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Nuclearia thermophila
Scientific classification
Domain: Eukaryota
(unranked): Opisthokonts
Order: Nucleariida

The nucleariids are a group of amoebae[1] with filose pseudopods, known mostly from soils and freshwater. They are distinguished from the similar vampyrellids mainly by having mitochondria with discoid cristae.











The great kingdoms and their stem groups.[2]

Nucleariids are opisthokonts,[3] the group which includes animals, fungi and several smaller groups. Several studies place the nucleariids as a sister group to the fungi.[4][5]


Nucleariids are usually small, up to about 50 μm in size.

According to a 2009 paper, Fonticula, a cellular slime mold, is an opisthokont and more closely related to Nuclearia than to fungi.[6]


  1. ^ Zettler; Nerad, TA; O'Kelly, CJ; Sogin, ML (2001). "The nucleariid amoebae: more protists at the animal-fungal boundary". The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology 48 (3): 293–7. doi:10.1111/j.1550-7408.2001.tb00317.x. PMID 11411837.   edit
  2. ^ Phylogeny based on:
    • Eichinger, L.; Pachebat, J.A.; Glöckner, G.; Rajandream, M.A.; Sucgang, R.; Berriman, M.; Song, J.; Olsen, R.; Szafranski, K.; Xu, Q.; Others, (2005). "The genome of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum". Nature 435 (7038): 43-57. doi:10.1038/nature03481.  
    • Steenkamp, E.T.; Wright, J.; Baldauf, S.L. (2006). "The Protistan Origins of Animals and Fungi". Molecular Biology and Evolution 23 (1): 93-106. doi:10.1093/molbev/msj011.  
  3. ^ a b Yoshida M, Nakayama T, Inouye I (January 2009). "Nuclearia thermophila sp. nov. (Nucleariidae), a new nucleariid species isolated from Yunoko Lake in Nikko (Japan)". European journal of protistology 45 (2): 147–155. doi:10.1016/j.ejop.2008.09.004. PMID 19157810.  
  4. ^ Steenkamp, E.T.; Wright, J.; Baldauf, S.L. (2006). "The Protistan Origins of Animals and Fungi". Molecular Biology and Evolution 23 (1): 93–106. doi:10.1093/molbev/msj011. PMID 16151185.  
  5. ^ Shalchian-Tabrizi K, Minge MA, Espelund M, et al (2008), "Multigene phylogeny of choanozoa and the origin of animals", PLoS ONE 3 (5): e2098, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0002098, PMID 18461162, PMC 2346548,  
  6. ^ Matthew W. Brown, Frederick W. Spiegel and Jeffrey D. Silberman (2009), "Phylogeny of the "Forgotten" Cellular Slime Mold, Fonticula alba, Reveals a Key Evolutionary Branch within Opisthokonta", Molecular Biology and Evolution 26 (12): 2699–2709, doi:10.1093/molbev/msp185  


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