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Nürnberg
Nuremberg
Nuremberg Kaiserburg
Nuremberg Kaiserburg
Coat of arms of
Nuremberg is located in Germany
Coordinates 49°27′0″N 11°5′0″E / 49.45°N 11.083333°E / 49.45; 11.083333
Administration
Country Germany
State Bavaria
Admin. region Middle Franconia
District Urban district
Mayor Ulrich Maly (SPD)
Basic statistics
Area 186.38 km2 (71.96 sq mi)
Elevation 302 m  (991 ft)
Population 500,132  (19 March 2010)
 - Density 2,683 /km2 (6,950 /sq mi)
Other information
Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Licence plate N
Postal codes 90000-90491
Area code 0911
Website nuernberg.de

Nuremberg (German: Nürnberg [ˈnʏɐ̯nbɛɐ̯k]) is a city in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia. It is situated on the Pegnitz river and the Rhine-Main-Danube Canal and is Franconia's largest city. It is located about 170 kilometres north of Munich, at 49.27° N 11.5° E. The population (as of January 2006) is 500,132.

Contents

History

Middle Ages

Old fortifications of Nuremberg

From 1050 to 1571, the city expanded and rose dramatically in importance due to its location on key trade routes. It is often referred to as having been the 'unofficial capital' of the Holy Roman Empire, particularly because Reichstage (Imperial Diets) and courts met at Nuremberg Castle. The Diets of Nuremberg were an important part of the administrative structure of the empire. In 1219 Nuremberg became an Imperial Free City under Emperor Frederick II.[1] Nuremberg soon became, with Augsburg, one of the two great trade centers on the route from Italy to Northern Europe.

In 1298, the Jews of the town were accused of having desecrated the host and 698 were slain in one of the many Rintfleisch Massacres. Behind the massacre in 1298 was also the desire to combine the northern and southern parts of the city, which were divided by the Pegnitz River. Jews had been settled in that flood-prone area, but as the city leaders realised, this center of town was crucial to its future development. Hence, the Jewish population had to be removed. This area is now the place of the City Market, Frauenkirche and Rathaus (City Hall).

Early modern age

Nuremberg in 1493
(from the Nuremberg Chronicle).
Jews being exiled from Nuremberg, 1670.

The cultural flowering of Nuremberg, in the 15th and 16th centuries, made it the center of the German Renaissance.

In 1525, Nuremberg accepted the Protestant Reformation, and in 1532, the religious Peace of Nuremberg, by which the Lutherans gained important concessions, was signed there. In 1632 during the Thirty Years' War, the city, occupied by the forces of Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, was besieged by the army of Imperial general Albrecht von Wallenstein. The city declined after the war and recovered its importance only in the nineteenth century, when it grew as an industrial center.

At the beginning of the nineteenth century Nuremberg was practically bankrupt. In 1806 with the Holy Roman Empire formally being dissolved, Nuremberg passed to Bavaria. The Bavarian state took over the city's debts and guaranteed their amortisation.

The first German railway, from Nuremberg to nearby Fürth, was opened in 1835.

Nazi era

Nuremberg party rally 1935

Nuremberg held great significance during the Nazi Germany era. Because of the city's relevance to the Holy Roman Empire and its position in the centre of Germany, the Nazi Party chose the city to be the site of huge Nazi Party conventions–the Nuremberg rallies. The rallies were held annually from 1927 to 1938 in Nuremberg. After Adolf Hitler's rise to power in 1933 the Nuremberg rallies became huge state propaganda events, a center of Nazi ideals. At the 1935 rally, Hitler specifically ordered the Reichstag to convene at Nuremberg to pass the anti-Semitic Nuremberg Laws which revoked German citizenship for all Jews. A number of premises were constructed solely for these assemblies, some of which were not finished. Today many examples of Nazi architecture can still be seen in the city. The city was also the home of the Nazi propagandist Julius Streicher, the publisher of Der Stürmer.

During World War II, Nuremberg was the headquarters of Wehrkreis (military district) XIII, and an important site for military production, including airplanes, submarines, and tank engines. A subcamp of Flossenbürg concentration camp was located here. Extensive use was made of slave labour.[2] The city was severely damaged in Allied strategic bombing from 1943-1945. On January 2, 1945, the medieval city centre was systematically bombed by the Royal Air Force and the U.S. Army Air Forces and about ninety percent of it was destroyed in only one hour, with 1,800 residents killed and roughly 100,000 displaced. In February 1945, additional attacks followed. In total, about 6,000 Nuremberg residents are estimated to have been killed in air raids. Despite this, the city was rebuilt after the war and was to some extent, restored to its pre-war appearance including the reconstruction of some of its medieval buildings.[3]

Defendants in the dock at Nuremberg Trials

Nuremberg Trials

Between 1945 and 1946, German officials involved in the Holocaust and other war crimes were brought before an international tribunal in the Nuremberg Trials. The Soviet Union had wanted these trials to take place in Berlin, but Nuremberg was chosen as the site for the trials for specific reasons:

  • It was located in the American occupation zone
  • The Palace of Justice was spacious and largely undamaged (one of the few that had remained largely intact despite extensive Allied bombing of Germany). The already large courtroom was reasonably easily expanded by the removal of the wall at the end opposite the bench, thereby incorporating the adjoining room. A large prison was also part of the complex.
  • The city had been the location of the Nazi Party's Nuremberg rallies and the laws stripping Jews of their citizenship were passed there. There was symbolic value in making it the place of Nazi demise.
  • As a compromise, it was agreed that Berlin would become the permanent seat of the International Military Tribunal and that the first trial (several were planned) would take place in Nuremberg. Due to the Cold War, subsequent trials never took place.

The same courtroom in Nuremberg was the venue of the Nuremberg Military Tribunals, organised by the United States as occupying power in the area.

Economy

Hl. Geistspital, Holy Spirit Hospital

Nuremberg for many people is still associated with its traditional gingerbread (Lebkuchen) products, sausages, and handmade toys. Pocket watchesNuremberg eggs — were made here in the sixteenth century by Peter Henlein. In the nineteenth century Nuremberg became the "industrial heart" of Bavaria with companies such as Siemens and MAN establishing a strong base in the city. Nuremberg is still an important industrial center with a strong standing in the markets of Central and Eastern Europe. Items manufactured in the area include electrical equipment, mechanical and optical products, motor vehicles, writing and drawing paraphernalia, stationery products, and printed materials. The city is also strong in the fields of automation, energy, and medical technology. Siemens is still the largest industrial employer in the Nuremberg region but a good third of German market research agencies is also located in the city. The Nuremberg International Toy Fair is the largest of its kind in the world. The city also hosts several specialist hi-tech fairs every year, attracting experts from every corner of the globe.

Culture

Towers of Saint Sebald and the Castle as seen from Saint Lorenz.

Nuremberg was an early center of humanism, science, printing, and mechanical invention.

The city contributed much to the science of astronomy. In 1471 Johannes Mueller of Königsberg (Bavaria), later called Regiomontanus, built an astronomical observatory in Nuremberg and published many important astronomical charts. In 1515, Albrecht Dürer, a native of Nuremberg, mapped the stars of the northern and southern hemispheres, producing the first printed star charts, which had been ordered by Johannes Stabius. Around 1515 Dürer also published the "Stabiussche Weltkarte", the first perspective drawing of the terrestrial globe. Perhaps most famously, the main part of Nicolaus Copernicus' work was published in Nuremberg in 1543.

Printers and publishers have a long history in Nuremberg. Many of these publishers worked with well-known artists of the day to produce books that could also be considered works of art. In 1470 Anton Koberger opened Europe's first print shop in Nuremberg. In 1493, he published the Nuremberg Chronicles, also known as the World Chronicles (Schedelsche Weltchronik), an illustrated history of the world from the creation to the present day. It was written in the local Franconian dialect by Hartmann Schedel and had illustrations by Michael Wohlgemuth, Wilhelm Pleydenwurff, and Albrecht Dürer. Others furthered geographical knowledge and travel by map making. Notable among these was navigator and geographer Martin Behaim, who made the first world globe.

Sculptors such as Veit Stoss and Peter Vischer are also associated with Nuremberg.

Composed of prosperous artisans, the guilds of the Meistersingers flourished here. Richard Wagner made their most famous member, Hans Sachs, the hero of his opera Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg. Baroque composer Johann Pachelbel was born here and was organist of St. Sebaldus Church.

Nuremberg is also famous for its Christmas market, which draws well over a million shoppers each year. The market is famous for its handmade ornaments and delicacies.

In addition to the many historical sights there is also a very interesting scene of pop and alternative culture that can be enjoyed at the numerous in-cafes and in-clubs.

Main sights

View over old Nuremberg from Spittlertor-Tower
Dutzendteich and Kongresshalle in the background
The Frauenkirche (Church of Our Lady) as seen from the Hauptmarkt

The southern part of the old town, known as Lorenzer Seite, is separated from the north by the river Pegnitz and encircled to the south by the city walls.

  • Nuremberg Castle: the three castles that tower over the city including central burgraves' castle, with Free Reich's buildings to the east, the Imperial castle to the west.
  • Heilig-Geist-Spital. In the centre of the city, on the bank of the river Pegnitz, stands the Hospital of the Holy Spirit. Founded in 1332, this is one of the largest hospitals of the Middle Ages. Lepers were kept here at some distance from the other patients. It now houses elderly persons and a restaurant.
  • Hauptmarkt, which provides a picturesque setting and famous market for gingerbread. Nuremberg's star attraction is the Gothic Schöner Brunnen (Beautiful Fountain) which was erected around 1385 but subsequently replaced with a replica (the original fountain is kept in the Germanisches Nationalmuseum). The unchanged Renaissance bridge Fleischbrücke crosses the Pegnitz nearby.
  • The following churches are located inside the city walls: St. Sebaldus Church, St. Lorenz, Frauenkirche (Our Lady's Church), Saint Klara, Saint Martha, Saint Jakob, Saint Egidien, and Saint Elisabeth.
  • Gothic St Lorenz-Kirche (St. Lorenz church, St. Lorenz), one of the most important buildings in Nuremberg. The main body was built around 1270-1350.
  • The church of the former Katharinenkloster is preserved as a ruin, the charterhouse (Kartause) is integrated into the building of the Germanisches Nationalmuseum and the choir of the former Franziskanerkirche is part of a modern building.
  • The Walburga Chapel and the Romanesque Doppelkapelle (Chapel with two floors) are part of Nuremberg Castle.
  • The Johannisfriedhof is a medieval cemetery, containing many old graves (Albrecht Dürer, Willibald Pirckheimer, and others). The Rochusfriedhof or the Wöhrder Kirchhof are near the Old Town.
  • The Tiergarten Nürnberg is a zoo stretching over more than 60 ha in the Nürnberger Reichswald. It is the home of Flocke, an orphan polar bear cub who in 2008 became a major attraction and a figure of a large publicity campaign for Nuremberg's metropolitan region.
  • There is also a medieval market just inside the city walls, selling handcrafted goods.
  • The German National Railways Museum (German) (an Anchor Point of ERIH, The European Route of Industrial Heritage) is located in Nuremberg.
  • The Nuremberg Ring (now welded within an iron fence) is said to bring good luck to those that touch it.
  • The Nazi party rally grounds with the documentation-centre.

Transport

The city's location next to numerous highways, railways, and a waterway has contributed to its rising importance for trade with Eastern Europe.

Motorways

Nuremberg is conveniently located at the junction of several important Autobahn routes. The A3 (Netherlands-Frankfurt-Würzburg-Vienna) passes in a south-easterly direction along the north-east of the city. The A9 (Berlin-Munich) passes in a north-south direction on the east of the city. The A6 (France-Saarbrücken-Prague) passes in an east-west direction to the south of the city. Finally, the A73 begins in the south-east of Nuremberg and travels north-west through the city before continuing towards Fürth and Bamberg.

Railways

Class 101 locomotive at Nuremberg Hauptbahnhof

Nürnberg Hauptbahnhof is a stop for IC and ICE trains on the German long-distance railway network. The Nuremberg–IngolstadtMunich High-Speed line with 300 km/h operation opened May 28, 2006, and was fully integrated into the rail schedule on December 10, 2006. Travel times to Munich have been reduced to as little as one hour.

Airport

Nuremberg Airport has flights to major German cities and many European destinations, as well as connecting flights worldwide, for example via Frankfurt or Vienna. Air Berlin uses Nuremberg Airport as the airline's hub, especially in the winter season.

City and regional transport

Nuremberg U-Bahn train

The first segment of the Nuremberg U-Bahn metro system was opened in 1972. The system, along with trams and buses, are operated by the VAG Nürnberg (Verkehrsaktiengesellschaft Nürnberg or Nuremberg Transport Corporation), itself a member of the VGN (Verkehrsverbund Grossraum Nürnberg or Greater Nuremberg Transport Network). There is also a Nuremberg S-Bahn suburban metro railway and a regional train network, both centred on Nuremberg Central Station. Since 2008, Nuremberg has had the first U-Bahn in Germany (U3) that works without driver. It also is the first subway system worldwide in which both driver-operated trains and computer-controlled trains share tracks.

Canals

Nuremberg is an important port on the Main-Danube Canal.

Sport

Football

1. FC Nuremberg, known locally as Der Club, was founded in 1900 and plays in the Bundesliga. The official colours of the association are red and white, but the traditional colours are red and black. The current president is Franz Schäfer. They play in the EasyCredit Stadium, which was rebuilt for the World Cup in 2006 and accommodates 46,780 spectators.

  • German Champion: 1920, 1921, 1924, 1925, 1927, 1936, 1948, 1961, 1968
  • German Cup: 1935, 1939, 1962, 2007

International relations

Twin towns - Sister cities

Nuremberg is twinned with:

Partner cities

Apart from the official twin towns (sister cities), there are a number with which Nuremberg maintains "cordial relations":[6]

There is also economic co-operation with other regions or towns, such as:

Nuremberg districts

Several old villages now belong to the city, for example Grossgründlach, Kraftshof, Thon, and Neunhof in the north-west; Ziegelstein in the north-east, Altenfurt and Fischbach in the south-east; and Katzwang, Kornburg in the south. Langwasser is a modern suburb.

Famous citizens

See also

References

Notes

External links



Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

old town, view from west
old town, view from west

Nuremberg (German: Nürnberg) [1] is a city in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia; it is Bavaria's second largest city after Munich. It is situated on the Pegnitz river and the Main-Danube Canal. It is located about 105 miles north of Munich, at 49.27° N 11.5° E. Population (as of 31. January 2008) is 502,984. The town is also the Center of the Metropolitan Region Nuremberg [2]

Understand

When one thinks of Nuremberg, they usually think of Gingerbread, Toys, Christmas or on Reich Party Rally Grounds or the Nuremberg Trials. But the old town of Nuremberg in the shadow of the towering imperial castle is more than that. Gothic churches, splendid patricians’ houses and romantic corners and spots. An atmosphere of lively co-existence between medieval and modern, between the past and the present prevails in Nuremberg.

Get in

By plane

Nuremberg Airport (IATA: NUE ICAO: EDDN) Nürnberg Flughafen, +49 911-93700, [3]. Air Berlin runs a lot of their flights from Nuremberg. Getting from the airport to the city is no problem. The U2 subway line directly connects Nuremberg Airport with the central train station thus providing access to Nuremberg's city center in about 12 minutes only. The International Airport has been awarded the renowned Business Traveller Award for being the ‘Best German Airport’ in 2009.

By train

You will probably find yourself arriving by train. The main train station itself is located right next to the old city, which is a stroll away. Starting in 2010 your DB or VGN ticket allows you to use over 650 bus and rail services, the underground (U-Bahn), the suburban railway (S-Bahn and R-Bahn), trams, buses and DB trains. The area covers about 14.000 square kilometers from Bayreuth und Bamberg to Solnhofen in the Altmühltal and to Ebern in the Haßberge district.

By car

Nuremberg is connected to the major German "Autobahn" network (A3, A6, A73, A9). The traffic in the area, town and parking areas is controlled by the biggest dynamic traffic guidance system (Dynamisches Verkehrsleitsystem) in Europe.

By ship

The Port of Nuremberg is located about 6 km southwest of the old town and Main Railway Station. During the year over 500 cruise ships stop in Nuremberg. In 2009 they will invest to the passenger harbour about 4,5 Mio Euro to rise the quality and capacity.

Tourist information

More information can be found on the website of the Nuremberg Convention and Tourist Office [4] (English)

Get around

The old town is best explored on foot. To get from one part of the old town to another by car or public transport, you will often have to leave the old town and reenter it at a different gate.

By public transport

Nuremberg has various subway lines (U1, U11, U2, U21). The U3, first automated metro line with mixed trains in the world (driverless and driver) has been released for regular passenger operation starting June 15, 2008. Six tramway (Line 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9) and numerous bus lines. Most subway and tram lines stop at the main station (Hauptbahnhof). Subway line 1 connects Nuremberg with its neighbour city Fürth, line 2 goes to the airport and the Harbor. From 1 to4 AM you can use the "NightLiner" Bus-Network. As of January 25, 2009, a day ticket costs 3.80 euro. If you buy the day ticket on Saturday, it is valid on Sunday as well.

To travel to nearby cities you can use the S-Bahn and R-Bahn Network.

See

Enjoy four cities à la carte for only 19,- €. Any visitor who spends at least one night in Nuremberg, Fuerth, Erlangen or Schwabach is able to purchase the "Nürnberg Card". It includes free admission to 49 museums and attractions and free travel on all public transport services in Nuremberg and Fuerth. You also get 10 to 15 percent discounts on purchases in many shops. Seven theaters, ranging from children's theater to cabaret to travesty revues, offer attractive 10 to 20 percent discounts. Europe's largest IMAX cinema in the CineCittà Nuremberg offers the most current films - and lowers the entrance price. [5]

Map of Nuremberg's Old Town (Altstadt), click to enlarge.
Map of Nuremberg's Old Town (Altstadt), click to enlarge.

Old Town

Nuremberg's old town is divided by the river Pegnitz. The northern half is called Sebalder Alstadt, the southern Lorenzer Altstadt.

  • Castle, 24 46 59-0. Every day Apr-Sep 9AM-6PM, Oct-Mar 10AM-4PM. The castle dominates the north-western corner of Nuremberg's old town. In the west (on the right, when coming from the city) the castle starts with Luginsland tower. Between it and the five-cornered tower is the Kaiserstallung. It was built in 1495 in only one year and served originally as a storehouse for grain. Today it is used as a youth hostel. The five-cornered tower was constructed before 1050 and is the oldest building of the castle and city. Further east are the entry to the castle garden and the castle gate. Through the castle gate one gets to the Freiung, where you can enjoy one of the best views of the old town. If you want to look further you can climb the round tower (Sinwellturm) in the first court of the castle. There you also find the deep well (Tiefer Brunnen). In the main court is the Kemenate on the right and the Palas on the left side. The Palas houses the castle museum, further rooms including the two-storey chapel can be seen on a guided tour. (Note: The guided tour offered by the Castle is only in German. However, another company offers English and other language tours of the town and castle for € 8-10. Information is available inside the Tourist Information Center in the Market Square, where the tour starts). € 6 (''Museum, guided tour, Sinwellturm and Tiefer Brunnen. Outside areas free.'').  edit
  • City Walls. Originally Nuremberg's city wall had a length of five kilometers and five gates: Laufer, Spittler-, Frauen-, Neu- und Tiergärtner Tor. From the 13th to the 16th century the wall was continuously strengthened and is one of the reasons why the city withstood all attacks during this time. Nearly four kilometers of the wall are still standing. Only on the east side between the main station and Rathenauplatz are large gaps. The city moat, which was never filled with water, still exists in its full wide for about two kilometers. Between Färbertor and Spittlertor (Plärrer) you should avoid the inner side of the wall, as it runs along Nuremberg's red light district.  edit
  • Castle Quarter (Burgviertel). Numerous old buildings here survived the war. The street Fuell with its sand stone houses is a typical merchant's street. The craftsmen lived in timber-framed houses, many of which have been restored in Weissgerbergasse. More timber-framed houses can be seen in Obere and Untere Kraemersgasse. In Untere Kraemersgasse 16 you can often look into the tiny courtyard.  edit
  • St Sebald Church (Sebalduskirche). Built from the 13th to 15th century. In the center of the church is the grave of the city saint, depicting scenes of his life.  edit
  • St Lawrence Church (Lorenzkirche). Built from the 13th to 15th century. Among its many treasures are the Tabernacel by Adam Kraft and the Greeting Angels by Veit Stoss.  edit
  • Nurembergs Underworld (Nürnberger Felsengänge), Bergstraße 19, +49 911 22 70 66 (), [6]. For many hundreds of years, the sandstone bedrock of Nuremberg's castle hill has been riddled with vaulted cellars and "secret" passageways. Rock-Cut Beer Cellars, Casemates, Water Supply Conduits and World War II Art Bunker. The total square footage today known 20.000 m2.   edit
  • Way of Human Rights (Straße der Menschenrechte), [7]. A monumental outdoor sculpture, opened on October 24, 1993. It is sited on the street between the new and old buildings of the Germanisches Nationalmuseum, connecting Kornmarkt street and the medieval city wall.   edit
  • Nuremberg Exhibition Centre (Nürnberg Messezentrum), Messezentrum, D-90471 Nürnberg, +49 (0)911-8606-0, [8]. The Nürnberg Exhibition Centre is relatively new. The exhibition centre offers over 160,000 m² of display area in twelve halls grouped around the central park.  edit
  • St. John. The old suburb west of the old town is best seen on a 30-minute walk from Tiergärtnertor to Hallertor. Still within the walls, the house opposite Dürerhaus is called the house of Pilate. It is the start of the way to St. Johns church, with stations of the cross made by Veit Stoss. Follow this way through the gate, across the main street and turn left. At the next street (Burgschmietstrasse), turn right and follow it until it joins Johannisstrasse which leads us along a few remaining timber-framed houses to St. John's cemetery. Many famous citizen of Nuremberg are buried here. After visiting the cemetery, turn right into Lindengasse, then left into the small alley called Riesenschritt. Here are the entrances to some restored baroque gardens. These small gardens are called Hesperidengaerten. At the lower end of Risenschritt you may wander through the romantic lanes of Gross- and Kleinweidenmuehle. Finally walk through the park along the river back into the city.  edit
  • Reich Party Rally Grounds (Reichsparteitagsgelände), Bayernstraße 110 (Tramway #9 (from main station) or #6 (from Plärrer) or bus #36 (from Hauptmarkt) to Doku-Zentrum). Soon after they came to power in 1933 the Nazis designated Nuremberg as place for their annual party rallies. To demonstrate their power they planned a set of gigantic buildings. Only a fraction of these were actually built, including a colossal Congress Hall and the reviewing stand at the Zeppelin field. The actual rally grounds cover a large area, if you want to tour the area plan to spend one or two hours. It is advisable to start with a visit of the Documentation Center (museum in the stadium wall - see Museums below). In regards to the Grosser Strasse, unless you want a long walk there is nothing really interesting to see other than a modern long road. A couple industrial businesses are located along the road, as well as a couple footpaths for wooded trails around the lake.   edit
  • Zoo (Tiergarten), Am Tiergarten 30 (Tramway #5 (from main station) to Tiergarten), 54546. Every Day, Summer 8AM-7.30PM, Winter 9AM-5PM.. The Nuremberg Tiergarten is one of the most beautiful zoos in europe. Located in a beautiful landscape on the Schmausenbuck Hill in the Nuremberg borough Zerzabelshof (Zabo). The Tiergarten get on the top of media interest, when the polar bear baby Flocke (Snowflake)were born in December 2007. The zoo is set in old quarries in the large forest at the eastern edge of the city. € 6.50, Families €15.  edit
  • Kraftshof Village Church, Kraftshof (Tramway #9 (from main station) or #4 (from Plärrer) to Thon. Change there to bus #31). In the middle ages only towns had the right to build a wall, villages were unprotected against raiding troops. Therefore many villages built walls around the church yard. Kraftshof is a good example. From Kraftshof it is a 30 minutes stroll to Neunhof.  edit
  • Neunhof Manor, (Schloss Neunhof), Neunhofer Hauptstraße (Tramway #9 (from main station) or #4 (from Plärrer) to Thon. Change there to bus #31), [9]. Easter-Sept Sa, Su 10AM-5PM (closed in winter). Nuremberg's patricians had numerous manor houses in the surrounding villages. This is a good example, built in the 16th century. Adjoining is a small baroque garden.  edit
  • Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Kartäusergasse 1, [10]. Tu, Th-Su 10AM-6PM, W 10AM-9PM. One of the largest museum of art and crafts in the German-speaking countries. €4 (€5 during major exhibitions. W from 6PM free.).  edit
  • Transportation Museum (Verkehrsmuseum), Lessingstraße 6 (Subway #2, stop Opernhaus), 230 880. Tu-Su 9AM-5PM. This museum contains two collection the DB Museum (museum of the national railway) [11] and the Museum for Communication [12]. The railway museum displays the development of railways in Germany from the beginnings in 1835 to today. It has a collection of historic stock and a large model railroad. Its children's areas makes it a good place to visit for families. The museum for communication displays the history of mail and telecommunications. €3.  edit
  • New Museum, Klarissenplatz, 240 200, [13]. Tu-Fr 10AM-8PM, Sa/Su 10AM-6PM. Museum showing art and design from 1945 to today. € 3.50 (Sundays free).  edit
  • Medieval Dungeons, Rathausplatz 2 (Near the main market square), (+911)231-2690 (), [14]. Medieval prison and torture museum under the city hall, open for guided tour only. €3.  edit
  • Courtroom 600 - Nuremberg Trials, Fürther Straße 110, [15]. Saturdays and Sundays from 1 p.m. - 4 p.m, Tour Every hour on the hour. During renovation from April 2008 to autumn 2009 closed.. Courtroom 600 can only be visited with a guided tour (supplemented by a short introductory film based on historical footage). The guided tours are in German, English information is also available.  edit

Museums on the municipal ticket - The following museums participate together in a single ticket program; a ticket from any one of these museums (€5 or €2.50 for students) is valid for entry at all other museums on the same day. The website [16] for the museum cooperative provides further information.

  • Albrecht Dürer's House, Albrecht-Dürer-Straße 39, 231- 2568, [17]. Every day 10AM-5PM (''Th -8PM, closed M Oct, Nov, Jan-Jun''). The house in which the painter Albrecht Dürer lived and worked from 1509 until 1528. Representative of a wealthy house of that period. Exhibition about life in the house and the way Dürer worked. €5.  edit
  • Documentation Center at the Reich Party Rally Grounds (Dokumentationszentrum Reichsparteitagsgelände), Bayernstraße 110 (Tramway #9 (from main station) or #6 (from Plärrer) or bus #36 (from Hauptmarkt) to Doku-Zentrum), 231- 5666. Monday-Friday 9 a.m.-6 p.m., Saturday-Sunday 10 a.m.-6 p.m., Last entry 5 p.m.. The Documentation Center is in the north wing of the Congress Hall of Reich Party Rally Grounds. Topics shown in the documentation centre are: How the Nazis rose to power, The organization of the party rallies - how the Nazis fascinated the masses, How the party rallies are connected to the Nazi crimes against minorities and to the world war. The audio guide (included with admission price) is highly recommended for non-German speakers (and Germans as well). €5.   edit
  • Toy Museum (Spielzeugmuseum), Karlstraße 13-15, 231 - 3260. Tu-F 10AM-5PM, Sa,Su 10AM-6PM (every day during Christikindlesmarkt and toy fair). Nuremberg was one of the centres of the German toy industry. The exhibition shows wooden and metal toys, dolls and doll houses, model railways and modern toys. €5.  edit
  • Fembohaus Citymuseum, Burgstraße 15, 231-2595. Tu-F 10AM-5PM, Sa/Su 10AM-6PM. A merchant's house built about 1600. Exhibition about the history of the city. €5.  edit
  • Museum of Industrial Culture, Äußere Sulzbacher Straße 62 (Tramway #8 from main station, direction Erlenstegen, stop Tafelwerk), 231-3875. Exhibition about the industrial revolution, along a museum street you see how living conditions, social life and technology developed during the 19th century. €5.  edit
  • Volksfest, [18]: Like a small Oktoberfest, runs twice a year, typical visitors about 1,6 Million .
  • Altstadtfest, [19]: The "Old Town Festival" in September attracts over a million visitors every year, making it the largest folklore event in Germany. The festival offers a broad programme of attractions including processions and concerts. There is also plenty to taste in terms of food and drink at the 'gastronomy market' and at numerous restaurants and beer gardens on Schütt Island and Hans-Sachs-Platz.
  • Rock im Park, [20]: A three day rock event, 60.000 People, run yearly at the same time as Rock Am Ring
  • Klassik Open Air, [21]: Twice a year you can listen the "Nürnberger Philharmoniker" and the "Nürnberger Symphoniker". This event is also known as "Woodstock of classic music". For free. Come early, because of 60.000 People.
  • Bardentreffen, [22]: On the first weekend in the bavarian summer vacations (End of July) you can listen 400 artists from all over the world on eight stages in the town for free. About 200.000 visitors each year.
  • Blaue Nacht, [23]: Blue Night – every year in May, museums, churches and other cultural institutions open their doors – until the early morning hours. Art and light installations, music and performances in Nuremberg's inner city streets invite people to stroll about, look, listen and be amazed. About 120,000 visitors are expected every year.
  • Lange Nacht der Wissenschaften, [24]: “The Long Night Of Science”, – in October many companys, the Institute of Technology, the universitys are open for the public.
  • Tag der offenen Tür, [25]: “Doors Open Days”, – Every two years in October the municipality and many organisations open 3 days for the public. In 2009 you will find over 120 open doors.
  • Internationales Figurentheater-Festival, [26]: Every two years, the curtains go up in Nuremberg for Germany's biggest puppet theatre festival. About 50 ensembles from many nations take to the stages of the conurbation and show the latest trends.
  • Christkindlesmarkt, [27]: Famous Christmas market held every year from Friday before the first advent Sunday to December 23. On weekends it is often overcrowded.
  • Trempelmärkte, [28]: Nuremberg Flea Markets. On the second weekend in May and on the first weekend in September, Nuremberg’s Old Town transforms itself into Germany’s largest flea market with about 4000 booths. Children have their own, at no charge area, allowing them to sell their old and not-so-old toys.
  • 1. FC Nuremberg, [29]: The "Club" was founded in 1900 and is one of the most tradition-steeped football clubs in Germany. The Club play their Bundesliga home games in the easyCredit-Stadion.
  • Norisring DTM Speedweekend, [30]: Once a year world famous “Norisring”, the 200 miles from Nuremberg happens to the car race maniacs. This race track is known as "little Monaco", becourse they use also normal streets. The world famous race drivers on hot wheels attract over 140.000 peoples.
  • Radrennen "Rund um die Nürnberger Altstadt, [31]: Cycle Race “Round the Old Town” The cycle race is one of the most important events in the Nuremberg sports calendar and is a firmly fixed event for the international cycling sport. The high quality of the race circuit makes this event really standout against the many cycle races held in Germany. More than 100,000 spectators are able to watch the Nuremberger cycle race.
  • Stadtlauf Nürnberg, [32]: Nuremberg foot race.
  • Quelle Challenge Roth, [33]: Triathlon next to Town in the Franconian lake district.
  • Blaulicht, Bus und Bahn, [34]: flashing alarm lamp, Bus and Railway - local clubs and private museums open the doors, first weekend in may.
  • ION - MUSICA SACRA, [35]: International Organ Week. Presented for the first time in 1951 by church musicians of the two major protestant churches of Nürnberg, the “Internationale Orgelwoche Nürnberg” - Musica Sacra (ION) is one of Germany's biggest and oldest festivals of sacred and organ music. Each year Nürnberg becomes the "centre of the organ universe".
  • 175 Years of Railway in Germany, [36]: Nuremberg is the central venue for the german Railway Year 2010 because it is here that 175 years ago, the first German train took to the tracks. On 7 December, 1835, the steam-driven "Adler" started off from Nuremberg’s Plärrer square towards the neighbouring city of Fürth. The Town attracts between late spring and the end of 2010 visitors with a programme of events which will appeal to railway enthusiasts and non-specialists alike.
  • Climbing Factory [37] - indoor climbing on 850 m2
  • real climbing - at Frankenjura area
  • Soccer [38] 1. FCN - soccer and more
  • Ice Hockey - Nuremberg Ice Tigers [39] plays in the German Elite League (DEL)
  • Biggest multiplexcinema in Germany. The CINECITTA [40]. 18 movie theaters, one IMAX theater, one "motion action drive" cinema, 3 Restaurants, 12 Bars and 5 outside terraces with view on the historic town.

Buy

Nuremberg's main shopping district ist the Lorenzer Altstadt, the part of the old town south of river Pegnitz. There are three shopping streets running from the white tower (Weißer Turm) to the vicinity of St Lawrence church (Lorenzkirche): The cheapest stores can be found in Breite Gasse, in Karolinenstrasse you find mid-priced stores and Kaisserstraße, next to the river, offers luxury goods. At their eastern end the three streets are connected by the street Königsstraße, which runs from the main station via St Lawrence church to the main market place. The biggest department stores, Karstadt, Galeria Kaufhof and Breuninger, are located here. On Trödelmarkt you find some small snugly shops. At Sebalder Altstadt you find antiques, curiosities and designer shops.

Malls:

  • City Point, Breite Gasse 5, 90402 Nürnberg (City)
  • mercado, Äußere Bayreuther Strasse 80, 90491 Nürnberg (North)
  • Franken-Center, Glogauer Straße 30-38, 90473 Nürnberg (South)

Outlets: Puma Sport, Klingenhofstr. 70, 90411 Nürnberg (North-West)

Gothic, Dark Wave, Fetisch:

  • Crazy Fashion (for Adults only), Schweiggerstr. 30, 90478 Nürnberg (South)
  • Mac's Mystic Store, Ludwig-Feuerbach-Str. 13, 90489 Nürnberg (South)
  • Underground, Königstr. 39, 90402 Nürnberg (City)
  • Vampiria, Kappengasse 10, 90402 Nürnberg (City)

The shopping streets and smaller centres outside the old town have less to offer. Only visit them if you are looking for a specific shop.

Souvenirs

Ginger bread (Lebkuchen): Several large manufacturers and a number of small bakeries produce these. The best quality is called Elisenlebkuchen. The large manufactures sell packages labeled Bruch(broken), but they usually don't contain broken ginger bread, its just a trick: You get them cheaper, but you can hardly use a package labeled broken as a gift.

Sausages (Nürnberger Bratwürste) are available in tin-cans.

Eat

Bratwurst (roasted sausage): Within the city you get Nürnberger Bratwürste, in the surrounding area Fränkische Bratwürste. Nürnberger are only about half the size, but contain more spices than Fränkische. Consequently one typically eats three Fränkische or six Nürnberger. In restaurants Bratwürste are served with Sauerkraut or potato salad. In some better restaurants you can order also "Saure Zipfel", cooked Bratwürste in vinegar-onion sauce with fresh horseradish and bread. On the street you can also buy two or three sausages in a roll ('Drei im Weggla'). But be careful to get "real" Nürnberger and not "foreign" Thüringer Bratwürste. Nürnberger Bratwürste / Nürnberger Rostbratwürste is also protected under EU law with Protected designation of origin status.

Budget

Many food stalls and fast food restaurants can be found along Königstraße leading from the main station into the old town.

One stand is in the middle of the street perpendicular to the front of the Lorenzkirche.

  • La Creperie du Chateau, Untere Schmiedgasse 5, 0911 2110108. Outdoor seating in the summer, indoor restaurant year-round. Right down from the Castle, a few steps down. Fantastic home French cuisine, made by super friendly Chef Guy Ody who cooks authentic Provence food. Do not miss his wonderful crepes, so thin you'd think he uses magic. Very cozy dining room with just a few tables, you feel like you are in Guy's personal dining room. € 10 - 15 per entree.  edit
  • Kettensteg Biergarten, Maxplatz 35, 0911 221 081. Outdoor seating in the summer, indoor restaurant year-round. Beautiful view of the iron bridge and the Pegnitz River just inside the old city wall at the Hallertor. Great local cuisine and beer, English menu available. € 10 - 15 per entree.  edit
  • Historische Bratwurstküche - Zum Guldenen Stern, Zirkelschmiedsgasse 26, 2059288, [41]. Restaurant in an old timber-framed house specializing in roasted sausages. Oldest sausage restaurant in the world, since 1419. € 7.10 for six sausages.   edit
  • Goldenes Posthorn - Älteste Weinstube Deutschlands - seit 1498, Glöckleinsgasse 2 (subway #2/21, stop Lorenzkirche), 225153, [42]. Restaurant in the old city center.   edit
  • Bratwursthäusle, Rathausplatz 1, 227695, [43]. M-Sa 10AM-11.30PM. Restaurant in the old city center specializing in roasted sausages. You can see many tourists there. € 5.50 for six sausages.  edit
  • Heilig Geist Spital, Spitalgasse 16, 221761, [44]. Mainly local cuisine. Historic dining room situated over the river Pegnitz. € 6.70 for six sausages.  edit
  • Tucher Bräu am Opernhaus, Am Kartäusertor 1 (subway #2/21, stop Opernhaus), 204649, [45]. M-F 5PM-12PM, Sa 3PM-12PM, Su 11AM-12PM. Local cuisine. Beergarden on the city wall.  edit
  • Steichele, Hotel & Weinrestaurant., Knorrstraße 2-8 (subway #1/11, stop Weisser Turm), 20228-0 (, fax: 221914), [46]. Local cuisine. The Steichele has the opportunity to try, dink and buy selected wines from "Franken", the "Pfalz", "Südtirol" and many more producing regions of germany.  edit
  • s'Baggers, Am Steinacher Kreuz 28, 4779090 (fax: 4779092), [47]. Fully automated restaurant with no waiters. The restaurant's only employees are the cooks. Patrons order via touchscreen (which doubles as credit card paying device), and the food is delivered via gravity from the kitchen above along steel rails.  edit
  • KonTiki, Untere Wörthstrasse 10-14 (subway #1/11, stop Weisser Turm), 221139, [48]. Local, Steak and Fish cuisine. Small Beergarden on the river Pegnitz.  edit

Drink

Beer: many great beers are made in Franconia (the area around Nuremberg has the largest concentration of breweries world wide) and even in the Nuremberg itself. About 300 Breweries still working.

  • Barfüßer, Hallplatz 2 (In the basement of the historic grainery on Königstraße), 20 42 42, [49]. A large, lively German-style beer hall, where you can have a keg delivered to your table and pour your own drinks as you go. Hearty Franconian food is on the menu, and they brew their own blond beer. € 7-12 per entree.  edit
  • Blauer Adler (Blue Eagle), (West end of the Main Train Station (Hauptbahnhof)). A good, albeit relatively expensive, cocktail bar.  edit
  • Cubano, Innere Laufer Gasse (northeast of the town hall). Another good cocktail bar  edit
  • Landbierparadies (Country Beer Paradise). Guesthouses and beer-shops operated by Landbierparadise in town, you find a collection of local beers and local food.  edit

Wine: The Franconian wine is said to be a "man's wine". Analogous to "man's chocolate" this points to a rather dry taste. Furthermore the rather harsh climate and the soil structure definitely contribute to this fact. An extravagance of the Franconian wines is their bottle. In Germany the Bocksbeutel bottle shape is generally reserved for higher-quality wines from Franconia.

Sleep

For a fast room reservation service in the Nuremberg-Fuerth-Erlangen-Schwabach area, please go to the Online room reservation request of the Nuremberg Convention and Tourist Office. [50]

  • DJH (YHA/HI), Burg 2 (situated in the former castle stables to the north of the old city), +49 911 2309360 (, fax: +49 911 23093611), [51]. Note that DJH/YHA/HI membership is required (or an extra fee is paid) and, as in all YHA hostels in Bavaria, persons over 27 years of age are only admitted if the hostel is not full. Closed: 24/12/2006 to 26/12/2006. Linen included in price. B&B from €18.90; half board from €23.20; full board from €26.50.  edit
  • Lette'm Sleep, Frauntormauer 42 (near the town wall), +49 9119928128 (, fax: +49 911 9928130), [52]. Relaxed atmosphere in the center of medieval Nuremberg. Mixed dorms, free tea and coffee, free internet, good location (5-min walk from train station), English spoken. €11 - 20 (dorm), €44 - 52 (twin, double), linen €3 extra.  edit
  • Jugend Hotel, Rathsbergstr. 300 (near the airport), +49 9115216092 (, fax: +49 911 5216954), [53]. A Hostel to live and feel comfortable. Wheelchair accessible rooms, barbecue, TV-lounge, English spoken. Multible bed, (3-6 bed) with shower/wc, from €16. Twin bed, with shower/wc €19.50. Single room, with shower/wc, from €25,50. Breakfast buffet and lunch packed €5.50..  edit
  • Don Bosco Jugendwerk, Don-Bosco-Straße 2 (center, direction to Fürth), +49 91193179-0 (, fax: +49 911 93179-35), [54]. A house for young and young-at-heart people. Twin bed, with shower/wc €20,00. Single room, with shower/wc, from €25,00. Breakfast €2. Dinner €4,50..  edit
  • NH Nuremberg-City, Bahnhofstrasse 17-19, +49 911 99990 (, fax: +49 91 19999100), [55]. Central, reliable and easy to find. There are a few other NH hotels in Nuremberg [56] if this one doesn't suit your budget.  edit
  • Hotel Elch, Irrerstr. 9 (Between Maxplatz and Sebalderplatz), 0911 249 298 0 (, fax: 0911 249 298 44), [57]. A small hotel in a quaint old building, located on a quiet street just a few minutes' walk from several restaurants and sights.  edit
  • Hotel Ibis Nuernberg Altstadt, Königstraße 74, 0911 23 20 00 (), [58]. Reasonably priced hotel right in the heart of it all.  edit
  • Hotel Victoria, Königstraße 80, 0911 24 05 0 (, fax: 0911 227 432), [59]. The hotel in the old city that is closest to the Hauptbahnhof, in a renovated 19th Century building.  edit

Near Plärrer

Just outside the southwest corner of the old city are several mid-range hotels within walking distance of many sights in the old city, and about a 20-minute walk from the Hauptbahnhof.

  • Hotel Fackelmann, Essenweinstr. 10, 0911 2 06 84-0 (fax: 0911 2 06 84-60), [60].  edit
  • Hotel Ibis Nuernburg Centrum, Steinbühlerstr. 2 (Close to the Plärrer S- and U-bahn stops), 0911 23 71-0 (). Starting at € 52.  edit
  • Hotel Leonardo, Zufuhrstr. 22, 0911 27 760 (), [61]. Part of a small chain of hotels in Germany, amenities include free WiFi in the rooms and free bicycle rental. Singles from € 55.  edit
  • Hotel Schweizer Hof, Karl Bröger Straße 38 - 90459 Nuremberg, 0911 431 3220 (, fax: 0911 431 3824), [62]. single rooms from 47 €.  edit
  • Nestor Hotel Nuremberg, Bucherstr. 125 (West of the Nordbahnhof), 0911 34 76 0, [64].  edit
  • Hotel Kreuzeck, Erlangerstr. B4 (Halfway between the old city and the airport), 0911 3 49 61, [65]. Singles beginning at €50.  edit

Stay safe

According to the state police, it has the lowest crime rate of the cities with more than 400,000 inhabitants.

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Source material

Up to date as of January 22, 2010

From Wikisource

Nuremberg
by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

In the valley of the Pegnitz, where across broad meadow-lands
Rise the blue Franconian mountains, Nuremberg, the ancient, stands.

Quaint old town of toil and traffic, quaint old town of art and song,
Memories haunt thy pointed gables, like the rooks that round them throng:

Memories of the Middle Ages, when the emperors, rough and bold,
Had their dwelling in thy castle, time-defying, centuries old;

And thy brave and thrifty burghers boasted, in their uncouth rhyme,
That their great imperial city stretched its hand through every clime.

In the court-yard of the castle, bound with many an iron hand,
Stands the mighty linden planted by Queen Cunigunde's hand;

On the square the oriel window, where in old heroic days
Sat the poet Melchior singing Kaiser Maximilian's praise.

Everywhere I see around me rise the wondrous world of Art:
Fountains wrought with richest sculpture standing in the common mart;

And above cathedral doorways saints and bishops carved in stone,
By a former age commissioned as apostles to our own.

In the church of sainted Sebald sleeps enshrined his holy dust,
And in bronze the Twelve Apostles guard from age to age their trust;

In the church of sainted Lawrence stands a pix of sculpture rare,
Like the foamy sheaf of fountains, rising through the painted air.

Here, when Art was still religion, with a simple, reverent heart,
Lived and labored Albrecht Durer, the Evangelist of Art;

Hence in silence and in sorrow, toiling still with busy hand,
Like an emigrant he wandered, seeking for the Better Land.

Emigravit is the inscription on the tombstone where he lies;
Dead he is not, but departed,--for the artist never dies.

Fairer seems the ancient city, and the sunshine seems more fair,
That he once has trod its pavement, that he once has breathed its air!

Through these streets so broad and stately, these obscure and dismal lanes,
Walked of yore the Mastersingers, chanting rude poetic strains.

From remote and sunless suburbs came they to the friendly guild,
Building nests in Fame's great temple, as in spouts the swallows build.

As the weaver plied the shuttle, wove he too the mystic rhyme,
And the smith his iron measures hammered to the anvil's chime;

Thanking God, whose boundless wisdom makes the flowers of poesy bloom
In the forge's dust and cinders, in the tissues of the loom.

Here Hans Sachs, the cobbler-poet, laureate of the gentle craft,
Wisest of the Twelve Wise Masters, in huge folios sang and laughed.

But his house is now an ale-house, with a nicely sanded floor,
And a garland in the window, and his face above the door;

Painted by some humble artist, as in Adam Puschman's song,
As the old man gray and dove-like, with his great beard white and long.

And at night the swart mechanic comes to drown his cark and care,
Quaffing ale from pewter tankard; in the master's antique chair.

Vanished is the ancient splendor, and before my dreamy eye
Wave these mingled shapes and figures, like a faded tapestry.

Not thy Councils, not thy Kaisers, win for thee the world's regard;
But thy painter, Albrecht Durer, and Hans Sachs thy cobbler-bard.

Thus, O Nuremberg, a wanderer from a region far away,
As he paced thy streets and court-yards, sang in thought his careless lay:

Gathering from the pavement's crevice, as a floweret of the soil,
The nobility of labor,--the long pedigree of toil.


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

NUREMBERG (Ger. Nürnberg), a city of Germany, the second town in Bavaria in size, and the first in commercial importance. It lies in the district of Middle Franconia in a sandy but wellcultivated plain, 124 m. by rail N.W. from Munich. The city is divided by the small river Pegnitz, a tributary of the Main, into two parts, called respectively the Lorenzer Seite and the Sebalder Seite, after the two principal churches. There are four islands in the Pegnitz, which is crossed here by fourteen bridges. Formerly among the richest and most influential of the free imperial towns, Nuremberg is one of the few cities of Europe that have retained their medieval aspect largely unimpaired. Considerable sections of the ancient walls and moat still remain, though the demolition of portions to meet the exigencies of modern traffic and expansion has somewhat destroyed its quaint medieval character. Of the 365 bastions which formerly strengthened the walls, however, nearly too are still in situ, and a few of the interesting old gateways have also been preserved. Most of the streets are narrow and crooked, and the majority of the houses have their gables turned towards the street. The general type of architecture is Gothic, but the rich details, which are lavished with especial freedom in the interior courts, are usually borrowed from the Renaissance. Most of the private dwellings date from the 16th century, and there are practically none of earlier date than the 15th century. A praiseworthy desire to maintain the picturesqueness of the town has led most of the builders of new houses to imitate the lofty peaked gables, oriel windows and red-tiled roofs of the older dwellings. Altogether Nuremberg presents a faithful picture of a prosperous town of three hundred years ago.

The old burg, or castle (Kaiserschloss), is picturesquely placed on a rock on the north side of the town. This dates most probably from the early part of the 11th century, but it received its present form mainly during the reign of the emperor Frederick I. about 150 years later. It was restored in careful harmony with its original appearance in 1854-1856, and part of the interior is fitted up as a royal residence, the families of the German emperor and of the king of Bavaria having apartments therein. In the Heidenturm are two late Romanesque chapels, one above the other. Other parts of the castle are the pentagonal tower, the oldest building in the town, wherein are preserved the famous "iron virgin of Nuremberg," and other instruments of torture; the granary (Kornhaus), also called the Kaiserstallung; and the Vestnertor or Vestnerturm. The castle of Nuremberg was a favourite residence of the German sovereigns in the later middle ages, and the imperial regalia were kept here from 1424 to 1796. Near it are the remains of the burg of the Hohenzollerns, the principal existing part of which is the chapel of St Walpurgis, which was destroyed with the rest of the building in 1420, but was restored in 1892. Not far from these ruins stands the Luginsland, a stronghold with four corner turrets, said to have been built by the burghers in 1367 as a watch-tower against the burg of the Hohenzollerns.

Nuremberg contains several interesting churches, the finest of which are those of St Lorenz, of St Sebald and of Our Lady. All three are Gothic edifices and are notable for their elaborately carved doorways, in which free play has been given to the exuberant fancy of the Gothic style, and all three enshrine valuable treasures of art. The Church of St Lawrence, the largest of the three, was built in the 13th and 14th centuries and has recently been restored. In it is the masterpiece of the sculptor, Adam Krafft, consisting of a ciborium, or receptacle for the host, in the form of a florid Gothic spire 65 ft. high; the carving of this work is exquisitely minute and delicate. The west front contains a magnificent rose-window, and some of the stained glass dates from the 15th and 16th centuries. In front of the altar hangs a curious piece of wood-carving by Veit Stoss, representing the Salutation. The shrine of St Sebald, in the church of St Sebald, consisting of a bronze sarcophagus and canopy, in the richest Gothic style, adorned with numerous statues and reliefs, is looked upon as one of the greatest achievements of German art. It was executed by Peter Vischer, the celebrated artist in bronze, who was occupied on the work for thirteen years (1506-1519), and has here shown himself no unworthy rival of Lorenzo Ghiberti. The church of Our Lady possesses some fine old stained-glass windows and some paintings by Michael Wohlgemuth. The Tuchersche altar, with its winged picture, is one of the finest works of the Nuremberg school about the middle of the 15th century. This church was restored in 1878-1881. Other noteworthy churches are those of St Jacob, founded about 1200 and restored in 1824; and of St Aegidius.

The town hall (Rathaus), an edifice in the Italian style, erected in 1616-1619, contains frescoes by Dürer, and a curious stucco relief of a tournament held at Nuremberg in 1446. The building incorporated an older one of the 14th century, of which the great hall, with its timber roof, is part. The most interesting secular buildings are the houses of the old patrician families. Among the most characteristic of these are the old residence of the counts of Nassau, and the houses of the Tucher, Funk and Peller families. A special interest attaches to the dwellings of Albrecht Dürer, Hans Sachs, the cobbler-poet, and Johann Palm, the patriotic bookseller who was shot by order of Napoleon in 1806. There are statues of Dürer, Sachs, Melanchthon, the reputed founder of the grammar-school, the navigator Martin Behaim, and Peter Henlein, the inventor of the watch; and the streets are further embellished with several fountains, the most noteworthy of which are the Schöne Brunnen, 1385-1396, in the form of a large Gothic pyramid, adorned with statues of the seven electors, the "nine worthies," and Moses and the prophets; and the Gänsemännchen or goose-mannikin, a clever little bronze figure by Pankratz Labenwolf. - On the way to the cemetery of St John, which contains the graves of Dürer, Sachs, Behaim and other Nuremberg worthies, are Krafft's stations, seven pillars bearing stone reliefs of the Passion, and ranked among the finest works of the sculptor.

The Germanic national museum, established in an old Carthusian monastery, has developed into one of the largest and most important institutions of its kind in Germany. It includes a picture-gallery, principally of German works of the 15th and 16th centuries, including masterpieces by Holbein, Dürer, Wohlgemuth and others. The municipal library contains about 2000 manuscripts and 80,000 printed books, some of which are of great rarity.

The population of Nuremberg was, in 1905, including a garrison of about 3000 men, 294,344, of whom 145,354 were males and 148,990 females. Of these again 196,907 were Protestants (Evangelical), 86,939 Roman Catholics and 6819 Jews. At the height of its prosperity in the middle ages the population has been estimated at as high a figure as 150,000, but there seems good reason to believe that it did not exceed 40,000 to 50,000 souls. In 1818 it had sunk to 27,000, but since then has steadily increased. On the 1st of January 1899, thirteen outlying communes were incorporated, extending the area of the town from 2805 to 13,700 acres.

Nuremberg occupies a high place among the industrial and commercial centres of Europe. The principal manufactures are toys and fancy articles in metal, carved wood and ivory, which are collectively known as Nuremberg wares. Nuremberg is the chief market in Europe for hops. It is an important junction for railways to all parts of Germany, and is on the main line from Cologne and Frankfort-on-Main to Munich, Vienna and Eger. In addition to its railways, trade is facilitated by the Ludwig canal, connecting the Danube and the Main.

History

The first authentic mention of Nuremberg, which seems to have been called into existence by the foundation of the castle, occurs in a document of 1050; and about the same period it received from the emperor Henry III. permission to establish a mint and a market. It is said to have been destroyed by the emperor Henry V. in 1105, but if this was the case the town must have been very speedily rebuilt, as in 1127 we find the emperor Lothair taking it from the duke of Swabia and assigning it to Henry the Proud, duke of Bavaria. An imperial officer, styled the burggrave of Nuremberg, who, however, seems to have been merely the military governor of the castle, and to have exercised no sway over the citizens, became prominent in the 12th century. This office came into the hands of the counts of Hohenzollern at the beginning of the 13th century, and burggrave of Nuremberg is still one of the titles of their descendant, the German emperor. The government of the town was vested in the patrician families, who, contrary to the usual course of events in the free towns, succeeded in permanently excluding the civic gilds from all share of municipal power, although in 1347 there was a sharp rising against this oligarchy. The town was specially favoured by the German monarchs, who frequently resided and held diets here, and in 1219 Frederick II. conferred upon it the rights of a free imperial town. By the terms of this charter the town appears to have been immediately subject to the king, who was represented by his magistrate (or Schultheiss). In a short time, however, the latter appears to have been assisted by a council, consisting of 13 consules (burgomasters) and 13 scabini (assessors), who collectively formed the governing and administrative body under the presidency of the bailiff. The last-named official soon confined himself to the judicial magisterial office, and a further increase in the numbers of the council having taken place by the appointment of 8 nominees of the king, a municipal council of 34, under the direction of the senior consul or burgomaster, dealt with matters exclusively civic. Later this council (the kleine Rat) was increased to 42 members, 8 of whom belonged to the artisan class.

In 1356 Nuremberg witnessed the promulgation of the famous Golden Bull of the emperor Charles IV. At the beginning of the 15th century the burggraves of Nuremberg, who had in the meantime raised themselves to the rank of princes of the Empire, were invested with the margraviate of Brandenburg, and sold their castle to the town. They, however, reserved certain rights, and their insistence on these led to fierce and sanguinary feuds between the burghers and the margraves Albert Achilles and Frederick and Albert Alcibiades of Bayreuth.

The quarrel with the margraves, however, did not interfere with the growth of the town's prosperity, which reached its acme in the 16th century. Like Augsburg, Nuremberg attained great wealth as an intermediary between Italy and the East on the one hand, and northern Europe on the other. Its manufactures were so well known that it passed into a proverb- "Nuremberg's hand goes through every land." Its citizens lived in such luxury that Aeneas Sylvius (Pope Pius II.) has left it on record that a simple burgher of Nuremberg was better lodged than the king of Scotland. The town had gradually extended its sway over a territory nearly 50o sq. m. in extent, and was able to furnish the emperor Maximilian with a contingent of 6000 troops. But perhaps the great glory of Nuremberg lies in its claim to be the principal fount of German art. Its important architectural features have already been described. The love of its citizens for sculpture is abundantly manifest in the statues and carvings on their houses. Adam Krafft, Veit Stoss and Peter Vischer form a trinity of sculptors of which any city might be proud. In painting Nuremberg is not less prominent, as the names of Wohlgemuth and Dürer sufficiently indicate. In the decorative arts the Nuremberg handicraftsman attained great perfection in ministering to the luxurious tastes of the burghers, and a large proportion of the old German furniture, silver-plate, stoves and the like, which are now admired in industrial museums, was made in Nuremberg workshops. Wenzel Jamnitzer (1508-1585), the worker in silver, is perhaps eminent enough to be added to the above list of artists. Its place in literary history - by no fneans an unimportant one - it owes to Hans Sachs and the other meistersanger. A final proof of its vigorous vitality at this period may be found in the numerous inventions of its inhabitants, which include watches, at first called "Nuremberg eggs," the air-gun, gun-locks, the terrestrial and celestial globes, the composition now called brass, and the art of wire-drawing.

Nuremberg was the first of the imperial towns to throw in its lot with the Reformation, and it embraced Protestantism with its wonted vigour about 1525. Its name is associated with a peace concluded between Charles V. and the Protestants in 1532. The first blow to its prosperity was the discovery of the sea-route to India in 1497; and the second was inflicted by the Thirty Years' War, during which Gustavus Adolphus was besieged here in an entrenched camp by Wallenstein. During the eight or ten weeks that the blockade lasted no fewer than 10,000 of the inhabitants are said to have died of want or disease. The downfall of the town was accelerated by the illiberal policy of its patrician rulers; and the French Revolution reduced it to such a degree that in 1796 it offered itself and its territories to the king of Prussia on condition that he would pay its debts. Prussia, however, refused the offer. In 1803 Nuremberg was allowed to maintain its nominal position as a free city, but in 1806 it was annexed to Bavaria.

See Lochner, Nürnberger Jahrbücher bis 1313 (Nuremberg, 1832-1835); Nürnbergs Vorzeit and Gegenwart (Nuremberg, 1845) and Geschichte der Reichsstadt Nürnberg zur Zeit Kaiser Karts I V. (Berlin, 1873); Priem, Geschichte der Stadt Nürnberg bis auf die neueste Zeit (Nuremberg, 1874); B. Schonlank, Altnürnbergische Studien (Leipzig, 1894); L. Rosel, Alt-Nürnberg (Nuremberg, 1895); E. Mummenhoff, Altnürnberg bis zum Jahre 1350 (1890); R. Hagen, Bilder aus Nürnbergs Geschichte (Nuremberg, 1889); F. Roth, Die Einführung der Reformation in Nürnberg (Würzburg, 1885); J. M. Lotter, Sagen, Legenden and Geschichten der Stadt Nürnberg (Nuremberg, 1898); the Quellenschriften zur Staatsand Kulturgeschichte der Reichsstadt Nürnberg (Nuremberg, 1893, fol.); and the Mitteilungen of the Verein für Geschichte der Stadt Nürnberg (Nuremberg, 1879, fol.). See also C. Headlam, The Story of Nuremberg (London, 1899).


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Up to date as of January 15, 2010

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Proper noun

Nuremberg

  1. A city in Bavaria, Germany.

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Simple English

Nuremberg

Nuremberg
Coordinates 49°27′0″N 11°05′0″E / 49.45°N 11.083333°E / 49.45; 11.083333
Administration
Country Germany
State Bavaria
Admin. region Middle Franconia
District Kreisfreie stadt
City subdivisions 7 Stadtbezirke
Lord Mayor Ulrich Maly (SPD)
Basic statistics
Area 186.38 km2 (71.96 sq mi)
Elevation 309 m  (1014 ft)
Population 501,282  (30 June 2007)
 - Density 2,690 /km2 (6,966 /sq mi)
Other information
Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Licence plate N
Postal codes 90001 – 90491
Area codes 0911, 09122, 09129
Website www.nuernberg.de

Nuremberg (German: Nürnberg) is a city in the German land of Bavaria, in Middle Franconia. It is on the river Pegnitz and the Rhine-Main-Danube Canal and is Franconia's largest city. It is located about 170 kilometres north of Munich, at 49.27° N 11.5° E. Population (as of 01/2006) is 500,132.

Contents

History

Middle Ages

From 1050 to 1571, the city became very important because it was on key trade routes. Many of the parliaments of the Holy Roman Empire (called the Reichstage) met at Nuremberg Castle. The Diets of Nuremberg were an important part of the administrative structure of the empire. In 1219 Nuremberg became an Imperial Free City under Emperor Frederick II.[1] This meant it was ruled by the Emperor, not one of the local lords or princes. It also meant that Nuremberg had a seat in the Imperial Parliament.

In 1298 there was a big pogrom. Nearly 700 Jews were killed. The Jews lived near the river, and by getting rid of the Jews the northern and southern parts of the city could be linked together. This area is now the place of the City Market, Frauenkirche and Rathaus (City Hall).

Early modern age

File:Nuremberg hl geist pegnitz f
Hl. Geistspital, Holy Spirit Hospital

In 1532, the Peace of Nuremberg, gave Lutherans important concessions. In 1632 during the Thirty Years' War, the Imperial general Albrecht von Wallenstein besieged King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden in the Siege of Nuremberg. The city became less important after this war, and only recovered in the nineteenth century, when it grew as an industrial centre.

At the beginning of the nineteenth century Nuremberg was practically bankrupt. In 1806 the Holy Roman Empire was dissolved, and Nuremberg became part of the Kingdom of Bavaria, and Bavaria took over the city's debts. The first German railway, from Nuremberg to nearby Fürth, was opened in 1835.

Nazi period

File:Reichsparteitag
Nuremberg party rally 1935

Nuremberg was very important during the Nazi Germany period. The Nazi Party held huge Nazi Party conventions – the Nuremberg rallies in the city.

The rallies were held every year from 1927 to 1938 in Nuremberg. After Hitler's rise to power in 1933 the Nuremberg rallies became huge state propaganda events, and a centre of anti-Semitism and other Nazi ideas. At one rally, Hitler passed the anti-Semitic (anti Jewish) Nuremberg Laws which took German citizenship away from all Jews. A number of buildings were built for the rallies, some of which were not finished.

Today many examples of Nazi architecture can still be seen in the city. The city was also the home of the Nazi propagandist Julius Streicher, the publisher of Der Stürmer.

During World War II, Nuremberg was the headquarters of Wehrkreis (military district) XIII, and an important site for military production, including airplanes, submarines, and tank engines. A subcamp of Flossenbürg concentration camp was located here. A lot of the factories used slave labour.[2]

The city was badly damaged in bombing World War II, especially between 1943 and 1945. On January 2, 1945, the medieval city centre was bombed by the Royal Air Force and the U.S. Air Force and about ninety percent of it was destroyed in only one hour, with 1800 residents killed and roughly 100,000 left homeless. In February 1945, more attacks followed. In total, about 6000 Nuremberg residents are estimated to have been killed in air raids. Despite this, the city was rebuilt after the war and was to some extent, restored to its pre-war appearance including the reconstruction of some of its medieval buildings.

File:Defendants in the dock at nuremberg
Defendants in the dock at Nuremberg Trials

Between 1945 and 1946, German officials involved in the Holocaust and other war crimes were taken in front of the International Military Tribunal in the Nuremberg Trials. The Soviet Union had wanted the trials to take place in Berlin, but Nuremberg was chosen as the site for the trials for specific reasons:

  • • It was located in the American occupation zone
  • • The Nuremberg Palace of Justice was big and only damaged a little by the Allied bombing of Germany). A large prison was also part of the complex.
  • • The city had been the location of the Nazi party's Nuremberg rallies, so there was symbolic value in having the trials to prosecute Nazism there.
  • • As a compromise, Berlin was the permanent seat of the International Military Tribunal and that the first trial (several were planned) would take place in Nuremberg. Because of the Cold War, there were no subsequent trials.

The same courtroom in Nuremberg was the venue of the Nuremberg Military Tribunals, organised by the United States as occupying power in the area.

Economy

Nuremberg city population is 501,000 inhabitants. Urban area had 763,000 inh. as of 2005. (Nuremberg UA:822,000 inh. as of 2008. est.). Nuremberg metropolitan area has 1,205,000 inh. Nuremberg is still associated with gingerbread (Lebkuchen) products, sausages, and handmade toys. The first pocket watches, called Nuremberg eggs, were made there in the sixteenth century. In the nineteenth century Nuremberg became the "industrial heart" of Bavaria with companies such as Siemens and MAN.

Things made in the area include electrical equipment, mechanical and optical products, motor vehicles, and printed materials.

Siemens is still the largest industrial employer in the Nuremberg region but a third of German market research agencies is also located in the city.

The Nuremberg International Toy Fair is the largest of its kind in the world. The city also hosts several specialist hi-tech fairs every year, attracting experts from every corner of the glob

Culture

File:Nuremberg sebald castle f lorenz f
Towers of Saint Sebald and the Castle as seen from Saint Lorenz

Nuremberg was an early center of humanism, science, printing, and mechanical invention.

The city contributed much to the science of astronomy. In 1471 Johannes Mueller of Königsberg (Bavaria), later called Regiomontanus, built an astronomical observatory in Nuremberg and published many important astronomical charts. In 1515, Albrecht Dürer, a native of Nuremberg, mapped the stars of the northern and southern hemispheres, producing the first printed star charts, which had been ordered by Johann Stabius. Around 1515 Dürer also published the "Stabiussche Weltkarte", the first perspective drawing of the terrestrial globe. Perhaps most famously, the main part of Nicolaus Copernicus' work was published in Nuremberg in 1543.

Printers and publishers have a long history in Nuremberg. Many of these publishers worked with well-known artists of the day to produce books that could also be considered works of art. In 1470 Anton Koberger opened Europe's first print shop in Nuremberg. In 1493, he published the Nuremberg Chronicles, also known as the World Chronicles (Schedelsche Weltchronik), an illustrated history of the world from the creation to the present day. It was written in the local Franconian dialect by Hartmann Schedel and had illustrations by Michael Wohlgemuth, Wilhelm Pleydenwurff, and Albrecht Dürer. Others furthered geographical knowledge and travel by map making. Notable among these was navigator and geographer Martin Behaim, who made the first world globe.

Sculptors such as Veit Stoss and Peter Vischer are also associated with Nuremberg.

Composed of prosperous artisans, the guilds of the Meistersingers flourished here. Richard Wagner made their most famous member, Hans Sachs, the hero of his opera Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg. Baroque composer Johann Pachelbel was born here and was organist of Saint Sebald church.

Nuremberg is also famous for its Christmas market, which draws well over a million shoppers each year.

Main sights

[[File:|thumb|right|Dutzendteich and Kongresshalle in the background]] The southern part of the old town, known as Lorenzer Seite, is separated from the north by the river Pegnitz and surrounded by the city walls on the south.

  • Nuremberg Castle: the three castles that tower over the city including central burgraves' castle, with Free Reich's buildings to the east, the Imperial castle to the west.
  • Heilig-Geist-Spital. The Hospital of the Holy Spirit in the centre of the city was founded in 1332. It was one of the largest hospitals of the Middle Ages. Now it houses an old-folks' home and restaurant.
  • Hauptmarkt, which provides a picturesque setting and famous market for gingerbread. Nuremberg's star attraction is the Gothic Schöner Brunnen (Beautiful Fountain) which was built around 1385. Now it is a copy, the original fountain is kept in the Germanisches Nationalmuseum, the German National Museum.
  • The Johannisfriedhof is a medieval cemetery, containing many old graves (Albrecht Dürer, Willibald Pirckheimer, and others). The Rochusfriedhof or the Wöhrder Kirchhof are near the Old Town.
  • There is also a medieval market just inside the city walls, selling handcrafted goods.
  • The German National Railways Museum (German) is also in Nuremberg.
  • The Nuremberg Ring (now welded within an iron fence) is said to bring good luck to those that touch it.

Transportation

Railways

File:101 in Nü
Class 101 locomotive at Nuremberg Main Station

Nuremberg was the first city in Germany to have a railway, and today Nuremberg Central Station is a stop for IC and ICE trains on the German long-distance railway network. Trains on the Nuremberg – IngolstadtMunich High-Speed line travel at up to 300-km/h. The line opened on May 28, 2006. It meant travel times to Munich were reduced to as little as one hour.

Public Transportation

In Nuremberg there are subways, suburban trains, trams and buses.

Sports clubs

  • 1. F.C. Nuremberg
  • SpVgg Greuther Fürth (not really a club from Nuremberg as Fürth is a rural town of its own)
  • Thomas Sabo Ice Tigers - Local professional hockey club.

Sister cities

Worldwide, Nuremberg is twinned with the following cities:

Famous citizens

  • Alexander Schreiner organist, Mormon Tabernacle.
  • Chaya Arbel (Israeli composer)
  • Kaspar Hauser
  • Hans Behaim the Elder
  • Peter Bucher
  • Albrecht Dürer
  • Ludwig Andreas Feuerbach
  • Hermann Kesten (writer)
  • Adam Kraft (sculptor and architect)
  • Anton Koberger
  • Max Morlock
  • Conrad Paumann
  • Hans Sachs
  • Hartmann Schedel
  • Veít Stoß
  • Peter Vischer the Elder
  • Johann Philipp von Wurzelbauer
  • Johann Pachelbel
  • Kunz Lochner

Other pages

References

  1. "Nuremberg". Catholic Encyclopedia. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/11168a.htm. 
  2. Christine O'Keefe.Concentration Camps.www.tartanplace.com/tartanhistory/concentrationcamps.html

Other websites

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