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Nottinghamshire
Motto of County Council: SAPIENTER PROFICIENS
(Progress with wisdom)
EnglandNottinghamshire.png
Geography
Status Ceremonial & (smaller) Non-metropolitan county
Origin Historic
Region East Midlands
Area
- Total
- Admin. council
- Admin. area
Ranked 27th
2,160 km2 (834 sq mi)
Ranked 24th
2,085 km2 (805 sq mi)
Admin HQ West Bridgford
ISO 3166-2 GB-NTT
ONS code 37
NUTS 3 UKF15/16
Demography
Population
- Total (2008 est.)
- Density
- Admin. council
- Admin. pop.
Ranked 17th
1,068,900
495 /km2 (1,282/sq mi)
Ranked 10th
776,500
Ethnicity 94.1% White
2.5% S. Asian
1.5% Afro-Carib.
Politics
Arms-nottinghamshire.jpg

Nottinghamshire County Council
http://www.nottscc.gov.uk/

Executive Conservative
Members of Parliament
Districts
Nottinghamshire Ceremonial Numbered.png
  1. Rushcliffe
  2. Broxtowe
  3. Ashfield
  4. Gedling
  5. Newark and Sherwood
  6. Mansfield
  7. Bassetlaw
  8. Nottingham (Unitary)

Nottinghamshire (pronounced /ˈnɒtɪŋəmʃər/ or /ˈnɒtɪŋəmʃɪər/; abbreviated Notts) is an English county in the East Midlands, which borders South Yorkshire, Lincolnshire, Leicestershire and Derbyshire. The county town is traditionally Nottingham, though the council is now based in West Bridgford, a suburb of Greater Nottingham (at a site facing Nottingham City over the River Trent).

The districts of Nottinghamshire are Ashfield, Bassetlaw, Broxtowe, Gedling, Mansfield, Newark and Sherwood, and Rushcliffe. The City of Nottingham was administratively part of Nottinghamshire between 1974 and 1998 but is now a unitary authority although it remains part of the historic and ceremonial county.

As of 2006 the county is estimated to have a population of just over one million. Over half of the population of the county live in the conurbation of Greater Nottingham which also spreads into Derbyshire. The conurbation has a population of about 650,000, though less than half live within the city boundaries.

Contents

History

Nottinghamshire lies on the Roman Fosse Way, and there are Roman settlements in the county, for example at Mansfield. The county was settled by Angles around the 5th century, and became part of the Kingdom, and later Earldom, of Mercia. However, there is evidence of Saxon settlement at Oxton, near Nottingham, and Tuxford, east of Sherwood Forest. The name first occurs in 1016, but until 1568 the county was administratively united with Derbyshire, under a single Sheriff. In Norman times the county developed malting and woollen industries. During the industrial revolution canals and railways came to the county, and the lace and cotton industries grew. In the 19th century collieries opened and mining became an important economic sector, though these declined after the 1984-5 miners' strike.

Until 1610, Nottinghamshire was divided into eight Wapentakes. Sometime between 1610 and 1719 they were reduced to six – Newark, Bassetlaw, Thurgarton, Rushcliffe, Broxtowe and Bingham, some of these names still being used for the modern districts. Oswaldbeck was absorbed in Bassetlaw, of which it forms the North Clay division, and Lythe in Thurgarton.

Nottinghamshire is famous for its involvement with the legend of Robin Hood. This is also the reason for the amount of tourists who visit places like Sherwood Forest, City of Nottingham and the surrounding villages in Sherwood Forest.

Nottinghamshire was mapped first by Christopher Saxton in 1576, the first fully surveyed map of the county was by John Chapman who produced Chapman's Map of Nottinghamshire in 1774.[1] The map was the earliest printed map at a sufficiently useful scale (one statute mile to one inch) to provide basic information on village layout and the existence of landscape features such as roads, milestones, tollbars, parkland and mills.

Physical geography

Nottinghamshire, like Derbyshire and South Yorkshire, sits on extensive coal measures, up to 900 metres (3,000 feet) thick and occurring largely in the north of the county. There is an oilfield near Eakring. These are overlaid by sandstones and limestones in the west and clay in the east.[2] The north of the county is part of the York plain. The centre and south west of the county, around Sherwood Forest, features undulating hills with ancient oak woodland. Principal rivers are the Trent, Idle, Erewash and Soar. The Trent, fed by the Soar and Erewash, and Idle, composed of many streams from Sherwood Forest, run through wide and flat valleys, merging at Misterton. The natural highest point of the county is Strawberry Bank, in Huthwaite.

Nottinghamshire is sheltered by the Pennines to the west, so receives relatively low rainfall at 641–740 mm (25–29 in) annually.[3] The average temperature of the county is 8.8-10.1 degrees Celsius (48-50 degrees Fahrenheit).[4] The county receives between 1321 and 1470 hours of sunshine per year.[5]

Politics

Nottinghamshire is represented by eleven members of parliament, of which nine are members of the Labour Party, and two are Conservatives. Geoff Hoon, representative for Ashfield, is a front-bench member of the government. Kenneth Clarke of Rushcliffe is a former Conservative Chancellor of the Exchequer.

Following the 2009 local elections (see Nottinghamshire Council election, 2009), the County Council is Conservative controlled, a gain from Labour. There are 67 councillors, 35 of which are Conservative, 13 are Labour and 9 are Liberal Democrat.[6] Local government is devolved to seven local borough and district councils, Bassetlaw, Gedling, Newark and Sherwood and Rushcliffe are Conservative controlled while Mansfield is controlled by the local Independent forum. Ashfield and Broxtowe have no overall control but are led by the Labour and the Liberal Democrat groups respectively. In 2007, Nottinghamshire County Council won an Ashden Award for their work converting coal-fired boilers in schools to burn wood pellets.[7]

Economy and industry

In 1998 Nottinghamshire had a GDP per-capita of £12,000, and a total GDP of £12,023 million. This is compared to a per-capita GDP of £11,848 for the East Midlands, £12,845 for England and £12,548 for the United Kingdom. Nottingham has a GDP per-capita of £17,373, North Nottinghamshire £10,176, and South Nottinghamshire £8,448.[8] In October 2005 the United Kingdom had 4.7% unemployment, the East Midlands 4.4%, and Nottingham travel-to-work area 2.4%.[9]

Along the Trent on the county's eastern edge, close to the former coalfields, are two large power stations of Cottam and West Burton. High Marnham is now closed. South of Nottingham, again near the Trent, is the Ratcliffe-on-Soar Power Station and near Newark there are plans for a gas-turbine power station at Staythorpe, next to the Trent, on the site of the former Staythorpe A & B coal-fired power stations. There are two current coal mines at Thoresby between Edwinstowe and Ollerton, and Welbeck at Meden Vale near Market Warsop. The pit at Harworth, in the far north of the county, faced closure in 2006, but was mothballed instead. Many pits in the Worksop and central-Nottinghamshire areas were closed in the 1990s.

Education

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Secondary Education

The county has comprehensive secondary education with 47 state secondary schools and 7 independent schools, including Worksop College, and the City of Nottingham LEA has 18 state schools and 6 independent schools, not including sixth form colleges.

GCSEs in Nottinghamshire

9,700 pupils took GCSEs in Nottinghamshire LEA in 2007. The best results were from the West Bridgford School, closely followed by Rushcliffe Comprehensive School and the Minster School in Southwell. All schools in the Rushcliffe district perform very well, except for Dayncourt School Specialist Sports College in Radcliffe on Trent. The lowest performing was the Queen Elizabeth's Endowed School in Mansfield. In the city, the best results came from the Trinity Catholic School and the Fernwood School in Wollaton.

At A level, the best was The Becket School followed by the West Bridgford School with outstanding results. These are higher than the main independent school in the county, Worksop College. In the city, Bilborough College does the best, although not as good as the two West Bridgford schools. The Nottingham Bluecoat School (not far from the Trinity School) does reasonably well, however the best results of all come from the all-male Nottingham High School closely followed by the all-female Nottingham High School for Girls, both independent schools with the best results of all schools in the East Midlands.

GCSE Results by District Council

District  % of pupils gaining 5 grades A-C including English and Maths in 2007
Rushcliffe 61.9
Gedling 46.2
Broxtowe 41.3
Ashfield 38.3
Newark and Sherwood 38.2
Mansfield 35.1
Bassetlaw 34.8
(City of Nottingham Unitary Authority) 33.1
(Average for Nottinghamshire) 41.7
(Average for England) 46.8

Higher education

Nottingham Trent University (formerly Trent Polytechnic) is one of the most successful post-1992 universities in the UK. The University of Nottingham (situated between the QMC and Beeston) is a Russell Group university and very well-renowned, offering one of the broadest selection of courses in the UK. It has close links with the Boots company. Both universities combine to make Nottingham one of the biggest student cities. NTU also has an agricultural college near Southwell and the University has one at Sutton Bonington.

National and County cricket player Harold Larwood.

Culture

Nottinghamshire contains the ancestral home of the poet Lord Byron, Newstead Abbey, which he sold in 1818. It is now owned by Nottingham City Council and open to the public. The author D. H. Lawrence was from Eastwood in Nottinghamshire. Toton, Nottinghamshire was the birthplace and home of English folk singer-songwriter Anne Briggs (1944 - ), well known for her song 'Black Waterside.' The north of the county is also noteworthy because of its connections with the Pilgrim Fathers. William Brewster, for example, came from the village of Scrooby and was influenced by Richard Clyfton who preached at Babworth church.

Nottinghamshire County Cricket Club is a first class cricket club who play at Trent Bridge in West Bridgford. They won the County Championship in 2005. Nottingham Forest are a Championship football club following promotion in 2008, Notts County are in League Two and Mansfield Town are a Conference National team having been relegated from the Football League, also in 2008. Other notable teams are Nottingham Rugby Football Club and Nottingham Panthers Ice Hockey Club.

Nottinghamshire has international twinning arrangements with the province of Wielkopolska (Greater Poland) in western Poland, and with its capital city, Poznan.[10]

Settlements and communications

The council house and a tram in Nottingham market square.
See also: list of places in Nottinghamshire.

The traditional county town, and the largest settlement in the historic and ceremonial county boundaries, is Nottingham. The City is now administratively independent, but suburbs including Arnold, Carlton, West Bridgford, Beeston and Stapleford are still within the administrative county and West Bridgford is now home of the county council.

There are several market towns in the county. Newark-on-Trent is a bridging point of the Fosse Way and River Trent, but is actually an Anglo-Saxon market town with a now ruined Castle. Mansfield, the second-largest settlement in the county, sits on the site of a Roman settlement, but grew after the Norman Conquest. Worksop, in the north of the county, is also an Anglo-Saxon market town which grew rapidly in the industrial revolution with the arrival of canals and railways and the discovery of coal. Newark, Mansfield and Worksop have suffered from the decline of mining since the 1984-5 miners' strike. Other market towns include Arnold, Bingham, Hucknall, Kirkby-in-Ashfield, and Retford.

The main railway in the county is the Midland Main Line which links London St Pancras Station to Sheffield via Nottingham. The Robin Hood Line between Nottingham and Worksop serves several villages in the county. The East Coast Main Line from London King's Cross to Doncaster, Leeds, York, Hull Newcastle-upon-Tyne and Scotland serves the eastern Nottinghamshire towns of Newark and Retford. The M1 motorway runs north–south through the county, connecting Nottingham to London, Leeds and many other towns and major roads.

The A1 road follows for the most part the path of the Great North Road, although in places it diverges from the historic route where towns have been bypassed. Retford was by-passed in 1961 and Newark-on-Trent was by-passed in 1964, and the A1 now runs between Retford and Worksop past the village of Ranby. Many historic coaching inns can still be seen along the traditional route.

The East Midlands Airport is just outside the county in Leicestershire, while the Robin Hood Airport lies within the historic boundaries of Nottinghamshire but is just inside South Yorkshire. These airports serve the county and several of its neighbours. Together the airports have services to most major European destinations, and the East Midlands Airport now also has services to North America and Caribbean countries. As well as local bus services throughout the county, Nottingham and its suburbs have a tram system, Nottingham Express Transit.

Places of interest

Football in the County

Nottinghamshire is home to three professional football clubs, namely Nottingham Forest who play at The City Ground, Notts County who play at Meadow Lane and Mansfield Town who play at Field Mill, as well as smaller non-league clubs like Eastwood Town, Hucknall Town, Worksop Town and Retford United[11].

Nottingham Forest used the Nottinghamshire crest as their own until the 1970s[12].

References

  1. ^ Chapman's Map of Nottinghamshire 1774. Nottinghamshire County Council ISBN 0-902751-46-8.
  2. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, 1911. "Nottinghamshire, Geology". Accessed 2005-12-11.
  3. ^ Met Office, 2000. Annual average rainfall for the United Kingdom.
  4. ^ Met Office, 2000. Annual average temperature for the United Kingdom.
  5. ^ Met Office, 2000. Annual average sunshine for the United Kingdom.
  6. ^ Nottinghamshire County Council, 2009
  7. ^ Ashden Awards. "Wood fuel heating for schools". Accessed 2009-05-22.
  8. ^ Office for National Statistics, 2001. Regional Trends 26 ch:14.7 (PDF). Accessed 2005-12-24.
  9. ^ East Midlands Observatory, 2005. Labour Market Statistics for October 2005. Accessed 2005-12-24.
  10. ^ Nottinghamshire County Council. Transnational partnerships.
  11. ^ http://homepage.ntlworld.com/christopher.rooney1973/clubs.htm
  12. ^ http://www.ltlf.co.uk/forest/2009/07/29/nottingham-forest-home-kit-shirt-photos/

External links

Coordinates: 53°N 1°W / 53°N 1°W / 53; -1


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Nottinghamshire is a county of England in the United Kingdom.

Map of Nottinghamshire
Map of Nottinghamshire
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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

NOTTINGHAMSHIRE, or Notts, an inland county of England, bounded N. W. by Yorkshire, W. by Derbyshire, S. by Leicestershire and and N.E. by Lincolnshire. The area is 843.4 sq. m. The N. is cluded in the great plain of York, and in the extreme N. there is some extent of marshes. The valley of the lower Trent and that of the Idle are also very flat. In the S.W. between Nottingham and Warsop, the undulations swell into considerable elevations, reaching near Mansfield a height over 600 ft. This district includes the ancient Sherwood Forest. Some portions of it are still retained in their original condition, and there are many very old oaks, especially in the portion known as the Dukeries. The county generally is finely wooded, although to the E. of the valley of the Soar there is a considerable stretch of wolds. The principal rivers are the Trent, the Erewash, the Soar and the Idle. The Trent, which enters the county near Thrumpton in the S.W., where it receives the Erewash from the N. and the Soar from the S., flows N.E. past Nottingham and Newark, where it takes a more northerly direction, forming the N. part of the E. boundary of the county till it reaches the Isle of Axholm (Lincolnshire). The Soar forms for a short distance the boundary with Leicestershire, and the Erewash the boundary with Derbyshire. The Idle, which is formed of several streams in Sherwood Forest, flows N. to Bawtry, and then turns E. to the Trent.

Table of contents

Geology

All formations, from Lower and Middle Coal Measures, overlain unconformably by Permian, to Lower Lias, crop out successively eastward across the county, with a general but slight dip away from the Pennine uplift. The strike of the Carboniferous rocks veers from S. to E. in the S.; that of younger formations bends to S.W. The Coal Measures, about 3000 ft. thick, continue the Derbyshire Coalfield. A boring at Ruddington proved the lowest measures, underlain by Millstone Grit. The remaining Lower and Middle Measures below the important Top Hard Coal, with the Kilburn, Main, Deep Hard and Soft Coals, crop out in the south and along the Erewash Valley; higher strata farther N. All these consist of shale, clay and little sandstone. They contain Carbonicola acuta, C. robusta, Neuropteris heterophylla, Alethopteris and Lepidodendron, showing essentially non-marine conditions. But several thin marine beds occur. The highest measures, divisible into red Etruria Marls, Newcastle Sandstones and a red sandy Keele series have been proved underground in eastward succession. A thin basal breccia, a sandy and marly group, the Magnesian Limestone with Productus horridus and Schizodus obscurus (granular dolomite typically, its upper part locally a dolomitic sandstone, the Mansfield buildingstone), red gypsiferous Middle Marls, an Upper Limestone, and Upper Red Marls, collectively 550 ft. thick in the north of Notting hamshire, terminate a Permian outcrop continuous from Durham, but dying out at Nottingham. Only the lowest divisions persist so far. The more extensive Trias overlaps southward on to the Carboniferous. Its lower sandstones (Bunter, 600 ft. thick, consisting of Lower Red Sandstone with breccias, and Pebble Beds; Keuper Waterstones, 200 ft. in the east, mainly brown sandstones, conglomeratic at the base and containing the fish Semionotus) form an undulating wooded district. Higher red and pale green Keuper Marl (700 ft.), with subordinate sandstones and gypsum, makes a low agricultural tract on the E., traversed longitudinally by the Trent. Black Rhaetic shales succeed with Pieria (Avicula) contorta, Protocardium rhaeticum and bone-beds, below light-coloured marls and limestones ("White Lias"). Lower Lias, almost up to the Semicostatus zone, crops out within the county. The basal Planorbis zone contains argillaceous limestones, worked for hydraulic cement at Barnston, and saurian remains. Of two types of Glacial boulderclay, mainly confined to the Triassic and Jurassic clays on the E. and S.E., one containing Carboniferous and some extraneous boulders probably came with the Pennine ice from the N.W. The other, uppermost where both occur, and full of chalk and flint, belongs to the Chalky Boulder Clay of the North Sea ice. Glacial gravels cap the higher ground of the Triassic sandstones. Church Hole, one of the Magnesian Limestone caves of Creswell Crags, yielded remains of cave-lion, bear, mammoth, rhinoceros, &c. Older river-gravels flankthe pasture land of the Trent alluvium.

Climate and Agriculture

As the higher regions of Derbyshire and; Yorkshire attract the rain clouds, the climate of Nottinghamshire is above the average in dryness; thus, the mean annual rainfall at Bawtry is 23.57 in. and at Nottingham 26.83 in. On this account crops ripen nearly as early as in the S. counties. The soil of about one-half the county is gravel and sand, including Sherwood Forest, where it inclines to sterility, and the valley of the Trent, where there is a rich vegetable mould on a stratum -of sand or gravel. The land along the banks of the Trent is equally suitable for crops and pasture. The farms generally are of moderate size, the great majority being under 300 acres. Most of the immediate occupants are tenants-atwill. Roughly four-fifths of the total area is under cultivation. Apples and pears are grown in considerable quantities, but there are not many orchards of large size. Shorthorns are the favourite breed of cattle, and dairy farming is considerably prosecuted. The old forest breed of sheep is almost extinct, Leicesters and various crosses being common.

Industries

Coal is mined chiefly on the S.W. border of the county near Nottingham and near Mansfield; there are also mines near Worksop. Clay, sandstone and limestone are also extensively raised. The lace and hosiery industries are of old establishment in the county, Nottingham being the principal centre. There are silk, worsted and cotton mills. A large number of hands are employed in machinery works, and the cycle and motor manufacture of Beeston is important. The manufacture of tobacco and cigars is considerable at Nottingham and Hucknall Torkard.

Communications

The main line of the Midland railway touches the S.W. border of the county, with an alternative route through Nottingham, and branches thence N. through Hucknall and Mansfield to Worksop, to Newark and Lincoln, from Mansfield to Southwell and Newark, &c. The main line of the Great Central railway serves Nottingham and Hucknall. That of the Great Northern railway serves Newark and Retford, with a branch to Nottingham and local lines in that vicinity. A branch of the Great Central railway, formerly (till 1908) the main line of the Lancashire, Derbyshire and East Coast railway, enters the county on the W. from Chesterfield, and crosses the Dukeries by 011erton to Dukeries Junction (G.N.R.) and Lincoln. The Sheffield-Grimsby line of the Great Central crosses the N. of the county by Worksop and Retford. The Trent is navigable throughout the county, and the Idle between Bawtry and the Trent. The principal canals centre upon Nottingham.

Population and Administration

The area of the ancient county is 539,75 6 acres, with a population in 1901 of 514,578. The area of the administrative county is 540,123. The county contains the city and county and municipal borough of Nottingham (pop. 239,743), and the municipal boroughs of Retford or East Retford (12,340), Mansfield (21,445) and Newark (14,992). The urban districts are Arnold (8757), Beeston (8960), Carlton (10,041), Eastwood (4815), Hucknall Torkard (15,250), Hucknall under Huthwaite (4076), Kirkby in Ashfield (10,318), Mansfield Woodhouse (4877), Sutton in Ashfield (14,862), Warsop (2132), West Bridgford (7018), Worksop (16,112). For parliamentary purposes the ancient county is divided into four divisions (Bassetlaw, Newark, Rushcliffe and Mansfield), each returning one member; and the parliamentary borough of Nottingham returns one member for each of its three divisions. There are one court of quarter sessions and seven petty sessional divisions. The boroughs of Newark and Nottingham have separate commissions of the peace, also separate courts of quarter sessions; that of East Retford has a separate commission of the peace. The total number of civil parishes is 266. The ancient county contains 231 ecclesiastical parishes and districts, wholly or in part; it is situated principally in the diocese of Southwell and partly in the diocese of York.

History

The earliest Teutonic settlers in the district which is now Nottinghamshire were an Anglian tribe who, not later than the 5th century, advanced from Lincolnshire along the Fosseway, and, pushing their way up the Trent valley, settled in the fertile districts of the S. and E., the whole W. region from Nottingham to within a short distance of Southwell being then occupied by the vast forest of Sherwood. At the end of the 6th century Nottinghamshire already existed as organized territory, though its W. limit probably extended no farther than the Saxon relics discovered at Oxton and Tuxford. Nottingham after the treaty of Wedmore became one of the five Danish boroughs. On the break-up of Mercia under Hardicanute, Nottinghamshire was included in the earldom of the Middle English, but in 1049 it again became part of Leofric's earldom of Mercia, and descended to Edwin and Morkere. The first mention of the shire of Nottingham occurs in 1016, when it was harried by Canute. The boundaries have remained practically unaltered since the time of the Domesday Survey, and the eight Domesday wapentakes were unchanged in 1610; in 1719 they had been reduced to six, their present number, Oswaldbeck being absorbed in Bassetlaw, of which it forms the North Clay 'division, and "Side" in Thurgarton. Nottinghamshire was originally included in the diocese and province of York, and in 1291 formed an archdeaconry comprising the deaneries of Nottingham, Newark, Bingham and Retford. By act of parliament of 1836 the county was transferred to the diocese of Lincoln and province of Canterbury, with the additional deanery of Southwell. In 1878 the deaneries of Mansfield, South Bingham, West Bingham, Collingham, Tuxford and Worksop were created, and in 1884 most of the county was transferred to the newly-created diocese of Southwell, the deaneries being unchanged. The deaneries of Bawtry, Bulwell, Gedling, East Newark and Norwell were created in 1888. Until 1568 Nottinghamshire was united with Derbyshire under one sheriff, the courts and tourns being held at Nottingham until the reign of Henry III., when with the assizes for both counties they were removed to Derby. In the time of Edward I. the assizes were again held at Nottingham, where they are held at the present day. The Peverel Court, founded before 1113 for the recovery of small debts, had jurisdiction over 127 towns in Nottinghamshire, and was held at Nottingham until 1321, in 1330 at Algarthorpe and in 1790 at Lenton, being finally abolished in 1849. The most interesting historic figure in the Domesday Survey of Nottinghamshire is William Peverel. His fief represents the honour of Nottingham, and in 1068 he was appointed constable of the castle which William the Conqueror had raised at Nottingham. The Cliftons of Clifton and the Byrons of Newstead held lands in Nottinghamshire at the time of the Survey. Holme Pierrepoint belonged to the Pierrepoints from the time of Edward I.; Shelford was the seat of the Stanhopes, and Langer of the Tibetots, afterwards earls of Worcester. Archbishop Cranmer was a descendant of the Cranmers of Aslockton near Bingham.

The political history of Nottinghamshire centres round the town and castle of Nottingham, which was seized by Robert of Gloucester on behalf of Maud in 1140; captured by John in 1191; surrendered to Henry III. by the rebellious barons in 1264; formed an important station of Edward III. in the Scottish wars; and in 1397 was the scene of a council where three of the lords appellant were appealed of treason. In the Wars of the Roses the county as a whole favoured the Yorkist cause, Nottingham being one of the most useful stations of Edward IV. In the Civil War of the 17th century most of the nobility and gentry favoured the Royalist cause, but Nottingham Castle was garrisoned for the parliament, and in 1651 was ordered to be demolished.

Among the earliest industries of Nottinghamshire were the malting and woollen industries, which flourished in Norman times. The latter declined in the 16th century, and was superseded by the hosiery manufacture which sprang up after the invention of the stocking-loom in 1589. The earliest evidence of the working of the Nottinghamshire coalfield is in 1259, when Queen Eleanor was unable to remain in this county on account of the smoke of the sea-coal. Collieries are scarcely heard of in Nottinghamshire in the 17th century, but in 1620 the justices of the peace for the shire report that there is no fear of scarcity of corn, as the counties which send up the Trent for coal bring corn in exchange, and in 1881 thirty-nine collieries. were at work in the county. Hops were formerly extensively grown, and Worksop was famous for its liquorice. Numerous. cotton-mills were erected in Nottinghamshire in the 18th century, and there were silk-mills at Nottingham. The manufacture of tambour lace existed in Nottinghamshire in the 18th century, and was facilitated in the 19th century by the manufacture of machine-made net. From 1295 the county and town of Nottingham each returned two members to parliament. In 1572 East Retford was represented by two members, and in 1672 Newarkupon-Trent also. Under the Reform Act of 1832 the county returned four members in two divisions. By the act of 1885 it returned four members in four divisions; Newark and East Retford were disfranchised, and Nottingham returned three members in three divisions.

Antiquities

At the dissolution of the monasteries there were no fewer than forty religious houses in Nottinghamshire. The only important monastic remains, however, are those at Newstead, but the building is partly transformed into a mansion which was formerly the residence of Lord Byron (see HucKNALL Torkard). There are also traces of monastic ruins at Beauvale, Mattersey, Radford and Thurgarton. The finest parish church in the county is that of Newark. The churches of St Mary, Nottingham, and of Southwell were collegiate churches; Southwell, now a cathedral, is a splendid building, principally Norman. The churches of Balderton, Bawtry, Hoveringham, Mansfield and Worksop are also partly Norman, and those of Coddington, Hawton and Upton St Peter near Southwell, Early English. Of the old castles, the principal remains are those at Newark, but there are several interesting old mansions, as at Kingshaugh, Scrooby, Shelford and Southwell. Wollaton Hall, near Nottingham, is a fine old building (c.1580) . The finest residences of more modern date are Welbeck and others in the Dukeries (q.v.).

See Victoria County History, Nottinghamshire; R. Thoroton, The Antiquities of Nottinghamshire (Lond., 1677; republished with additions by J. Thoresby, 3 vols., Lond., 1797); Thomas Bailey, Annals of Nottinghamshire (4. vols., Lond., 1852-1856); J. P. Briscoe, Old Nottinghamshire (1881); J. Ward, Descriptive Catalogue of Books relating to Nottinghamshire (Nottingham, 1892).


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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

English

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Wikipedia

Proper noun

Singular
Nottinghamshire

Plural
-

Nottinghamshire

  1. A north-midland county of England bordered by Yorkshire, Lincolnshire, Leicestershire and Derbyshire.

Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Familypedia

This article requires significantly more historical detail on the particular phases of this location's historical development. The ideal article for a place will give the reader a feel for what it was like to live at that location at the time their relatives were alive there..
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Nottinghamshire
File:EnglandNottinghamshire.png
Geography
Status Ceremonial & (smaller) Non-metropolitan county

<tr><th>Origin</th><td>Historic</td></tr>

Region East Midlands
Area
- Total
- Admin. council
- Admin. area
Ranked 27th
2,160 km² (834 sq mi)
Ranked 24th
2,085 km² (805 sq mi)

<tr><th>Admin HQ</th><td class="label">West Bridgford</td></tr><tr><th>ISO 3166-2</th><td>GB-NTT</td></tr>

ONS code 37
NUTS 3 UKF15/16
Demographics
Population
- Total (2006 est.)
- Density
- Admin. council
- Admin. pop.
Ranked 17th Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
1,055,400
489/km² (1,266.5/sq mi)
Ranked 10th Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
769,000
Ethnicity 94.1% White
2.5% S. Asian
1.5% Afro-Carib.
Politics
File:Arms-nottinghamshire.jpg

Nottinghamshire County Council
http://www.nottscc.gov.uk/ <tr><th>Executive</th><td>Labour </td></tr>

Members of Parliament
Districts
File:Nottinghamshire Ceremonial Numbered.png
  1. Rushcliffe
  2. Broxtowe
  3. Ashfield
  4. Gedling
  5. Newark and Sherwood
  6. Mansfield
  7. Bassetlaw
  8. Nottingham (Unitary)

Nottinghamshire (abbreviated Notts) is an English county in the East Midlands, which borders South Yorkshire, North Lincolnshire, Lincolnshire, Leicestershire and Derbyshire. The county town is traditionally Nottingham, at 52°57′17″N, 1°09′29″W, though the council is now based in West Bridgford (at a site facing Nottingham over the River Trent).

The districts of Nottinghamshire are Ashfield, Bassetlaw, Broxtowe, Gedling, Mansfield, Newark and Sherwood, and Rushcliffe. The City of Nottingham was administratively part of Nottinghamshire between 1974 and 1998 but is now a unitary authority although it remains part of the historic and ceremonial county.

As of 2006 the county is estimated to have a population of just over one million. Over half of the population of the county live in the conurbation of Greater Nottingham which also spreads into Derbyshire. The conurbation has a population of about 650,000, though less than half live within the city boundaries.

Contents

History

Main article: History of Nottinghamshire

Nottinghamshire lies on the Roman Fosse Way, and there are Roman settlements in the county, for example at Mansfield. The county was settled by Angles around the 5th century, and became part of the Kingdom, and later Earldom, of Mercia. However, there is evidence of Saxon settlement at Oxton, near Nottingham, and Tuxford, east of Sherwood Forest. The name first occurs in 1016, but until 1568 the county was administratively united with Derbyshire, under a single Sheriff. In Norman times the county developed malting and woollen industries. During the industrial revolution canals and railways came to the county, and the lace and cotton industries grew. In the 19th century collieries opened and mining became an important economic sector, though these declined after the 1984-5 miners' strike.

Until 1610, Nottinghamshire was divided into eight Wapentakes. Sometime between 1610 and 1719 they were reduced to six — Newark, Bassetlaw, Thurgarton, Rushcliffe, Broxtowe and Bingham, some of these names still being used for the modern districts. Oswaldbeck was absorbed in Bassetlaw, of which it forms the North Clay division, and Lythe in Thurgarton.

Nottinghamshire is famous for its involvement with the legend of Robin Hood. This is also the reason for the amount of tourists who visit places like Sherwood Forest, City of Nottingham and the surrounding villages in Sherwood Forest.

Nottinghamshire was mapped first by Christopher Saxton in 1576, the first fully surveyed map of the county was by John Chapman who produced Chapman's Map of Nottinghamshire in 1774.[1] The map was the earliest printed map at a sufficiently useful scale (1 statute mile to one inch) to provide basic information on village layout and the existence of landscape features such as roads, milestones, tollbars, parkland and mills.

Physical geography

Nottinghamshire, like Derbyshire and South Yorkshire, sits on extensive coal measures, up to 900 metres (3,000 feet) thick and occurring largely in the north of the county. There is an oilfield near Eakring. These are overlaid by sandstones and limestones in the west and clay in the east[2]. The north of the county is part of the York plain. The centre and south west of the county, around Sherwood Forest, features undulating hills with ancient oak woodland. Principal rivers are the Trent, Idle, Erewash and Soar. The Trent, fed by the Soar and Erewash, and Idle, composed of many streams from Sherwood Forest, run through wide and flat valleys, merging at Misterton. The highest point of the county is Newtonwood Lane, Newton (grid reference SK456605) at 204 m/669ft.

Nottinghamshire is sheltered by the Pennines to the west, so receives relatively low rainfall at 641-740 mm (25-29 in) annually[3]. The average temperature of the county is 8.8-10.1 degrees Celsius (48-50 degrees Fahrenheit).[4] The county receives between 1321 and 1470 hours of sunshine per year.[5]

Politics

Nottinghamshire is represented by members of parliament, of which nine are members of the Labour Party, and two are Conservatives. Geoff Hoon, representative for Ashfield, is a front-bench member of the government. Kenneth Clarke of Rushcliffe is a former Conservative Chancellor of the Exchequer.

The County Council is Labour controlled. There are 67 councillors, of which 36 are Labour, 26 are Conservatives and five are Liberal Democrats.[6]

Economy and industry

In 1998 Nottinghamshire had a GDP per-capita of £12,000, and a total GDP of £12,023 million. This is compared to a per-capita GDP of £11,848 for the East Midlands, £12,845 for England and £12,548 for the United Kingdom. Nottingham has a GDP per-capita of £17,373, North Nottinghamshire £10,176, and South Nottinghamshire £8,448[7]. In October 2005 the United Kingdom had 4.7% unemployment, the East Midlands 4.4%, and Nottingham travel-to-work area 2.4%[8]. Along the Trent on the county's eastern edge, close to the former coalfields, are two large power stations of Cottam and West Burton. High Marnham is now closed. South of Nottingham, again near the Trent, is the Ratcliffe-on-Soar Power Station and near Newark there are plans for a gas-turbine power station at Staythorpe, next to the Trent, on the site of the former Staythorpe A & B coal-fired power stations. There are two current coal mines at Thoresby between Edwinstowe and Ollerton, and Welbeck at Meden Vale near Market Warsop.

Education

The county has comprehensive secondary education with 47 state secondary schools and 7 independent schools, including Worksop College, and the City of Nottingham LEA has 18 state schools and 6 independent schools, not including sixth form colleges. Results at GCSE of the percentage who get 5 grades A-C, including Maths and English, varies considerably across the district councils. Rushcliffe, the most wealthy council district in the East Midlands, gets the second highest GCSE results in the East Midlands (Derbyshire Dales gets the highest). The highest achieving school at GCSE is the Minster School in Southwell with 72% — the average for England is 45.8%, and Nottinghamshire's average is 40.1%. The lowest achieving is the Queen Elizabeth's Endowed School in Mansfield with 12%. In the City of Nottingham, the best school is the Trinity School, a catholic school in Aspley with 78%. In general however, the city's schools are considerably below average. At A level, the highest achieving school in the county is the West Bridgford School, followed by the Minster School then the Carlton-le-Willows School in Gedling. Few schools in the city have sixth forms, and the county's schools generally do better at A-level, although the city has better highest performing schools. The Becket School is the city's best, followed by Bilborough College, which both get better results than any county school. Overall in both LEA areas, the best A levels are at the independent Nottingham High School, followed by Nottingham High School for Girls, which get the top two best A level results in the East Midlands.

Average score at GCSE by district council (%)

% of pupils who gain 5 grades A-C including English and Maths in 2006; compare this table to average house price by district.

  • 1. Rushcliffe 58.8
  • 2. Gedling 45.2
  • 3. Broxtowe 42.9
  • 4. Newark and Sherwood 40.7
  • 5. Ashfield 34.4
  • 6. Bassetlaw 32.6
  • 7. Mansfield 30.1
  • (City of Nottingham Unitary Authority 28.5)

File:Larwood.jpg

Culture

Nottinghamshire contains the ancestral home of the poet Lord Byron, Newstead Abbey, which he sold in 1818. It is now owned by Nottingham City Council and open to the public. The author D. H. Lawrence was from Eastwood in Nottinghamshire. The North of the County is also noteworthy because of its connections with the Pilgrim Fathers. William Brewster, for example, came from the village of Scrooby and was influenced by Richard Clyfton who preached at Babworth church.

Nottinghamshire County Cricket Club is a first class cricket club who play at Trent Bridge in West Bridgford. They won the County Championship in 2005. Nottingham Forest is a League One football club and Notts County and Mansfield Town are in League Two. Other notable teams are Nottingham Rugby Football club and Nottingham Panthers Ice Hockey Club.

Settlements and communications

File:Nottingham-express-transit.jpg

See also: list of places in Nottinghamshire.

The traditional county town, and the largest settlement in the historic and ceremonial county boundaries, is Nottingham. The City is now administratively independent, but suburbs including Arnold, Carlton, West Bridgford, Beeston and Stapleford are still within the administrative county and West Bridgford is now home of the county council.

There are several market towns in the county. Newark-on-Trent is a bridging point of the Fosse Way and River Trent, but is actually an Anglo-Saxon market town with a now ruined Castle. Mansfield sits on the site of a Roman settlement, but grew after the Norman Conquest. Worksop, in the north of the county, is also an Anglo-Saxon market town which grew rapidly in the industrial revolution with the arrival of canals and railways and the discovery of coal. Newark, Mansfield and Worksop have suffered from the decline of mining since the 1984-5 miners' strike. Other market towns include Arnold, Bingham, Hucknall, Kirkby-in-Ashfield, and Retford.

The main railway in the county is the Midland Main Line which links London St Pancras Station to Sheffield via Nottingham. The Robin Hood Line between Nottingham and Worksop serves several villages in the county. The East Coast Main Line from London King's Cross to Doncaster, Leeds, York, Hull Newcastle-upon-Tyne and Scotland serves the eastern Nottinghamshire towns of Newark and Retford. The M1 motorway runs north-south through the county, connecting Nottingham to London, Leeds and many other towns and major roads.

The A1 road follows for the most part the path of the Great North Road, although in places it diverges from the historic route where towns have been bypassed. Retford was by-passed in 1961 and Newark-on-Trent was by-passed in 1964, and the A1 now runs between Retford and Worksop past the village of Ranby. Many historic coaching inns can still be seen along the traditional route.

The East Midlands Airport is just outside the county in Leicestershire, while the Robin Hood Airport lies within the historic boundaries of Nottinghamshire but is just inside South Yorkshire. These airports serve the county and several of its neighbours. Together the airports have services to most major European destinations, and the East Midlands Airport now also has services to North America and Caribbean countries. As well as local bus services throughout the county, Nottingham and its suburbs have a tram system, Nottingham Express Transit.

Places of interest

References

  1. ^ Chapman's Map of Nottinghamshire 1774. Nottinghamshire County Council ISBN 0-902751-46-8.
  2. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, 1911. "Nottinghamshire, Geology". Accessed {{subst:#ifexist:2005-12-11|[[2005-12-11|]]|[[Wikipedia:2005-12-11|]]}}.
  3. ^ Met Office, 2000. Annual average rainfall for the United Kingdom.
  4. ^ Met Office, 2000. Annual average temperature for the United Kingdom.
  5. ^ Met Office, 2000. Annual average sunshine for the United Kingdom.
  6. ^ Nottinghamshire County Council, 2005. Since the council was last elected in 2003 there have been two By-Elections in Hucknall (Conservative Win) and Sutton North (Liberal Democrat gain from Labour) Election Results.
  7. ^ Office for National Statistics, 2001. Regional Trends 26 ch:14.7 (PDF). Accessed 2005-12-24.
  8. ^ East Midlands Observatory, 2005. Labour Market Statistics for October 2005. Accessed 2005-12-24.

External links


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Simple English

Nottinghamshire
Geography
Status Ceremonial & (smaller) Non-metropolitan county

OriginHistoric
Region East Midlands
Area
- Total
- Admin. council
- Admin. area
Ranked 27th

Ranked 24th

Admin HQWest Bridgford
ISO 3166-2GB-NTT
ONS code 37
NUTS 3 UKF15/16
Demography
Population
- Total (2005 est.)
- Density
- Admin. council
- Admin. pop.
Ranked 17th
1,041,300

Ranked 10th
762,600
Ethnicity 94.1% White
2.5% S. Asian
1.5% Afro-Carib.
Politics
Nottinghamshire County Council
http://www.nottscc.gov.uk/

ExecutiveLabour
Members of Parliament
  • Graham Allen
  • Kenneth Clarke
  • Vernon Coaker
  • John Heppell
  • Geoff Hoon
  • John Mann
  • Alan Meale
  • Patrick Mercer
  • Nick Palmer
  • Alan Simpson
  • Paddy Tipping
Districts
  1. Rushcliffe
  2. Broxtowe
  3. Ashfield
  4. Gedling
  5. Newark and Sherwood
  6. Mansfield
  7. Bassetlaw
  8. Nottingham (Unitary)

Nottinghamshire (abbreviated Notts) is a county in the East Midlands, which borders South Yorkshire, North Lincolnshire, Lincolnshire, Leicestershire and Derbyshire. The county town is traditionally Nottingham, at 52°57′17″N, 1°09′29″W, though the council is now based in West Bridgford (at a site facing Nottingham over the River Trent).

The districts of Nottinghamshire are Ashfield, Bassetlaw, Broxtowe, Gedling, Mansfield, Newark and Sherwood, and Rushcliffe. The City of Nottingham was administratively part of Nottinghamshire between 1974 and 1998 but is now a unitary authority although it remains part of the county.

.]]

Contents

Culture

Nottinghamshire contains the ancestral home of the poet Lord Byron, Newstead Abbey, which he sold in 1818. It is now owned by Nottingham City Council and open to the public.

Settlements and communications

The traditional county town, and the largest settlement in the historic and ceremonial county boundaries, is Nottingham. The City is now administratively independent, but suburbs including Arnold, Carlton, West Bridgford, Beeston and Stapleford are still within the administrative county and West Bridgford is now home of the county council.

Places of interest

  • Clumber Park
  • Creswell Crags
  • Rufford Country Park
  • Southwell Minster
  • Sherwood Forest
  • Ye Olde Trip To Jerusalem
  • Hawton Church
  • Nottingham Castle
  • Newstead Abbey

Other websites

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