Odessa: Wikis

  
  
  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Did you know ...


More interesting facts on Odessa

Include this on your site/blog:

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Odessa
Одеса
Odesa
Potemkin Stairs

Flag

Coat of arms
Odessa is located in Ukraine
Odessa
Location in Ukraine
Coordinates: 46°28′00″N 30°44′00″E / 46.4666667°N 30.7333333°E / 46.4666667; 30.7333333
Country  Ukraine
Oblast  Odessa Oblast
City Municipality Flag of Odessa, Ukraine.svg Odessa
Port founded September 2, 1794
Government
 - Mayor Eduard Gurwits
Area
 - City 236.9 km2 (91.5 sq mi)
Elevation 40 m (131 ft)
Highest elevation 65 m (213 ft)
Lowest elevation -5 m (-16 ft)
Population (2008)
 - City 1,080,000
 Density 6,141/km2 (15,905.1/sq mi)
 Metro 1,191,0001
 - Demonym Odessit / Odessitka
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 - Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Postal code 65000 — 65480
Area code(s) +380 48
Website www.odessa.ua
1 The population of the metropolitan area is as of 2001.

Odessa or Odesa (Ukrainian: Одеса; Russian: Одесса; Romanian: Odesa; Greek: Οδησσός; Yiddish: אדעס) is the administrative center of the Odessa Oblast (province) located in southern Ukraine. The city is a major seaport located on the shore of the Black Sea and the fourth largest city in Ukraine with a population of 1,029,000 (as of the 2001 census).[1]

The predecessor of Odessa, a small Tatar settlement, was founded by Hacı I Giray, the Khan of Crimea, in 1240 and originally named after him as "Hacıbey". After a period of Lithuanian control, it passed into the domain of the Ottoman Sultan in 1529 and remained in Ottoman hands until the Ottoman Empire's defeat in the Russo-Turkish War of 1792. The city of Odessa was founded by a decree of the Empress Catherine the Great in 1794. From 18191858 Odessa was a free port. During the Soviet period it was the most important port of trade in the Soviet Union and a Soviet naval base. On January 1, 2000 the Quarantine Pier of Odessa trade sea port was declared a free port and free economic zone for a term of 25 years.

In the 19th century it was the fourth largest city of Imperial Russia, after Moscow, Saint Petersburg, and Warsaw.[2] Its historical architecture has a style more Mediterranean than Russian, having been heavily influenced by French and Italian styles. Some buildings are built in a mixture of different styles, including Art Nouveau, Renaissance and Classicist.[3]

Odessa is a warm water port, but militarily it is of limited value. Turkey's control of the Dardanelles and Bosphorus has enabled NATO to control water traffic between Odessa and the Mediterranean Sea. The city of Odessa hosts two important ports: Odessa itself and Yuzhne (also an internationally important oil terminal), situated in the city's suburbs. Another important port, Illichivs'k, is located in the same oblast, to the south-west of Odessa. Together they represent a major transport hub integrating with railways. Odessa's oil and chemical processing facilities are connected to Russia's and EU's respective networks by strategic pipelines.

Contents

Name

The origin of the name, or the reasons for naming the town Odessa, are not known, though etymologies and anecdotes abound. According to one of the stories, when someone suggested Odessos as a name for the new port (see History), Catherine II said that all names in the South of the Empire were already 'masculine,' and didn't want yet another one, so she decided to change it to more 'feminine' Odessa. This anecdote is highly dubious, because there were at least two cities (Yevpatoria and Theodosia) whose names sound 'feminine' for a Russian. Furthermore, the Tsaritsa was not a native Russian speaker, and finally, all cities are feminine in Greek (as well as in Latin). Another legend derives the name 'Odessa' from the word-play: in French (which was then the language spoken at the Russian court), 'plenty of water' is assez d'eau; if said backwards, it sounds similar to that of the Greek colony's name (and water-related pun makes perfect sense, because Odessa, though situated next to the huge body of water, has limited fresh water supply). Regardless, a legend regarding a link with the name of the ancient Greek colony persists, so there might be some truth in the oral tradition. The Turkish name for the district was Yedisan, meaning "nine arrows", and this is a more likely explanation of the name Odessa (whose correct pronunciation is "uh-DYEE-suh").

History

From the first settlements to the end of the 19th century

The site of Odessa was once occupied by an ancient Greek colony. Archaeological artifacts confirm links between the Odessa area and the eastern Mediterranean. In the Middle Ages the Odessa region was ruled in succession by various nomadic tribes, (Petchenegs, Cumans), the Golden Horde, the Crimean Khanate, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and the Ottoman Empire. Yedisan Crimean Tatars traded there in the 14th century. During the reign of Khan Hacı I Giray of Crimea, the Khanate was endangered by the Golden Horde and the Ottoman Turks and, in search of allies, the khan agreed to cede the area to Lithuania. The site of present-day Odessa was then a town known as Khadjibey (named for Hacı I Giray, and also spelled Kocibey in English, Khadjibei, Hacıbey, Hocabey or Gadzhibei in Turkish, Chadžibėjus in Lithuanian, and Hacıbey in Crimean Tatar). It was part of the Dykra region. However, most of the rest of the area was largely uninhabited in this period.

Odessa Сircuit Court building and Church of the monastery of St. Panteleimon (church consecrated in 1895; used as a planetarium from 1961–1991).

Khadjibey came under direct control of the Ottoman Empire after 1529 and was part of a region known as Yedisan and was administered in the Ottoman Silistra (Özi) Province. In the mid-18th century, the Ottomans rebuilt a fortress at Khadjibey (also was known Hocabey), which was named Yeni Dünya. Hocabey was a sanjak centre of Silistre Province.

During the Russo-Turkish War of 1787–1792, on 25 September 1789, a detachment of Russian forces under Ivan Gudovich took Khadjibey and Yeni Dünya for the Russian Empire. One part of the troops was under command of a Spaniard in Russian service, Major General José de Ribas (known in Russia as Osip Mikhailovich Deribas) and the main street in Odessa today, Derybasivska Street, is named after him. Russia formally gained possession of the area as a result of the Treaty of Jassy (Iaşi) in 1792 and it became a part of the so-called Novorossiya ("New Russia").

However, adjacent to the new official locality, a Romanian colony already existed, which by the end of 1700s was an independent settlement known under the name of Moldavanka. Legend has it that the settlement pre-dates Odessa by about thirty years and asserts that the locality was founded by Romanians from what was then the Principality of Moldavia (hence the name) who came to build the fortress of Yeni Dunia for the Ottomans and eventually settled in the area in the late 1760s, right next to the settlement of Khadjibey (since 1795 Odessa proper), on what later became the Primorsky Boulevard.[4] The Romanians owned relatively small plots on which they built village style houses and cultivated vineyards and gardens. What was to become Mikhailovsky Square was the centre of this settlement and the site of its first Orthodox church, the Church of the Dormition, built in 1821 close to the sea shore, as well as of a cemetery. Nearby were the military barracks and the country houses (dacha) of the city's wealthy residents, including that of the Duc de Richelieu, appointed by Tsar Alexander I as Governor of Odessa in 1803. In the period from 1795 to 1814 the population of Odessa has increased 15 times and reached almost 20 thousand people. The first city plan designed by the engineer F. Devollan in the late 18th century.[3] Colonist of various ethnicities settled mainly in the area of former Romanian colony, outside of the official boundaries, and as a consequence, in the first third of the nineteenth century, Moldavanka emerged as the dominant settlement. After planning by the official architects who designed buildings in Odessa's central district, such as the Italians Franz Karlowicz Boffo and Giovanni Torichelli, Moldovanka was included in the general city plan, though the original grid-like plan of Moldovankan streets, lanes and squares remained unchanged.[4]

Ivan Aivazovsky, Nineteenth-Century painting depicting Odessa Harbour.
Ivan Martos's statue of Duc de Richelieu in Odessa

The new city quickly became a major success. Its early growth owed much to the work of the Duc de Richelieu, who served as the city's governor between 1803–1814. Having fled the French Revolution, he had served in Catherine's army against the Turks. He is credited with designing the city and organizing its amenities and infrastructure, and is considered one of the founding fathers of Odessa, together with another Frenchman, Count Andrault de Langeron, who succeeded him in office. Richelieu is commemorated by a bronze statue, unveiled in 1828 to a design by Ivan Martos.

Richelieu Street and the Opera Theater in the 1890s.

In 1819 the city was made a free port, a status it retained until 1859. It became home to an extremely diverse population of Albanians, Armenians, Bulgarians, Frenchmen, Germans (including Mennonites), Greeks, Italians, Jews, Poles, Romanians, Russians, Ukrainians, and traders representing many other nationalities (hence numerous 'ethnic' names on the city's map, e.g., Frantsuzky (French) and Italiansky (Italian) Boulevards, Gretcheskaya (Greek), Yevreyskaya (Jewish), Arnautskaya (Albanian) Streets). Its cosmopolitan nature was documented by the great Russian poet Alexander Pushkin, who lived in internal exile in Odessa between 1823–1824. In his letters he wrote that Odessa was a city where "the air is filled with all Europe, French is spoken and there are European papers and magazines to read". Odessa's growth was interrupted by the Crimean War of 1853–1856, during which it was bombarded by British and French naval forces.[5] It soon recovered and the growth in trade made Odessa Russia's largest grain-exporting port. In 1866 the city was linked by rail with Kiev and Kharkiv as well as Iaşi, Romania.

The city became the home of a large Jewish community during the 19th century, and by 1897 Jews were estimated to comprise some 37% of the population. They were, however, repeatedly subjected to severe persecution. Pogroms were carried out in 1821, 1859, 1871, 1881, and 1905. Many Odessan Jews fled abroad, particularly to Palestine after 1882, and the city became an important base of support for Zionism.

First half of the 20th century

The 142-metre-long Potemkin Stairs (constructed 1837–1841), made famous by Sergei Eisenstein in his movie The Battleship Potemkin (1925).

In 1905 Odessa was the site of a workers' uprising supported by the crew of the Russian battleship Potemkin (also see Battleship Potemkin uprising) and Lenin's Iskra. Sergei Eisenstein's famous motion picture The Battleship Potemkin commemorated the uprising and included a scene where hundreds of Odessan citizens were murdered on the great stone staircase (now popularly known as the "Potemkin Steps"), in one of the most famous scenes in motion picture history. At the top of the steps, which lead down to the port, stands a statue of the Duc de Richelieu. The actual massacre took place in streets nearby, not on the steps themselves, but the film caused many to visit Odessa to see the site of the "slaughter". The "Odessa Steps" continue to be a tourist attraction in Odessa. The film was made at Odessa's Cinema Factory, one of the oldest cinema studios in the former Soviet Union.

Bolshevik forces enter Odessa. February, 1920.

Following the Bolshevik Revolution in 1917 during World War I, Odessa was occupied by several groups, including the Ukrainian Tsentral'na Rada, the French Army, the Red Army and the White Army. In 1918, Odessa became the capital of the independent Odessa Soviet Republic. Finally, in 1920, the Red Army took control of the city and united it with the Ukrainian SSR, which later became part of the USSR.

Soviet gun crew in action at Odessa in 1941

The people of Odessa barely suffered from a famine that occurred as a result of the Civil war in Russia in 1921–1922. After being attacked by German and Romanian troops in 1941, a part of the city's population, industry, infrastructure and all cultural valuables possible were evacuated to inner regions of the USSR, and the retreating Red Army units destroyed as much as they could of Odessa harbour facilities left behind. The city was land mined in the same way as Kiev.[citation needed] During World War II, from 1941–1944, Odessa was subject to Romanian administration, as the city had been made part of the Transnistria occupation district. Romanians used the name 'Odesa' as the Ukrainian version of the city. The Romanian occupation may be described a "soft one", let alone the slaughter of thousands of Jews during the first months of occupation, compared to the short period of German one in 1944.[6] The Romanian commanding General made an "unofficial armistice" with the partisans hidden in the city's catacombs pumping in poison gas or flooding them, who in turn did not mount much resistance to the Romanians.

During the April 1944 battle Odessa suffered severe damage and many casualties. Many parts of Odessa were damaged during its siege and recapture on 10 April 1944, when the city was finally liberated by the Red Army. It was one of the first four Soviet cities to be awarded the title of "Hero City" in 1945, though local narratives, though sometimes ambivalent, often contradict Soviet claims that the occupation was a time of hardship, deprivation, oppression and suffering - claims embodied in public monuments and disseminated through the media to this day.[7] Subsequent Soviet policies imprisoned and executed numerous Odessans (and deported most of the German and Tatar population) on account of collaboration with the occupiers.[8]

The Odessa Massacre

Following the Siege of Odessa, and the Axis occupation, approximately 25,000 Odessans (mostly Jews) were murdered in the outskirts of the city and over 35,000 deported. Most of the atrocities were committed during the first six months of the occupation which officially begun on 17 October 1941, after the bombing of the Romanian HQ and the subsequent brutal response of the Romanian military.[9] After this time period, the Romanian administration changed its policy, refusing to deport the remaining Jewish population to extermination camps in German occupied Poland, and allowing Jews to work as hired labourers. As a result, despite the tragic events of 1941, the survival of the Jews in this area was higher than in other areas of occupied Europe.[9]

Second half of the 20th century

Passenger Terminal of the Odessa port
Tolstogo Street.

During the 1960s and 1970s the city grew tremendously. Nevertheless, the majority of Odessa's Jews emigrated to Israel, the United States and other Western countries between the 1970s and 1990s. Many ended up in the Brooklyn neighborhood of Brighton Beach, sometimes known as "Little Odessa". Domestic migration of Odessan middle and upper classes to Moscow and Leningrad that offered even greater opportunities for career advancement, also occurred on a large scale. But the city grew rapidly by filling the void with new rural migrants elsewhere from Ukraine and industrial professionals invited from all over the Soviet Union.

Despite being part of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, the city preserved and somewhat reinforced its unique cosmopolitan mix of Russian/Ukrainian/Mediterranean culture and a predominantly Russophone environment with a uniquely accented dialect of Russian spoken in the city. The city's Russian, Ukrainian, Greek, Armenian, Italian, Moldovan, Bulgarian, and Jewish communities have influenced different aspects of Odessa life.

In 1991, after the collapse of Communism, the city became part of newly independent Ukraine. Today Odessa is a city of more than 1 million people. The city's industries include shipbuilding, oil refining, chemicals, metalworking and food processing. Odessa is also a Ukrainian naval base and home to a fishing fleet. It is also known for its huge outdoor market, the Seventh-Kilometer Market, the largest market of its kind in Europe.

Government and administrative divisions

The Odessa Main Railway Station.

While Odessa is the administrative centre of the Odessa Oblast (province), the city is the capital of the Odessa City Municipality. However, Odessa is a city of oblast subordinance, thus being subject directly to the oblast authorities rather to the Odessa City Municipality housed in the city itself.

The territory of Odessa is divided into four administrative raions (districts):

  1. Kievsky Raion (Ukrainian: Київський район)
  2. Malinovsky Raion (Ukrainian: Малиновський район)
  3. Primorsky Raion (Ukrainian: Приморський район)
  4. Suvorovsky Raion (Ukrainian: Суворовський район)

In addition, every raion has its own administration, subordinate to the Odessa City Council, and with limited responsibilities.

Geography and features

Odessa is situated (46°28′N 30°44′E / 46.467°N 30.733°E / 46.467; 30.733) on terraced hills overlooking a small harbor, approximately 31 km (19 mi) north of the estuary of the Dniester river and some 443 km (275 mi) south of the Ukrainian capital Kiev. The city has a mild and dry climate with average temperatures in January of −2 °C (28 °F), and July of 22 °C (72 °F). It averages only 350 mm (14 in) of precipitation annually.

The primary language spoken is Russian, while Ukrainian is used primarily for official purposes. The city is a mix of many nationalities and ethnic groups, including Armenians, Bulgarians, Georgians, Germans, Greeks, Jews, Koreans, Moldovans, Russians, Turks, Ukrainians, and many others.

Attractions

Resorts and health care

Odessa is a popular tourist destination, with many therapeutic resorts in and around the city.

The Filatov Institute of Eye Diseases & Tissue Therapy in Odessa is one of the world's leading ophthalmology clinics.

Odessa catacombs

Most of the city's 19th century houses were built of limestone mined nearby. Abandoned mines were later used and broadened by local smugglers. This created a gigantic complicated labyrinth of underground tunnels beneath Odessa, known as "catacombs". During World War II, the catacombs served as a hiding place for partisans. They are a now a great attraction for extreme tourists. Such tours, however, are not officially sanctioned and are dangerous because the layout of the catacombs has not been fully mapped and the tunnels themselves are unsafe. The tunnels are a primary reason why no subway system was ever built in Odessa.

Transportation

The first car in Russia, a Mercedes-Benz belonging to V. Navrotsky, came to Odessa from France in 1891. He was a popular city publisher of the newspaper The Odessa Leaf. Odessa was the first city in Imperial Russia to have steam tramway lines since from 1881, only one year after horse tramway in 1880 operated by the "Tramways d´Odessa", a Belgian owned company. The first metre gauge steam tramway line run from Railway Station to Great Fontaine and the second one to Hadzhi Bey Liman. These were operated by the same Belgian company. Electric tramway started to operate on on 22.08.1907. Trams were imported from Germany. The city public transit in Odessa is currently represented by trams[10] (streetcars), trolleybuses, buses and fixed-route taxis (marshrutkas). Odessa also has a cable car, cable-way, and recreational ferry service. Odessa International Airport is served by major airline carriers, including Aerosvit, Ukraine International, Austrian Airlines, Czech Airlines, El Al, and Turkish Airlines. These and other airlines provide flights to numerous locations in Europe and Asia. Passenger trains connect Odessa with Warsaw, Prague, Bratislava, Vienna, Berlin, Moscow, St.-Petersburg, the cities of Ukraine and many other cities of the former USSR. Intercity bus services are available from Odessa to many cities in Russia (Moscow, Rostov-on-Don, Krasnodar, Pyatigorsk), Germany (Berlin, Hamburg and Munich), Greece (Thessaloniki and Athens), Bulgaria (Varna and Sofia) and several cities of Ukraine and Europe.

Passenger ships and ferries connect Odessa with Istanbul, Haifa and Varna.

Sport

See also: Category:Sport in Odessa

Chornomorets Stadium

The most popular sport in Odessa is football. The main professional football club in the city is FC Chornomorets Odesa, who play in the top division of the Ukrainian Premier League. Chornomorets play their home games in the Chornomorets Stadium, which is currently undergoing renovation.

Basketball is also a prominent sport in Odessa, with BC Odessa representing the city in the Ukrainian Basketball League, the second tier basketball league in Ukraine.

Famous people from Odessa

The Philharmonic Society
School of StolyarskOdessa, Ukraine
Odessa Archaeological Museum was designed in the Neoclassical style just like many other landmarks of the city.

Political leaders

Ze'ev Jabotinsky was born in Odessa, and largely developed his version of Zionism there in early 1920s.[11]

Military leaders

Marshal of the Soviet Union Rodion Yakovlevich Malinovsky a military commander in World War II and Defense Minister of the Soviet Union was born in Odessa.

Poets and writers

Poet Anna Akhmatova was born in Bolshoy Fontan near Odessa.[12] The city has produced many writers, including Isaac Babel, the duo Ilf and Petrov, and Yuri Olesha. Vera Inber, a poet and writer, as well as the famous poet and journalist, Margarita Aliger were both born in Odessa. The Italian writer, slavist and anti-fascist dissident Leone Ginzburg was born in Odessa from a Jewish family, and then went to Italy where he grew up and lived.

One of the most prominent pre-war Soviet writers, Valentin Kataev, was born here and began his writing career as early as high school (gymnasia). Before moving to Moscow in 1922, he made quite a few acquaintances here, including Yury Olesha and Ilf and Petrov. He became a benefactor for these young authors, who would become some of the most talented and popular Russian writers of this period. Kataev later became a chief editor of the Yunost' (Юность), one of the leading literature magazines of the Ottepel of the 1950s and '60s.

These authors and comedians played a great role in establishing the "Odessa myth" in the Soviet Union. Odessites were and are viewed in Russian culture (in the broad sense of the word "Russian") as sharp-witted, street-wise and eternally optimistic. These qualities are reflected in the "Odessa dialect", which borrows chiefly from the characteristic speech of the Odessan Jews, and is enriched by a plethora of influences common for the port city. The "Odessite speech" became a staple of the "Soviet Jew" depicted in a multitude of jokes and comedy acts, in which the Jew served as a wise and subtle dissenter and opportunist, always pursuing his own well-being, but unwittingly pointing out the flaws and absurdities of the Soviet regime. The Jew in the jokes always "came out clean" and was, in the end, a lovable character - unlike some of other jocular nation stereotypes such as The Chukcha, The Ukrainian, The Estonian or The American.

Scientists

A list of world known scientists lived and worked in Odessa. Among them: Illya Mechnikov (Nobel Prize in Medicine 1908),[13] Igor Tamm (Nobel Prize in Physics 1958), Selman Waksman (Nobel Prize in Medicine 1952), Dmitri Mendeleev, Nikolay Pirogov, Ivan Sechenov, George Gamow, Nikolay Umov, Leonid Mandelstam, Aleksandr Lyapunov, Mark Krein, Alexander Smakula, Waldemar Haffkine and Valentin Glushko.

Artists

Jacob Adler, the major star of the Yiddish Theater in New York and father of the actor, director, and teacher Stella Adler, was born in and spent his youth in Odessa. The most popular Russian show-business people from Odessa are Yakov Smirnoff (comedian), Mikhail Zhvanetsky (legendary humorist writer, who began his career as port engineer) and Roman Kartsev (comedian). Zhvanetsky's and Kartsev's success in 1970s, together with Odessa's KVN team, much contributed to Odessa's established status of a "capital of Soviet humour", culminating in the annual Humoryna festival, carried out on and around the April Fool's Day. Odessa was also the home of the late Armenian painter Sarkis Ordyan (1918–2003) and Greek philologist, author and promoter of Demotic Greek Ioannis Psycharis (1854–1929).

Musicians

Odessa produced one of the founders of the Soviet violin school, Piotr Stolyarsky. It has also produced a famous composer Oscar Borisovich Feltsman and a galaxy of stellar musicians, including the violinists Nathan Milstein,Yuri Vodovoz, David Oistrakh and Igor Oistrakh,Boris Goldstein, Zakhar Bron, and pianists Sviatoslav Richter, Benno Moiseiwitsch, Vladimir de Pachmann, Shura Cherkassky, Emil Gilels, Maria Grinberg, Simon Barere, Leo Podolsky, and Yakov Zak.

Athletes

The chess player Efim Geller was born in the city. Gymnast Tatiana Gutsu known as "The Painted Bird of Odessa" brought home Ukraine's first Gold Medal as an independent nation when she outscored the USA's Shannon Miller in the women's All-Around event at 1992 Summer Olympics held in Barcelona Spain.

Other notable sportsmen: Nikolai Avilov - Olympic champion in decathlon, Oksana Baiul - Olympic champion in figure skating, Viktor Petrenko - Olympic champion in figure skating, Igor Belanov - European Footballer of the Year in 1986, Lenny Krayzelburg - Olympic champion swimmer. Yuriy Bilonoh - Olympic champion in shot put . Artur Kyshenko - K1 Muay Thai Kickboxer Ekaterina Rubleva - Russian Ice Dancing Champion. Maksim Chmerkovskiy - Professional ballroom and Latin dancer on the American Dancing With the Stars.

International Relations

Twin towns - Sister cities

Odessa is twinned, has sister and partner relationships with many other cities throughout the World:

Partner cities

See also

References

Bibliography

  • Zipperstein, Steven J. (1986, 1991). The Jews of Odessa: A Cultural History, 1794–1881. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-1251-4, hardcover; ISBN 0-8047-1962-4, paperback reprint. 

Notes

  1. ^ "About number and composition population of UKRAINE by All-Ukrainian Population Census 2001 data.". State Statistics Committee of Ukraine. http://www.ukrcensus.gov.ua/eng/results/general/city/. Retrieved 2006-07-30. 
  2. ^ Herlihy, Patricia (1977). The Ethnic Composition of the City of Odessa in the Nineteenth Century. pp. g. 53. 
  3. ^ a b "Odessa: Architecture and Monuments". © 2009 UKRWorld.Com. http://ukrworld.com.ua/odesskaya-oblast/odessa/97-odessa-architecture-and-monuments.html. Retrieved 2009-06-09. 
  4. ^ a b Richardson, p.110
  5. ^ Clive Pointing, The Crimean War: The Truth Behind the Myth, Chatto & Windus, London, 2004, ISBN 0 7011 7390 4
  6. ^ Richardson, p.97
  7. ^ Richardson, p.103
  8. ^ Richardson, p.17
  9. ^ a b Richardson, p.33
  10. ^ "Odessa Tram Themes". http://www.dgmaestro.com/tram. Retrieved May 2, 2006. 
  11. ^ Nissani, Noah. "Ze'ev Jabotinsky - Brief Biography". © 1996 Liberal.Org. http://www.liberal.org.il/the_man.htm. Retrieved 2009-06-09. 
  12. ^ Anderson, Nancy K.; Anna Andreevna Akhmatova (2004). The word that causes death's defeat. Yale University Press. 
  13. ^ Schmalstieg, Frank C; Goldman Armond S (May. 2008). "Ilya Ilich Metchnikoff (1845-1915) and Paul Ehrlich (1854-1915): the centennial of the 1908 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine". Journal of Medical Biography (England) 16 (2): 96–103. doi:10.1258/jmb.2008.008006 (inactive 2010-03-17). PMID 18463079. 
  14. ^ "Baltimore City Mayor's Office of International and Immigrant Affairs - Sister Cities Program". http://www.baltimorecity.gov/government/intl/sistercities.php. Retrieved 2009-07-18. 
  15. ^ "Liverpool City Council: twinning". http://www.liverpool.gov.uk/Community_and_living/Twinning/index.asp. Retrieved 2008-11-02. 
  16. ^ "Twin Cities". The City of Łódź Office. Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Flag of Poland.svg (in English and Polish) © 2007 UMŁ. http://en.www.uml.lodz.pl/index.php?str=2029. Retrieved 2008-10-23. 
  17. ^ "Marseille Official Website - Twin Cities". Flag of France.svg (in French) © 2008 Ville de Marseille. Archived from the original on 2008-05-05. http://web.archive.org/web/20080505065256/http://www.marseille.fr/vdm/cms/accueil/mairie/international/pid/185. Retrieved 2008-11-26. 
  18. ^ "Twin towns". www.ouka.fi. http://www.ouka.fi/kansainvalisyys/english/ystavyyskaupungit.html. Retrieved 2009-11-07. 
  19. ^ "Sister Cities of Istanbul". http://www.greatistanbul.com/sister_cities.htm. Retrieved 2008-11-02. 
  20. ^ Erdem, Selim Efe (2003-11-03). "İstanbul'a 49 kardeş" (in Turkish). Radikal. http://www.radikal.com.tr/haber.php?haberno=94185. Retrieved 2008-11-02. "49 sister cities in 2003" 
  21. ^ "Twin City acitivities". Haifa Municipality. Archived from the original on 2008-06-21. http://web.archive.org/web/20080621013813/http://www.haifa.muni.il/Cultures/en-US/city/CitySecretary_ForeignAffairs/EngActs.htm. Retrieved 2008-11-02. 
  22. ^ "Vancouver Twinning Relationships" (PDF). City of Vancouver. http://vancouver.ca/ctyclerk/cclerk/20080311/documents/a14.pdf. Retrieved 2009-07-18. 
  23. ^ "Yerevan Municipality - Sister Cities". © 2005-2009 www.yerevan.am. http://yerevan.am/main.php?lang=3&page_id=194. Retrieved 2009-06-22. 
  24. ^ "Official Yokohama City Tourism Website: Sister Cities". © Yokohama Convention & Visitors Bureau. http://www.welcome.city.yokohama.jp/eng/tourism/mame/a3000.html. Retrieved 2008-11-11. 
  25. ^ Побратимские связи г. Бреста.
  26. ^ "Gdańsk Official Website: 'Miasta partnerskie'" (in Polish & English). © 2009 Urząd Miejski w Gdańsku. http://www.gdansk.pl/samorzad,62,733.html. Retrieved 2009-07-11. 

External links

Odessa at the Open Directory Project

Coordinates: 46°28′N 30°44′E / 46.467°N 30.733°E / 46.467; 30.733


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

For other places with the same name, see Odessa (disambiguation).

Odessa is a city in Ukraine, a country in Eastern Europe.

Odessa Opera House is one of the prominent city vistas
Odessa Opera House is one of the prominent city vistas

Odessa (Odesa) is a city in Ukraine located next to the Black Sea. Odessa can be reached by plane, train, bus or ferries. Close to Odessa is the Moldovian and the Romanian borders. Odessa is both one of the largest Black Sea ports and a resort city.

Talk

Although Ukrainian is the country's only official language, it's spoken hardly by a half of city's population, which speaks mainly Russian. Almost every of the city's numerous colleges and universities has a ”Russian as foreign language” teaching department, though having to teach oversees students, would likely be kind to offer private classes.

  • Train 109O goes daily from Odessa Glavnaya 19:57 to Bratislava hl.st. 05:23, two nights later.
  • Train 108 goes daily from Odessa Glavnaza 18:13 to Warsaw hl. 20:20, one night later
  • Train 108 goes on Tuesdays, Wednesdays< Fridays and Sundays from Odessa Glavnaya 18:13 to Prague hl. 6:51, two nights later
  • There is a regular ship service to Illichevsk (Odessa's harbour) from Batumi and Poti in Georgia; approx 42 hours of sailing.
  • There is a regular ferry service to Istanbul twice a week on Saturday (36hours) and Monday (24hours)
Odessa-Main railway station is welcoming tourists
Odessa-Main railway station is welcoming tourists
  • Odessa airport serves direct connections to Istanbul, Vienna, Warsaw, Budapest, Prague, and Moscow and others every day.
  • As soon as you are in Ukraine, there are many trains and buses going to Odessa
  • Hitchhiking is also an option, especially on the road Kyiv-Odessa (one of the best in Ukraine)
  • Airport is easily reachable to/from a center, as well as other neighborhoods by a number of jitneys, and buses. Bus 129 links an airport with a railway station making stops in the "Cherjomushki" section of Odessa. Bus 117 links an airport with city center.
  • Railway station ("zhe de vokzal, or simply "vokzal") is located at the southern edge of city center. It is extremely easily reachable from all point of the city. One of the major tram hubs, as well as trolleybus hubs is located next to it.
  • Marine terminal (Morvokzal) is located just underneath Primorsky Parkway. The famous Potemkin Steps are leading to it from the monument of the Duke De Richelieu. It is reachable by several buses and jitneys, as well as trolleybus number 10 stops there.

Get around

Public transport

There is a good system of trams, bus (and mini-buses) and trolley-buses running through the city. Trams and trolley-buses are very cheap (1 UAH one travel p.p. - nearly 0.13 USD ). Buses and mini-buses costs 2.00-2.50 UAH - nearly 0.25-0.35 USD.

By car

It is very difficult to get around Odessa by car, because there are almost no signs. You will see just "Kyiv" signs or "Airport" signs, but just from time to time. Buy a map before you get in.

A typical Street in the old town of Odessa
A typical Street in the old town of Odessa

The most interesting thing to see in Odessa is the old town itself. The city was once the center for trade for the Russian Empire as well as an intellectual and artistic centre prior to the revolution and during the Soviet Union. Subsequently, much of the grandeur of the city dates from that period. The economic hardships that befell the city falling the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1992 have left vast portions of what was a magnificently wealthy old city in a state of total disrepair. The old city though is quite clean and feels very safe so it makes for a good two days worth of casual unguided wandering particularly with the wide tree lined avenues and large open parks.

In the much smaller and more well kept part of the Old town there is a large and beautiful Opera house and some very nice parks. There is also one main street leading through the centre that is vibrant with people selling street goods to tourists.

Museums

Also there are many interesting museums in Odessa.

  • Museum of Western and Eastern Art, Muzey Zapadnogo i Vostochnogo Iskusstva. Perhaps the most interesting. You can see paintings by Aivazovsky and Caravaggio (as of 9-1-09 no Caravaggio) and other famous artists.
  • Literature museum, at the very beginning of Lanzheronovskaya street. Features a 100 year walk through the history of Odessa in literature.
  • Maritime museum, just between the Opera House and Literature museum. Houses a history of Marine Fleet.
  • Archaeology museum, just around the corner from the literature museum.
  • Picture gallery, at the very beginning of the Sofievskaya Street.. once a palace of Prince Pototskiy, features a huge collection of Russian artist paintings.
the panoramic view of the middle of the Primorskiy Boulevard
the panoramic view of the middle of the Primorskiy Boulevard
  • Walk along the Deribasovskaya street, it has a very colourful pedestrian part, especially at summer or early autumn evening time.
  • Walk along the Primorskiy Parkway (bul'var), is also very good promenade place.
    • In the middle of the Primorsky Parway, you will find a monument to Duke Rechelieu, one of the founders of Odessa.
    • From this point you can walk down the famous Potemkin Steps, to the Primorskaya street to the Marine Terminal, where a lot of buses and trolleybus # 10 stops
    • Instead of walking up or down the potemkin steps, it possible to use the funicular.
    • If you turn 180 degrees from Potemkin Steps, you will see a Cathrene Square, where you can take a short walk to. This square features a recently erected a monument to Catherine the Great, who is also one of the founders of Odessa.
    • Yekaterinenskaya Street: Walk on it a few blocks from its very beginning. A first couple of block is full of greenery, elegant houses where on a first floor there is either a restaurant or some store. In two blocks it intersects with Deribasovskaya street.

Odessa Beaches

Most of the city waterfront, except the port territory, forms a beach zone. All of the beaches are located at the eastern edge of Odessa. The most popular beaches are the following: listed according to their distance from city center.

  • Lanzheron - is closest to the city center, located just underneath the Shevchenko Park. Reachable by tram # 28, as well as by trolleybuses # 2,3 then a short walk is needed.
  • Otrada - is slightly farther from the city center then Lanzheron. It is the closest to the center among the beaches located under the French Parkway (Francuzskij bul'var). Otrada is easily reachable by tram # 5, is 3 stops from Railway Station, and is 5 stops from the interesection with Preobrazhenskaya Street, which is the major transportation artery of the city center.
  • Dolphin - is in 3 more tram stops past Otrada. Now a dolphinarium is located somewhere nearby.
  • Arcadia - is a most popular beach and tourist place with a lot of restaurants, bars, discos, night clubs and other entertainment. Even though it is farther then Otrada and Dolphin, it is easily reachable from city center. Arcadia is the last stop of the Tram # 5, as well as Trolleybuses 5 and 13. Both tram and trolleybus #5 go toward the city center passing the Railway station. Trolleybus 5 goes to the heart of Odessa.
  • Malibu - is a beach at Luzanovka Neighborhood, easily reachable by numerous bus routes which link the city center with the Poselok Kotovskogo section of Odessa. Malibu is the clearest beach on the sea shore with excellent service similar to ones in Arcadia.

Eat

The price for food is very cheap (under 2 USD) as long as you don't eat in any restaurants owned by wealthy famous Ukrainians as the prices are extremely expensive. The 'fast food' on the street is particularly tasty and if you don't speak Russian or read Cyrillic is much more accessible as you can just point at what it is you want. Menus in normal restaurants sometimes are exclusively in Russian so either have an idea of what you want before you sit down or be prepared to randomly pick something from the menu.

Avoid food from street vendors especially at the open air markets. The food quality is questionable so it is wise not to take chances. There are several supermarkets in Odessa that have high quality foods that you can buy as an alternative. There are several McDonald's restaurants in the city (str. Deribasovskaya 23, Privokzalnaya square 1a).

Drink

The beer served in the south of Ukraine is outstanding and goes excellently with the hearty food. In the words of one not so impartial citizen of Central Europe who visited the country, 'Hey, this is as good as Czech beer!?!' A beer in a restaurant will usually cost around 1 - 2 USD. But Odessa does not have a native beer manufacturer (except '1st Private Odessa Brew', but it is sold only in some restaurants and pubs). It does however have a home brewery right in the city center near McDonalds their beer is of outstanding quality but a bit higher priced as you can only get them in this nice restaurant. Just look for a sign that says "Hausbrauerei" (German for Home Brewery) and tell them you just want to have a drink at the bar unless you want to have dinner there of course.

Long-lasting traditions of wine production in neighbouring Moldova and Crimea make Odessa an excellent place for winelovers. Must taste: Negro de Purcari, Pino and famous sweet Kagor from Moldova, Massandra Portwine and Muscat from Crimea.

In the big supermarkets and in shops with alcoholic drink specialization you can find a full assortment of alcoholic drinks from beer to absinthe, and from local brands to world famous brands.

In non-alcoholic drinks here is a large quantity of various brands (foreign: Coca-Cola, Pepsi, Fanta, Sprite, BonAqua etc.; national: Obolon', Bon-Boisson, Prem'era, Kuyal'nik, etc.; local:Kristall, Green Star, Dana, etc.).

Odessa also has a lively nightlife, but foreigners should beware of locals and taxi drivers who often receive payoffs from strip clubs or brothels for bringing you there.

Sleep

Accommodation is plentiful in Odessa and ranges from renting a small room from a local resident to more expensive hotels.

Budget

If you enter by train you will be immediately approached by one of the many locals in an attempt to get you to rent a room from them. This may end up being a small not so well constructed (but basically clean) one room structure located in their garden. It may also not come with a shower with running water, instead consisting of a small outdoor cabinet with a tank located above it that your host will fill with hot water upon request. Additionally the local accommodation will most likely have a Turkish toilet. For those uncomfortable with using a Turkish toilet the facilities at the McDonalds near the train station make for a good substitute. Note that nobody speaks English or German (even the most basic talk). This makes the negotiations very difficult! In July/August most budget hotels are fully booked. The total price for your garden residency will usually not exceed 10 USD and in the summer it is more than sufficient.

  • Odessa Apartments, Afina Center (Grechskaya Square, 7th floor, office 745 (20 Meters from Deribasovskaya Street), + 3-8067-708-55-01 (), [2]. checkin: 13:00; checkout: 12:00. Fully serviced private apartments next or on Deribasovskaya Street. Simple studios accommodating 1-2 people starting from $40 up to $250 for luxurious 4 bedroom units designed for large groups. Featured also are coastal properties in Arkadia and other city beaches. High end properties feature Jacuzzi, outdoor patios, Saunas, etc. 50-350.  edit
  • St. Paul Church House, Novoselskogo, 68, 65023 Odessa, +38-048-777-32-64 (, fax: +38-048-777-32-64). A good place to stay is the St. Paul Church House, a house operated by the German Lutheran Church in Odessa. They rent nice rooms to travelers, when they are not occupied by visitors of the church. 40 Euro (double).  edit
  • Ukraine Accommodation, Deribasovskaya, 12, 65026 Odessa, +38-048-741-17-18 (), [3]. checkin: 13-00; checkout: 12-00. The high class mini hotel in Odessa on Deribasovskaya street. Fully furnished comfortable apartments with kitchen, bath tub, WiFi internet and daily maid service. Free airport pick up.  edit
  • Odessa Apartments in Apart-Hotel Paradis, +38-098-21-55-623 (), [4]. checkin: 13:00; checkout: 12:00. Contemporary furnished apartments in Odessa with all modern amenities,air-conditioning,high-speed internet, fully stocked kitchens and Jacuzzi tubs 45 - 110 USD (double).  edit

Stay safe

Always carry your immigration slip and passport with you, especially if you're of Asian appearance. The police are constantly on the look out for tourists to blackmail.

Train departures timetable
Train departures timetable
  • Timetables can be found at train departures timetable
  • If you are going to the Crimea it is a 12 hour overnight train ride costing somewhere around 10 USD (2 persons sleeper 25 USD, very nice!) . If you buy your ticket on the day you are leaving (not recommended) there is one group of cashier windows where you buy your ticket in the train station. If you buy your ticket on any other day (i.e. at least one day in advance) there is a completely separate group of cashier windows where the ticket must be purchased. As the lines can take longer than 90 minutes make sure you are in the right one. Nobody in the train station will speak any international language other than Russian. In Simferopol you can take a trolleybus to Yalta via Alushta. The beaches on Crimea in summer are awfully crowded and the beach resorts are very noisy. Its better to go to East Crimea on the Sea of Azov.
  • For those, who want to go to Chisinau, the only way is the bus (one daily). Price in September 08 was 50hry. Because of the troubles at Moldova, the buses do not go through Transnistria. In case of this the trip takes about 6hrs.
This article is an outline and needs more content. It has a template, but there is not enough information present. Please plunge forward and help it grow!

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

ODESSA, one of the most important seaports of Russia, ranking by its population and foreign trade after St Petersburg, Moscow and Warsaw. It is situated in 46° 28' N. and 3 0 ° 44' E., on the southern shore of a semi-circular bay, at the north-west angle of the Black Sea, and is by rail ioi 7 m. S.S.W. from Moscow and 61o S. from Kiev. Odessa is the seaport for the basins of two great rivers of Russia, the Dnieper, with its tributary the Bug, and the Dniester (20 m. to S.). The entrances to the mouths of both these offering many difficulties for navigation, trade has from the remotest antiquity selected this spot, which is situated half-way between the two estuaries, while the level surface of the neighbouring steppe allows easy communication with the lower parts of both rivers. The bay of Odessa, which has an area of 14 sq. m. and a depth of 30 ft. with a soft bottom, is a dangerous anchorage on account of its exposure to easterly winds. But inside it are six harbours - the quarantine harbour, new harbour, coal harbour and "practical" harbour, the first and last, on the S. and N. respectively, protected by moles, and the two middle harbours by a breakwater. Besides these, there are the harbour of the principal shipping company - the Russian Company for Navigation and Commerce, and the petroleum harbour. The harbours freeze for a few days in winter, as also does the bay occasionally, navigation being interrupted every year for an average of sixteen days; though this is materially shortened by the use of an ice-breaker. Odessa experiences the influence of the continental climate of the neighbouring steppes; its winters are cold (the average temperature for January being 23.2° F., and the isotherm for the entire season that of Konigsberg), its summers are hot (72.8° in July), and the yearly average temperature is 48.5°. The rainfall is scanty (14 in. per annum). The city is built on a terrace Too to 155 ft. in height, which descends by steep crags to the sea, and on the other side is continuous with the level of the "black earth" steppe. Catacombs, whence sandstone for building has been taken, extend underneath the town and suburbs, not without some danger to the buildings.

The general aspect of Odessa is that of a wealthy westEuropean city. Its chief embankment, the Nikolai boulevard, bordered with tall and handsome houses, forms a fine promenade. The central square is adorned with a statue of Armand, duc de Richelieu (1826), who was governor of Odessa in 1803-1814. A little back from the sea stands a fine bronze statue of Catherine II. (1900). A magnificent flight of nearly 200 granite steps leads from the Richelieu monument down to the harbours. The central parts of the city have broad streets and squares, bordered with fine buildings and mansions in the Italian style, and with good shops. The cathedral, founded in 1794 and finished in 1809, and thoroughly restored in 1903, can accommodate 5000 persons; it contains the tomb of Count Michael Vorontsov, governor-general from 1823 to 1854, who contributed much towards the development and embellishment of the city. The "Palais Royal," with its parterre and fountains, and the spacious public park are fine pleasure-grounds, whilst in the ravines that lead down to the sea cluster the houses of the poorer classes. The shore is occupied by immense granaries, some of which look like palaces, and large storehouses take up a broad space in the west of the city. Odessa consists (i.) of the city proper, containing the old fort (now a quarantine establishment) and surrounded by a boulevard, where was formerly a wall marking the limits of the free port; (ii.) of the suburbs Novaya and Peresyp, extending northward along the lower shore of the bay; and (iii.) of Moldavanka to the south-west. The city, being in a treeless region, is proud of the avenues of trees that line several of its streets and of its parks, especially of the Alexander Park, with a statue of Alexander II. (1891), and of the summer resorts of Fontaine, Arcadia and Langeron along the bay. Odessa is rising in repute as a summer sea-bathing resort, and its mud-baths (from the mud of the limans or lagoons) are considered to be efficacious in cases of rheumatism, gout, nervous affections and skin diseases. The German colonies Liebenthal and Lustdorf are bathing-places.

Odessa is the real capital, intellectual and commercial, of so-called Novorossia, or New Russia, which includes the governments of Bessarabia and Kherson. It is the see of an archbishop of the Orthodox Greek Church, and the headquarters of the VIII. army corps, and constitutes an independent "municipal district" or captaincy, which covers 195 sq. m. and includes a dozen villages, some of which have 2000 to 3000 inhabitants each. It is also the chief town of the Novorossian (New Russian) educational district, and has a university, which replaced the Richelieu Lyceum in 1865, and now has over 1700 students.

In 1795 the town had only 2250 inhabitants; in 1814, twenty years after its foundation, it had 25,000. The population has steadily increased from ioo,000 in 1850, 185,000 in 1873, 225,000 in 1884, to 449,673 in 1900. The great majority of inhabitants are Great Russians and Little Russians; but there are also large numbers of Jews (133,000, exclusive of Karaites), as well as of Italians, Greeks, Germans and French (to which nationalities the chief merchants belong), as also of Rumanians, Servians, Bulgarians, Tatars, Armenians, Lazes, Georgians. A numerous floating population of labourers, attracted at certain periods by pressing work in the port, and afterwards left unemployed owing to the enormous fluctuations in the corn trade, is one of the features of Odessa. It is estimated that there are no less than 35,000 people living from hand to mouth in the utmost misery, partly in the extensive catacombs beneath the city.

The leading occupations are connected with exporting, shipping and manufactures. The industrial development has been rather slow: sugar-refineries, tea-packing, oil-mills, tanneries, steam flour-mills, iron and mechanical works, factories of jute sacks, chemical works, tin-plate works, paper-factories are the chief. Commercially the city is the chief seaport of Russia for exports, which in favourable years are twice as high as those of St Petersburg, while as regards the value of the imports Odessa is second only to the northern capital. The total returns amount to 16 to 20 millions sterling a year, representing about one-ninth of the entire Russian foreign trade, and 14% if the coast trade be included as well. The total exports are valued at 10 to II millions sterling annually, and the imports at 6 to 9 millions sterling, about 81% of all the imports into Russia. Grain, and especially wheat, is the chief article of export. The chief imports are raw cotton, iron, agricultural machinery, coal, chemicals, jute, copra and lead. A new and spacious harbour, especially for the petroleum trade, was constructed in 1894-1900.

History

The bay of Odessa was colonized by Greeks at a very early period, and their ports - Istrianorum Portus and Isiacorum Portus on the shores of the bay, and Odessus at the mouth of the Tiligul Liman - carried on a lively trade with the neighbouring steppes. These towns disappeared in the 3rd and 4th centuries, and for ten centuries no settlements in these tracts are mentioned. In the 14th century this region belonged to the Lithuanians, and in 1396 Olgerd, prince of Lithuania, defeated in battle three Tatar chiefs, one of whom, Khaji Beg or Bey, had recently founded, at the place now occupied by Odessa, a fort which received his name. The Lithuanians, and subsequently the Poles, kept the country under their dominion until the 16th century, when it was seized by the Tatars, who still permitted, however, the Lithuanians to gather salt in the neighbouring lakes. Later on the Turks left a garrison here, and founded in 1764 the fortress Yani-dunya. In 1789 the Russians, under the French captain de Ribas, took the fortress by assault. In 1791 Khaji-bey and the Ochakov region were ceded to Russia. De Ribas and the French engineer Voland were entrusted in 1794 with the erection of a town and the construction of a port at Khaji-bey. In 1803 Odessa became the chief town of a separate municipal district or captaincy, the first captain being Armand, duc de Richelieu, who did very much for the development of the young city and its improvement as a seaport. In 1824 Odessa became the seat of the governors-general of Novorossia and Bessarabia. In 1866 it was brought into railway connexion with Kiev and Kharkov via Balta, and with Jassy in Rumania. In 1854 it was unsuccessfully attacked by the Anglo-Russian fleet, and in1876-1877by the Turkish, also unsuccessfully. In 1905-1906 the city was the scene of violent revolutionary disorders, marked by a naval insurrection. (P. A. K.; J. T. BE.)


<< Odescalchi-Erba

Odeum >>


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Alternative spellings

Etymology

Russian Одесса (Odéssa), origin uncertain. Compare Ukrainian Одеса (Odésa).

Pronunciation

  • Hyphenation: Odes‧sa

Proper noun

Wikipedia-logo.png
Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

Singular
Odessa

Plural
-

Odessa

  1. A Ukrainian port city on the Black Sea.
  2. A city in United States state of Texas.
  3. Odesa province (oblast) of Ukraine.

Synonyms

  • (Ukrainian city): Khadjibey, Hacibey (historical)
  • (province): Odesa Oblast, Odessa Oblast

Translations


Simple English


Odessa (Ukrainian: Одеса, Russian: Одесса; also referred to as Odesa) is a city in southwestern Ukraine. It is the administrative center of the Odessa Oblast (province), and is its own separate district within the oblast. Odessa is a major port on the Black Sea.

In 2004, about 1,012,500 people lived in Odessa.

Contents

Overview

A very old Greek colony named Olbia (Greek: Ολβία, glorious) probably was where the city is now. Many monuments from old times link this place to the Eastern Mediterranean. In the Middle Ages these lands were a part of the Kievan Rus, Galich and Volyn Principality, the Golden Horde, the Great Lithuanian Principality, the Crimean Khanate and the Ottoman Empire. Crimean Tatars traded there in the 14th century. At the time of the RussianTurkish wars these lands were captured by Russia. That was at the end of the 18th century.[1]

From 18191858 Odessa was a free port (porto franco). During the Soviet time it was the most important port of trade in the U.S.S.R. and a Soviet naval base. On January 1, 2000 the Quarantine Pier of Odessa trade sea port was made a free port and free economic zone for 25 years.

Odessa is a warm water port, but of small military value. Because Turkey controls the Dardanelles and Bosphorus, NATO can control ships moving between Odessa and the Mediterranean Sea. The city of Odessa has two important ports: Odessa itself and Yuzhny. Yuzhny is an oil terminal that is impotant to the world. It is in Odessa's suburbs. Another important port, Illichivs'k (or Ilyichyovsk), is in the same oblast, to the south-west of Odessa. Important transportation comes together at these ports. Railways and pipelines come to these ports. Pipelines connect Odessa's oil and chemical factories to Russia's and the EU's.

File:Odessa
Odessa Сircuit Court building and Church of the monastery of St. Panteleimon (church consecrated in 1895; used as a planetarium in 1961–1991).

Odessa is the fifth-largest city in Ukraine and its most important trading city. In the 19th century it was the fourth city of Imperial Russia, after Moscow and St. Petersburg, and Warsaw.[2] Its old buildings seem more Mediterranean than Russian. They were made like French and Italian buildings. People in Odessa could always laugh and had a spirit of freedom. The reason is probably because Odessa is a nice place and because the people accept others. They let others be the kind of people that they are.

History

[[File:|thumb|300px|right|The 142-metre-long Potemkin (originally Richelieu) Stairs. These stairs were constructed between 1834 and 1841. Sergei Eisenstein made them famous in his movie Battleship Potemkin.]]

From the start of Odessa to the end of the 19th century

In the AD 15th century, nomadic tribes of the Nogays under the government of the Khanate of Crimea lived in the place that is now Odessa. During the reign of Khan Haci I Giray, the Khanate was in danger because the Golden Horde and the Ottoman Turks were not friends of the Khanate. To get help, the khan gave Odessa to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The place now named Odessa was then named Khadjibey (also spelled as Khadjibei, Khadzhibei, or Gadzhibei; Lithuanian: Chadžibėjus; Crimean Tatar and Turkish: Hacibey). It was part of the Dykra region. Few people lived in that region. They were part of the Turkic tribes. The land was mostly empty steppes.

The Ottoman Empire controlled Khadjibey after 1529. The region surrounding Khadjibey was named Yedisan. The Ottoman Empire controlled that region as part of Silistra (Özi) Province. In the middle of the 18th century, the Ottomans rebuilt a fortress at Khadjibey. It was named Eni Dunia (Turkish: Yeni Dünya, literally "new world").

At the time of the war between Russia and Turkey (1787–1792), on 25 September 1789, Ivan Gudovich led a group of Russian soldiers to Khadjibey. They took Khadjibey and Yeni Dünya for the Russian Empire. A Spaniard in the Russian army named Major General José de Ribas led one part of the group of soldiers. Russians named him Osip Mikhailovich Deribas. The main street in Odessa today is named Deribasovskaya street after him. Turkey let Russia keep the place in the Treaty of Jassy (agreement of Jassy) in 1792. Russians made it a part of a place they named Novorossiya (New Russia).

The Russian government decided to build a naval fortress on the ruins of Khadjibey city in 1794. This became the city named Odessa by January 1795. In that year its new name was first written in government letters. The reasons for the new name are lost but people guess why Odessa got a new name. According to one of the stories, when someone said Odessos should be the name for the new Russian port, Catherine II said that all names in the South of the Empire were already 'masculine,' and she did not want another one, so she decided to change it to more 'feminine' Odessa. This story may be false. There were at least two cities (Eupatoria and Theodosia) with names that sound 'feminine' for a Russian; also, Catherine II did not speak Russian when she was a child, and lastly, all cities are feminine in Greek (and in Latin). Another story is that the name 'Odessa' is from word-play in French. French was then the language spoken at the Russian court. 'Plenty of water' is assez d'eau in French. If one says this backwards, it sounds like the Greek colony's name. Word-play about water makes sense. Odessa is next to a very big body of water but has a little fresh water. Anyhow, there is still a link with the name of the old Greek colony. So there may be some truth in the things people said long ago.

The new city quickly became a major success. Its early growth owed much to the work of the Duc de Richelieu, who served as the city's governor between 18031814. Having fled the French Revolution, he had served in Catherine's army against the Turks. He is credited with designing the city and organising its amenities and infrastructure, and is considered one of the founding fathers of Odessa, together with another Frenchman, Count Alexandre Langeron, who succeeded him in office. Richelieu is commemorated by a bronze statue, unveiled in 1828 to a design by Ivan Martos.

In 1819 the city was made a free port, a status it retained until 1859. It became home to an extremely diverse population of Russians, Ukrainians, Jews, Greeks, Bulgarians, Albanians, Armenians, Italians, Frenchmen, Germans and traders representing many other European nationalities (hence numerous 'ethnic' names on the city's map, e.g., Frantsuszkiy (French) and Italianskiy (Italian) Boulevards, Grecheskaya (Greek), Evreyskaya (Jewish), Arnautskaya (Albanian) Streets). Its cosmopolitan nature was documented by the great Russian poet Alexander Pushkin, who lived in internal exile in Odessa between 18231824. In his letters he wrote that Odessa was a city where "you can smell Europe. French is spoken and there are European papers and magazines to read".

Odessa's growth was interrupted by the Crimean War of 18531856, during which it was bombarded by British and French naval forces. It soon recovered and the growth in trade made Odessa Russia's largest grain-exporting port. In 1866 the city was linked by rail with Kiev and Kharkov as well as Iaşi, Romania.
File:Odessa
Richelieu Street and the Opera Theatre in the 1890s.

The city became the home of a large Jewish community during the 19th century, and by 1897 Jews were estimated to comprise some 37% of the population. They were, however, repeatedly subjected to severe persecution. Pogroms were carried out in 1821, 1859, 1871, 1881, and 1905. Many Odessan Jews fled abroad, particularly to Palestine after 1882, and the city became an important base of support for Zionism.

First half of the 20th century

In 1905 Odessa was the place of a workers' uprising supported by the crew of the Russian battleship Potemkin (also see Battleship Potemkin uprising) and Lenin's Iskra. Sergei Eisenstein's famous motion picture The Battleship Potemkin commemorated the uprising and included a scene where hundreds of Odessan citizens were killed on the great stone staircase (now popularly known as the "Potemkin Steps"), in one of the most famous scenes in motion picture history. At the top of the steps, which lead down to the port, stands a statue of Richelieu. The actual massacre took place in streets nearby, not on the steps themselves, but the movie caused many to visit Odessa to see the site of the "slaughter". The "Odessa Steps" continue to be a tourist attraction in Odessa. The film was made at Odessa's Cinema Factory, one of the oldest cinema studios in the former Soviet Union.

Following the Bolshevik Revolution in 1917 during World War I, Odessa was occupied by several groups, including the Ukrainian Tsentral'na Rada, the French Army, the Red Army and the White Army. Finally, in 1920, the Red Army took control of Odessa and united it with the Ukrainian SSR, which later became part of the USSR.

The people of Odessa suffered from a great famine that occurred in 19211922 as a result of the war. During World War II Odessa was occupied by Romanian and German forces from 19411944. The city suffered severe damage and many casualties.

Under the Axis occupation, approximately 60,000 Odessans (mostly Jews) were either massacred or deported. Many parts of Odessa were damaged during its fall and later recapture in April 1944, when the city was finally liberated by the Soviet Army. It was one of the first four Soviet cities to be awarded the title of "Hero City" in 1945.

Second half of the 20th century

File:Odessa
Pushkinskaya Street.

During the 1960s and 1970s the city grew tremendously. Nevertheless, between the 1970s and 1990s, the majority of Odessa's Jews emigrated to Israel, the United States and other Western countries, domestic migrationof Odessan middle and upper classes to Moscow and Leningradthat offered even greater opportunities for career advancement, also occurred on a large scale. But the city's grew rapidly by filling the void with new rural migrants elsewhere from Ukraine, industrial professionals invited from Russia as well as other Soviet republics. Despite being part of Ukraine Socialist Republic, the city preserved and somewhat reinforced its unique cosmopolitan mix of Russian/Ukrainian/Mediterranean culture and a predominantly Russophone environment with a uniquely accented dialect of Russian spoken in the city. The city's Russian, Ukrainian, Greek, Armenian, Moldovan and Azeri and Jewish communities have influenced different aspects of Odessa.

In 1991, after the collapse of Communism, the city became part of newly independent Ukraine. Today Odessa is a city of around 1.1 million people. The city's industries include shipbuilding, oil refining, chemicals, metalworking and food processing. Odessa is also a Ukrainian naval base and home to a fishing fleet. It is also known for its huge outdoor market, the Seventh-Kilometer Market.

The transportation network of Odessa consists of trams[3] (streetcars), trolleybuses, buses; and marshrutkas.

Geography and features

Odessa is situated (Google Map) on terraced hills overlooking a small harbor, approximately 31 km (19 mi.) north of the estuary of the Dniester river and some 443 km (275 mi) south of the Ukrainian capital Kiev. The city has a mild and dry climate with average temperatures in January of -2 °C (29 °F), and July of 22 °C (73 °F). It averages only 350 mm (14 in) of precipitation annually.

The primary language spoken is Russian, with Ukrainian being less common despite its being an official language in Ukraine. The city is a mix of many nationalities and ethnic groups, including Ukrainians, Russians, Jews, Greeks, Moldovans, Bulgarians, Armenians and Turks among others.

Culture

File:Odessa
Odessa Public Library (now Archaeological Museum), like so many other landmarks in the city, was designed in Neoclassical style.

Odessa is a popular tourist destination, with many therapeutic resorts in and around the city.

The Tolstoy, Vorontsov, and Potocki families owned palaces in Odessa, which can still be visited.

The writer Isaac Babel was born in the city, which has also produced several famous musicians, including the violinists Nathan Milstein, Mischa Elman and David Oistrakh, and the pianists Benno Moiseiwitsch, Sviatoslav Richter and Emil Gilels. The chess player Efim Geller was born in the city. (All listed, except for Richter, are representatives of the city's Jewish community.)

The most popular Russian show-business people from Odessa are Yakov Smirnoff (comedian), Mikhail Zhvanetsky (legendary humorist writer, who began his career as port engineer) and Roman Kartsev (comedian). Their success in 1970s contributed to Odessa's established status of a "capital of Soviet humour". Later several humour festivals were established in the city, including the celebration of the April Fools' Day.

See more people born in Odessa in Category:Natives of Odessa.

Most of the city's 19th century houses were built of limestone mined nearby. Abandoned mines were later used and broadened by local smugglers. This created a complicated labyrinth of underground tunnels beneath Odessa, known as "catacombs". They are a now a great attraction for extreme tourists. Such tours, however, are not officially sanctioned and are dangerous because the layout of the catacombs has not been fully mapped and the tunnels themselves are unsafe. These tunnels are a primary reason why subway was never built in Odessa.

Its sister city is Vancouver in Canada.

References

  1. "History of Odessa" (HTML). Odessa Online. http://www.odessaonline.com.ua/eng/gonm.php?dir=history&m2=1&m3=1. Retrieved May 1 2006. 
  2. Herlihy, Patricia (1977). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator The Ethnic Composition of the City of Odessa in the Nineteenth Century]. pp. p. 53. 
  3. "Odessa Tram Themes" (HTML). http://www.dgmaestro.com/tram. Retrieved 2006-5-2. 

Other websites








Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message