Nuclear engineering: Wikis

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Nuclear engineering is the branch of engineering concerned with the application of the breakdown of atomic nuclei and/or other sub-atomic physics, based on the principles of nuclear physics. It includes, but is not limited to, the interaction and maintenance of nuclear fission systems and components— specifically, nuclear reactors, nuclear power plants, and/or nuclear weapons. The field also includes the study of nuclear fusion, medical and other applications of (generally ionizing) radiation, radiation safety, heat/thermodynamics transport, nuclear fuel and/or other related (e.g., waste disposal) technology, nuclear proliferation, and the effect of radioactive waste or radioactivity in the environment.

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Nuclear fission

Nuclear fission is the disintegration of a susceptible atom's nucleus into two different, smaller elements and other particles including neutrons. Approximately 2.4 neutrons are released per fission, which may cause additional fissions if enough fissionable material is present.

The common types of nuclear fission include thermal fission, which is fission caused by the absorption of a relatively slow thermal neutron with kinetic energy approximately 0.025 eV. Fast fission is fission caused by the absorption of a more energetic neutron, with kinetic energy on the order of MeV. Also, in especially heavy nuclei, spontaneous fission may occur. Nuclei that are fissionable by neutrons typically carry at least a very small chance of spontaneous fission occurring.

Generally, thermal fission is used in commercial reactors, though Fast Breeder Reactors have been developed to harness fast fission.

The United States gets about 20% of its electricity from nuclear power. Nuclear engineers in this field generally work, directly or indirectly, in the nuclear power industry or for national laboratories. Current research in the industry is directed at producing economical, proliferation-resistant reactor designs with passive safety features. Although government labs research the same areas as industry, they also study a myriad of other issues such as nuclear fuels and nuclear fuel cycles, advanced reactor designs, and nuclear weapon design and maintenance. A principal pipeline for trained personnel for US reactor facilities is the Navy Nuclear Power Program.

Nuclear fusion and plasma physics

Research areas in nuclear fusion and plasma physics include high-temperature, plasma dynamics, and radiation-resistant materials. Internationally, research is currently directed at building a prototype tokamak called ITER. The research at ITER will primarily focus on instabilities and diverter design refinement. Researchers in the USA are also building an inertial confinement experiment called the National Ignition Facility or NIF. NIF will be used to refine neutron transport calculations for the US stockpile stewardship initiative.

Nuclear medicine and medical physics

An important field is medical physics, and its subfields nuclear medicine, radiation therapy, health physics, and diagnostic imaging.[1] From x-ray machines to MRI to PET, among many others, medical physics provides most of modern medicine's diagnostic capability along with providing many treatment options.

Nuclear materials and nuclear fuels

Nuclear materials research focuses on two main subject areas, nuclear fuels and irradiation-induced modification of materials. Improvement of nuclear fuels is crucial for obtaining increased efficiency from nuclear reactors. Irradiation effects studies have many purposes, from studying structural changes to reactor components to studying nano-modification of metals using ion-beams or particle accelerators.

Radiation measurements and dosimetry

Nuclear engineers and radiological scientists are interested in the development of more advanced ionizing radiation measurement and detection systems, and using these to improve imaging technologies. This includes detector design, fabrication and analysis, measurements of fundamental atomic and nuclear parameters, and radiation imaging systems, among other things.

Nuclear engineering organizations

List of institutions offering nuclear engineering courses

List of universities in Bulgaria

College Department (external links) Degrees offered
Technical University of Sofia Department of Thermal and Nuclear Power Engineering BS, MS, PhD

List of universities in Canada

University Department (external links) Degrees offered
McMaster University, Hamilton Engineering Physics (Nuclear Engineering Option) B.Eng. Phys., Dipl. Nuc.Tech, M.Eng, M.A.Sc, Ph.D.
University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Oshawa Nuclear Engineering B.Eng, M.Eng, M.A.Sc, Ph. D
École Polytechnique de Montréal, Montréal Institute of Nuclear Engineering M.Eng, M.Sc, PhD
Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering M.Sc, M.A.Sc, M.Eng, PhD

List of colleges in India

College Department (external links) Degrees offered
Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur Nuclear Engineering and Technology M.Tech, PhD

List of universities in Israel

College Department (external links) Degrees offered'

List of colleges in Pakistan

College/University Department (external links) Degrees offered
Pakistan Institute of Engineering & Applied Sciences, Islamabad Department of Nuclear Engineering MS,PhD
Kannup Institute of Nuclear Power Engineering/NED University of Engineering & Technology, Karachi Department of Nuclear Engineering MS,PhD
Chasnupp Center for Nuclear Training (CHASCENT) , Chasma Center for Nuclear Training and Engineering MS,PhD

List of universities in Switzerland

University Department (external links) Degrees offered
EPF Lausanne and ETH Zurich Nuclear Engineering MS, PhD

List of colleges in Turkey

College Department (external links) Degrees offered
Hacettepe University Department of Nuclear Engineering BS,MS,PhD

List of universities in the United Kingdom

College Department (external links) Degrees offered
Lancaster University Nuclear Engineering M.Eng
University of Birmingham Physics and Technology of Nuclear Reactors MSc
Nuclear Technology Education Consortium Nuclear Science and Technology MSc
Nottingham Trent University Physics with Nuclear Technology BSc

List of colleges in the U.S.

College Department (external links) Degrees offered
Air Force Institute of Technology Engineering Physics MS,PhD
Arkansas Tech University Nuclear Engineering MEng,BS
Colorado School of Mines Nuclear Engineering MS,PhD
Cornell University School of Applied and Engineering Physics BS,MEng,PhD
Kansas State University Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering BS,MS,PhD
Georgia Institute of Technology Nuclear and Radiological Engineering BS,MS,PhD
Idaho State University Institute of Nuclear Science and Engineering BS,MS,PhD
Massachusetts Institute of Technology Nuclear Science and Engineering BS,MS,PhD
Missouri University of Science and Technology Nuclear Engineering BS,MS,PhD
North Carolina State University Nuclear Engineering BS,MS,PhD
Ohio State University Nuclear Engineering MS,PhD
Oregon State University Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Health Physics BS,MS,PhD
Pennsylvania State University Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering BS,MS,PhD
Pennsylvania State University Distance Learning Program in Nuclear Engineering M.Eng.
Purdue University Nuclear Engineering BS,MS,PhD
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Mechanical, Aerospace & Nuclear Engineering BS,MS,PhD
South Carolina State University Nuclear Engineering BS
Texas A&M University Nuclear Engineering BS,MS,PhD
University of California, Berkeley Nuclear Engineering BS,MS,PhD
University of Cincinnati Mechanical, Industrial and Nuclear Engineering MS,PhD
University of Florida Nuclear and Radiological Engineering BS,MS,PhD
University of Idaho Nuclear Engineering MS,PhD
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Nuclear, Plasma and Radiological Engineering BS,MS,PhD
University of Maryland, College Park Materials and Nuclear Engineering MS,PhD
University of Massachusetts Lowell Chemical Engineering BS
University of Michigan Ann Arbor Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences BS,MS,PhD
University of Missouri Nuclear Science and Engineering Institute MS,PhD
University of New Mexico Chemical and Nuclear Engineering BS,MS,PHD
University of Nevada, Las Vegas Nuclear Engineering MS
University of Tennessee at Knoxville Nuclear Engineering BS,MS,PhD
University of South Carolina Nuclear Engineering ME,MS,PhD
University of Texas at Austin Nuclear and Radiation Engineering MS,PhD
University of Utah Nuclear Engineering ME, MS, PhD
University of Wisconsin–Madison Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics BS,MS,PhD
University of Washington-Seattle Nuclear Engineering BS,MS,PhD
United States Naval Academy Nuclear Engineering BS
United States Military Academy Nuclear Engineering BS
Virginia Commonwealth University Nuclear Engineering MS

See also

References

  1. ^ http://www.aapm.org/medical_physicist/fields.asp

External links


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