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Nucleotides are molecules that, when joined together, make up the structural units of RNA and DNA. In addition, nucleotides play central roles in metabolism. In that capacity, they serve as sources of chemical energy (adenosine triphosphate and guanosine triphosphate), participate in cellular signaling (cyclic guanosine monophosphate and cyclic adenosine monophosphate), and are incorporated into important cofactors of enzymatic reactions (coenzyme A, flavin adenine dinucleotide, flavin mononucleotide, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate).[1]

Figure 1: Structural elements of the most common nucleotides

Contents

Nucleotide structure

Figure 2: Ribose structure indicating numbering of carbon atoms

A nucleotide is composed of a nucleobase (nitrogenous base), a five-carbon sugar (either ribose or 2'-deoxyribose), and one to three phosphate groups. Together, the nucleobase and sugar comprise a nucleoside. The phosphate groups form bonds with either the 2, 3, or 5-carbon of the sugar, with the 5-carbon site most common. Cyclic nucleotides form when the phosphate group is bound to two of the sugar's hydroxyl groups.[1] Ribonucleotides are nucleotides where the sugar is ribose, and deoxyribonucleotides contain the sugar deoxyribose. Nucleotides can contain either a purine or pyrimidine base.

Nucleic acids are polymeric macromolecules made from nucleotide monomers. In DNA, the purine bases are adenine and guanine, while the pyrimidines are thymine and cytosine. RNA uses uracil in place of thymine.

Synthesis

Nucleotides can be synthesized by a variety of means both in vitro and in vivo. In vivo, nucleotides can be synthesised de novo or recycled through salvage pathways.[2] Nucleotides undergo breakdown such that useful parts can be reused in synthesis reactions to create new nucleotides. In vitro, protecting groups may be used during laboratory production of nucleotides. A purified nucleoside is protected to create a phosphoramidite, which can then be used to obtain analogues not found in nature and/or to synthesize an oligonucleotide.

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Pyrimidine ribonucleotides

The synthesis of UMP.
The color scheme is as follows: enzymes, coenzymes, substrate names, inorganic molecules

Pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis starts with the formation of carbamoyl phosphate from glutamine and CO2. The cyclisation reaction between carbamoyl phosphate reacts with aspartate yielding orotate in subsequent steps. Orotate reacts with 5-phosphoribosyl α-diphosphate (PRPP) yielding orotidine monophosphate (OMP) which is decarboxylated to form uridine monophosphate (UMP). It is from UMP that other pyrimidine nucleotides are derived. UMP is phosphorylated to uridine triphosphate (UTP) via two sequential reactions with ATP. Cytidine monophosphate (CMP) is derived from conversion of UTP to cytidine triphosphate (CTP) with subsequent loss of two phosphates.[3] [4]

Purine ribonucleotides

The atoms which are used to build the purine nucleotides come from a variety of sources:

Nucleotides syn3.png The biosynthetic origins of purine ring atoms

N1 arises from the amine group of Asp
C2 and C8 originate from formate
N3 and N9 are contributed by the amide group of Gln
C4, C5 and N7 are derived from Gly
C6 comes from HCO3- (CO2)
The synthesis of IMP. The color scheme is as follows: enzymes, coenzymes, substrate names, metal ions, inorganic molecules

The de novo synthesis of purine nucleotides by which these precursors are incorporated into the purine ring, proceeds by a 10 step pathway to the branch point intermediate IMP, the nucleotide of the base hypoxanthine. AMP and GMP are subsequently synthesized from this intermediate via separate, two step each, pathways. Thus purine moieties are initially formed as part of the ribonucleotides rather than as free bases.

Six enzymes take part in IMP synthesis. Three of them are multifunctional:

  • GART (reactions 2, 3, and 5)
  • PAICS (reactions 6, and 7)
  • ATIC (reactions 9, and 10)

Reaction 1. The pathway starts with the formation of PRPP. PRPS1 is the enzyme that activates R5P, which is primarily formed by the pentose phosphate pathway, to PRPP by reacting it with ATP. The reaction is unusual in that a pyrophosphoryl group is directly transferred from ATP to C1 of R5P and that the product has the α configuration about C1. This reaction is also shared with the pathways for the synthesis of the pyrimidine nucleotides, Trp, and His. As a result of being on (a) such (a) major metabolic crossroad and the use of energy, this reaction is highly regulated.

Reaction 2. In the first reaction unique to purine nucleotide biosynthesis, PPAT catalyzes the displacement of PRPP's pyrophosphate group (PPi) by Gln's amide nitrogen. The reaction occurs with the inversion of configuration about ribose C1, thereby forming β-5-phosphorybosylamine (5-PRA) and establishing the anomeric form of the future nucleotide. This reaction which is driven to completion by the subsequent hydrolysis of the released PPi, is the pathway's flux generating step and is therefore regulated too.

Length unit

Nucleotide (abbreviated nt) is a common length unit for single-stranded RNA, similar to how base pair is a length unit for double-stranded DNA.

References

  1. ^ a b Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, Raff M, Roberts K & Wlater P (2002). Molecular Biology of the Cell (4th ed.). Garland Science. ISBN 0-8153-3218-1. pp. 120-121.
  2. ^ Zaharevitz, DW; Anerson, LW; Manlinowski, NM; Hyman, R; Strong, JM; Cysyk, RL.. Contribution of de-novo and salvage synthesis to the uracil nucleotide pool in mouse tissues and tumors in vivo. 
  3. ^ Jones, ME (1980). "Pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis in animals: Genes, enzymes, and regulation of UMP biosynthesis". Ann. Rev. Biochem 49: 253–79. doi:10.1146/annurev.bi.49.070180.001345. PMID 6105839. 
  4. ^ McMurry, JE; Begley, TP (2005). The organic chemistry of biological pathways. Roberts & Company. ISBN 9780974707716. 

See also

External links


Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Familypedia

A nucleotide is a chemical compound that consists of 3 portions: a heterocyclic base, a sugar, and one or more phosphate groups. In the most common nucleotides the base is a derivative of purine or pyrimidine, and the sugar is the pentose (five-carbon sugar) deoxyribose or ribose. Nucleotides are the monomers of nucleic acids, with three or more bonding together in order to form a nucleic acid.

Nucleotides are the structural units of RNA, DNA, and several cofactors - CoA, flavin adenine dinucleotide, flavin mononucleotide, adenosine triphosphate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. In the cell they have important roles in metabolism and signaling.

The structure elements of the most common nucleotides

Contents

Nucleotides

Chemical structure of adenosine monophosphate
Adenosine monophosphate
AMP
Chemical structure of adenosine diphosphate
Adenosine diphosphate
ADP
Chemical structure of adenosine triphosphate
Adenosine triphosphate
ATP
Chemical structure of guanosine monophosphate
Guanosine monophosphate
GMP
Chemical structure of guanosine diphosphate
Guanosine diphosphate
GDP
Chemical structure of guanosine triphosphate
Guanosine triphosphate
GTP
Chemical structure of thymidine monophosphate
Thymidine monophosphate
TMP
Chemical structure of thymidine diphosphate
Thymidine diphosphate
TDP
Chemical structure of thymidine triphosphate
Thymidine triphosphate
TTP
Chemical structure of uridine monophosphate
Uridine monophosphate
UMP
Chemical structure of uridine diphosphate
Uridine diphosphate
UDP
Chemical structure of uridine triphosphate
Uridine triphosphate
UTP
Chemical structure of cytidine monophosphate
Cytidine monophosphate
CMP
Chemical structure of cytidine diphosphate
Cytidine diphosphate
CDP
Chemical structure of cytidine triphosphate
Cytidine triphosphate
CTP

Deoxynucleotides

Chemical structure of deoxyadenosine monophosphate
Deoxyadenosine monophosphate
dAMP
Chemical structure of deoxyadenosine diphosphate
Deoxyadenosine diphosphate
dADP
Chemical structure of deoxyadenosine triphosphate
Deoxyadenosine triphosphate
dATP
Chemical structure of deoxyguanosine monophosphate
Deoxyguanosine monophosphate
dGMP
Chemical structure of deoxyguanosine diphosphate
Deoxyguanosine diphosphate
dGDP
Chemical structure of deoxyguanosine triphosphate
Deoxyguanosine triphosphate
dGTP
Chemical structure of thymidine monophosphate
thymidine monophosphate
TMP
Chemical structure of thymidine diphosphate
thymidine diphosphate
TDP
Chemical structure of thymidine triphosphate
thymidine triphosphate
TTP
Chemical structure of deoxyuridine monophosphate
Deoxyuridine monophosphate
dUMP
Chemical structure of deoxyuridine diphosphate
Deoxyuridine diphosphate
dUDP
Chemical structure of deoxyuridine triphosphate
Deoxyuridine triphosphate
dUTP
Chemical structure of deoxycytidine monophosphate
Deoxycytidine monophosphate
dCMP
Chemical structure of deoxycytidine diphosphate
Deoxycytidine diphosphate
dCDP
Chemical structure of deoxycytidine triphosphate
Deoxycytidine triphosphate
dCTP

NOTE '''' If in place of ribose , the sugar deoxyribose is present the prefix `deoxy ` may be added before the name of the nucleoside in all cases except thymidine

Synthesis

Salvage synthesis refers to the reuse of parts of nucleotides in resynthesizing new nucleotides. Salvage synthesis requires both breakdown and synthesis reactions in order to exchange the useful parts.

Natural

Purine ribonucleotides

By using a variety of isotopically labeled compounds it was demonstrated that the sources of the atoms in purines are as follows:

Image:Nucleotides syn3.png The biosynthetic origins of purine ring atoms

N1 arises from the amine group of Asp
C2 and C8 originate from formate
N3 and N9 are contributed by the amide group of Gln
C4, C5 and N7 are derived from Gly
C6 comes from HCO3- (CO2)
The synthesis of IMP.
The color scheme is as follows: enzymes, coenzymes, substrate names, metal ions, inorganic molecules

The de novo synthesis of purine nucleotides by which these precursors are incorporated into the purine ring, proceeds by a 10 step pathway to the branch point intermediate IMP, the nucleotide of the base hypoxanthine. AMP and GMP are subsequently synthesized from this intermediate via separate, two step each, pathways. Thus purine moieties are initially formed as part of the ribonucleotides rather than as free bases.

Six enzymes take part in IMP synthesis. Three of them are multifunctional:

  • GART (reactions 2, 3, and 5)
  • PAICS (reactions 6, and 7)
  • ATIC (reactions 9, and 10)

Reaction 1. The pathway starts with the formation of PRPP. PRPS1 is the enzyme that activates R5P, which is primarily formed by the pentose phosphate pathway, to PRPP by reacting it with ATP. The reaction is unusual in that a pyrophosphoryl group is directly transferred from ATP to C1 of R5P and that the product has the α configuration about C1. This reaction is also shared with the pathways for the synthesis of the pyrimidine nucleotides, Trp, and His. As a result of being on (a) such (a) major metabolic crossroad and the use of energy, this reaction is highly regulated.

Reaction 2. In the first reaction unique to purine nucleotide biosynthesis, PPAT catalyzes the displacement of PRPP's pyrophosphate group (PPi) by Gln's amide nitrogen. The reaction occurs with the inversion of configuration about ribose C1, thereby forming β-5-phosphorybosylamine (5-PRA) and establishing the anomeric form of the future nucleotide. This reaction which is driven to completion by the subsequent hydrolysis of the released PPi, is the pathway's flux generating step and is therefore regulated too.

Reaction 3.

Pyrimidine ribonucleotides

The synthesis of UMP.
The color scheme is as follows: enzymes, coenzymes, substrate names, inorganic molecules

Protection Chemistry

Nucleic acids can be synthetised in the lab using protecting groups, typically this is acchived by protecting a purified nucleoside or nucleobase, a protected base is called a phosphoramidite. these can be used to obtain analogues not present in nature and/or to create an oligonulceotide.

Nucleotide Frequencies

A connection has been proposed between the Fibonacci numbers and Chargaff's second rule concerning the proportions of nucleotides in the human genome.[1]

References

  1. ^ Yamagishi M. E. B. and Shimabukuro A. I. (2007) Nucleotide Frequencies in Human Genome and Fibonacci Numbers. Bulletin of Mathematical Biology (http://www.springerlink.com/content/p140352473151957/?p=d5b18a2dfee949858e2062449e9ccfad&pi=0)

See also

External links


Template:Biochemical families
Nucleobases: Purine (Adenine, Guanine) | Pyrimidine (Uracil, Thymine, Cytosine)
Nucleosides: Adenosine/Deoxyadenosine | Guanosine/Deoxyguanosine | Uridine | Thymidine | Cytidine/Deoxycytidine
Nucleotides: monophosphates (AMP, UMP, GMP, CMP) | diphosphates (ADP, UDP, GDP, CDP) | triphosphates (ATP, UTP, GTP, CTP) | cyclic (cAMP, cGMP, cADPR)
Deoxynucleotides: monophosphates (dAMP, TMP, dGMP, dCMP) | diphosphates (dADP, TDP, dGDP, dCDP) | triphosphates (dATP, TTP, dGTP, dCTP)
Ribonucleic acids: RNA | mRNA | piRNA | tRNA | rRNA | ncRNA | gRNA | shRNA | siRNA | snRNA | miRNA | snoRNA
Deoxyribonucleic acids: DNA | mtDNA | cDNA | plasmid | Cosmid | BAC | YAC | HAC
Analogues of nucleic acids: GNA | PNA | TNA | Morpholino | LNA
This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia. The original content was at Nucleotide. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License.
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This article uses material from the "Nucleotide" article on the Genealogy wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

Simple English

A nucleotide is a chemical compound that has an atomic ring, a sugar, information from a DNA molecule, and one or more phosphate groups. It is found in DNA and RNA.


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