founding member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in 1949.
.Around 1975, both the proportion and absolute number of workers in industry peaked.^ The Norwegians, in proportion to their numbers, are the first nation in the world in the mercantile marine industry.

.Since then labour intensive industries and services like factory mass production and shipping have largely been off sourced.^ ROLE OF MAJOR GROUPS: Major groups, like industry, labour organizations, farmers' associations and NGOs, carry out information and training programmes on sustainable development.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

In 1969, the Phillips Petroleum Company discovered petroleum resources at the Ekofisk field west of Norway. In 1973, the Norwegian government founded the State oil company, Statoil. .Oil production did not become a net income before the early 1980s because of the large capital investment that was required to establish a petroleum industry.^ Special return systems for lead batteries and waste oils in which the industry has been given responsibility for ensuring recovery of their products when they become waste has been established.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ (NOAH), which is jointly owned by the Government and nine large industrial companies, was established in 1991.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In addition, a legal basis has been established for imposing requirements on industry in connection with collection, sorting and disposal of waste.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

Norway was a founding member of the European Free Trade Area (EFTA). .Two referendums on joining the European Union failed by narrow margins in 1972 and 1994. In 1981, a Conservative government led by Kåre Willoch replaced the Labour Party with a policy of stimulating the stagflated economy with tax cuts, economic liberalization, deregulation of markets, and measures to curb the record-high inflation (13.6% in 1981).^ Upon this the liberal ministry resigned (May 1893), and the king appointed a conservative government, with Emil Stang as its chief.

^ The county governor shall control that the policy and propositions are within national goals concerning economy, nature conservation and pollution.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1994, the Government appointed a Green Tax Commission with the mandate to review the possibility of a shift in taxation from taxes on labour to further improved pricing of the environment and natural resources.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.Norway's first female prime minister, Gro Harlem Brundtland of the Labour party, continued many of the reforms of her right-wing predecessor, while backing traditional Labour concerns such as social security, high taxes, the industrialization of nature, and feminism.^ Administrative systems, such as planning processes and monitoring and control systems, have been introduced in the administration and are still under development in order to secure high quality in the management of natural resources.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The Stang ministry then resigned, and a liberal ministry, with Steen, the recognized leader of the liberal party after Sverdrup's withdrawal from politics, as prime minister, was appointed.

^ Thus he decided that in all documents concerning the internal government of the country Norway should stand first where reference was made to the king as sovereign of the two kingdoms.

By the late 1990s, Norway had paid off its foreign debt and had started accumulating a sovereign wealth fund. Since the 1990s, a divisive question in politics has been how much petroleum income the government should spend, and how much it should save.

Geography, climate, and environment

A satellite image of continental Norway in winter
Typical Norwegian lowland landscape near the Trondheimsfjord
Some of the larger islands along the coastline of northern Norway.
Feigefossen, Sogn og Fjordane.
Norway is mountainous, but there are also some flat areas like here, in Jæren.
Musk ox in the low alpine tundra at Dovrefjell.
.Norway comprises the western part of Scandinavia in Northern Europe.^ NORWAY ( Norge ), a kingdom of northern Europe , occupying the W. and smaller part of the Scandinavian peninsula.

.The rugged coastline, broken by huge fjords and thousands of islands, stretches 2,500 kilometres (1,600 mi) and 83,000 kilometres (52,000 mi) including fjords and islands.^ The length of the coast line is difficult to estimate; measured as an unbroken line it is nearly 1700 m., but including the fjords and greater islands it is set down as 12,000.

Norway shares a 1,619-kilometre (1,006 mi) land border with Sweden, 727 kilometres (452 mi) with Finland and 196 kilometres (122 mi) with Russia at the east. .To the north, west and south, Norway is bordered by the Barents Sea, the Norwegian Sea, the North Sea and Skagerak.^ Norway is at present one of the leading countries in, and hosts the secretariat for, the regional North Sea Co-operation.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The Norwegian Assistance Programme for Nuclear Safety is focused on measures to increase nuclear safety and prevent radioactive pollution, primarily in North-West Russia.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The Swedes had now acquired the rich provinces in the south and south-west of the Scandinavian peninsula, and their ambition to extend their frontiers to the North Sea became more pronounced and more possible of accomplishment.

[60]
.At 385,252 square kilometres (148,747 sq mi) (including Svalbard and Jan Mayen), much of the country is dominated by mountainous or high terrain, with a great variety of natural features caused by prehistoric glaciers and varied topography.^ Such areas, located more than 5 km from a major technical encroachment, constituted 12% of the country in 1994, compared with 48% inn 1990 (Svalbard and Jan Mayen are not included).
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ To them belong perhaps certain non-Aryan names for natural features of the country, such as Toten, Vefsen, Bukn.

.The most noticeable of these are the fjords: deep grooves cut into the land flooded by the sea following the end of the Ice Age.^ Among the land-routes connecting the great fjords of the west the following may be mentioned.

The longest is Sognefjorden at 204 kilometres (127 mi). .Sognefjorden is the world's second deepest fjord, and Hornindalsvatnet is the deepest lake in Europe.^ In the basin of the same fjord is the short Ros river,which drains Ros Vand, second in extent of the Norwegian lakes.

[61] .Frozen ground all year can be found in the higher mountain areas and in the interior of Finnmark county.^ According to a new, approved Action Plan for National Parks, the protection of mountain areas will be extended significantly towards the year 2008.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In recent years, counties have begun to draw up joint land use plans for several large mountain regions in southern Norway.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

Numerous glaciers are found in Norway.
.The land is mostly made of hard granite and gneiss rock, but slate, sandstone and limestone are also common, and the lowest elevations contain marine deposits.^ Here again gneiss and granite form the greater part of the mass, but in Telemarken there are also conglomerates, sandstones and clay -slates which are believed to be Archaean.

.Because of the Gulf Stream and prevailing westerlies, Norway experiences higher temperatures and more precipitation than expected at such northern latitudes, especially along the coast.^ It may be noted here that in several cases the lower-lying inland stations in the south show a distinctly lower winter temperature than the higher in the immediate vicinity.

^ The interior having a warm summer and a cold winter, and the coast a cool summer and a mild winter, the annual range of temperature is remarkably greater inland than on the coast.

.The mainland experiences four distinct seasons, with colder winters and less precipitation inland.^ The force of the wind is greater in winter on the coast; inland, on the contrary, the winter is normally calm; and at all seasons, on the average, the periods of calm are longer inland than on the coast.

The northernmost part has a mostly maritime Subarctic climate, while Svalbard has an Arctic tundra climate. .The southern and western parts of Norway experience more precipitation and have milder winters than the southeastern part.^ The Ministry of Environment for its part runs different LA 21 related programmes which will provide important experiences in the implementation of LA 21 in Norway.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.The lowlands around Oslo have the warmest and sunniest summers but also cold weather and snow in wintertime (especially inland).^ The interior having a warm summer and a cold winter, and the coast a cool summer and a mild winter, the annual range of temperature is remarkably greater inland than on the coast.

.Average temperatures have risen the last decades, decreasing the amount of days with snow cover in the lowlands.^ But emigration slackened in the last decade of the 19th century, during which period the movement from rural districts to towns, which had decreased from about the middle of the century, revived.

[citation needed]
.Because of the large latitudinal range of the country and the varied topography and climate, Norway has a larger number of different habitats than almost any other European country.^ Another important regulation which has been implemented in Norway is connected to the large number of existing chemicals already on the market.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Bilateral support to health programmes are provided to a number of Norway's main partner countries, e.g.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Norway consists almost entirely of Archaean and Lower Palaeozoic rocks, imperfectly covered by glacial and other recent deposits.

There are approximately 60,000 species in Norway and adjacent waters (excluding bacteria and virus). The Norwegian Shelf large marine ecosystem is considered highly productive.[62]
.The total number of species include 16,000 species of insects (probably 4,000 more species yet to be described), 20,000 species of algae, 1,800 species of lichen, 1,050 species of mosses, 2,800 species of vascular plants, up to 7,000 species of fungi, 450 species of birds (250 species nesting in Norway), 90 species of mammals, 45 fresh-water species of fish, 150 salt-water species of fish, 1,000 species of fresh-water invertebrates and 3,500 species of salt-water invertebrates.^ The annual value of imports is about £16,500,000, and of exports about £io,000,000.

^ Species covered by the Wildlife Act and the Act Relating to Salmonids and Freshwater Fish (terrestrial mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fishes and other freshwater organisms) are at the outset under the principle of general protection.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Hitherto the peasantry had never been represented by more than twenty members, but the elections in 1833 brought their number up to forty-five, nearly half of the total representation.

[63] About 40,000 of these species have been described by science. .The red list of 2006 encompasses 3,886 species.^ In the existing Red List (1992) there are 150 species classified as endangered, 279 species as vulnerable and 800 species are rare.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This was the first Red List to be made, which helps explain the large increase in registered threatened species since 1990.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

[64] .Seventeen species are listed mainly because they are endangered on a global scale, such as the European Beaver, even if the population in Norway is not seen as endangered.^ The result of such action is seen in the series of ledges over which the main rivers of Norway plunge in falls or rapids.

.There are 430 species of fungi on the red list, many of these are closely associated with the small remaining areas of old-growth forests.^ About 70% of the total area of Norway is barren, and about 21% is forest land, but the small agricultural area employs, directly or indirectly, about 40% of the population.

^ In the existing Red List (1992) there are 150 species classified as endangered, 279 species as vulnerable and 800 species are rare.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ However, the relative economic importance of the mountain regions to the country is less than 1% and the number of people living in these areas is very small.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

[65] There are also 90 species of birds on the list and 25 species of mammals. .1,988 current species are listed as endangered or vulnerable as of 2006; of these are 939 listed as vulnerable (VU), 734 species are listed as endangered (EN), and 285 species are listed as critically endangered (CR) in Norway, among these are the gray wolf, the arctic fox (healthy population on Svalbard) and the pool frog.^ In the existing Red List (1992) there are 150 species classified as endangered, 279 species as vulnerable and 800 species are rare.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

The largest predator in Norwegian waters is the sperm whale, and the largest fish is the basking shark. The largest predator on land is the polar bear, while the brown bear is the largest predator on the Norwegian mainland, where the common moose is the largest animal.
Because of Norway's high latitude, there are large seasonal variations in daylight. .From late May to late July, the sun never completely descends beneath the horizon in areas north of the Arctic Circle (hence Norway's description as the "Land of the Midnight Sun"), and the rest of the country experiences up to 20 hours of daylight per day.^ By the July Revolution of 1830 the political situation in Europe became completely changed, and the lessons derived from that great movement reached also to Norway.

^ About 70% of the total area of Norway is barren, and about 21% is forest land, but the small agricultural area employs, directly or indirectly, about 40% of the population.

^ The voyage to the North Cape is taken by many in order to see the " midnight sun " in June and July.

.Conversely, from late November to late January, the sun never rises above the horizon in the north, and daylight hours are very short in the rest of the country.^ In winter, on the other hand, the sun does not rise above the horizon at the North Cape from the 18th of November, to the 23rd of January, and at Bodo from the 15th to the 27th of December.

^ In the extreme S. the sun is above the horizon for 62 hours at mid-winter.

^ The sun is above the horizon at the North Cape continuously from the 12th of May to the 29th of July, and at Boa, not far from the Arctic circle, from the 3rd of June to the 7th of July.

Throughout Norway, one will find stunning and dramatic scenery and landscape. .The west coast of southern Norway and the coast of northern Norway present some of the most visually impressive coastal sceneries in the world.^ Ny Ålesund: mining town in mainland Norway contains the world's most northerly permanent post office.
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^ Former beach -lines are most commonly to be observed in northern Norway (e.g.

^ Biafra reunited with Nigeria; see Biafra, Lagos, Niger Coast Protectorate, Nigeria, Northern and Southern, Oil Rivers Protectorate.
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.National Geographic has listed the Norwegian fjords as the world's top tourist attraction.^ The Norwegians, in proportion to their numbers, are the first nation in the world in the mercantile marine industry.

[66] The 2008 Environmental Performance Index put Norway in second place, after Switzerland, based on the environmental performance of the country's policies.[67]
Loen, a small village on the Western coast of Norway.

Government and politics

Harald V, the current King of Norway
.According to the Constitution of Norway, which was adopted on 17 May 1814 and inspired by the United States Declaration of Independence and French revolution of 1776 and 1798, respectively, Norway is a unitary constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of government, wherein the King of Norway is the head of state and the Prime Minister is the head of government.^ According to the constitu- of Carl tion, the king had the power to appoint a viceroy for XV. Norway, who might be either a Norwegian or Swede.

^ King Oscar, on receiving the news of the action of the Norwegian Storthing, sent a telegraphic protest to the Norwegian prime minister and to the president of the Storthing.

^ These Declarations are not legally binding and it is up to each government to decide how to achieve the stated objectives.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.Power is separated between the legislative, executive and judicial branches of government, as defined by the Constitution, which serves as the country's supreme legal document.^ The further negotiations between the two governments resulted in the so-called communiqué of the 24th of March 1903, which announced the conclusion of an agreement between the representatives of the two countries for the establishment of the separate consular service.

^ The representatives of the Norwegian government in Stockholm proposed that three members of the cabinet of each country should constitute the ministerial council.

^ Thus he decided that in all documents concerning the internal government of the country Norway should stand first where reference was made to the king as sovereign of the two kingdoms.

.The Monarch officially retains executive power, however, following the introduction of a parliamentary system of government, the duties of the Monarch have since become strictly representative and ceremonial,[68] such as the formal appointment and dismissal of the Prime Minister and other ministers in the executive government.^ Other towns are formed into communes, governed by representatives, from whom a council ( formoend ) is elected by themselves.

^ In the following year he Carl gave his sanction to the bill for the abolition of the xv.; ac- office of viceroy, which the Storthing had again cession of assed and the president of the ministry after Oscar H. P P Y was wards recognized as the prime minister and head of the government in Christiania.

^ The position which the government had taken up on this question helped to open the eyes of the Norwegians to some defects in the constitution, which had proved obstacles to the development and strengthening of the parliamentary system.

.Accordingly, the Monarch is commander-in-chief of the Norwegian armed forces, supreme authority in the Church of Norway, and serves as chief diplomatic representative abroad and a symbol of unity.^ Environmental NGOs, three major women's organizations, the scouts' confederations, the Church of Norway, the Norwegian Confederation of Sports and the Federation of Co-operative Housing and Building are among the member organizations.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.In practice, it is the Prime Minister who is responsible for the exercise of executive powers.^ In the end the The minis- Rigsret sentenced the prime minister and seven of his try sen- ministers to be deprived of their offices, while three, tenced by who had either recommended the king to sanction the Rigsret.

^ According to Bostrom's proposals the Norwegian consuls were to be placed under the control of the Swedish foreign minister, who was to have the power to remove any Norwegian consul .

.Since his accession in 1991, Harald V of the House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg has been King of Norway, the first in many years who has actually been born in the country.^ Norway was thus the first sovereign country in Europe where the parliamentary vote was granted to women.

^ According to the constitu- of Carl tion, the king had the power to appoint a viceroy for XV. Norway, who might be either a Norwegian or Swede.

^ The Programme of Co-operation and Competence- building at university institutions in developing countries (since 1991) is based on mutually binding co-operation programmes between Norwegian universities and universities in developing countries.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

[69] .Haakon, Crown Prince of Norway is the legal and rightful heir to the throne and the Kingdom.^ On the 18th of November the Storthing unanimously elected Prince Charles as king of Norway, he taking the name of Haakon VII .

^ Soon afterwards the Swedes, under the crown prince, invaded Norway.

The Storting is the Parliament of Norway
.Constitutionally, legislative power is vested with both the government and the Parliament of Norway, but the latter is the supreme legislature and a unicameral body.^ The Government's programme for Norway's follow-up of the Commission's report was presented in a White Paper to the Parliament in 1989.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This must have greatly contributed to shatter the power of the class which had once been the chief factor in the government of Norway.

[70] .A proposition can become a law or an act by simple majority amongst the 150 representatives, whom are elected on the basis of proportional representation from 19 constituencies for four-year terms.^ Other towns are formed into communes, governed by representatives, from whom a council ( formoend ) is elected by themselves.

^ The Nature Conservation Act has been and will in the years to come be one of the major legal instruments to secure biodiversity, also in mountain regions.
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^ The Long-term Programme describes the development planned by the Government for the next four years, and also outlines the perspectives for the next ten years.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.An additional 19 seats ("levelling seats") are allocated on a nationwide basis to make the representation in parliament correspond better with the popular vote.^ In addition, there are several other sectoral institutions at each of the three levels that have interests in such areas and participate in the decision-making processes.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The report is meant to increase the decision-making basis at the municipal and county level by management of areas and resources.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.As a result, there are currently 169 Members of Parliament altogether.^ Finally there is a high court of impeachment ( rigsret ), before which members of parliament, the government, &c., are tried for misdemeanours committed in their public capacity.

There is also a 4% election threshold to gain levelling seats in Parliament. As such, Norway is fundamentally structured as a representative democracy. .Effectively called the Storting, meaning Grand Assembly, members of Parliament ratify treaties and can impeach members of the government if their acts are declared unconstitutional, and as such have the power to remove them from office in case of an impeachment trial.^ It is governed by special acts of parliament, and its chief officials are publicly appointed.

^ Finally there is a high court of impeachment ( rigsret ), before which members of parliament, the government, &c., are tried for misdemeanours committed in their public capacity.

.The position of Prime Minister, Norway's head of government, is allocated to the Member of Parliament who can obtain the confidence of a majority in Parliament, usually the current leader of the largest political party or more effectively through a coalition of parties, as a single party normally don't have the support to form a government on its own.^ A coalition ministry was at last formed, with Professor G. F. Hagerup as prime minister.

^ Now, on the contrary, the opposition had gained more experience and had confidence in its own strength, and no doubt found that the legislative work could better be carried on if the ministers were present to explain and defend their views; but the government saw in the proposed reform the threatened introduction of full parliamentary government, by which the ministry could not remain in office unless supported by a majority in the Storthing.

^ Finally there is a high court of impeachment ( rigsret ), before which members of parliament, the government, &c., are tried for misdemeanours committed in their public capacity.

However, Norway has often been ruled by minority governments. .The Prime Minister nominates the Cabinet, traditionally drawn from members of the same political party in the Storting, to which they are responsible, and as such forms the executive government and exercises power vested to them by the Constitution.^ A coalition ministry was at last formed, with Professor G. F. Hagerup as prime minister.

^ The Stang ministry then resigned, and a liberal ministry, with Steen, the recognized leader of the liberal party after Sverdrup's withdrawal from politics, as prime minister, was appointed.

^ Michelsen, the prime minister, informed the Storthing that all the members of the government had resigned in consequence of the king's refusal to sanction the consular law, that the king had declined to accept the resignation, and that, as an alternative government could not be formed, the union with Sweden, based upon a king in common, was consequently dissolved.

[71] .In order to form a government, however, more than half the membership of the Cabinet is required to belong to the Church of Norway.^ No more than England did Norway escape the struggle between Church and State, but the hierarchical party in Norway only rose to power after the establishment of an archiepiscopal see at Trondhjem in 1152, after which the quarrel raged for over a century.

^ The king kept the country for over four months without a responsible government, during which time the crisis had become more acute than ever.

^ However, where Governments have not provided information for the tables appended to Chapters 4 and 17, those tables have been omitted entirely in order to reduce the overall length of the profile and save paper.
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Currently, this means at least ten out of the 19 ministries. This has sparked controversy regarding an ongoing debate of separation of church and state in Norway. .The current Prime Minister is Jens Stoltenberg, the leader of the Norwegian Labour Party (AP).^ King Oscar, on receiving the news of the action of the Norwegian Storthing, sent a telegraphic protest to the Norwegian prime minister and to the president of the Storthing.

^ The Stang ministry then resigned, and a liberal ministry, with Steen, the recognized leader of the liberal party after Sverdrup's withdrawal from politics, as prime minister, was appointed.

Royal Palace of Norway in Oslo.
.Through the Council of State, a privy council presided over by the Monarch, the Prime Minister and the Cabinet meet at the Royal Palace and formally consult the Monarch.^ King Oscar, on receiving the news of the action of the Norwegian Storthing, sent a telegraphic protest to the Norwegian prime minister and to the president of the Storthing.

^ Norway is actively supporting the work with environmental indicators in the OECD. Biannually, The Nordic Council of Ministers produces a report on the state of the environment in the Nordic countries based on indicators.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.Besides enacting parliamentary bills, all government bills need the formal approval by the Monarch before and after introduction to Parliament.^ Finally there is a high court of impeachment ( rigsret ), before which members of parliament, the government, &c., are tried for misdemeanours committed in their public capacity.

Approval is also given by the Council to all of the Monarch's actions as head of state. .Although all government and parliamentary acts are decided beforehand, the privy council is an example of another symbolic gesture the King obtains.^ The proposal was sent to the Norwegian government, Act of which did not seem at all disposed to entertain it; but union.

^ Thus he decided that in all documents concerning the internal government of the country Norway should stand first where reference was made to the king as sovereign of the two kingdoms.

[69] .Members of the Storting are directly elected from party-lists proportional representation in nineteen plural-member constituencies in a national multi-party system.^ The legislative body is the parliament ( storthing ), the members of which are elected directly by the people divided into electoral divisions, each returning one member.

[72] .Historically, both the Norwegian Labour Party and Conservative Party have played leading political roles, while the former has remained in power since the 2005 election, in a Red-Green coalition with the Socialist Left Party and the Centre Party.^ In these circumstances the " lawyers' party," under the leadership of Johan Sverdrup , who was to play such a prominent part in Norwegian politics, and the " peasant party," led by Soren Relations delimited; but in spite of this treaty Russia in 1851 with Russia.

^ The elections resulted in a great victory for the liberal party, which returned stronger than ever to the Storthing, numbering 83 and the conservatives only 31.

^ Major Groups: The co-operative movement plays an important role in Norwegian housing policy.
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[73] .Since then, both the Conservative Party and the Progress Party have won great amount of seats in the Parliament, however, as of the 2009 general election, not sufficient enough to overthrow the coalition.^ The elections in 1897 proved again a great victory for the liberal party, 79 liberals and 35 conservatives being returned, and in February 1898 the Hagerup ministry was replaced by a liberal, once more under the premiership of Steen.

^ The elections resulted in a great victory for the liberal party, which returned stronger than ever to the Storthing, numbering 83 and the conservatives only 31.

.This has been the result of poor cooperation with the Liberal Party and the Christian Democratic Party.^ The elections resulted in a great victory for the liberal party, which returned stronger than ever to the Storthing, numbering 83 and the conservatives only 31.

.As such, Jens Stoltenberg, the leader of the Labour Party, remains Prime Minister of Norway with the necessary majority attributed to the alliance with the Socialist Left and Centre parties.^ The Stang ministry then resigned, and a liberal ministry, with Steen, the recognized leader of the liberal party after Sverdrup's withdrawal from politics, as prime minister, was appointed.

^ About this time the peasant party found a champion in the youthful poet Henrik Wergeland , who soon became one of the leaders of the " Young Norway " party.

[74]

Judicial system and law enforcement

.Norway uses a civil law system where laws are created and amended in Parliament and the system regulated through the Courts of Justice of Norway.^ The most important organisation with which Norway co-operates in this field is the EU. Through the EEA agreement, Norway has implemented several EU directives/regulations in the chemical field.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Norway has implemented a regulation concerning notification of new chemical substances and thus takes part in the European notification system.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The other laws regulating the forestry sector are: the Nature Conservation Act (provisions for conservation of forests); the Plan and Building Act (1985); and the Act of Forestry and Forest Protection (1965), amended in 1993.
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.It consists of the Supreme Court of 19 permanent judges and a Chief Justice, appellate courts, city and district courts, and conciliation councils.^ Henceforward the council comes more and more to be composed of the king's court officials, instead of a gathering of the lendermcend or barons of the district in which the king happened to be.

[75] The judiciary, although traditionally a third branch of government, is independent of executive and legislative branches. .While the Prime Minister nominates Supreme Court Justices for office, their nomination must be approved by Parliament and formally confirmed by the Monarch in the Council of State.^ Provided there are no objections from the county or affected state expert authorities, the plans may be finally approved by the municipal council.
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^ The king, in his displeasure, decided to dissolve the Storthing; but before it dispersed it proceeded to impeach Lovenskiold, one of the ministers, before the supreme court of the realm, for having advised the king to dissolve the Storthing.

^ Norway is actively supporting the work with environmental indicators in the OECD. Biannually, The Nordic Council of Ministers produces a report on the state of the environment in the Nordic countries based on indicators.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.Usually, judges attached to regular courts are formally appointed by the Monarch on the advice of the Prime Minister.^ The Stang ministry then resigned, and a liberal ministry, with Steen, the recognized leader of the liberal party after Sverdrup's withdrawal from politics, as prime minister, was appointed.

.The Courts' strict and formal mission is to regulate the Norwegian judicial system, interpret the Constitution, and as such implement the legislation adopted by Parliament and monitor the legislative and executive powers to ensure that they themselves comply with the acts of legislation that have been previously adopted.^ The legislative framework for the regulation of hazardous waste is the Pollution Control Act (1981) and the Product Control Act of (1976).
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^ A regulation on Impact Assessment referred to in the Gene Technology Act has been adopted.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Administrative systems, such as planning processes and monitoring and control systems, have been introduced in the administration and are still under development in order to secure high quality in the management of natural resources.
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[75]
.Law enforcement in Norway is carried out by several government entities and agencies.^ Several pilot projects on children's participation are carried out by municipalities.
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^ In due course the Norwegian government submitted to the Swedish government their draft of the proposed laws and regulations, but no reply was forthcoming for several months.

^ TABLE V. ADDRESSING CRITICAL UNCERTAINTIES FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT AND CLIMATE CHANGE. IN ORDER TO IMPLEMENT THIS PROGRAMME AREA THE GOVERNMENT IS CARRYING OUT THE FOLLOWING ACTIVITIES: .
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.It is the direct responsibility of the Norwegian Police Service and other agencies subordinate to the Ministry of Justice and the Police, such as the National Security Authority, Norwegian Police Security Agency, Norwegian National Authority for the Investigation and Prosecution of Economic and Environmental Crime and Kripos, to protect the constitution, provide for the maintenance and development of the basic guarantees of the rule of law and ensure the security of society and of individual citizens.^ Other ministries hold responsibility for environmental research within their areas.
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^ STEPS TAKEN TO ENHANCE SCIENTIFIC UNDERSTANDING, IMPROVE LONG TERM SCIENTIFIC ASSESSMENT, BUILDING OF CAPACITY AND CAPABILITY: At the governmental level responsibilities for science related to sustainable development are organized as follows: The Ministry of Environment has a direct responsibility for environmental research and an indirect overall responsibility for integration of environmental considerations and environmental research themes in research funded directly by other ministries and sectors.
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^ Reorientation of education towards sustainable development The Ministry of Education is responsible for environmental education and co-operates with several other ministries on special programmes in this area.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

[76] .The National Police Directorate are specially charged with police matters and operated by the Ministry of Justice and the Police.^ Reorientation of education towards sustainable development The Ministry of Education is responsible for environmental education and co-operates with several other ministries on special programmes in this area.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

In its 2007 Worldwide Press Freedom Index, Reporters Without Borders ranked Norway at a shared 1st place (with Iceland) out of 169 countries.[77] .The death penalty was abolished in Norway in 1902. Death penalty for high treason in war and war-crimes was also abolished in 1979. Currently, Norway has the lowest homicide rate in the world.^ Norway will maintain its current high CO2-tax level, while adopting a more comprehensive approach to combating climate change.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

Foreign relations and military

Norway maintains embassies in 86 countries.[78] .60 countries maintain an embassy in Norway, all of them in the capital, Oslo.^ The Norwegians maintained that the few counts and barons still to be found in Norway were all Danish and of very recent origin, while the really true and ancient nobility of the country were the Norwegian peasants, descendants of the old jarls and chieftains.

^ In 1991, Norway introduced a CO2-tax which at present is applied to sources of 60% of Norwegian CO2 emissions, but covers almost all energy related emissions.
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^ Thus he decided that in all documents concerning the internal government of the country Norway should stand first where reference was made to the king as sovereign of the two kingdoms.

[79]
.Norway is a founding member of the United Nations, NATO and the Council of Europe.^ Norway has also ratified the agreement for the implementation of the provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea relating to the Conservation and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Regional/International Co-operation: Norway participates in the Conference of Ministers responsible for Regional Planning (CEMAT) under the Council of Europe.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.The Norwegian electorate has twice rejected treaties of accession to the European Union (EU), although most legislation made by the EU is implemented in the country because of Norway's membership in the European Economic Area (EEA).^ The most important organisation with which Norway co-operates in this field is the EU. Through the EEA agreement, Norway has implemented several EU directives/regulations in the chemical field.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ He was a /vergerepublican in politics, and the most zealous upholder of the national independence of Norway and of her full equality with Sweden in the union.

^ After a union of nearly 400 years between Norway and Denmark, the Danish king, Frederick VI., without consulting the Norwegians, ceded Norway to Sweden by the treaty of Kiel (January 14, 1814).

This ensures Norway's access to the EU's internal market. .Norway has been considered a prominent participant in international development, having been heavily involved diplomatically with the failed Oslo Accords regarding the longtime conflict between Israel and Palestinians in the Middle East.^ He reformed its government and strove to develop its resources, but his policy involved Norway in the loss of the provinces of Jemtland and Herjedalen, which were ceded to the Swedes by the peace of Brdmsebro (1645).

^ Regional/International Co-operation: Norway participates in the Conference of Ministries responsible for Regional Planning (CEMAT) under the Council of Europe and are among others working on charters for rural- and mountain development.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Norway aims to play an active role on the international arena through its commitment to environmental co-operation, international conflict resolution, human rights and development co-operation.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.Norway maintains close diplomatic relations with the United States.^ Norway has also ratified the agreement for the implementation of the provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea relating to the Conservation and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

Norwegian Leopard tanks in the snow in Målselv.
Norwegian Army soldiers wearing CBRN protection suits.
.The Norwegian Armed Forces currently numbers about 23,000 personnel, including civilian employees.^ There are also a few Finns (about half the number of Lapps), whom the Norwegians call Kvaner, a name of early origin.

^ In 1880 Norwegian steam vessels had a tonnage of about 52,000; they now exceed 640,000 tons.

^ In a century and a half the number of the Norwegian people was doubled, so that by 1814 Norway comprised some 90o,000 souls.

According to the current (as of 2009) mobilization plans, the strength during full mobilization is approximately 83,000 combatant personnel. Norway has conscription for males (6–12 months of training) and voluntary service for females.[80] .The Armed Forces are subordinate to the Norwegian Ministry of Defence and the Commander-in-Chief is King Harald V.^ Upon this the liberal ministry resigned (May 1893), and the king appointed a conservative government, with Emil Stang as its chief.

^ The Norwegian Ministry immediately resigned, but the king informed the ministers that = he could not accept their resignation.

.The military of Norway is divided into the following branches: the Army, the Royal Navy, the Royal Air Force and the Home Guard.^ As regards insect life, Norway may be divided into three areas, the S. being richer than the W., while the N. is distinct from either in the number of peculiarly arctic insects.

.Partly due to Norway's failure to maintain its traditional policy of neutrality in World War II (surrendered to Nazi Germany in June 1940[81]), the country was one of the founding nations of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) on 4 April 1949. At present, Norway contributes in the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in Afghanistan.^ The aim is to identify how Norway and other countries can actively contribute to speeding up the progress toward implementation of the International Convention on the Rights of the Child and respect for ILO Convention 138 and other relevant international instruments through development assistance and other forms of international co-operation.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ STATUS REPORT ON NATIONAL ENDOGENOUS CAPACITY BUILDING: The main responsibility for international co-operation for capacity building in developing countries rests with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and its subordinate body, NORAD. Norway is participating in the OECD/DAC working party on Development Assistance and Environment, established in 1989.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Norway started the first assessment of its policies for sustainable development when the World Commission for Sustainable Development published "Our Common Future" in 1987.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

[82] Notable international missions in recent years with Norwegian participation include the following:

Administrative divisions

.Norway, a unitary state, is effectively divided into five regions, although this is for strategic geographical purposes only.^ In 1993, five research councils were merged into one: The Research Council of Norway.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ As regards insect life, Norway may be divided into three areas, the S. being richer than the W., while the N. is distinct from either in the number of peculiarly arctic insects.

.The regions do not have their own administrative form of local government, nor a directly elected assembly.^ Other towns are formed into communes, governed by representatives, from whom a council ( formoend ) is elected by themselves.

^ E. The Government supports the establishment and improvement of local, national, subregional and regional, as necessary, regulatory and monitoring programmes to control effluent discharge.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The Government can also lay down National Policy Guidelines to guide the planning processes at local and regional levels.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.The regions are further divided into nineteen first-level administrative counties (fylker).^ Regional planning to ensure sustainable land use management is a main task at both the county and municipal level.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The country is divided into twenty counties ( amter ) (see population), the cities of Christiania and Bergen being included in these.

^ At the county level, Akershus county has among others introduced the term "Regional Agenda 21" and is working on the implementation of LA 21 at the regional level.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

The counties are administrated through directly elected county assemblies who elect the County Governor. .Additionally, the King and government are represented in every county by a fylkesmann, who effectively acts as a Governor.^ The king, wishing to remedy this disparity, proposed that the composition of the council should be determined by an additional paragraph in the Act of Union.

^ During the first fifteen years the king was represented in Norway by a Swedish viceroy , while the government was, of course, composed only of Norwegians.

[83] .As such, the Government is directly represented at a local level through the County Governors’ offices.^ The percentage of women at the local government level was 28.5% and 32.7% in 1992 and 1996, respectively.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Through a close co-operation with the Housing Bank, the municipalities play a key role in implementing housing policy at local level.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The Government can also lay down National Policy Guidelines to guide the planning processes at local and regional levels.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.The counties are then sub-divided into 430 second-level municipalities (kommuner), which in turn are administrated by directly elected municipal council, headed by a mayor and a small executive cabinet.^ Provided there are no objections from the county or affected state expert authorities, the plans may be finally approved by the municipal council.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Regional planning to ensure sustainable land use management is a main task at both the county and municipal level.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Other towns are formed into communes, governed by representatives, from whom a council ( formoend ) is elected by themselves.

.The capital of Oslo is considered both a county and a municipality.^ Regional planning to ensure sustainable land use management is a main task at both the county and municipal level.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Both the county plan and the municipal master plan must be within the framework of the national guidelines.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

Norway also has two integral overseas territories, Jan Mayen and Svalbard. There are three Antarctic and Subantarctic dependencies: Bouvet Island, Peter I Island and Queen Maud Land.
In addition, there are 96 settlements with city status in Norway. In most cases, the city borders are coterminous with the borders of their respective municipalities. .Often, Norwegian city municipalities include large non-built up areas; for example, Oslo municipality contains large forests, located north and southeast of the city, and over half of Bergen municipality consists of mountainous areas.^ On national level, large mountain areas are already secured through the existing Norwegian national park system.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In coastal areas, it is often necessary to see municipal planning in several municipalities as a whole.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Many of the wilderness-like areas that are left are located in the mountain regions and in the northern part of Norway.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

[84]
A geopolitical map of Norway, showing the 19 fylker, the Svalbard (Spitsbergen) and Jan Mayen islands, which are part of the Norwegian kingdom.
The counties of Norway are:
ISO-code Arms County (Fylke) Prefecture
01 Østfold våpen.svg Østfold Moss (county seat is Sarpsborg)
02 Akershus vapen.svg Akershus Oslo
03 Oslo komm.svg Oslo City of Oslo
04 Hedmark våpen.svg Hedmark Hamar
05 Oppland våpen.svg Oppland Lillehammer
06 Buskerud våpen.svg Buskerud Drammen
07 Vestfold våpen.svg Vestfold Tønsberg
08 Telemark våpen.svg Telemark Skien
09 Aust-Agder vapen.svg Aust-Agder Arendal
10 Vest-Agder våpen.svg Vest-Agder Kristiansand
11 Rogaland våpen.svg Rogaland Stavanger
12 Hordaland vapen.svg Hordaland Bergen
13 Sogn og Fjordane våpen.svg Sogn og Fjordane Leikanger
14 Møre og Romsdal vapen.svg Møre og Romsdal Molde
15 Sør-Trøndelag våpen.svg Sør-Trøndelag Trondheim
16 Nord-Trøndelag våpen.svg Nord-Trøndelag Steinkjer
17 Nordland våpen.svg Nordland Bodø
18 Coat of Arms of Troms.svg Troms Tromsø
19 Finnmark vapen.svg Finnmark Vadsø

Largest cities

Most populous urban areas of Norway

Rank Core city County Urban population Municipal population
1 Oslo Oslo/Akershus 876,391 580,229
2 Bergen Hordaland 227,752 253,600
3 Stavanger/Sandnes Rogaland 189,828 121,610
4 Trondheim Sør-Trøndelag 160,072 168,257
5 Fredrikstad/Sarpsborg Østfold 101,698 72,760
6 Drammen Buskerud 96,563 60,145
7 Grenland Telemark 86,923 50,595
8 Kristiansand Vest-Agder 67,547 80,109
9 Tromsø Troms 55,057 64,782
10 Tønsberg Vestfold 47,465 38,914
11 Ålesund Møre og Romsdal 46,471 41,385
12 Haugesund Rogaland 42,850 33,022
13 Moss Østfold 41,725 28,200
14 Sandefjord Vestfold 40,877 42,333
15 Bodø Nordland 36,482 46,049
16 Arendal Aust-Agder 32,439 41,241
17 Hamar Hedmark 30,015 27,593
18 Larvik Vestfold 23,899 41,211
19 Halden Østfold 22,986 28,063
20 Lillehammer Oppland 20,097 26,124
CityPopulation

Economy

GDP and GDP growth
.Norwegians enjoy the second highest GDP per-capita (after Luxembourg) and third highest GDP (PPP) per-capita in the world.^ Latest 1995 GDP per capita (current US$) .
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

Norway maintained first place in the world in the UNDP Human Development Index (HDI) for six consecutive years (2001–2006),[15] and then reclaimed this position in 2009.[16]
.The Norwegian economy is an example of a mixed economy, a prosperous capitalist welfare state featuring a combination of free market activity and large state ownership in certain key sectors.^ TABLE VI. RATING OF ACTIVITIES IN THE AIR AND MARITIME TRANSPORT SECTORS IN THE SMALL ISLANDS DEVELOPING STATES (SIDS) .
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.The state has large ownership positions in key industrial sectors, such as the strategic petroleum sector (Statoil), hydroelectric energy production (Statkraft), aluminum production (Norsk Hydro), the largest Norwegian bank (DnB NOR), and telecommunication provider (Telenor).^ Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Research and Development of technology, especially in the energy sector and industrial production sector, is supported by the Government and the industry.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The implementation of measures is the responsibility of the sectoral ministries, such as the Ministry of Fisheries, the Ministry of Industry etc.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The Government gives high national priority to the use of more energy-efficient and environmentally safe technologies in industry, transport, energy production and to Environmental Impact Assessments.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.Through these big companies, the government controls approximately 30% of the stock values at the Oslo Stock Exchange.^ The Government will host an international conference on child labour in Oslo, 27-30 October 1997.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

When non-listed companies are included, the state has even higher share in ownership (mainly from direct oil license ownership). .Norway is a major shipping nation and has the world's 6th largest merchant fleet, with 1,412 Norwegian-owned merchant vessels.^ Environmental NGOs, three major women's organizations, the scouts' confederations, the Church of Norway, the Norwegian Confederation of Sports and the Federation of Co-operative Housing and Building are among the member organizations.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Poverty is therefore not an issue of major concern in Norway, nor is there any national definition of "poverty" or thereto related legislation.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

Referendums in 1972 and 1994 indicated that the Norwegian people wished to remain outside the European Union (EU). .However, Norway, together with Iceland and Liechtenstein, participates in the European Union's single market via the European Economic Area (EEA) agreement.^ The most important organisation with which Norway co-operates in this field is the EU. Through the EEA agreement, Norway has implemented several EU directives/regulations in the chemical field.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ However, the relative economic importance of the mountain regions to the country is less than 1% and the number of people living in these areas is very small.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

The EEA Treaty between the European Union countries and the EFTA countries– transposed into Norwegian law via "EØS-loven"[85]– describes the procedures for implementing European Union rules in Norway and the other EFTA countries. .This makes Norway a highly integrated member of most sectors of the EU internal market.^ The most important organisation with which Norway co-operates in this field is the EU. Through the EEA agreement, Norway has implemented several EU directives/regulations in the chemical field.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Norway attaches particular attention to the integration of environmental concerns into the trading system, and how to make trade and environmental policies mutually supportive.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.However, some sectors, such as agriculture, oil and fish, are not wholly covered by the EEA Treaty.^ I. Integration of sectoral programmes on sustainable development for settlements, agriculture, tourism, fishing, ports and industries affecting the coastal areas.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.Norway has also acceded to the Schengen Agreement and several other intergovernmental agreements between the EU member states.^ The most important organisation with which Norway co-operates in this field is the EU. Through the EEA agreement, Norway has implemented several EU directives/regulations in the chemical field.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

Norway is mountainous, and not an agricultural land, but there are a few small agricultural areas, like here in Flakstad.
The country is richly endowed with natural resources including petroleum, hydropower, fish, forests, and minerals. Large reserves of petroleum and natural gas were discovered in the 1960s, which led to a boom in the economy. .Norway has obtained one of the highest standards of living in the world in part by having a large amount of natural resources compared to the size of the population.^ The Government has designated large continuous areas of natural habitat as one of the main targets of its land use policy as regards natural resources.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ STATUS REPORT: Focus of national strategy All inhabitants in Norway are secured an adequate standard of living by law.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Norway participates in the ISO/TC 207 work on standards within environmental management and is responsible for chairing one sub-committee and one working group.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.The Norwegian welfare state makes public health care free, and parents have 12 months paid[86] parental leave.^ All Norwegians have access to primary health care, clean water and sanitation and primary education.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Decision-making Structure: The Ministry of Health and Social Affairs, the Ministry of Environment and the Directorate of Public Health are the main structures responsible for promoting and protecting public health.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.The income that the state receives from natural resources includes a significant contribution from petroleum production and the substantial and well-managed income related to this sector.^ Among other topics covered is coastal zone planning, urban land use planning and management of natural resources.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A more ecologically sound management of natural resources, particularly through supporting more sustainable development in the primary sector.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The farmer unions are responsible for implementing environment and natural resource plans which is a new planning tool at farm level to achieve full integration of environmental consideration in production.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

Norway has a very low unemployment rate, currently 3.1%.[87] .The hourly productivity levels, as well as average hourly wages in Norway are among the highest in the world.^ The combined effects of rising populations, increasing levels of consumption and unsustainable technologies and production processes still threaten to overwhelm the world's carrying capacity.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

The egalitarian values of the Norwegian society ensure that the wage difference between the lowest paid worker and the CEO of most companies is much smaller than in comparable western economies. This is also evident in Norway's low Gini coefficient.
Cost of living is about 30% higher in Norway than in the United States and 25% higher than the United Kingdom. .The standard of living in Norway is among the highest in the world.^ STATUS REPORT: Focus of national strategy All inhabitants in Norway are secured an adequate standard of living by law.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.Foreign Policy Magazine ranks Norway last in its Failed States Index for 2009, judging Norway to be the world's most well-functioning and stable country.^ Norway started the first assessment of its policies for sustainable development when the World Commission for Sustainable Development published "Our Common Future" in 1987.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Norway is actively supporting the work with environmental indicators in the OECD. Biannually, The Nordic Council of Ministers produces a report on the state of the environment in the Nordic countries based on indicators.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Finance: Norway continues to promote debt reduction for the poorest countries as part of the policy to enable them to build up a sustainable economy.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.Continued oil and gas exports coupled with a healthy economy and substantial accumulated wealth lead to a conclusion that Norway will remain among the richest countries in the world in the foreseeable future.^ Norway started the first assessment of its policies for sustainable development when the World Commission for Sustainable Development published "Our Common Future" in 1987.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Adjustment programmes and Norway's assistance in this area continue to focus on the programmes' effects on income distribution and on the social situation in the countries.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Norway is at present one of the leading countries in, and hosts the secretariat for, the regional North Sea Co-operation.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

Resources

Norwegian oil production
.Export revenues from oil and gas have risen to 45% of total exports and constitute more than 20% of the GDP.^ Housing consumption has increased considerably over the past two decades, and the average household spends more than 1/4 of its total household expenditures on housing.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

[88] .Norway is the seventh largest oil exporter and third largest gas exporter in the world, but it is not a member of the OPEC. To reduce over-heating in economy from oil revenues and minimize uncertainty from volatility in oil price, and to provide cushion for the effect of aging of the population, the Norwegian government in 1995 established the sovereign wealth fund ("Government Pension Fund — Global"), which would be funded with oil revenues, including taxes, dividends, sales revenues and licensing fees.^ Funds for sustainable development have been gradually increasing: since 1992, approximately NOK 1.2 billion, about 16.8 per cent of Norwegian ODA, has been disbursed for sustainable development activities, including population programmes.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A CO2 tax i also levied on the use of mineral oil and gas within the offshore sector in the North Sea.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1995, the Government submitted to the parliament a report on the Norwegian policy to mitigate climate change and reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx).
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.The government controls its petroleum resources through a combination of state ownership in major operators in the oil fields (with approximately 62% ownership in Statoil in 2007) and the fully state-owned Petoro, which has a market value of about twice Statoil, and SDFI.^ The most important organisation with which Norway co-operates in this field is the EU. Through the EEA agreement, Norway has implemented several EU directives/regulations in the chemical field.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The Confederation of Norwegian Industry (NHO) and the Norwegian Association of Local and Regional Authorities (Kommunenes Sentralforbund) contributes to the work in the hazardous waste field for example through their partly ownership in The Norwegian Resource Centre for Waste Management and Recycling (NORSAS).
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Major Groups: Major environment NGOs are active watchdogs with regard to the management of water resources, and are important hearing bodies, mainly through their network "The Co-operation Board on Nature Conservation" (SRN).
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

Finally, the government controls licensing of exploration and production of fields. The fund invests in developed financial markets outside Norway. .The budgetary rule ("Handlingsregelen") is to spend no more than 4% of the fund each year (assumed to be the normal yield from the fund ).^ It also obliges enterprises generating more than 1 kg hazardous waste to deliver it to approved systems for handling of hazardous waste at least once a year.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Most people no longer define "progress" in terms of indiscriminate consumption and "quality of life" pertains to more than purchasing power.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Housing consumption has increased considerably over the past two decades, and the average household spends more than 1/4 of its total household expenditures on housing.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

By January 2006, the Government Pension Fund of Norway controlled assets valued at US$200 billion. .During the first half of 2007, the pension fund became the largest fund in Europe, with assets of about US$300 billion (equivalent to over US$62,000 per capita).^ Latest 1995 GDP per capita (current US$) .
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Funds for sustainable development have been gradually increasing: since 1992, approximately NOK 1.2 billion, about 16.8 per cent of Norwegian ODA, has been disbursed for sustainable development activities, including population programmes.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Norway currently generates about 660.000 tons of hazardous waste per year, from which about 39,000 tons are exported.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.The savings equal the Norwegian GDP and are the largest capital reserve per capita of any nation as of April 2007. Projections indicate that the Norwegian pension fund may become the largest capital fund in the world.^ Latest 1995 GDP per capita (current US$) .
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1995, the Norwegian Research Council received approximately 8 mill USD in national funding for research in subjects related to biodiversity conservation and sustainable use.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Finance: In 1996 the funding (for biotechnology-related) projects from the Ministry of Environment to the Norwegian Research Council, the Division for Environment and Development, equals approximately USD 580.000.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.Currently it is the second-largest state-owned sovereign wealth fund, second only to the Abu Dhabi Investment Authority; Conservative estimates tell that the fund may reach US$800–900 billion by 2017. As of November 2009, the size of the fund is approximately US$455 billion, and it controls approximately 1.25% of all listed shares in Europe and more than 1% of the all the publicly traded shares in the world.^ To ensure that GRIP's work reflects the views of a wide range of organizations, its board includes representatives from the Norwegian Confederation of Industry, the Norwegian Confederation of Trade Unions, the Norwegian Confederation of Trade and Service Businesses, the Norwegian Association of Local Authorities, The Norwegian Society for the Conservation of Nature and the State Pollution Control Authority.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1995, the Norwegian Research Council received approximately 8 mill USD in national funding for research in subjects related to biodiversity conservation and sustainable use.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.The Norwegian Central Bank operates investment offices in London, New York and Shanghai.^ In Central and Eastern Europe the programmes are being implemented in co-operation between the Norwegian Ministry of Environment and the Ministry of Industry and/or the Ministry of Environment in the country concerned.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ These operators have a central role in the Norwegian system for handling of hazardous waste.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1993, the central authorities initiated co-operation with five Norwegian cities in the development of "environmental cities".
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.New guidelines (implemented in 2007) allow the fund to invest up to 60% of the capital in shares (maximum of 40% prior), while the rest may be placed in bonds and real-estate.^ These guidelines are implemented and followed up in educational programmes running in every county in 1996 and 1997.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

As the stock markets tumbled in September 2008, the fund was able to buy more shares at low prices. In this way, the losses incurred by the market turmoil was recuperated by November 2009.
Stockfish has been exported from Lofoten in Norway for at least 1,000 years.
.Other natural resource-based economies, such as Russia, are trying to learn from Norway by establishing similar funds.^ Among other topics covered is coastal zone planning, urban land use planning and management of natural resources.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Administrative systems, such as planning processes and monitoring and control systems, have been introduced in the administration and are still under development in order to secure high quality in the management of natural resources.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Finance: Norway established a National Fund in 1991, mainly for climate change purposes, with an annual budget of NOK 30-75 mil-lion.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

The investment choices of the Norwegian fund are directed by ethical guidelines; for example, the fund is not allowed to invest in companies that produce parts for nuclear weapons. The highly transparent investment scheme is lauded by the international community.
The future size of the fund is of course closely linked to the price of oil and to developments in international financial markets. The Norwegian trade surplus for 2008 reached approximately US$80 billion. With an enormous amount of cash invested in international financial markets, Norway has financial muscles to avert many of the worst effects of the financial crisis that hit most countries in the fall of 2008. As most western countries struggle with burgeoning foreign debt, Norway remains an island of stowed-away wealth, financial stability and economic power to meet the challenges of the worldwide economic crisis. In spite of the crisis, Norway still runs a 9% state budget surplus, being the only western country to run a surplus as of July 2009.
.In 2000, the government sold one-third of the state-owned oil company Statoil in an IPO.^ (NOAH), which is jointly owned by the Government and nine large industrial companies, was established in 1991.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

The next year, the main telecom supplier, Telenor, was listed on Oslo Stock Exchange. The state also owns significant shares of Norway's largest bank, DnB NOR and the airline SAS. Since 2000, economic growth has been rapid, pushing unemployment down to levels not seen since the early 1980s (unemployment in 2007: 1.3%). .The international financial crisis has primarily affected the industrial sector, but it is unlikely that unemployment will surpass 3,5% in 2009–2010. Norway is among the least affected countries of the international economic downturn.^ AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 37: NATIONAL MECHANISMS AND INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION FOR CAPACITY-BUILDING IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES National capacity building is also covered under sectoral chapters.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The programmes aim at implementing economically profitable and environmentally favourable restructuring of industrial processes in 200-350 relevant production companies in each country involved.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Norway's role concerning the Convention is as a donor to affected developing countries.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.Neighbouring Sweden is experiencing substantially higher actual and projected unemployment numbers as a result of the ongoing recession, and in the 1st quarter of 2009 the GNP of Norway surpassed Sweden's for the first time in history, despite a population numbering about half of Sweden's.^ The experience and results of these programmes and projects will be used as a foundation for the further development of the MIK-reform into LA 21 in Norway.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

Norway is also the world's second largest exporter of fish (in value, after China).[14] Hydroelectric plants generate roughly 98–99% of Norway's electric power.[89]

Transport

.Due to the low population density, narrow shape and long coastlines, public transport in Norway is less built out than in many European countries, especially outside the cities.^ However, the relative economic importance of the mountain regions to the country is less than 1% and the number of people living in these areas is very small.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.As such, Norway has old water transport traditions, but the Norwegian Ministry of Transport and Communications has in recent years implemented rail, road and air transport through numerous subsidiaries in order to develop the country's infrastructure.^ The Norwegian Research Council runs a research programme on biotechnology and development in developing countries.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Furthermore, the Ministry of Environment has recently published two documents containing guidelines for how to prepare municipal master plans and local development plans.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The aim is to identify how Norway and other countries can actively contribute to speeding up the progress toward implementation of the International Convention on the Rights of the Child and respect for ILO Convention 138 and other relevant international instruments through development assistance and other forms of international co-operation.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

[90]
NSB type 73 at Oslo Central Station, the largest railway station in the country.
Norway's main railway network consists of 4,114 kilometres (2,556 mi) of standard gauge lines, of which 242 kilometres (150 mi) is double track and 64 kilometres (40 mi) high-speed rail (210 km/h) while 62% is electrified at 15 kV 16⅔ Hz AC. The railways transported 56,827,000 passengers 2,956 million passenger kilometers and 24,783,000 tonnes of cargo 3,414 million tonne kilometers.[91] .The entire network is owned by the Norwegian National Rail Administration,[92] while all domestic passenger trains except the Airport Express Train are operated by Norges Statsbaner (NSB).^ In addition, a 40 hours in-service training course is offered for all Norwegian teachers.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ If available, attach a diagram (organization chart) showing national coordination structure and linkages between ministries: Organisational chart showing the structure of the Norwegian environment administration on next page.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The administration of the programme is carried out in close co-operation with the Confederation of Norwegian Business and Industry (NHO).
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

[93] Several companies operate freight trains.[94]
.Investment in new infrastructure and maintenance is financed through the state budget,[92] and subsidies are provided for passenger train operations.^ To achieve this integration, the Ministry of Finance asks all ministries to produce a statement on specific environmental issues every year when preparing their State Budget proposal.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In the housing area, financing through the State Housing Bank is central.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

[95] NSB operates long-haul trains, including night trains, regional services and four commuter train systems, around Oslo, Trondheim, Bergen and Stavanger.[96]
There are approximately 92,946 kilometres (57,754 mi) of road network in Norway, of which 72,033 kilometres (44,759 mi) are paved and 664 kilometres (413 mi) are motorway.[97] .There are four tiers of road routes; national, county, municipal and private, with only the national roads numbered en route.^ Provided there are no objections from the county or affected state expert authorities, the plans may be finally approved by the municipal council.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ EHG, and a large number of schools, public and private institutions, companies, municipalities and housing co-operatives are involved in EHG programmes.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Decision-making Structure: The Planning and Building Act (1985) facilitates coordination of national, county and municipal activities and provides a basis for decisions on the use and protection of the environment.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.The most important national routes are part of the European route scheme, and the two most prominent are the E6 going north-south through the entire country, while E39 follows the West Coast.^ The most important organisation with which Norway co-operates in this field is the EU. Through the EEA agreement, Norway has implemented several EU directives/regulations in the chemical field.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The two most important youth forums are : Nature and Youth, and The Inky Arms Club.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.National and county roads are managed by the Norwegian Public Roads Administration.^ If available, attach a diagram (organization chart) showing national coordination structure and linkages between ministries: Organisational chart showing the structure of the Norwegian environment administration on next page.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

[98]
Of the 98 airports in Norway,[97] 51 are public,[99] and 46 are operated by the state-owned Avinor.[100] Seven airports have more than one million passengers annually.[99] 41,089,675 passengers passed through Norwegian airports in 2007, of which 13,397,458 were international.[99]
The central gateway by air to Norway is Oslo Airport, Gardermoen,[99] located about 50 kilometres (31 mi) north of Oslo with departures to most European countries and some intercontinental destinations.[101][102] .It is hub for the two major Norwegian airlines Scandinavian Airlines System[103] and Norwegian Air Shuttle,[104] and for regional aircraft from Western Norway.^ Major Groups: The Norwegian provisions on EIA provide comprehensive rules for public participation during the two stages of the EIA process.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Environmental NGOs, three major women's organizations, the scouts' confederations, the Church of Norway, the Norwegian Confederation of Sports and the Federation of Co-operative Housing and Building are among the member organizations.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

[105]

Education

.Higher education in Norway is offered by a range of seven universities, five specialized colleges, 25 university colleges as well as a range of private colleges.^ The Ministry of Education, Research and Church affairs has a special responsibility for basic and long-term research as well as for higher education.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ An overall strategy covers educational activities from kindergartens to colleges and universities.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

Education follows the Bologna process involving Bachelor (3 years), Master (2 years) and PhD (3 years) degrees.[106] .Acceptance is offered after finishing upper secondary school with general study competence.^ In relation to goal (1), 80 % of teachers in upper secondary schools have taken in-service training, as have about 40 % of teachers in primary and lower secondary school.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.Public education is virtually free,[107] with an academic year with two semesters, from August to December and from January to June.^ Increasing public awareness In addition to the educational programmes mentioned above, publications on sustainable development - in developed as well as in developing countries - are provided free of charge for schools and the general public.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ An active and environmentally conscious public is in this respect an asset as well as a prerequisite for sustainable development, and efforts to educate and to inform on green issues have been upgraded over recent years.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.The ultimate responsibility for the education lies with the Norwegian Ministry of Education and Research.^ The Ministry of Education, Research and Church affairs has a special responsibility for basic and long-term research as well as for higher education.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Reorientation of education towards sustainable development The Ministry of Education is responsible for environmental education and co-operates with several other ministries on special programmes in this area.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Finance: In 1996 the funding (for biotechnology-related) projects from the Ministry of Environment to the Norwegian Research Council, the Division for Environment and Development, equals approximately USD 580.000.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

Demography

Historical populations
Year Pop.  %±
1500 140,000
1665 440,000 214.3%
1735 616,109 40.0%
1801 883,603 43.4%
1855 1,490,047 68.6%
1900 2,240,032 50.3%
1950 3,278,546 46.4%
2000 4,478,497 36.6%
2050? 6,548,000 46.2%
Source: Statistics Norway.[108][109]
Demographics in Norway
Norway's population numbers roughly 4.8 million.[2] .Most Norwegians are ethnic Norwegians, a North Germanic people.^ The Norwegian Biotechnology Advisory Board produces a bimonthly information leaflet that is distributed to most of the high schools and other interested institutions and people.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.The Sami people traditionally inhabit central and northern parts of Norway and Sweden, as well as in northern Finland and in Russia on the Kola Peninsula.^ Many of the wilderness-like areas that are left are located in the mountain regions and in the northern part of Norway.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

Another national minority are the Kven people who are the descendants of Finnish speaking people that moved to northern Norway in the 18th up to the 20th century. .Both the Sami and the Kven were subjected to a strong assimilation policy by the Norwegian government from the 19th century up to the 1970s.^ The interministerial processes leading up to the Green Book are important to secure that the policies of the Government will contribute to sustainable development.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1995, the Government submitted to the parliament a report on the Norwegian policy to mitigate climate change and reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx).
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In the fiscal policy area, the Norwegian government established in 1990 a broad national programme for environmentally sound technology.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

[110] .Because of this "Norwegianization process", many families of Sami or Kven ancestry now self-identify as ethnic Norwegian.^ The detached single family house is still the ideal type of dwelling for many Norwegians, and 60% of the population still live in this kind of home.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

[111] .This, combined with a long history of co-habitation of the Sami and North Germanic peoples on the Scandinavian peninsula, makes claims about ethnic population statistics less straightforward than is often suggested — particularly in central and northern Norway.^ Norway is at present one of the leading countries in, and hosts the secretariat for, the regional North Sea Co-operation.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Reindeer husbandry should in its turn be ecologically, economically and culturally sustainable, taking into consideration the Sami people as an ethnic group with status as indigenous people.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Environmental organizations and people directly affected by proposed projects often contribute in the hearing processes, but the public in general is less active.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.Other groups recognized as national minorities of Norway are Jews, Forest Finns, Roma/Gypsies and Romani people/Travellers.^ Some groups, especially young people, refugees and other disadvantaged groups, are faced with problems when establishing themselves in the housing market, mainly due to high costs.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Major Groups: The Norwegian Government recognizes the importance of the knowledge and rights of indigenous people.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A parliament initiated working group is evaluating forest carbon sink and how Norwegian forest policies may supplement other national climatic measures without creating environmental conflicts.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.In recent years, immigration has accounted for more than half of Norway's population growth.^ It also obliges enterprises generating more than 1 kg hazardous waste to deliver it to approved systems for handling of hazardous waste at least once a year.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In recent years, counties have begun to draw up joint land use plans for several large mountain regions in southern Norway.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Norway has built several wastewater treatment plants with a phase of secondary treatment (chemical purification) over the last few years, and a secondary phase is planned for all plants (with freshwater recipient) with more than 2000 p.e.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

According to Statistics Norway (SSB), a record 61,200 immigrants arrived in the country in 2007 — 35% higher than 2006. At the beginning of 2008, there were 459,600 persons in Norway with an immigrant background (i.e. immigrants, or born of immigrant parents), comprising 9.7% of the total population. .350,000 of these were from a non-Western background, which includes the formerly Communist countries according to the definition used by Statistics Norway.^ The experience and results of these programmes and projects will be used as a foundation for the further development of the MIK-reform into LA 21 in Norway.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

The largest immigrant groups by country of origin, in order of size, are Pakistanis, Swedes, Iraqis, Somalis, Vietnamese, Poles, Danes, and Germans.[112] .Norwegians of Pakistani descent are the largest visible minority group in Norway, and most of their 30,000 members living around Oslo.^ The Federation of Norwegian Co-operative Building and Housing Association is one of the largest interest organizations in Norway.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.The Iraqi immigrant population has shown a large increase in recent years.^ In recent years, counties have begun to draw up joint land use plans for several large mountain regions in southern Norway.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.After the enlargement of the EU in 2004, there has also been an influx of immigrants from Central and Eastern Europe, particularly Poland.^ In Central and Eastern Europe the programmes are being implemented in co-operation between the Norwegian Ministry of Environment and the Ministry of Industry and/or the Ministry of Environment in the country concerned.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The Norwegian government finances, for example, the transfer of expertise programmes on waste minimization and cleaner production strategies in Central and Eastern Europe and China.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Acidification is mainly due to long-distance airborne pollution (SO2, NOx ) from Great Britain and from Central and Eastern Europe.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

The largest increase in 2007 was of immigrants from Poland, Germany, Sweden, Lithuania and Russia.[113][114]
There are almost 4.7 million Norwegian Americans according to the 2006 U.S. census.[115] .The number of Americans of Norwegian descent living in the U.S. today is roughly equal to the current population of Norway.^ The detached single family house is still the ideal type of dwelling for many Norwegians, and 60% of the population still live in this kind of home.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

In the 2006 Canadian census, 432,515 Canadian citizens claimed Norwegian ancestry, making up 1.4% of the population of Canada.[116]

Religion

Religion in Norway[citation needed][117]
religion percent
Protestantism
  
83.96%
Roman Catholicism
  
4.79%
Islam
  
3.33%
Hinduism
  
0.49%
Buddhism
  
0.42%
Orthodoxy
  
0.30%
year population Church of Norway Members percentage Members of other Christian communities percentage
2001 4.503.436 3.901.566 86,6%
2005 4.606.363 3.938.723 85,5% 215.090 4,7%
2006 4.640.219 3.871.006 83,4% 216.141 4,7%
2007 4.681.134 3.873.847 82,8% 225.507 4,8%
2008 4.737.171 3.874.823 81,8% 226.969 4,8%
2009 4.799.252 3.874.823 80,7%[118]] 234.772 4,9%
statistical data as per 1 January[119][120]
Source: Statistisk sentralbyrå (Statistic Norway)
.80.7 % [118] of Norwegians were members of the state Church of Norway as of January 1, 2009, a 1 % drop compared to the year before and down 2% from two years earlier.^ Environmental NGOs, three major women's organizations, the scouts' confederations, the Church of Norway, the Norwegian Confederation of Sports and the Federation of Co-operative Housing and Building are among the member organizations.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.Norwegians are registered at baptism as members of the Church of Norway, many remain in the state church to be able to use services such as baptism, confirmation, marriage and burial, rites which have strong cultural standing in Norway.^ Environmental NGOs, three major women's organizations, the scouts' confederations, the Church of Norway, the Norwegian Confederation of Sports and the Federation of Co-operative Housing and Building are among the member organizations.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The aspects all have in common the use of geographical information technology such as administrative electronic registers, digital map data or geographical information systems (GIS).
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.However, only 20% of Norwegians say that religion occupies an important place in their life (according to a recent Gallup poll), making Norway one of the most secular countries of the world (only in Estonia, Sweden and Denmark were the percentage of people who considered religion to be important lower).^ The most important organisation with which Norway co-operates in this field is the EU. Through the EEA agreement, Norway has implemented several EU directives/regulations in the chemical field.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ One of the most important aims is to enable parents to combine family life with participation in working life.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Norway is at present one of the leading countries in, and hosts the secretariat for, the regional North Sea Co-operation.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

[121] In the early 1990s, it was estimated that between 4.7% – 5.3% of Norwegians attended church on a weekly basis.[122] Up to 40% of the membership attends church or religious meetings at least once annually.[123]
According to the most recent Eurobarometer Poll 2005, 32% of Norwegian citizens responded that "they believe there is a god," whereas 47% answered that "they believe there is some sort of spirit or life force" and 17% that "they do not believe there is any sort of spirit, god, or life force."[124] According to Gustafsson and Pettersson(2002), 72% of Norwegians do not believe in a 'personal God.'[125]
Nor mosque in Norway
.Just above 10% of the population is unaffiliated as per 1 January 2009 (as 80.7 % [118] were members of the Church of Norway and another 9 % or 431 000, were members of religious and life stance communities outside the Church of Norway).^ Environmental NGOs, three major women's organizations, the scouts' confederations, the Church of Norway, the Norwegian Confederation of Sports and the Federation of Co-operative Housing and Building are among the member organizations.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Norway currently generates about 660.000 tons of hazardous waste per year, from which about 39,000 tons are exported.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

[126] Other Christian denominations total about 4.9% [126] of the population, including the Evangelical Lutheran Free Church, the Roman Catholic Church, the Baptists, Pentecostal congregations, the Methodist Church, and Adventists, and others. Among non-Christian religions, Islam is the largest, representing about 1.5% of the population. It is practiced mainly by Somali, Arab, Albanian, and Turkish immigrants, as well as Norwegians of Pakistani descent. Other religions comprise less than 1% each, including Judaism as well as the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, and Jehovah's Witnesses. .Indian immigrants introduced Hinduism to Norway but account for fewer than 5,000 people, or 1% of non-Lutheran Norwegians.^ In 1991, Norway introduced a CO2-tax which at present is applied to sources of 60% of Norwegian CO2 emissions, but covers almost all energy related emissions.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

[126] There are eleven Buddhist organizations, grouped under the Buddhistforbundet organization, which make up 0.42% of the population. Around 1.5% of Norwegians adhere to the secular Norwegian Humanist Association.
Like other Scandinavian countries, the Norse followed a form of native Germanic paganism known as Norse paganism. By the end of the eleventh century, when Norway had been Christianized, the indigenous Norse religion and practices were prohibited. Remnants of the native religion and beliefs of Norway survive today in the form of names, referential names of cities and locations, the days of the week, and other parts of the everyday language.
.Parts of the Sami minority retained their shamanistic religion well into the 18th century when they were converted to Christianity by Dano-Norwegian missionaries.^ Industry has tended to comply with EU regulations and directives even before they are incorporated into Norwegian legislation.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

Orthodoxy is the fastest-growing religion in Norway with a rate from 2000 to 2009 of 231.1% compared to Islam's 64.3%.[127]

Language

The North Germanic Norwegian language has two official written forms, Bokmål and Nynorsk. Both of them are recognized as official languages, in that they are both used in public administration, in schools, churches, and media, but Bokmål is used by the vast majority, about 85–90%. .Around 95% of the population speak Norwegian as their native tongue, although many speak dialects that may differ significantly from the written language.^ The detached single family house is still the ideal type of dwelling for many Norwegians, and 60% of the population still live in this kind of home.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

In general, most Norwegian dialects are inter-intelligible, although some may require significant efforts on the part of a listener to understand. Several Finno-Ugric Sami languages are spoken and written throughout the country, especially in the north, by the Sami people. Speakers have a right to get education in Sami language no matter where they are living and receive communication from the government in various Sami languages. The Kven minority speak the Finno-Ugric Kven language/Finnish. There is advocacy for making Norwegian Sign Language an official Norwegian language.
.In the 19th and 20th century, Norwegian language was subject to strong political and cultural controversy, which led to the creation of Nynorsk in the 19th century and to the formation of alternative spelling standards in the 20th century, notably the Riksmål standard, which is more conservative (that is, more similar to Danish) than Bokmål.^ In 1995, the Norwegian Research Council received approximately 8 mill USD in national funding for research in subjects related to biodiversity conservation and sustainable use.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

Norwegian is similar to the other languages in Scandinavia, Swedish and Danish. All three languages are mutually intelligible and can be– and commonly are– employed in communication between inhabitants of the Scandinavian countries. .As a result of the cooperation within the Nordic Council, inhabitants of all Nordic countries, including Iceland and Finland, have the right to communicate with the Norwegian authorities in their own language.^ There has been established a close co-operation between the authorities in the Nordic countries in the fields of clean technology and waste.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Regional/International Co-operation: There has been established a close co-operation between the authorities in the Nordic countries in the fields of clean technology and waste.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Norway is actively supporting the work with environmental indicators in the OECD. Biannually, The Nordic Council of Ministers produces a report on the state of the environment in the Nordic countries based on indicators.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

Any Norwegian student who is a child of immigrant parents is encouraged to learn the Norwegian language. .The Norwegian government offers language instructional courses for immigrants wishing to obtain Norwegian citizenship.^ In addition, a 40 hours in-service training course is offered for all Norwegian teachers.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

The main foreign language taught in Norwegian elementary school is English. The majority of the population is fluent in English, especially those born after World War II. German, French and Spanish are also commonly taught as a second or, more often, third language. Russian, Japanese, Italian, Latin and rarely Chinese (Mandarin) are available in some schools, mostly in the cities. Traditionally, English, German and French were considered the main foreign languages in Norway. These languages, for instance, had been used on Norwegian passports until the 1990s, and university students have a general right to use these languages when submitting their theses.

Culture

Norwegian culture is closely linked to the country's history and geography. .The unique Norwegian farm culture, sustained to this day, has resulted not only from scarce resources and a harsh climate but also from ancient property laws.^ The Acreage and Cultural Landscape Scheme has replaced production-oriented subsidies, and is turning agricultural farming practices in a sustainable direction, both ecologically and economically.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

In the 18th century, it brought about a strong romantic nationalistic movement, which is still visible in the Norwegian language and media. In the 19th century, Norwegian culture blossomed as efforts continued to achieve an independent identity in the areas of literature, art and music. This continues today in the performing arts and as a result of government support for exhibitions, cultural projects and artwork.[128]
Norway is an early adopter of women's rights, minority rights, and LGBT rights.[129] .For example, in 1990 Norway was the first country to recognize the ILO-convention 169 about indigenous people, in 1993 Norway became the second country to legalize civil union partnerships for same-sex couples, and on January 1, 2009, Norway became the sixth country to grant full marriage equality to same-sex couples.^ Norway's ratification of the ILO Convention 169 concerning indigenous and tribal peoples in independent countries, gives support for the policy of co-operation with the Sami people in matters where their interests are concerned.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The first was held in Germany in 1984; the second in London in 1987; the third at the Hague in 1990; and the fourth in Denmark in 1995.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Major Groups: The Norwegian Government recognizes the importance of the knowledge and rights of indigenous people.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

Cuisine

Kransekake cake decorated with small flags of Norway at the Olmsted County in Rochester, Minnesota.
Norwegian open sandwich.
.Norway's culinary traditions show the influence of long seafaring and farming traditions with salmon (fresh and cured), herring (pickled or marinated), trout, codfish and other seafood balanced by cheeses, dairy products and breads (predominantly dark/darker).^ The goal of the forest policy and plans is to create a balance between production aspects and other values of forests.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

Lefse is a common Norwegian potato flatbread, common around Christmas. Some traditional Norwegian dishes include lutefisk, smalahove, pinnekjøtt, Krotekaker and fårikål.[130]

Performing arts

Film

Not until fairly recently has the Norwegian cinema received international recognition, but as early as 1951 a documentary film of the Kon-Tiki expedition won an Oscar Academy Award. In 1959, Arne Skouen's Nine Lives was nominated, but failed to win. Another Norwegian Oscar winner is Flåklypa Grand Prix (English: Pinchcliffe Grand Prix), an animated feature film directed by Ivo Caprino. The film was released in 1975 and is based on characters from Norwegian cartoonist Kjell Aukrust. It is the most widely seen Norwegian film of all time.
There was however a real breakthrough in 1987 with Nils Gaup's Pathfinder which told the story of the Sami. It was nominated for an Oscar and was a huge international success. Berit Nesheim's The Other Side of Sunday was also nominated for an Oscar in 1997.
Since the 1990s, the film industry has thrived with up to 20 feature films each year. Particular successes were Kristin Lavransdatter, The Telegraphist and Gurin with the Foxtail. Knut Erik Jensen was among the more successful new directors together with Erik Skjoldbjaerg remembered for Insomnia.[131]
In late 2008, the movie Max Manus opened at Norwegian theatres. The movie was a WW2 drama, telling the story of the famous Norwegian resistance hero Max Manus who lead many successful sabotage operations against the German occupation. The movie became the highest grossing Norwegian movie ever.

Music

Edvard Grieg, composer and pianist.
Hardingfele, a fiddle from Norway.
Along with the classical music of romantic composer Edvard Grieg and the modern music of Arne Nordheim, Norwegian black metal has become something of an export article in recent years.
Norway's classical performers include Leif Ove Andsnes, one of the world's more famous pianists, and Truls Mørk, an outstanding cellist.
The jazz scene in Norway is also thriving. Jan Garbarek, Mari Boine, Arild Andersen, and Bugge Wesseltoft are internationally recognized while Paal Nilssen-Love, Supersilent, Jaga Jazzist and Wibutee are becoming world-class artists of the younger generation.[132]
Norway has a strong folk music tradition which remains popular to this day.[133] Among the most prominent folk musicians are Hardanger fiddlers Andrea Een, Olav Jørgen Hegge, Vidar Lande and Annbjørg Lien, violinist Susanne Lundeng, and vocalists Agnes Buen Garnås, Kirsten Bråten Berg and Odd Nordstoga.[134]
Since the 1990s, Norway's biggest cultural export is Black Metal. The lo-fi, dark and raw form of heavy metal exploded in Norway during the 90s and launched the worldwide acclaimed careers of bands such as Dimmu Borgir, Mayhem, Burzum, Emperor, Darkthrone and Immortal. This development has been somewhat well-received for the musical value, but many events that took place in the early 1990s as a result of the Black Metal movement caused quite a panic amongst the Norwegian citizens at large.

Fine arts

Literature

History of Norwegian literature starts with the pagan Eddaic poems and skaldic verse of the 9th and 10th centuries with poets such as Bragi Boddason and Eyvindr Skáldaspillir. The arrival of Christianity around the year 1000 brought Norway into contact with European medieval learning, hagiography and history writing. Merged with native oral tradition and Icelandic influence this was to flower into an active period of literature production in the late 12th and early 13th centuries. Major works of that period include Historia Norwegie, Thidreks saga and Konungs skuggsjá.
Little Norwegian literature came out of the period of the Scandinavian Union and the subsequent Dano-Norwegian union (1387—1814), with some notable exceptions such as Petter Dass and Ludvig Holberg. In his play Peer Gynt, Ibsen characterized this period as "Twice two hundred years of darkness/brooded o'er the race of monkeys", although the latter line is not as frequently quoted as the former. During the union with Denmark, written Norwegian was replaced by Danish.
Two major events precipitated a major resurgence in Norwegian literature. In 1811 a Norwegian university was established in Christiania. Seized by the spirit of revolution following the American and French Revolutions, the Norwegians signed their first Constitution in 1814. Soon, the cultural backwater that was Norway brought forth a series of strong authors recognized first in Scandinavia, and then worldwide; among them were Henrik Wergeland, Peter Asbjørnsen, Jørgen Moe and Camilla Collett.
Woman in a traditional bunad, 1892
By the late 19th century, in the Golden Age of Norwegian literature, the so-called Great Four emerged: Henrik Ibsen, Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson, Alexander Kielland, and Jonas Lie. Bjørnson's "peasant novels", such as "En glad gutt" (A Happy Boy) and "Synnøve Solbakken" are typical of the national romanticism of their day, whereas Kielland's novels and short stories are mostly realistic. .Although an important contributor to early Norwegian romantic nationalism (especially the ironic Peer Gynt), Henrik Ibsen's fame rests primarily on his pioneering realistic dramas such The Wild Duck and A Doll's House, many of which caused moral uproar because of their candid portrayals of the middle classes.^ The main goal in Norwegian housing policy has for many years been that everyone should live in satisfactory homes in a good residential environment.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The detached single family house is still the ideal type of dwelling for many Norwegians, and 60% of the population still live in this kind of home.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Major Groups: The co-operative movement plays an important role in Norwegian housing policy.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

Architecture

Norway has always had a tradition of building in wood. Indeed, many of today's most interesting new buildings are made of wood, reflecting the strong appeal that this material continues to hold for Norwegian designers and builders.[135]
.Norway's conversion to Christianity some 1,000 years ago led to the introduction of stonework architecture, beginning with the construction of Nidaros Cathedral in Trondheim.^ In 1995 the Ministry of Environment made a study in some municipalities and counties in Norway to see what had been accomplished since the beginning of the eighties.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Norway currently generates about 660.000 tons of hazardous waste per year, from which about 39,000 tons are exported.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

In the early Middle Ages, stave churches were constructed throughout Norway. .Many of them remain to this day and represent Norway’s most important contribution to architectural history.^ The most important organisation with which Norway co-operates in this field is the EU. Through the EEA agreement, Norway has implemented several EU directives/regulations in the chemical field.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: Capacity-building is an important element in the negotiation of a biosafety protocol under the CBD. Norway will contribute to this process.
  • Country Profile - Norway 28 January 2010 0:35 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

A fine example is The Stave Church at Urnes which is now on UNESCO’s World Heritage List. Another notable example of wooden architecture is the Bryggen Wharf in Bergen, consisting of a row of narrow wooden structures along the quayside.
The small town Røros has small streets and houses.
In the 17th century, under the Danish monarchy, cities such as Kongsberg with its Baroque church and Røros with its wooden buildings were established.
After Norway’s union with Denmark was dissolved in 1814, Oslo became the capital. Architect Christian H. Grosch designed the oldest parts of the University of Oslo, the Oslo Stock Exchange, and many other buildings and churches.
At the beginning of the 20th century, the city of Ålesund was rebuilt in the Art Nouveau style. The 1930s, when functionalism dominated, became a strong period for Norwegian architecture, but it is only in recent decades that Norwegian architects have truly achieved international renown. One of the most striking modern buildings in Norway is the Sami Parliament in Kárášjohka designed by Stein Halvorson and Christian Sundby. Its debating chamber is an abstract timber version of a Lavvo, the traditional tent used by the nomadic Sami people.[136]

Art

From Hardanger, a painting by Hans Gude, 1847
Edvard Munch's The Scream (1893)
For an extended period, the Norwegian art scene was dominated by artwork from Germany and Holland as well as by the influence of Copenhagen. It was in the 19th century that a truly Norwegian era began, first with portraits, later with even more impressive landscapes. Johan Christian Dahl (1788–1857), originally from the Dresden school, eventually returned to paint the landscapes of western Norway, defining Norwegian painting for the first time."[137]
Norway’s new-found independence from Denmark encouraged painters to develop their Norwegian identity, especially with landscape painting by artists such as Kitty Kielland, a female painter who studied under Gude; Harriet Backer, 1845–1932, another pioneer among female artists, influenced by impressionism. Frits Thaulow, an impressionist, was influenced by the art scene in Paris as was Christian Krohg, a realist painter, famous for his paintings of prostitutes.[138]
Of particular note is Edvard Munch, a symbolist/expressionist painter who became world famous for The Scream which is said to represent the anxiety of modern man.
Other artists of note include Harald Sohlberg, a neo-romantic painter remembered for his paintings of Røros; and Odd Nerdrum, a figurative painter who maintains his work is not art but kitsch.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The Spitsbergen Treaty of February 9, 1920, recognizes the full and absolute sovereignty of Norway over the arctic archipelago of Spitsbergen (now called Svalbard). Bouvet Island and Peter I Island are dependent territories (Norwegian: biland) of Norway but are not considered part of the Kingdom. Norway also lays claim to a section of Antarctica known as Queen Maud Land.[7]

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  119. ^ Statistics 2005 -2008
  120. ^ "Table 1 Church of Norway. Members and church ceremonies, by diocese. 2005-2008" (in (Norwegian)). Ssb.no. http://www.ssb.no/kirke_kostra_en/tab-2009-06-16-01-en.html. Retrieved 2010-02-04. 
  121. ^ "Gallup Poll Results Reveal Estonia as the Most Atheistic Country in the World « Voices from Russia". 02varvara.wordpress.com. http://02varvara.wordpress.com/2009/02/11/gallup-poll-results-reveal-estonia-as-the-most-atheistic-country-in-the-world/. Retrieved 2009-07-08. 
  122. ^ "The People In The Church". 209.85.129.132. http://209.85.129.132/search?q=cache:xFytiwM0GLMJ:www.dawnnorge.no/dawnnorge/vedlegg/dawn_eng_22.08.2003_00.40.49.doc+%22The+Norwegian+DAWN+Report+1995%22&cd=1&hl=ro&ct=clnk&gl=ro. Retrieved 2009-07-08. 
  123. ^ "Andel personer i alderen 9–79 år som har brukt forskjellige kulturtilbud siste 12 måneder. Prosent — Statistisk årbok 2007, tabell 234" (in (Norwegian)). Ssb.no. http://www.ssb.no/aarbok/tab/tab-234.html. Retrieved 2009-02-14. 
  124. ^ "Eurobarometer on Social Values, Science and technology 2005" (PDF). p. 11. http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/ebs/ebs_225_report_en.pdf. Retrieved 2007-05-05. 
  125. ^ Gustafsson, Goran and Thorleif Pettersson. Folkkyrk och religios pluraism ?den nordiska religiosa modellen. Stockholm, Sweden: Verbum Forlag
  126. ^ a b c "More members in religious and philosophical communities". Ssb.no. http://www.ssb.no/english/subjects/07/02/10/trosamf_en/. Retrieved 2009-03-08. 
  127. ^ Statistics Norway
  128. ^ Norway's Culture. Encarta. Retrieved 27 November 2008. Archived 2009-10-31.
  129. ^ LGBT rights in Norway
  130. ^ Culture of Norway. Everyculture.com.. Retrieved 27 November 2008.
  131. ^ A brief history of Norwegian film. Norway, the official site in the United States. Retrieved 8 February 2010.
  132. ^ Culture from Study in Norway. Retrieved 2 December 2008.
  133. ^ Norwegian Folk Music from Norway, official site in the UK.. Retrieved 25 November 2008.
  134. ^ Contemporary art from Norway the official site.. Retrieved 28 November 2008.
  135. ^ The evolution of Norwegian architecture. Norway, the official site in the United States. Retrieved 25 November 2008.
  136. ^ Norwegian Architecture by Leslie Burgher. Retrieved 25 November 2008.
  137. ^ Haverkamp, Frode (in Norwegian). Hans Fredrik Gude: From National Romanticism to Realism in Landscape. trans. Joan Fuglesang. 
  138. ^ Norwegian Artists from ArtCyclopedia. Retrieved 25 November 2008.

External links


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Norway, officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a country and constitutional monarchy in Northern Europe that occupies the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula. It is bordered by Sweden, Finland, and Russia. The distance between the northern and southern parts of Norway is considerable compared to east-west distances. The country's extensive coastline along the North Atlantic Ocean is home to its famous fjords. The Kingdom of Norway also includes the Arctic island territories of Svalbard and Jan Mayen. Norwegian sovereignty of Svalbard is based upon the Svalbard Treaty, but this does not apply to Jan Mayen. Bouvet Island in the South Atlantic Ocean and claims for Peter I Island and Queen Maud Land in Antarctica are also external dependencies, but these are not part of the Kingdom. Since World War II, Norway has experienced rapid economic growth, and is now amongst the wealthiest countries in the world, with a fully developed welfare system. This economic progress is caused in part by the exploitation of oil and gas reserves off coast. Norway ranked top among all countries on the Human Development Index from 2001-2006, and currently ranks second. It is rated the most peaceful country in the world in a 2007 survey by Global Peace Index.

Sourced

  • If there is anyone who still wonders why this war is being fought, let him look to Norway. If there is anyone who has any delusions that this war could have been averted, let him look to Norway; and if there is anyone who doubts the democratic will to win, again I say, let him look to Norway.
  • We have been given an assignment as a monarchy, and we do as well as we can ... We try to be as little populistic as possible. We don't do anything on the spur of the moment to win an opinion poll, or short-term popularity.
  • Yesterday, on the 17th of May, we Norwegians celebrated our constitution day to mark the signing of Norway's constitution in 1814. Maybe it is because we are a small country: In Norway this is an important day. All over Norway children have paraded in their best clothes to the music of thousands of marching bands, and countless speeches have been made to remind each others, as fellow Norwegians, that freedom should never be taken for granted.

Attributed

  • [...] and you, my compatriots in Norway, have no grounds for complaining that we have forgotten the dear, familiar and specific character with which God has endowed our land and our nation. That is so firmly entrenched in our being that it finds expression, whether we like it or not. Do not, therefore, insult us further with such [an accusation]; it hurts our feelings, and thereby proves how unfounded it is, for otherwise it would be easy to treat it with indifference.
    • Hans Gude, reported in Frode Haverkamp. Hans Fredrik Gude: From National Romanticism to Realism in Landscape, trans. Joan Fuglesang (in Norwegian).
  • Norway, too, has noble wild prospects; and Lapland is remarkable for prodigious noble wild prospects. But, Sir, let me tell you, the noblest prospect which a Scotchman ever sees, is the high road that leads him to England!

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Europe : Scandinavia : Norway
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Location
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Flag
Image:no-flag.png
Quick Facts
Capital Oslo
Government Constitutional monarchy with parliamentary democracy
Currency Kroner (NOK)
Area 324,220 km 2
Population 4,769,073 (July 2008 est.)
Language Norwegian (Bokmål and Nynorsk) and Saami
Religion Protestant state church
Electricity 230V/50Hz (European plug)
Calling Code +47
Internet TLD .no
Time Zone UTC +1 (CET)
Norway (Norge) [1] is the westernmost, northernmost - and in fact the easternmost - of the three Scandinavian countries, located in Scandinavia west of Sweden. Best known for the complex and deep fjords along its west coast, it stretches from the North Sea near Denmark and Scotland into the Arctic Ocean where it borders northern Finland and the northwestern tip of Russia.

Understand

Norway is well known for its amazing and varied scenery. The fjords in the west of the country are long narrow inlets, flanked on either side by tall mountains where the sea penetrates far inland. Norway was an old Viking kingdom. Economically it is known for its oil and seafood exports.
Norway is a sparsely populated country, roughly the same land size as Great Britain or Germany. It has a population of only 4.76 million people but a land area of 385,155 square kilometers. Thus, for each inhabitant there is 70,000 square meters of land, but the vast majority of this land is a rocky wilderness which is completely unusable for agricultural purposes. As a result, Norway has a large number of completely unpopulated areas, many of which have been converted to national parks. Even outside the national parks, much of the land is unspoiled nature, which Norwegians strive to keep unspoiled.
In winter, cross-country skiing, alpine skiing and snowboarding are very popular. In summer, hiking and biking are obvious ways to enjoy the enormous mountain areas. For the adventurous, kayaking, wildwater rafting, paragliding, cave or glacier exploration are possible. Car tourists will enjoy driving along the fjords and mountains in the west or to the midnight sun in the north. In short, Norway has a lot to offer in terms of nature. Norwegians take pride in keeping fit and being sporty (a Sunday walk is not 20 min to the pub but rather three-four hours or more in the forest or up a mountain).
Norway is on a large peninsula shared with Sweden in the north of Europe. In the north, it also borders Finland and Russia. A large but loosely defined northern part of of Norway and Sweden, as well as parts of Finland and Russia outlines an area known as Sapmi (Sameland), which is where the most of the Sami people traditionally lived. Today, most of the Sami people live in the capital, Oslo.
A rugged landscape shaped by the Ice Age, shows forested hills and valleys, mountains, waterfalls, and a long coastline with fjords, islands, and mountains growing directly up from the sea. Norway's highest point is Galdhøpiggen, 2469m (8100ft) in the Jotunheimen region that lies midway between Oslo and Trondheim, but away from the coast. In the far north (Finnmark), you will find flatter open spaces. Several of the worlds greatest waterfalls [2] are in Norway, particularly in the western fjords and the mountain region.
Norway's primary income is the petroleum industry in the North Sea. It also has several other natural resources such as fish and minerals, some industry, and a healthy technology sector. Politically, it is dominated by a widespread and continued support for the Scandinavian model, which means high taxes and high government spending to support free schools, free healthcare, an efficient welfare system and many other benefits. As a result the unemployment rate in Norway is extremely low (about 2%).
The Norwegian people have rejected membership in the European Union (EU) in two independent popular votes in 1972 and 1994, both times just by a few percent, after being vetoed out of membership by France in the 50s and 60s. However, being a member state of the European Economic Area and part of the Schengen agreement, Norway is closely connected to the EU, and integrated as a full member in most economic matters, as well as in customs and immigration matters. This is of great economic importance to Norway.
Norway is a Christian country, so Sunday is considered a holy day and most business are closed Sundays. Many gas stations are open 24-7, some malls are partly open and restaurants are normally open, but this varies from place to place. Christmas and Easter are major holidays in Norway, and most Norwegians are on vacation for more than one week. Formally it is a Christian country with a dominant Lutheran majority of near 90 %, but this number is skewed by a type of automatic membership of the state church, where people become automatic members when they're baptised or if one of the parents is a member. In reality, roughly 3/4 is atheist or agnostic. Because of this, Norway has become rather liberal in moral issues and thus more similar to southern neighbors like Denmark and the Netherlands. Prostitution is (as of 1.1.2009) illegal in Norway. Homosexuality is accepted by most people and recently (2008) same-sex marriage was given the same legal status as traditional marriage. For instance, a previous male minister of finance and prominent figure in the conservative party is in partnership with a prominent male business manager.
As one of the richest countries in the world and with a strong currency, most visitors should be prepared for greater expenses than at home. In addition, Norway has a very compressed wage structure which means that even the typical low skill work is relatively well paid. For the same reason, firms try to keep the number of staff as low as possible, even for low skill service work. On the other hand, many attractions in Norway are free of charge, most notably the landscape and nature itself.
Image:b27.jpg

Climate

Because of the gulf stream, the climate in Norway is noticeably warmer than what would otherwise be expected at such a high latitude. Almost half the length of Norway is north of the arctic circle. Summers can be moderately warm (up to 30 degrees C), even in northern areas, but only for limited periods. The length of the winter and amount of snow varies. In the north there is more snow and winters are dark; on the southern and western coast, winters are moderate and rainy, while further inland the temperature can fall below -25 degrees C. Some mountain areas have permanent glaciers.
In Northern Norway there is 24 hour sunshine in the summer and no sun at all at mid-winter. Although Southern Norway can not enjoy the midnight sun, at midsummer the night is very short even in Oslo - it doesn't get really dark at all.

When

Norway generally has big differences in daylight, temperature and driving conditions across seasons. Travellers are therefore advised to obtain specific information about seasonal variations when planning a trip. Note that seasonal variations crucially depend on region as well as altitude. Note in particular that the area with midnight sun (north of the arctic circle) also has winter darkness (polar night) when the sun does not rise above the horizon at all.
Norwegian weather is most pleasant during the summer (May to early September). If you like snow, go to Norway in December to April. Along the coasts and in southern part of West Norway there is little snow or frost and few opportunities for skiing even in winter. In the mountains there is snow until May and some mountain passes opens end of May. If you come in the beginning of May some passes can be still closed, but since the snow is melting very quickly, you will get a possibility to enjoy plenty of waterfalls before they shallow or disappear. And in this time the number of tourists is very small. Spring in Norway is quite intense due to the abundance of water (melting snow) in conjunction with plenty of sunlight and quickly rising temperatures (typically in May).
Be aware that daylight varies greatly during the year. In Oslo, the sun sets at around 3.30 PM in December. North of the Arctic Circle one can experience the midnight sun and polar night (winter darkness). However, even at Oslo's latitude, summer nights exist only in the form of prolonged twilight during June and July, these gentle "white nights" can also be a nice and unusual experience for visitors. The polar (or northern) light (aurora borealis) occurs in the darker months, frequently at high latitudes (Northern Norway) but occasionaly also further South.
Norway is a Christian (predominantly Lutheran) country and the Lutheran church is a government institution. Christmas and Easter are major holidays and many Norwegians are away from work for a full week or more. The major holidays are Easter, Christmas (Christmas Eve, Christmas Day and Boxing Day are all considered holidays), and the "common vacation" throughout July. In May there are several holidays including constitution day - the main national celebration and an attraction in itself. The Norwegian Constitution Day on May 17th is a celebration of the day in 1814 when Norway’s constitution was signed. The day is celebrated in every city and tiny village across the country - in the morning all the schoolchildren parade through their town or local community, singing, shouting and waving their flags - walking behind colorful banners that represent either their school or their class. Marching bands play. Everyone dresses up - many wear our colourful national costumes. After the Children's Parade, people usually gather in the school-yards for further celebrations: speeches, games for the kids, and food. The 17th of May is primarily the children's day - filled with ice cream, cotton candy, balloons and games. In most cities there are additional parades, usually in the afternoon, where all kinds of clubs & organizations take part - usually with a humouristic aspect. Notice the russ - 18-year-olds dressed in red, partying and celebrating having finished 13 years of school. The russ might appear somewhat calm & quiet on the 17th - but that's only because they've been partying for a month nonstop. The 17th of May offers an opportunity to sample some of the traditional Norwegian dishes - such as "Rømmegrøt", a sour-cream porridge, served with cured meat. Salmon is also a National Day favourite.
Public holidays (schools and offices closed):
  • January 1 - New Years day
  • Maundy Thursday (Holy Thursday, "Skjærtorsdag")
  • Good Friday ("Langfredag")
  • Easter Sunday ("påskedag")
  • Second day of Easter (Monday) ("andre påskedag")
  • May 1 - Labour day
  • May 17 - Constitution Day (National Celebration in the streets)
  • Ascension Thursday ("Kristi himmelfart")
  • Pentecost (Whit Sunday, "pinsedag")
  • Pentecost 2ed (Whit Munday, "andre pinsedag")
  • December 25 - Christmas Day ("juledag")
  • December 26 - Boxing Day ("andre juledag")
Note that many Norwegian holidays are celebrated on the day before (Holy Saturday, Christmas Eve etc). On Christmas Eve ("julekveld", "julaften"), New Years Eve ("nyttårsaften"), Holy Saturday ("påskeaften") and Saturday before Pentecost ("pinseaften") shops close early. Norwegians also celebrate midsummer at St. John's day on June 24 by making a bonfire late evening the day before - "St.John's Eve" ("St.Hansaften" or "Jonsokaften").
Norway regions
Norway regions
East Norway
actually southeast, the region surrounding the capital Oslo, where the largest number of people live
Middle Norway
with the ancient city of Trondheim
Northern Norway
also with great fjords, the midnight sun and the ancient Sami culture
South Norway
the gentle coastline
Svalbard
Arctic islands near the polar ice
West Norway
with the famous fjords and Bergen
  • Oslo - the capital and largest city of Norway, with museums of national importance, a beautiful setting and lively nightlife and cultural scene.
  • Bergen - Once the capital of Norway, old Hanseatic trading center with a rich culture and dramatic scenery, Norway's second largest city. Wonderfully cute wooden buildings, a magnificent mountain setting and tons of nightlife and atmosphere make Bergen the most enjoyable city in Norway. This is your gateway to the western fjords. The city has been dubbed "the rainiest city in Europe" with an average of 250 days of rainfall a year. Bring an umbrella.
  • Bodø - The gateway to the magnificent Lofoten islands. And the place of Saltstraumen, the worlds strongest maelstrom.
  • Drammen - Once known as industrial and grimy, but recent refurbishing has made Drammen an enjoyable side trip from Oslo.
  • Fredrikstad - A magnificent old town stands out from the rest of the rather nondescript city. Brilliant as a day trip from Oslo.
  • Kristiansand - The jolly capital of the South.
  • Stavanger - The fourth largest city, the third largest urban area, and the prettiest city in Norway. Commercially important due to the oil business. The wooden, cobbled central area is one of the most charming places in Norway. Home to one of Norway's medieval churches, you can also visit Iron Age homes, stone age caves, and sites where the Viking kings used to meet at Ullandhaugtårnet. Stavanger is where Erik the Red was born.
  • Tromsø - City with the northernmost university in the world, a magnificent, modern cathedral and absolutely no polar bears roaming the streets.
  • Trondheim - Famous for its stunning cathedral (Nidarosdomen). Wonderful riverside wharfs, wooden buildings and the best student nightlife in Norway give beautiful, leafy Trondheim its charm.
  • Ålesund - A splendid Art Nouveau centre in the very western coast of Norway
  • Geirangerfjord - Part of the Storfjorden, with perhaps the most stunning fjord landscape in western Norway. The fjord is on the UN's list of World Heritage places
  • Jostedalsbreen - The largest glacier