Nuevo León: Wikis

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Nuevo León
Estado Libre y Soberano
de Nuevo León
—  State  —

Flag

Coat of arms
Location within Mexico
Coordinates: 25°34′00″N 99°58′14″W / 25.5666667°N 99.97056°W / 25.5666667; -99.97056Coordinates: 25°34′00″N 99°58′14″W / 25.5666667°N 99.97056°W / 25.5666667; -99.97056
Country  Mexico
Capital Monterrey
Municipalities 51
Largest City Monterrey
Admission May 7, 1824[1]
Order 15th
Government
 - Governor Rodrigo Medina de la Cruz(PRI Party (Mexico).svg PRI)
 - Federal Deputies PAN: 7
PRI: 5
 - Federal Senators PAN :2
PRI: 1
Area
Ranked 13th
 - Total 64,210 km2 (24,791.6 sq mi)
Population (2005)
 - Total 4,199,292 (Ranked 8th)
Time zone CST (UTC-6)
 - Summer (DST) CDT (UTC-5)
HDI (2004) 0.8613 - high
Ranked 2nd
ISO 3166-2 MX-NLE
Postal abbr. N.L.
Website Nuevo León State Government

Nuevo León (Spanish for "New León", after the former kingdom in Spain) is a state located in northeastern Mexico. It borders the states of Tamaulipas to the north and east and San Luis Potosí to the south, and Coahuila to the west. To the north, Nuevo León accounts for a 15 kilometer (9 mi) stretch of the U.S.-Mexico border adjacent to the U.S. state of Texas.

The capital of Nuevo León is Monterrey, other important cities include Guadalupe, Santa Catarina and San Nicolas de los Garza.

Contents

History

It was originally founded by Alberto del Canto, although frequent raids by Chichimecas, the natives of the north, prevented the establishment of almost any permanent settlements. Subsequent to the failure of del Canto to populate Nuevo León, Luis Carvajal y de la Cueva, at the head of Portuguese and Spanish settlers, requested permission from the Spanish King to attempt to repopulate the area which would be called the New Kingdom of León, it eventually became (along with the provinces of Coahuila, Nuevo Santander and Texas) one of the Eastern Internal Provinces in Northern New Spain.[2][3]

In the 19th century, Nuevo León was in a growth spurt and the bargain land deals attracted immigrants of German, Slavic, French, Italian, Jewish and Anglo-American origin. The capital of Nuevo León is Monterrey, the third largest city in Mexico with over four million residents. Monterrey is a modern and affluent city, and Nuevo León has long been one of Mexico's most industrialized states.

Geography

La Huasteca State Park Mountains, are a typical landscape of Nuevo León

Nuevo León has an extreme climate, and there is very little rainfall throughout the year. The territory covers 64,924 square kilometers (25,067.3 sq mi), and can be divided into three regions: a hot, dry region in the north, a temperate region in the mountains, and a semi-arid region in the south. The Sierra Madre Oriental mountain range affects in an important way the lay of the land forming the Galeana and Doctor Arroyo plateaus, the Iguana, Picachos, Papagayos, and Santa Clara mountain ranges, and the Pilón, Ascensión, and Río Blanco valleys. As for hydrography, the San Juan River supplies the El Cuchillo dam, which provides water for Monterrey and the metropolitan area. There are also the Cerro Prieto, La Boca, Vaquerías, Nogalitos, and Agualeguas dams. Laguna de Labradores is a major lake in Nuevo León, and Pozo del Gavilán is a natural well. Both are located in the Galeana municipality. The flora of the region includes brush and pastures in the low regions, and pine and oak trees in the mountains. The fauna includes black bears, mountain lions, javelinas, praire dogs, foxes, coyotes, and white-tailed deer, along with smaller species.

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Climate

Nuevo León has many biomes, which is why it has different climates. Some areas in the mountains are very cold in winter and temperate in summer. Outside of Monterrey and in the northern part of the state the climate is arid as a result of the proximity to the Chihuahuan desert. Extreme high temperatures of 47 °C or more occur on the desert areas while winters are short and mild. In Monterrey the climate is semi-arid with extreme hot summers and mild winters. There is very little rainfall throughout the year, usually about 500 mm or less.

Demography

Church, Montemorelos, Nuevo León

As of 2005, Nuevo Leon's population was about 4.1 million. Almost 80% of the population resides in the metropolitan area of Monterrey.

Life expectancy is high, reaching 73 years for men and no less than 79 years of age for women. On the other hand, 94% of the total population occupy urban areas, one million of which are home-owners, and 90% of which enjoy running water, sewer systems and electric power.

Following the nation's tendency, a majority declares to belong to Catholicism.

Major communities

Education

The high quality of life that prevails across the state is reflected on statistical rates such as education, as the entity reports an almost perfect record for finished secondary education, and 13 in 100 inhabitants earn a professional degree. In the same line, illiteracy rates for the state are within the lowest in the nation at 2,8%, just behind the Distrito Federal which still leads the country in this regard.

Institutions of higher education include:

Economy

Highly industralized, Nuevo León possesses a standard of living similar to that of countries such as Croatia, Slovakia or Poland. In 2007, the per capita GDP of the state was similar to that of the Asian Tiger of South Korea and even higher than that of some European Union states such as Slovakia and Hungary. At $26,658, it was the highest GDP per capita (PPP) of any Mexican state (not counting the Federal District), and was therefore higher than the Mexican national average (2007 GDP per capita (PPP) national average was $14,119).[4][5]

One of its municipalities, San Pedro Garza García, has the highest income per capita in Mexico. It is one of the largest cities in the nation and home of powerful conglomerates, such as Cemex (third largest cement company in the world, after Lafarge and Holcim), Bimbo (bakery and pastry), Maseca (food and grains), Banorte (the only high-street bank in Mexico wholly owned by Mexicans), ALFA (Sigma, Alestra, Nemak, Alpek and Hylsa (recently bought by Ternium), i-service (HelpDesk), Vitro SA (glass), FEMSA (Coca-Cola in Latin America), and Cervecería Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma (brewers of Sol, Tecate, XX, Bohemia, Indio and Nochebuena).

Nuevo Leon also boasts a rich agricultural core, called the "orange belt", which comprises the municipalities of Allende, Montemorelos, Hualahuises, General Teran and Linares. Small but productive investments have been transforming traditional harvests (mainly based on orange and cereals) into agroindustrial developments that are producing increasing revenues for the local economy.

In contrast with the relative wealth of industrial Nuevo Leon and the orange belt, the Southern part of the state (municipalities of Galeana, Aramberri, Zaragoza, Doctor Arroyo and Mier y Noriega) remains rural and less productive. Most of The South of the state is at the mercy of a very dry weather that represents a major hurdle for agriculture and livestock.

As of 2007, Nuevo Leon’s economy represents 11.4% of Mexico’s total gross domestic product or 105 billion USD.[6] Nuevo Leon's economy has a strong focus on export oriented manufacturing (i.e. maquiladora / INMEX). As of 2005, 431,551 people are employed in the manufacturing sector.[7] Foreign direct investment in Nuevo Leon was 1,213.1 million USD for 2005.[citation needed] In recent years, the state government has been making efforts in attracting significant investments in aeronautics, biotechnology, mechatronics, information and communication technologies fields with the creation of the Research and Technology Innovation Park PIIT (Parque de Investigación e Innovación Tecnológica), a technology park oriented in the development, innovation and research of sciences. The project is one of the key strategies within the Monterrey, international City of Knowledge program. The park is located in the municipality of Apodaca, part of Greater Monterrey at the 10 km of the highway to Monterrey’s International Airport. It consists of a total surface area of 70 Ha (172 acres), half of it already committed to R&D centers. The other 35 Ha (86 acres) are available for research and development centers, and for businesses that meet the Park’s objectives. [8][9]

Government

See main article Politics and government of Nuevo León.

Official name: Estado Libre y Soberano de Nuevo León (Free and Sovereign State of Nuevo León). Official motto: Latin: Semper Ascendens (Always Ascending).

Type of government: Republican and representative according to 30th article of the local constitution.

Nuevo León
Gubernatorial Election 2003
PRI/PVEM 24,567
PAN 491,973
PT 72,620
PRD 14,934
NL Collections 851,250

See also: List of political parties in Mexico

Government Palace (State House) of Nuevo León

Executive: In 6 July 2003 gubernatorial election, Alianza Ciudadana – an electoral alliance between the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) and the Green Ecological Party of Mexico (PVEM) – regained control of the state from President Fox's party National Action Party (PAN). The new governor, Natividad González Parás of the PRI, was sworn in on 4 October 2003 for a period of six years.

Cabinet: Chosen directly by the Governor except for the General Comptroller and the State General Attorney, which are elected by Congress from a list of names provided by the Governor.

Legislative: The State has a unicameral chamber. The LXXI Congress of Nuevo León is composed of 42 deputies, 26 of them chosen by first-past-the-post electoral districts and 16 of them by proportional representation on a party-list basis. The parties represented are the PRI with 15 deputies, the PAN with 22 deputies, the Partido del Trabajo (PT) with two deputies, the Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD) with one, and the New Alliance party (PANAL) with two deputies.

Judiciary: Judicial power rests in the Superior Court of Justice of Nuevo León, led by Minister Gustavo Adolfo Guerrero Gutiérrez.

Political parties: Official recognition is given by the State Electoral Commission to those parties getting more than 1.5% of the votes in the last election (Art.40 of the State Electoral Law), which are the ones represented in Congress.

Municipalities

Nuevo León is divided into 51 municipalities (municipios). See municipalities of Nuevo León.

See also

Sources

References

  1. ^ "La diputación provincial y el federalismo mexicano" (in Spanish). http://books.google.com.mx/books?id=i_GK_-6deKIC&pg=PA227&lpg=PA227&dq=22+De+Mayo+De+1824+durango&source=bl&ots=eyvDzsrMIz&sig=zYxzmtG7gTQgGV-WNDfHgqcG_kU&hl=es&ei=FtAxS9joN56ltgf-_ojFDg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CAgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=22%20De%20Mayo%20De%201824%20durango&f=false. 
  2. ^ Gerhard, Peter. The North Frontier of New Spain. Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1982.
  3. ^ En los albores de la independencia: Las Provincias Internas de Oriente durante la insurrección de don Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, 1810-1811. by Isidro Vizcaya Canales
  4. ^ INEGI, Población total por entidad federativa según sexo, 2000 y 2005 and PIB estatal
  5. ^ http://sg.nl.gob.mx/DataNL/files%5CDNL00000431.pdf
  6. ^ Industrial Costs in Mexico - A Guide for Foreign Investors 2007. Mexico City: Bancomext. 2007. pp. 96. 
  7. ^ Industrial Costs in Mexico - A Guide for Foreign Investors 2007. Mexico City: Bancomext. 2007. pp. 92. 
  8. ^ "Research and Technology Innovation Park PIIT". http://www.piit.com.mx/?p=&i=e. 
  9. ^ "Monterrey, city of knowledge". http://www.mtycic.org/. 

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Nuevo León is a state in Northern Mexico.

Palacio de Gobierno (Nuevo Leon State House), now used as a state museum.
Palacio de Gobierno (Nuevo Leon State House), now used as a state museum.
  • Monterrey - Mexico's third-biggest city and capital of Nuevo Leon. (Includes suburban municipalities, such as San Pedro, Apodaca, Garza Garcia, Guadalupe, and Santa Catarina).
  • Montemorelos - Small city in the heart of Nuevo León's orange-growing belt.
  • Linares - City between two rivers, with some interesting colonial buildings. Good place to buy carne seca and glorias.
  • Cumbres de Monterrey - Mexico's largest national park. Rugged canyons and gorges in the Sierra Madre Orientals.
  • Barranca de Potrillos - Is home to one of the unique archaeological sites in Northeast Mexico. These are numerous stone carvings, isolated from any populated area, being deep within the semidesertic area.
  • Matacanes - If you are fanatic of extreme sports, this a place to be. Is famous for its abundant rivers, waterfalls and underground caves. Is adviced to get proper equipment.

Understand

Nuevo León is bound by Coahuila to the west, Tamaulipas to the east and north, and San Luis Potosí to the south. It also shares a short 15 kilometer border with the US state of Texas.

Talk

Spanish is the official language. English is widely taught as a second language. People will speak it in various levels, but within the Metropolitan area of Monterrey is were most likely fluent speakers will be found.

Get in

Car, bus, plane, and 18-wheeler are the most common ways to get to Nuevo Leon.

  • By plane: fly into Monterrey (MTY)
  • By car: Nuevo Leon has one checkpoint on the U.S./Mexico border, it is the Colombia Bridge just west of Laredo. Highway 85 south of Nuevo Laredo enters the state of Nuevo Leon about 20 miles south of the border.
  • By bus: Most people in the region use buses heavily. Monterrey is the major hub.

Get around

In most of the state, the pickup truck or Chevy Suburban is the preferred family vehicle. Cheap buses go to every point in the state populated by more than 2 people and a goat.

  • Grutas de Garcia - Lying just 30 minutes out of Monterrey is a delightful underground world. The caverns are reached by riding a cable car to the cave entrance where guides lead visitors on a mile-long trek through the cave system. From Monterrey, take Mexico route 40 toward Saltillo.
  • Huasteca Canyon, 20 miles west of Monterrey.
  • Horsetail Falls (sp:Cascada Cola de Caballo) - Three mossy waterfalls.

Eat

Some Nuevoleonense specialties include:

  • Arracheras - Flank steak served with tortillas and carmelized onions , similar to what is called fajitas north of the border.
  • Cabrito - Young goat prepared a number of different ways-- wood roasted (a la lena), cooked in beer (en cerveza), or in ancho chili sauce (en chile ancho).
  • Chicharrones de Móntemorelos - Pork cracklings prepared in the unique style of the city of Montemorelos.
  • Lengua de res en pipián - Beef tongue cooked in a sauce made of pumpkin seeds.
  • Leche quemada - A carmelized milk candy for which the region is famous. Look for glorias de Linares, a pecan flavored version from Linares.
  • Machacado con huevos - Dried, shredded beef with eggs.
  • Sopa de col y queso - Cheese cabbage soup.
  • Local-made beer from Cuauhtemoc Brewery, makers of Sol, Dos Equis, and Bohemia.

Stay safe

The state police and the federales often set up checkpoints on highways. They are looking for drug traffickers, but they will occasionally ask to see your tourist permits or vehicle import permits. They are usually efficient and quick, and chances are good that if you look like tourists, you'll simply be waved on.

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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Map of Mexico highlighting Nuevo León

Etymology

Spanish, meaning New León, after the Kingdom of León in Spain.

Proper noun

Singular
Nuevo León

Plural
-

Nuevo León

  1. A state of Mexico.

Translations

See also


Spanish

Etymology

Meaning New León, after the Kingdom of León in Spain.

Proper noun

Nuevo León m.

  1. A state of Mexico.

Related terms

See also

  • Wikipedia-logo.png Nuevo León on the Spanish Wikipedia.es.Wikipedia

Simple English

Nuevo Leon is a state in the northeast of Mexico and south of Texas. It is known as the financial center of the country. It has a wide range of tourist attractions, such as museums, thematic parks, natural parks, grottos, as well as archaeological sites, gastronomy, and folklore. Its capital, Monterrey, the city of the mountains, is host venue of important international events, congresses, fairs, conventions and exhibitions.


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