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The Cattenom Nuclear Power Plant in France. France produces 77% of its electricity by nuclear power.[1]

Nuclear power is a method for generating energy by harnessing the unstable nature of the atomic nuclei of the heaviest chemical elements. Nuclear fission occurs when any fissile material, such as uranium-235, an isotope of uranium, is concentrated. This causes a nuclear chain reaction, which releases large amounts of heat, boiling water and producing steam, which can drive a steam turbine.

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Although nuclear power generates many megawatts of power, the risks perceived by spent nuclear fuel that many regard as "waste" along with high initial costs to build such plants often make it a controversial choice. As a result, different nations have very different attitudes towards nuclear power; some, such as France, generate most of their electricity by nuclear power. Others, such as Belgium, are planning to decommission all of their nuclear power stations. Still others are reconsidering their decommissioning and are planning on starting a revived nuclear industry, such as Italy. Many nations have publicly announced their decision to start new nuclear power plant infrastructure development, among these are: Jordan, Malaysia, Vietnam, Indonesia, United Arab Emirates and Nigeria.

In addition to the nations listed below, several other nations, such as Australia, have research reactors, but no plans to diverge into commercial nuclear power. Only the commercial reactors registered with the International Atomic Energy Agency are listed below. Nations are listed first by number of reactors, then by peak power output in megawatts. Regions in italics are added for comparison.

Nuclear power by country

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Map

The status of nuclear power globally:      Operating reactors, building new reactors      Operating reactors, planning new build      No reactors, building new reactors      No reactors, planning new build      Operating reactors, stable      Operating reactors, considering phase-out      Civil nuclear power is illegal      No reactors
Share of nuclear power in electricity generation.
Country Megawatt[1] Percentage[d] Operable[2] Under Construction Planned Proposed Notes[1]
Argentina Argentina 935 6.2% 2 1 1 1
Armenia Armenia 376 43.5%[3] 1 0 0 1 Replacement[4]
Bangladesh Bangladesh 0 0% 0 0 0 2
Belarus Belarus 0 0% 0 0 2 2
Belgium Belgium 5,728 53.8% 7 0 0 0 Phase-out postponed[5]
Brazil Brazil 1,901 3.1% 2 0 1[6] 4
Bulgaria Bulgaria 1,906 32.9% 2 2 0 0
Canada Canada 12,652 14.8% 18 2 4 3
People's Republic of China China (PRC) 8,587 2.2% 11 18 35 90 70 GWe by 2020(~5%)[7]
Croatia Croatia 696 8.0% 1 0 0 1 Half to Slovenia[e]
Czech Republic Czech Republic 3,686 25.0% 6 0 2 4
Egypt Egypt 0 0% 0 0 1 1
Finland Finland 2,696 22.0% 4 1 0 1
France France 63,473 76.2% 59 1 1 1
Germany Germany 20,339 28.3% 17 0 0 0 Phase-out discussed to be postponed[8]
Hungary Hungary 1,826 37.2% 4 0 0 2 Stable
India India 3,779 2.0% 17 6 23 15 41 GW-2020, 470 GW-2050[citation needed]
Indonesia Indonesia 0 0% 0 0 2 4
Iran Iran 0 0% 0 1 2 1 Unknown
Israel Israel 0 0% 0 0 0 1
Italy Italy 0 0% 0 0 0 10
Japan Japan 46,236 24.9% 53 2 13 1
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan 0 0% 0 0 2 2
North Korea Korea, North (DPRK) 0 0% 0 0 1 0
South Korea Korea, South (ROK) 17,716 35.6% 20 6 6 0 0
Lithuania Lithuania 0 0% 0 0 0 2
Mexico Mexico 1,310 4.0% 2 0 0 2
Netherlands Netherlands 485 3.8% 1 0 0 1
Pakistan Pakistan 425 2.4% 2 1 2 2
Poland Poland 0 0% 0 0 0 6 In debate
Romania Romania 1,310 17.5% 2 0 2 1
Russia Russia 21,743 16.9% 31 9 7 37
Slovakia Slovakia 1,688 56.4% 4 2 0 1
Slovenia Slovenia 696 41.7% 1 0 0 1 Half to Croatia[e]
South Africa South Africa 1,842 5.3% 2 0 3 24
Spain Spain 7448 18.3% 8 0 0 0 Stable[9]
Sweden Sweden 9,104 42.0% 10 0 0 0
Switzerland Switzerland 3,237 39.2% 5 0 0 3[10]
Republic of China Taiwan (ROC) 4,916 19.3% 6 2 0 0
Thailand Thailand 0 0% 0 0 2 4
Turkey Turkey 0 0% 0 0 0 0 Tender cancelled[11]
Ukraine Ukraine 13,168 47.4% 15 0 2 (by 2030)[12] [13] 20
United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates 0 0% 0 0 3 11
United Kingdom United Kingdom 11,035 13.5% 19 0 4 6
United States United States 101,119 19.7% 104 1 11 19
Vietnam Vietnam 0 0% 0 0 2 8
Venezuela Venezuela 0 0% 0 0 0 0 Venzuela in debate [14]
World 371,348 15% 434 53 134 298

Notes

  1. a One of the conditions of Lithuania's entry into the European Union was that the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant, Lithuania's only nuclear plant, be closed on safety grounds. As a result, Lithuania has proposed a replacement to be built on the same site.[15]
  2. b North Korea has four incomplete reactors, two frozen in 1994 under the U.S.-North Korea Agreed Framework, and two under construction by KEDO until suspended in 2003. An experimental 5 MWe reactor is operating at the Yongbyon Nuclear Scientific Research Center.
  3. c  The nearly completed Żarnowiec Nuclear Power Plant was abandoned in the early 1990s. There is wide political consensus that Poland needs at least 2 nuclear power plants in the north of Poland but no binding decisions have been made so far.
  4. d Energy percentage produced.
  5. e Krško Nuclear Power Plant, although it is located in Slovenia, 50% is owned by Slovenia and 50% Croatia, so half of electricity goes in Croatia

References

  1. ^ a b c "World Nuclear Power Reactors 2007-08 and Uranium Requirements". World Nuclear Association. 2008-10-01. http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/reactors.html. Retrieved 2008-10-25. 
  2. ^ Nuclear Power Plant Information, International Atomic Energy Agency, URL accessed 12 June 2006
  3. ^ "Nuclear Power Reactors and Uranium Requirements:". World-nuclear.org. http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/reactors.htm. Retrieved 2008-10-15. 
  4. ^ "USA supports new nuclear build in Armenia". World Nuclear News. 2007-11-23. http://www.world-nuclear-news.org/newNuclear/USA_supports_new_nuclear_build_in_Armenia-231107.shtml?jmid=1165903138. Retrieved 2007-11-25. 
  5. ^ "Belgium postpones nuclear phase-out". World Nuclear News. 2009-09-13. http://www.world-nuclear-news.org/NP-Belgium_postpones_nuclear_phaseout-1310097.html. Retrieved 2009-12-03. 
  6. ^ Agência Estado (12-09-2008). "Lobão diz que país fará uma usina nuclear por ano em 50 anos" (in Portuguese). G1.globo.com. http://g1.globo.com/Noticias/Economia_Negocios/0,,MUL758157-9356,00-LOBAO+DIZ+QUE+PAIS+FARA+UMA+USINA+NUCLEAR+POR+ANO+EM+ANOS.html. Retrieved 2008-10-15. 
  7. ^ "Nuclear Power in China". World Nuclear Association. September 2008. http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf63.html. Retrieved 2008-09-22. 
  8. ^ "Next German government agrees to keep nuclear power plants". Deutsche Welle. 2009-10-15. http://www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,,4793966,00.html. Retrieved 2009-12-03. 
  9. ^ Nuclear power in Spain, World Nuclear Association, URL accessed 13 June 2006
  10. ^ Atel submits application for outline approval of new nuclear power plant Niederamt in Solothurn; Axpo and BKW submit framework permit applications for replacement nuclear power plants in Beznau and Mühleberg
  11. ^ "Turkey abandons nuclear bid". World Nuclear News. 2009-12-09. http://www.world-nuclear-news.org/NN_Turkey_abandons_nuclear_bid_0912091.html. Retrieved 2009-12-11. 
  12. ^ "BBC NEWS | Politics | New nuclear plants get go-ahead". News.bbc.co.uk. Last Updated:. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/7179579.stm. Retrieved 2008-10-15. 
  13. ^ "Nuclear Power in Ukraine". World Nuclear Association. August 2008. http://world-nuclear.org/info/inf46.html. Retrieved 2008-09-22. 
  14. ^ "Venezuela set to develop nuclear power=uk.reuter.com". Last Updated:. http://uk.reuters.com/article/idUKTRE48R3YJ20080928. Retrieved 2009-9-24. 
  15. ^ Baltic States Plan Nuclear Expansion, Giedrius Blagnys, Inter Press Service, May 26, 2006

See also

External links


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