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108 is the natural number following 107 and preceding 109.

108
Cardinal one hundred [and] eight
Ordinal 108th
(one hundred [and] eighth)
Numeral system 108
Factorization 2^2 \cdot 3^3
Divisors 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 12, 18, 27, 36, 54, 108
Roman numeral CVIII
Binary 11011002
Octal 1548
Duodecimal 9012
Hexadecimal 6C16

Contents

In mathematics

One hundred [and] eight (or nine dozen) is an abundant number and a semiperfect number. It is a tetranacci number.

It is the hyperfactorial of 3 since it is of the form 1^1 \cdot 2^2 \cdot 3^3.

108 is a number that is divisible by the value of its φ function, which is 36. 108 is also divisible by the total number of its divisors (12), hence it is a refactorable number.

In Euclidean space, the interior angles of a regular pentagon measure 108 degrees each.

There are 108 free polyominoes of order 7.

In base 10, it is a Harshad number and a self number.

The equation 2\sin\left(\frac{108}{2}\right) = \phi results in the (Golden ratio)

Religion and the arts

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In Eastern religions & traditions

Japa Mala, or Japa beads, made from Tulasi wood. Comprising of 108 beads in total + the head bead.
  • Sacred within Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism and connected yoga and dharma based practices.
  • A mala usually has beads for 108 repetitions of a mantra.
  • Hindu deities have 108 names. Recital of these names, often accompanied by counting of 108-beaded Mala, is considered sacred and often done during religious ceremonies. The recital is called namajapa.
  • It is described in the Bhagavata Purana that Krishna dances with 108 'Gopis' (cow-herd girls) in His Vrindavan pastimes, and later marries 16,108 wives in His city of Dwarka. Krishna devotees thus hold 108 as a number of great significance.
  • Shiva Nataraja dances his cosmic dance in 108 poses.
  • The total of all digits of 108 (1+0+8) is 9, which in Hinduism is said to represent the 9 tattvas. If you divide 108 by 2 or multiply by 2 the total of all digits again equals 9, however this is true for any number divisible by 18.
  • In Hindu Astrology there are 12 Rashis or Zodiacs and 9 Planets or Navagrahas. 12 X 9 = 108. There are 27 Lunar mansions or Nakshatras which are divided in 4 Padas or quarters each. 27 X 4 = 108.
  • The number of sins in Tibetan Buddhism.
  • In the temple Angkor Wat area there are numerous references to the number 108, which plays a significant role in the symbolism of the structure.
  • In Japan, at the end of the year, a bell is chimed 108 times to finish the old year and welcome the new one. Each ring represents one of 108 earthly temptations a person must overcome to achieve nirvana.
  • Zen priests wear juzu (a ring of prayer beads) around their wrists, which consists of 108 beads.[1]
  • Muktinath, the source of all Sila or Shaligram and one of the holiest place of pilgrimage of Hindus, Buddhists, Vaishnava, and Jains, has 108 water springs.
  • Many Buddhist temples have 108 steps.[1]
  • Hindu Kshatriya Dhangars have 108 clans. The lineage of these clans is from solar and lunar dynasties. These people like to point out that the diameter of the Sun is nearly 108 times the diameter of the Earth, the distance from the Sun to the Earth is nearly 108 times the diameter of the Sun, and the average distance of the Moon from the Earth is nearly 108 times the diameter of the Moon.
  • The Eklingji temple complex includes 108 temples within its walls.
  • There are 108 holy temples of Vishnu.
  • Sahasranamastotra or Sahasranama (1008 names (List of 10,000 names is given to a rishi called Tandi by Shiva; the rishi gives it to Upamanyu, and the latter to Krsna in an abridged. He gives only one tenth of the names, viz. 1008 names)) has a total of 108 shlokas.
  • 108 signifies the wholeness of the divinity, perfect totality.
  • Ananda Coomaraswamy holds that the numerology of the decimal numeric system was key to its inception. 108 is therefore founded in Dharmic metaphysical numerology. One for bindu; zero for shunyata and eight for ananta.
  • Heart Chakra: The chakras are the intersections of energy lines, and there are said to be a total of 108 energy lines converging to form the heart chakra. One of them, sushumna leads to the crown chakra, and is said to be the path to Self-realization.
  • Marmas: Marmas or marmastanas are like energy intersections called chakras, except have fewer energy lines converging to form them. There are said to be 108 marmas in the subtle body.
  • The Lankavatara Sutra repeatedly refers to the 108 steps.[2]
  • The lines of the mystical Sri Yantra intersect in 54 points, each with a masculine and feminine quality, totaling 108.

Martial arts

  • According to Marma Adi and Ayurveda, there are 108 pressure points in the body, where consciousness and flesh intersect to give life to the living being.[3]
  • The Chinese school of martial arts agrees with the South Indian school of martial arts on the principle of 108 pressure points.[4][5]
  • 108 number also figures prominently in the symbolism associated with karate, particularly the Gōjū-ryū discipline. The ultimate Gōjū-ryū kata, Suparinpei, literally translates to 108. Suparinpei is the Chinese pronunciation of the number 108, while gojūshi of Gojūshiho is the Japanese pronunciation of the number 54. The other Gōjū-ryū kata, Sanseru (meaning "36") and Seipai ("18") are factors of the number 108.[1]
  • The 108 of the Yang long form and Wing Chun, taught by Yip Man having 108 movements are noted in this regard.[2]
  • Several different Taijiquan long forms consist of 108 moves.
  • Paek Pal Ki Hyung, the 7th form taught in the art of Kuk Sool Won, translates literally to "108 technique" form. It is also frequently referred to as the "eliminate 108 torments" form. Each motion corresponds with one of the 108 Buddhist torments or defilements.

In literature

In astronomy

In other fields

EMRI - Emergency Services

In India 108 (1-0-8) is the ERC telephone number of GVK Emergency Management and Research Institute, GVK EMRI (Emergency Management and Research Institute) is a pioneer in Emergency Management Services in India. As a not - for - profit professional organization operating in the Public Private Partnership (PPP) mode, GVK EMRI is the only professional Emergency Service Provider in India today.

GVK EMRI handles medical, police and fire emergencies through the " 1-0-8 Emergency service". This is a free service delivered through state- of -art emergency call response centres and has over 1900 ambulances across Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Uttarakhand, Goa, Tamilnadu, Rajasthan,Karnataka, Assam Meghalaya and Madhya Pradesh. With the expansion of fleet and services set to spread across more states, GVK EMRI will have more than 10000 ambulances covering over a billion population by 2011.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Hyaku Hachi No Bonno: The Influence of The 108 Defilements and Other Buddhist Concepts on Karate Thought and Practice By Charles C. Goodin. The article has appeared in Issue #7, Winter 1996-97 of Furyu: The Budo Journal.
  2. ^ a b 108 STEPS: The Sino-Indian Connection in the Martial Arts by Joyotpaul Chaudhuri....
  3. ^ A Western Journalist on India: The Ferengi's Columns By François Gautier. pg 158. ISBN 8124107955
  4. ^ Subramaniam Phd., P., (general editors) Dr. Shu Hikosaka, Asst. Prof. Norinaga Shimizu, & Dr. G. John Samuel, (translator) Dr. M. Radhika (1994). Varma Cuttiram வர்ம சுத்திரம்: A Tamil Text on Martial Art from Palm-Leaf Manuscript. Madras: Institute of Asian Studies. pp. 90 & 91.  
  5. ^ Reid Phd., Howard, Michael Croucher (1991). The Way of the Warrior: The Paradox of the Martial Arts. New York: Outlook Press. pp. 58–85. ISBN 0879514337.  
  6. ^ http://viswadham.org/8.html
  7. ^ Red Hat Announces First Red Hat Developer Day In India @ ENTERPRISE OPEN SOURCE MAGAZINE

References

  • Wells, D. The Penguin Dictionary of Curious and Interesting Numbers London: Penguin Group. (1987): 134

External links


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