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State of Ohio
Flag of Ohio State seal of Ohio
Flag Seal
Nickname(s): The Buckeye State; The Mother of Presidents;
Birthplace of Aviation; The Heart Of It All
Motto(s): With God, all things are possible
before statehood, known as
the Northwest Territory
Map of the United States with Ohio highlighted
Official language(s) None. (English, de facto)
Demonym Ohioan; Buckeye[1] (colloq.)
Capital Columbus[2]
Largest city Columbus[3]
Largest metro area Greater Cleveland, Greater Cincinnati[4]
Area  Ranked 34th in the US
 - Total 44,825 sq mi
(116,096 km2)
 - Width 220 miles (355 km)
 - Length 220 miles (355 km)
 - % water 8.7
 - Latitude 38° 24′ N to 41° 59′ N
 - Longitude 80° 31′ W to 84° 49′ W
Population  Ranked 7th[5] in the US
 - Total 11,542,645 (2009 est.)[6]
 - Density 256.2/sq mi  (98.9/km2)
Ranked 9th in the US
Elevation  
 - Highest point Campbell Hill[7]
1,550[7] ft  (472[7] m)
 - Mean 853 ft  (260 m)
 - Lowest point Ohio River[7]
455[7] ft  (139[7] m)
Admission to Union  March 1, 1803[8] (17th,
declared retroactively on
August 7, 1953[9])
Governor Ted Strickland[10] (D)[11]
Lieutenant Governor Lee Fisher[12] (D)[13]
U.S. Senators George V. Voinovich[14] (R)[14]
Sherrod Brown[15] (D)[15]
U.S. House delegation 10 Democrats, 8 Republicans (list)
Time zone Eastern: UTC-5/-4
Abbreviations OH[16] US-OH
Website http://www.ohio.gov
Ohio  Listeni /ɵˈh./ is a Midwestern state of the United States.[17] The 34th largest state by area in the U.S.,[18] it is the 7th-most populous with nearly 11.5 million residents.[19] The capital of Ohio is Columbus. Ohio, whose name was derived from the Seneca word ohi:yo’, meaning "large creek,"[20][21][22][23][24] was formed primarily from the Ohio Territory and was admitted to the Union as the 17th state[25] (and the first under the Northwest Ordinance)[25] on March 1, 1803.[8] Ohio is known as the "Buckeye State" for its prevalence of Ohio Buckeye trees, and, as such, Ohioans are also known as "Buckeyes."[1]
The government of Ohio is composed of the executive branch, led by the Governor; the legislative branch, which comprises the Ohio General Assembly; and the judicial branch, which is led by the Supreme Court. Currently, Ohio occupies 18 seats in the United States House of Representatives.[26] Ohio is known for its status as both a swing state[27] and a bellwether[27] in national elections.
The population density of Ohio ranks ninth among all U.S. states.[28] Nonetheless, Ohio currently suffers from a negative net population migration,[29] and an increasing rate of unemployment.[30]

Contents

Geography

Ohio's geographic location has proven to be an asset for economic growth and expansion. Because Ohio links the Northeast to the Midwest, much cargo and business traffic passes through its borders along its well-developed highways. Ohio has the nation's 10th largest highway network, and is within a one-day drive of 50% of North America's population and 70% of North America's manufacturing capacity.[31] To the north, Lake Erie gives Ohio 312 miles (502 km) of coastline,[32] which allows for numerous seaports. Ohio's southern border is defined by the Ohio River (with the border being at the 1793 low-water mark on the north side of the river), and much of the northern border is defined by Lake Erie. Ohio's neighbors are Pennsylvania to the east, Michigan to the northwest, Ontario Canada, to the north, Indiana to the west, Kentucky on the south, and West Virginia on the southeast. Ohio's borders were defined by metes and bounds in the Enabling Act of 1802 as follows:
Bounded on the east by the Pennsylvania line, on the south by the Ohio River, to the mouth of the Great Miami River, on the west by the line drawn due north from the mouth of the Great Miami aforesaid, and on the north by an east and west line drawn through the southerly extreme of Lake Michigan, running east after intersecting the due north line aforesaid, from the mouth of the Great Miami until it shall intersect Lake Erie or the territorial line, and thence with the same through Lake Erie to the Pennsylvania line aforesaid.
The Ohio coast of Lake Erie.
Note that Ohio is bounded by the Ohio River, but nearly all of the river itself belongs to Kentucky and West Virginia. In 1980, the U.S. Supreme Court held that, based on the wording of the cessation of territory by Virginia (which, at that time included what is now Kentucky and West Virginia), the boundary between Ohio and Kentucky (and by implication, West Virginia) is the northern low-water mark of the river as it existed in 1792.[33] Ohio has only that portion of the river between the river's 1792 low-water mark and the present high-water mark.
The border with Michigan has also changed, as a result of the Toledo War, to angle slightly northeast to the north shore of the mouth of the Maumee River.
Much of Ohio features glaciated plains, with an exceptionally flat area in the northwest being known as the Great Black Swamp. This glaciated region in the northwest and central state is bordered to the east and southeast first by a belt known as the glaciated Allegheny Plateau, and then by another belt known as the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau. Most of Ohio is of low relief, but the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau features rugged hills and forests.
Physical geography of Ohio.
The rugged southeastern quadrant of Ohio, stretching in an outward bow-like arc along the Ohio River from the West Virginia Panhandle to the outskirts of Cincinnati, forms a distinct socio-economic unit. Geologically similar to parts of West Virginia and southwestern Pennsylvania, this area's coal mining legacy, dependence on small pockets of old manufacturing establishments, and distinctive regional dialect set this section off from the rest of the state and, unfortunately, create a limited opportunity to participate in the generally high economic standards of Ohio. In 1965 the United States Congress passed the Appalachian Regional Development Act, at attempt to "address the persistent poverty and growing economic despair of the Appalachian Region."[34] This act defines 29 Ohio counties as part of Appalachia.[35] .While 1/3 of Ohio's land mass is part of the federally defined Appalachian region, only 12.8% of Ohioans live there (1.476 million people.^ Ohio CAT 12 Scan Specifications - 2009 (For Software Developers Use Only) .
  • Ohio.gov Application Header 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC dw.ohio.gov [Source type: Academic]

)[36]
Map of Ohio.
Significant rivers within the state include the Cuyahoga River, Great Miami River, Maumee River, Muskingum River, and Scioto River. The rivers in the northern part of the state drain into the northern Atlantic Ocean via Lake Erie and the St. Lawrence River, and the rivers in the southern part of the state drain into the Gulf of Mexico via the Ohio and then the Mississippi.
The worst weather disaster in Ohio history occurred along the Great Miami River in 1913. Known as the Great Dayton Flood, the entire Miami River watershed flooded, including the downtown business district of Dayton. As a result, the Miami Conservancy District was created as the first major flood plain engineering project in Ohio and the United States.[37]
Grand Lake St. Marys in the west central part of the state was constructed as a supply of water for canals in the canal-building era of 1820–1850. For many years this body of water, over 20 square miles (52 km²), was the largest artificial lake in the world. It should be noted that Ohio's canal-building projects were not the economic fiasco that similar efforts were in other states. Some cities, such as Dayton, owe their industrial emergence to location on canals, and as late as 1910 interior canals carried much of the bulk freight of the state.

Climate

The climate of Ohio is a humid continental climate (Koppen climate classification Dfa) throughout most of the state except in the extreme southern counties of Ohio's Bluegrass region section which are located on the northern periphery of the humid subtropical climate and Upland South region of the United States. Summers are typically hot and humid throughout the State, while winters generally range from cool to cold. Precipitation in Ohio is moderate year-round. Severe weather is not uncommon in the state, although there are typically fewer tornadoes in Ohio than in states located in the so-called Tornado Alley. Severe lake effect snowstorms are also not uncommon on the southeast shore of Lake Erie, which is located in an area designated as the Snowbelt.
Although predominantly not in a subtropical climate, some warmer-climate flora and fauna does reach well into Ohio. For instance, a number of trees with more southern ranges, such as the blackjack oak, Quercus marilandica, are found at their northernmost in Ohio just north of the Ohio River. Also evidencing this climatic transition from a subtropical to continental climate, several plants such as the Southern magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora), Albizia julibrissin (mimosa), Crape Myrtle, and even the occasional Needle Palm are hardy landscape materials regularly used as street, yard, and garden plantings in the Bluegrass region of Ohio; but these same plants will simply not thrive in much of the rest of the State. This interesting change may be observed while traveling through Ohio on Interstate 75 from Cincinnati to Toledo; the observant traveler of this diverse state may even catch a glimpse of Cincinnati's common wall lizard, one of the few examples of permanent "subtropical" fauna in Ohio.

Records

The highest recorded temperature was 113 °F (45 °C), near Gallipolis on July 21, 1934.[38] The lowest recorded temperature was -39 °F (-39 °C), at Milligan on February 10, 1899.[39]

Earthquakes

Although few have registered as noticeable to the average citizen, More than 30 earthquakes occurred in Ohio between 2002 and 2007, and more than 200 quakes with a magnitude of 2.0 or higher have occurred since 1776.[40]
The most substantial known earthquake in Ohio history was the Anna (Shelby County) earthquake,[41] which occurred on March 9, 1937. It was centered in western Ohio, and had a magnitude of 5.4, and was of intensity VIII.[42]
Other significant earthquakes in Ohio include:[43] one of magnitude 4.8 near Lima on September 19, 1884;[44] one of magnitude 4.2 near Portsmouth on May 17, 1901;[45] and one of 5.0 in LeRoy Township in Lake County on January 31, 1986, which continued to trigger 13 aftershocks of magnitude 0.5 to 2.4 for two months.[46][47]
The most recent earthquake in Ohio of any appreciable magnitude occurred on January 8, 2008, at 8:34:46 PM local time. It had a magnitude of 3.1, and its epicenter was under Lake Erie, northeast of Cleveland, approximately 9.7 km (6 mi) west of Mentor-on-the-Lake.[48]
The Ohio Seismic Network (OhioSeis), a group of seismograph stations at several colleges, universities, and other institutions, and coordinated by the Division of Geological Survey of the Ohio Department of Natural Resources,[49] maintains an extensive catalog of Ohio earthquakes from 1776 to the present day, as well as earthquakes located in other states whose effects were felt in Ohio.[50]

Major cities

Rank City 2008 Population Estimate[51] 2008 Metro Population Estimate[52]
1 Columbus 754,885 1,773,120
2 Cleveland 433,748 2,088,291
3 Cincinnati 333,336 2,155,137
4 Toledo 293,201 649,104
5 Akron 207,510 698,553
6 Dayton 154,200 836,544
7 Canton 78,362 407,653
8 Parma 77,947 *
9 Youngstown 72,925 565,947
10 Lorain 70,239 *
11 Hamilton 62,477 **
12 Springfield 62,269 139,859
13 Elyria 54,979 *
14 Kettering 53,708 ***
15 Mentor 51,825 *
16 Middletown 51,422 **
17 Cuyahoga Falls 51,090 ****
18 Lakewood 50,704 *
19 Mansfield 49,579 124,999
20 Euclid 47,415 *
*Greater Cleveland, **Cincinnati Metro, ***Dayton Metro, ****Akron Metro
Columbus (home of The Ohio State University, Franklin University, Capital University, and Ohio Dominican University) is the capital of Ohio, near the geographic center of the state.
Other Ohio cities functioning as centers of United States metropolitan areas include:
Note: The Cincinnati metropolitan area extends into Kentucky and Indiana, and the Youngstown metropolitan area extends into Pennsylvania.
Ohio cities that function as centers of United States micropolitan areas include:

History

Native Americans

Archeological evidence suggests that the Ohio Valley was inhabited by nomadic people as early as 13,000 BC.[53] These early nomads disappeared from Ohio by 1,000 BC, "but their material culture provided a base for those who followed them".[53] Between 1,000 and 800 BC, the sedentary Adena culture emerged. As Ohio historian George W. Knepper notes, this sophisticated culture was "so named because evidences of their culture were excavated in 1902 on the grounds of Adena, Thomas Worthington's estate located near Chillicothe".[54] The Adena were able to establish "semi-permanent" villages because they domesticated plants, which included squash, sunflowers, and perhaps corn. Cultivation of these in addition to hunting and gathering supported more settled, complex villages.[54] The most spectacular remnant of the Adena culture is the Great Serpent Mound, located in Adams County, Ohio.[54]
Around 100 BC, the Adena were joined in Ohio Country by the Hopewell people, who were named for the farm owned by Captain M. C. Hopewell, where evidence of their unique culture was discovered.[55] Like the Adena, the Hopewell people participated in a mound-building culture. Their complex, large and technologically sophisticated earthworks can be found in modern-day Marietta, Newark, and Circleville.[55] The Hopewell, however, disappeared from the Ohio Valley in about 600 AD. Little is known about the people who replaced them.[56] Researchers have identified two additional, distinct prehistoric cultures: the Fort Ancient people and the Whittlesey Focus people.[56] Both cultures apparently disappeared in the 17th century, perhaps decimated by infectious diseases spread in epidemics from early European contact. The Native Americans had no immunity to common European diseases. Some scholars believe that the Fort Ancient people "were ancestors of the historic Shawnee people, or that, at the very least, the historic Shawnees absorbed remnants of these older peoples."[56]
American Indians in the Ohio Valley were greatly affected by the aggressive tactics of the Iroquois Confederation, based in central and western New York.[57] After the so-called Beaver Wars in the mid-1600s, the Iroquois claimed much of the Ohio country as hunting and, more importantly, beaver-trapping ground. After the devastation of epidemics and war in the mid-1600s, which largely emptied the Ohio country of indigenous people by the mid-to-late seventeenth century, the land gradually became repopulated by the mostly Algonquian-speaking descendants of its ancient inhabitants, that is, descendants of the Adena, Hopewell, and Mississippian cultures. Many of these Ohio-country nations were multi-ethnic (sometimes multi-linguistic) societies born out of the earlier devastation brought about by disease, war, and subsequent social instability. They subsisted on agriculture (corn, sunflowers, beans, etc.) supplemented by seasonal hunts. By the 18th century, they were part of a larger global economy brought about by European entry into the fur trade.[58]
The indigenous nations to inhabit Ohio in the historical period included the Miamis (a large confederation); Wyandots (made up of refugees, especially from the fractured Huron confederacy); Delawares (pushed west from their historic homeland in New Jersey); Shawnees (also pushed west, although they may have been descended from the Fort Ancient people of Ohio); Ottawas (more commonly associated with the upper Great Lakes region); Mingos (like the Wyandot, a group recently formed of refugees from Iroquois); and Eries (gradually absorbed into the new, multi-ethnic "republics," namely the Wyandot).[59] Ohio country was also the site of Indian massacres, such as the Yellow Creek Massacre, Gnadenhutten and Pontiac's Rebellion school massacre.[60]

Colonial and Revolutionary eras

During the 18th century, the French set up a system of trading posts to control the fur trade in the region. In 1754, France and Great Britain fought a war that was known in North America as the French and Indian War and in Europe as the Seven Years War. As a result of the Treaty of Paris, the French ceded control of Ohio and the remainder of the Old Northwest to Great Britain.
Pontiac's Rebellion in the 1760s, however, posed a challenge to British military control.[61] This came to an end with the colonists' victory in the American Revolution. In the Treaty of Paris in 1783, Britain ceded all claims to Ohio country to the United States.

Northwest Territory: 1787–1803

Plaque commemorating the Northwest Ordinance outside Federal Hall in lower Manhattan
The United States created the Northwest Territory under the Northwest Ordinance of 1787.[62] Slavery was not permitted in the new territory. Settlement began with the founding of Marietta by the Ohio Company of Associates, which had been formed by a group of American Revolutionary War veterans. Following the Ohio Company, the Miami Company (also referred to as the "Symmes Purchase") claimed the southwestern section, and the Connecticut Land Company surveyed and settled the Connecticut Western Reserve in present-day Northeast Ohio.
The old Northwest Territory originally included areas previously known as Ohio Country and Illinois Country. As Ohio prepared for statehood, the Indiana Territory was created, reducing the Northwest Territory to approximately the size of present-day Ohio plus the eastern half of the Lower Peninsula of Michigan and the eastern tip of the Upper Peninsula.
Under the Northwest Ordinance, areas of the territory could be defined and admitted as states once their population reached 60,000. Although Ohio's population numbered only 45,000 in December 1801, Congress determined that the population was growing rapidly and Ohio could begin the path to statehood. The assumption was that it would exceed 60,000 residents by the time it was admitted as a state.

Statehood: 1803–present

On February 19, 1803, President Jefferson signed an act of Congress that approved Ohio's boundaries and constitution. However, Congress had never passed a resolution formally admitting Ohio as the 17th state. The current custom of Congress declaring an official date of statehood did not begin until 1812, with Louisiana's admission as the 18th state. Although no formal resolution of admission was required, when the oversight was discovered in 1953, Ohio congressman George H. Bender introduced a bill in Congress to admit Ohio to the Union retroactive to March 1, 1803. At a special session at the old state capital in Chillicothe, the Ohio state legislature approved a new petition for statehood that was delivered to Washington, D.C. on horseback. On August 7, 1953 (the year of Ohio's 150th anniversary), President Eisenhower signed an act that officially declared March 1, 1803 the date of Ohio's admittance into the Union.[63][64]
Although many Native Americans had migrated west to evade American encroachment, others remained settled in the state, sometimes assimilating in part. In 1830 under President Jackson, the US government forced Indian Removal of most tribes to the Indian Territory west of the Mississippi River.
In 1835, Ohio fought with Michigan in the Toledo War, a mostly bloodless boundary war over the Toledo Strip. Congress intervened, making Michigan's admittance as a state conditional on ending the conflict. In exchange for giving up its claim to the Toledo Strip, Michigan was given the western two-thirds of the Upper Peninsula, in addition to the eastern third that was already considered part of the state.
Ohio state welcome sign, in an older (1990s) style
Ohio's central position and its population gave it an important place during the Civil War. The Ohio River was a vital artery for troop and supply movements, as were Ohio's railroads. Ohio contributed more soldiers per-capita than any other state in the Union. In 1862, the state's morale was badly shaken in the aftermath of the battle of Shiloh, a costly victory in which Ohio forces suffered 2,000 casualties.[65] Later that year, when Confederate troops under the leadership of Stonewall Jackson threatened Washington, D.C., Ohio governor David Tod still could recruit 5,000 volunteers to provide three months of service.[66] Ohio historian Andrew R. L. Cayton writes that almost 35,000 Ohioans died in the conflict, "and some thirty thousand carried battle scars with them for the rest of their lives."[67] By the end of the Civil War, the Union's top three generals–Ulysses S. Grant, William Tecumseh Sherman, and Philip Sheridan–were all from Ohio.[68][69]
In 1912 a Constitutional Convention was held with Charles B. Galbreath as secretary. The result reflected the concerns of the Progressive Era. It introduced the initiative and the referendum. In addition, it allowed the General Assembly to put questions on the ballot for the people to ratify laws and constitutional amendments originating in the Legislature. .Under the Jeffersonian principle that laws should be reviewed once a generation, the constitution provided for a recurring question to appear on Ohio's general election ballots every 20 years.^ It should be understood that a review of the last lesson is always in order; also, that when any thing in the present lesson is met that relates to something learned in any former lesson, a review of the former lesson in regard to the point in question is to be expected.
  • Hewett.Pedagogy.html 20 November 2009 5:59 UTC www.nimbus.org [Source type: Original source]
  • http://michel.delord.free.fr/bibli1998/Hewett%20Pedagogy.html 20 November 2009 5:59 UTC michel.delord.free.fr [Source type: Original source]

^ The recitation should begin at once, under a "full head of steam," and should be kept up in that way till it closes.
  • Hewett.Pedagogy.html 20 November 2009 5:59 UTC www.nimbus.org [Source type: Original source]
  • http://michel.delord.free.fr/bibli1998/Hewett%20Pedagogy.html 20 November 2009 5:59 UTC michel.delord.free.fr [Source type: Original source]

^ An asylum was here in the 1800's and a mysterious light has appeared over 20 years.
  • Shadowlands Haunted Places Index - Ohio 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.theshadowlands.net [Source type: Original source]

.The question asks whether a new convention is required.^ It is also asked whether the mind can attend to more than one thing at a time; much has been written on this question.
  • Hewett.Pedagogy.html 20 November 2009 5:59 UTC www.nimbus.org [Source type: Original source]
  • http://michel.delord.free.fr/bibli1998/Hewett%20Pedagogy.html 20 November 2009 5:59 UTC michel.delord.free.fr [Source type: Original source]

Although the question has appeared in 1932, 1952, 1972, and 1992, it has never been approved. Instead constitutional amendments have been proposed by petition to the legislature hundreds of times and adopted in a majority of cases.
Eight U.S. presidents hailed from Ohio at the time of their elections, giving rise to its nickname "Mother of Presidents", a sobriquet it shares with Virginia (also termed "Modern Mother of Presidents,"[70] in contrast to Virginia's status as the origin of presidents earlier in American history). Seven presidents were born in Ohio, making it second to Virginia's eight. Virginia-born William Henry Harrison lived most of his life in Ohio and is also buried there. Harrison conducted his political career while living on the family compound, founded by his father-in-law, John Cleves Symmes, in North Bend, Ohio. The seven presidents born in Ohio were Ulysses S. Grant, Rutherford B. Hayes, James A. Garfield, Benjamin Harrison (grandson of William Henry Harrison), William McKinley, William Howard Taft and Warren G. Harding.

Demographics

Historical populations
Census Pop.  %±
1800 45,365
1810 230,760 408.7%
1820 581,434 152.0%
1830 937,903 61.3%
1840 1,519,467 62.0%
1850 1,980,329 30.3%
1860 2,339,511 18.1%
1870 2,665,260 13.9%
1880 3,198,062 20.0%
1890 3,672,329 14.8%
1900 4,157,545 13.2%
1910 4,767,121 14.7%
1920 5,759,394 20.8%
1930 6,646,697 15.4%
1940 6,907,612 3.9%
1950 7,946,627 15.0%
1960 9,706,397 22.1%
1970 10,652,017 9.7%
1980 10,797,630 1.4%
1990 10,847,115 0.5%
2000 11,353,140 4.7%
Demographics of Ohio (csv)
By race White Black AIAN* Asian NHPI*
2000 (total population) 86.83% 12.18% 0.67% 1.41% 0.06%
2000 (Hispanic only) 1.70% 0.19% 0.05% 0.02% 0.01%
2005 (total population) 86.27% 12.66% 0.66% 1.68% 0.07%
2005 (Hispanic only) 2.05% 0.20% 0.05% 0.03% 0.01%
Growth 2000–05 (total population) 0.32% 4.98% -1.57% 20.32% 9.32%
Growth 2000–05 (non-Hispanic only) -0.11% 4.97% -1.96% 20.48% 11.15%
Growth 2000–05 (Hispanic only) 22.11% 5.70% 3.04% 10.81% -0.26%
* AIAN is American Indian or Alaskan Native; NHPI is Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander

Population

From just over 45,000 residents in 1800, Ohio's population grew at rates of over 10% per decade until the census of 1970, which recorded just over 10.65 million Ohioans.[71] Growth then slowed for the next three decades, and approximately 11.35 million people resided in Ohio in 2000.[72] As of July 1, 2008, the state's population was estimated at 11,485,910 by the United States Census Bureau.[73] Ohio's population growth lags that of the entire United States, and Caucasians are found in a greater density than the United States average. As of 2000, Ohio's center of population is located in Morrow County,[74] in the county seat of Mount Gilead.[75] This is approximately 6,346 feet south and west of Ohio's population center in 1990.[74]
As of 2007, 6.5% of Ohio's population is under 5 years of age,[76] compared to a national rate of 6.9%.[77] Also, 13.4% of Ohio's population is over 65 years of age,[76] compared to a United States rate of 12.6%.[77] Females comprise 51.3% of Ohio's population,[76] compared to a national rate of 50.8%.[77]

Race and ancestry

As of 2007, 3.6% of Ohio's total population is estimated to be foreign-born,[78] compared to an estimated 12.5% of the United States population.[78]
Ohio's five largest ancestry groups, as of 2007, are:[79]
  1. German (28.9%);
  2. Irish (14.8%);
  3. English (10.1%);
  4. Polish (8.4%);
  5. Italian (6.4%).
The state's racial makeup in 2006 was:[80]

Religion

According to a Pew Forum poll, as of 2008, 76% of Ohioans identified as Christian.[81] Specifically, 26% of Ohio's population identified as Evangelical Protestant, 22% identified as Mainline Protestant, and 21% identified as Roman Catholic.[81] In addition, 17% of the population is unaffiliated with any religious body.[81] There are also small minorities of Jehovah's Witnesses (1%), Jews (1%), Muslims (1%), Hindus (<0.5%), Buddhists (<0.5%), Mormons (<0.5%), and practitioners of other faiths (1-1.5%).[81]
According to the same data, a majority of Ohioans, 55%, feel that religion is "very important," while 30% say that it is "somewhat important," and 15% responded that religion is "not too important/not important at all."[81] Also, 36% of Ohioans indicate that they attend religious services at least once weekly, while 35% attend these services occasionally, and 27% seldom or never participate in these services.[81]

Economy

Procter & Gamble is one of Ohio's largest companies in terms of revenue.
In 2009, Ohio was ranked #4 in the country for best business climate by Site Selection magazine, based on a business-activity database. The state has also won three consecutive Governor's Cup awards from the magazine, based on business growth and developments.[82] As of 2007, Ohio's gross domestic product (GDP) was $466 billion.[83] This ranks Ohio's economy as the seventh-largest of all fifty states and the District of Columbia.[83]
The Small Business & Entrepreneurship Council ranked the state #10 for best business-friendly tax systems in their Business Tax Index 2009, including a top corporate tax and capital gains rate that were both ranked #6 at 1.9%.[84] Ohio was ranked #11 by the council for best friendly-policy states according to their Small Business Survival Index 2009.[85] The Directorship's Boardroom Guide ranked the state #13 overall for best business climate, including #7 for best ligitation climate.[86] Forbes ranked the state #8 for best regulatory environment in 2009.[87] Ohio has 5 of the top 115 colleges in the nation, according to U.S. News and World Report's 2010 rankings,[88] and was ranked #8 by the same magazine in 2008 for best high schools.[89]
However, as of July 2009, Ohio's unemployment rate stood at 11.1. Ohio's unemployment rate in January 2008 was 5.7%.[83] Ohio's per capita income stands at $34,874.[83] Moody's is predicting a 1.3% increase in personal income in 2009 for Ohio, compared to the 2007 rate of 4.7%.[83] As of 2007, Ohio's median household income is $46,645[90], and 13.1% of the population is below the poverty line,[91] slightly above the national rate of 13%.[91] Ohio's employment base is expected to grow 5% from 2006 to 2016, a net gain of 290,700 jobs.[83]
The manufacturing and financial activities sectors each compose 18.3% of Ohio's GDP, making them Ohio's largest industries by percentage of GDP.[83] Ohio has the largest bioscience sector in the Midwest, and is a national leader in the "green" economy. Ohio is the largest producer in the country of plastics, rubber, fabricated metals, electrical equipment, and appliances.[92] 5,212,000 Ohioans are currently employed by wage or salary.[83]
By employment, Ohio's largest sector is trade/transportation/utilities, which employs 1,010,000 Ohioans, or 19.4% of Ohio's workforce, while the health care and education sector employs 825,000 Ohioans (15.8%).[83] Government employs 787,000 Ohioans (15.1%), manufacturing employs 669,000 Ohioans (12.9%), and professional and technical services employs 638,000 Ohioans (12.2%).[83] Ohio's manufacturing sector is the third-largest of all fifty United States states in terms of gross domestic product.[83] Fifty-nine of the United States' top 1,000 publicly traded companies (by revenue in 2008) are headquartered in Ohio, including Procter & Gamble, Goodyear Tire & Rubber, NCR Corporation, AK Steel, Timken, Abercrombie & Fitch, and Wendy's.[93]
Ohio is also one of 41 states with its own lottery,[94] the Ohio Lottery.[95] The Ohio Lottery has contributed over $15.5 billion to public education in its 34-year history.[96]

Transportation

Ground Travel
Many major east-west transportation corridors go through Ohio. One of those pioneer routes, known in the early 1900s as "Main Market Route 3", was chosen in 1913 to become part of the historic Lincoln Highway which was the first road across America, connecting New York City to San Francisco. In Ohio, the Lincoln Highway linked many towns and cities together, including Canton, Mansfield, Wooster, Lima, and Van Wert. The arrival of the Lincoln Highway to Ohio was a major influence on the development of the state. Upon the advent of the federal numbered highway system in 1926, the Lincoln Highway through Ohio became U.S. Highway 30.
Ohio also is home to 228 miles (367 km) of the Historic National Road, now U.S. Route 40.
Ohio has a highly developed network of roads and interstate highways. Major east-west through routes include the Ohio Turnpike (I-80/I-90) in the north, I-76 through Akron to Pennsylvania, I-70 through Columbus and Dayton, and the Appalachian Highway (Ohio 32) running from West Virginia to Cincinnati. Major north-south routes include I-75 in the west through Toledo, Dayton, and Cincinnati, I-71 through the middle of the state from Cleveland through Columbus and Cincinnati into Kentucky, and I-77 in the eastern part of the state from Cleveland through Akron, Canton, New Philadelphia and Marietta down into West Virginia. Interstate 75 between Cincinnati and Dayton is one of the heaviest traveled sections of interstate in Ohio.
Air Travel
Ohio has 5 international airports, 4 commercial and 2 military. The 4 commercial includes Cleveland Hopkins International Airport, which is a major hub for Continental Airlines, Port Columbus International Airport, which is using its fairly new 195 foot control tower that was finished in 2004. Dayton International Airport, Ohio's third largest airport. Akron Fulton International Airport which handles cargo and for private use. Rickenbacker International Airport is one of military which is also home to the 7th largest fed ex building in America. The other military airport is Wright Patterson Air Force Base which is one of the largest Air Force bases in the United States. Other major airports are located in Toledo and Akron.
Cincinnati's Airport is in Kentucky therefore not listed above

Transportation lists

Law and government

The state government of Ohio consists of the executive,[97] judicial,[98] and legislative[99] branches.

Executive branch

The executive branch is headed by the Governor of Ohio.[97] The current governor is Ted Strickland,[10], a Democrat elected in 2006.[11] A lieutenant governor succeeds the governor in the event of any removal from office,[100] and performs any duties assigned by the governor.[101] The current lieutenant governor is Lee Fisher, who also directs the Ohio Department of Development.[12] The other elected constitutional offices in the executive branch are the secretary of state (Jennifer L. Brunner), auditor (Mary Taylor), treasurer (Kevin Boyce), and attorney general (Richard Cordray).[97]

Judicial branch

There are three levels of the Ohio state judiciary. The lowest level is the court of common pleas: each county maintains its own constitutionally-mandated court of common pleas, which maintain jurisdiction over "all justiciable matters."[102] The intermediate-level court system is the district court system.[103] Twelve courts of appeals exist, each retaining jurisdiction over appeals from common pleas, municipal, and county courts in a set geographical area.[102] A case heard in this system is decided by a three-judge panel, and each judge is elected.[102]
The highest-ranking court, the Ohio Supreme Court, is Ohio's "court of last resort."[104] A seven-justice panel composes the court, which, by its own discretion, hears appeals from the courts of appeals, and retains original jurisdiction over limited matters.[105]

Legislative branch

The police car originated in Akron, Ohio.[106]
The Ohio General Assembly is a bicameral legislature consisting of the Senate and House of Representatives.[107] The Senate is composed of 33 districts, each of which is represented by one senator.[108] Each senator represents approximately 330,000 constituents.[108] The House of Representatives is composed of 99 members.[109]

National politics

Presidential elections results[110]
Year Republican Democratic
2008 46.80% 2,677,820 51.38% 2,940,044
2004 50.81% 2,859,768 48.71% 2,741,167
2000 49.97% 2,351,209 46.46% 2,186,190
1996 41.02% 1,859,883 47.38% 2,148,222
1992 38.35% 1,894,310 40.18% 1,984,942
1988 55.00% 2,416,549 44.15% 1,939,629
1984 58.90% 2,678,560 40.14% 1,825,440
1980 51.51% 2,206,545 40.91% 1,752,414
1976 48.65% 2,000,505 48.92% 2,011,621
1972 59.63% 2,441,827 38.07% 1,558,889
1968 45.23% 1,791,014 42.95% 1,700,586
1964 37.06% 1,470,865 62.94% 2,498,331
1960 53.28% 2,217,611 46.72% 1,944,248
Ohio, nicknamed the "Mother of Presidents," has sent seven of its native sons (Ulysses S. Grant, Rutherford B. Hayes, James A. Garfield, Benjamin Harrison, William McKinley, William Howard Taft, and Warren G. Harding) to the White House.[111] All seven were Republicans. Virginia native William Henry Harrison, a Whig, resided in Ohio.[111] Historian R. Douglas Hurt asserts that not since Virginia 'had a state made such a mark on national political affairs.'[112] The Economist notes that "This slice of the mid-west contains a bit of everything American — part north-eastern and part southern, part urban and part rural, part hardscrabble poverty and part booming suburb,"[113]
As of 2008, Ohio's voter demographic leans towards the Democratic Party.[114] An estimated 2,408,178 Ohioans are registered to vote as Democrats, while 1,471,465 Ohioans are registered to vote as Republicans.[114] These are changes from 2004 of 72% and 32%, respectively, and Democrats have registered over 1,000,000 new Ohioans since 2004.[114] Unaffiliated voters have an attrition of 15% since 2004, losing an estimated 718,000 of their kind.[114] The total now rests at 4,057,518 Ohioans.[114] In total, there are 7,937,161 Ohioans registered to vote.[114] In the United States presidential election of 2008, then-Senator Barack Obama of Illinois won 51.50% of Ohio's popular vote, 4.59% more than his nearest rival, Senator John McCain of Arizona.[115] However, Obama won only 22 of Ohio's 88 counties.[116]
Following the 2000 census, Ohio lost one congressional district in the United States House of Representatives, which leaves Ohio with 20 districts, and consequently, 20 representatives. The state is expected to lose two more seats following the 2010 Census.[117] The 2008 elections, Democrats gained three seats in Ohio's delegation to the House of Representatives.[118] This leaves eight Republican-controlled seats in the Ohio delegation.[119] Ohio's U.S. Senators in the 111th Congress are Republican George Voinovich and Democrat Sherrod Brown.[120] Marcia Kaptur (D-9) is the dean, or most senior member, of the Ohio delegation to the United States House of Representatives.[121]

Education

Ohio's system of public education is outlined in Article VI of the state constitution, and in Title XXXIII of the Ohio Revised Code. Substantively, Ohio's system is similar to those found in other states. At the State level, the Ohio Department of Education, which is overseen by the Ohio State Board of Education, governs primary and secondary educational institutions. At the municipal level, there are approximately 700 school districts statewide. The Ohio Board of Regents coordinates and assists with Ohio's institutions of higher education which have recently been reorganized into the University System of Ohio under Governor Strickland. The system averages an annual enrollment of over 400,000 students, making it one of the five largest state university systems in the U.S.

Colleges and universities

a Included among these is the University of Dayton, which is the largest private university in Ohio.
b Two of these institutions are ranked among the top 40 in the nation by US News & World Report: Case Western Reserve University (private national university), and Oberlin College (private liberal arts college).

Libraries

Ohio is home to some of the nation's highest-ranking public libraries.[122] The 2008 study by Thomas J. Hennen Jr. ranked Ohio as number one in a state-by-state comparison.[123] For 2008, 31 of Ohio's library systems were all ranked in the top ten for American cities of their population category.[122]
The Ohio Public Library Information Network (OPLIN) is an organization that provides Ohio residents with internet access to their 251 public libraries. OPLIN also provides Ohioans with free home access to high-quality, subscription research databases.
Ohio also offers the OhioLINK program, allowing Ohio's libraries (particularly those from colleges and universities) access to materials in other libraries. .The program is largely successful in allowing researchers access to books and other media that might not otherwise be available.^ The lesson has been carefully assigned at some previous time, to be learned from a book or from some other available source.
  • Hewett.Pedagogy.html 20 November 2009 5:59 UTC www.nimbus.org [Source type: Original source]
  • http://michel.delord.free.fr/bibli1998/Hewett%20Pedagogy.html 20 November 2009 5:59 UTC michel.delord.free.fr [Source type: Original source]

Sports

Professional sporting

Ohio is home to major professional sports teams in baseball, basketball, football, hockey, and soccer. The state's major professional sporting teams include: Cincinnati Reds (Major League Baseball),[124] Cleveland Indians (Major League Baseball),[125] Cincinnati Bengals (National Football League),[126] Cleveland Browns (National Football League),[126] Cleveland Cavaliers (National Basketball Association),[127] Columbus Blue Jackets (National Hockey League),[128] and the Columbus Crew (Major League Soccer).[129] Baseball's first fully professional team, the Cincinnati Red Stockings of 1869, were organized in Ohio.[130]
On a smaller scale, Ohio hosts minor league baseball, arena football, indoor football, mid-level hockey, and lower division soccer. The minor league baseball teams include: Akron Aeros (affiliated with the Cleveland Indians), Chillicothe Paints (independent), Columbus Clippers (affiliated with the Cleveland Indians), Dayton Dragons (affiliated with the Cincinnati Reds), Lake County Captains[131] (affiliated with the Cleveland Indians), Mahoning Valley Scrappers[132] (affiliated with the Cleveland Indians), and Toledo Mud Hens[133] (affiliated with the Detroit Tigers).
Ohio's minor professional football teams include: Canton Legends (American Indoor Football Association), Cincinnati Marshals (National Indoor Football League), Cincinnati Sizzle (National Women's Football Association), Cleveland Fusion (National Women's Football Association), Cleveland Gladiators (Arena Football League), Columbus Comets (National Women's Football Association), Columbus Destroyers (Arena Football League), Mahoning Valley Thunder (af2), Marion Mayhem (Continental Indoor Football League), and Miami Valley Silverbacks (Continental Indoor Football League).
In lower division professional soccer, Ohio accommodates the Cincinnati Kings and Cleveland City Stars, both of the United Soccer League and the Dayton Dutch Lions of the USL Premier Development League.
Ohio is also home to the Akron Racers, a minor professional softball club, of National Pro Fastpitch.
Former major league teams:

College football

Ohio has eight NCAA Division I-A college football teams, divided among three different conferences. It has also experienced considerable success in the secondary and tertiary tiers of college football divisions.
In Division I-A, representing the Big Ten, the Ohio State Buckeyes football team ranks 5th among all-time winningest programs, with seven national championships and seven Heisman Trophy winners.
Ohio has six teams represented in the MAC conference: the University of Akron, Bowling Green, Kent State, Miami University, Ohio University and the University of Toledo. The MAC Conference headquarters are based in Cleveland.
Division I-AA Youngstown State is a perennial power in the Missouri Valley Football Conference, having won four FBS National Championships under (now OSU Head Coach) Jim Tressel.
Division III Mount Union College boasts a record-setting ten National Championships and also hold the record for 110 consecutive game winning streak from 1994 until 2005.

State symbols

Ohio buckeyes, the seed from the Ohio buckeye tree.
Ohio's state symbols:

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b "Why is Ohio known as the Buckeye State and why are Ohioans known as Buckeyes?" (PDF). http://www.dnr.state.oh.us/Portals/18/education/pdf/buckeyestate.pdf. Retrieved 2008-04-21. 
  2. ^ "Ohio Quick Facts". Ohio Historical Society. http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/ohio_quick_facts.php. Retrieved 2009-03-26. 
  3. ^ a b "City of Columbus: Fun Facts". City of Columbus, Ohio. 2006. http://home.columbus.gov/GenInfo/index.asp. Retrieved 2009-03-26. 
  4. ^ According to the U.S. Census July 2007 Annual Estimate, Greater Cleveland is the largest Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSMA) that is entirely within Ohio, with a population of 2,096,471; and Greater Cincinnati is the largest MSMA that is at least partially within Ohio, with a a population of 2,133,678, approximately 25% of which is in Indiana or Kentucky. Which MSMA is the largest in Ohio depends on the context of the discussion.
  5. ^ "Resident Population -- JULY 2005". United States Census Bureau. 2009-07. http://www.census.gov/statab/ranks/rank01.html. Retrieved 2009-03-27. 
  6. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2009". United States Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/popest/states/tables/NST-EST2009-01.csv. Retrieved 2009-12-30. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f "Elevations and Distances in the United States". U.S Geological Survey. 29 April 2005. http://egsc.usgs.gov/isb/pubs/booklets/elvadist/elvadist.html#Highest. Retrieved 2006-11-07. 
  8. ^ a b Stockwell, Mary (2006). "ohio"+"march+17+1803"#PPA88,M1 The Ohio Adventure. Layton, UT: Gibbs Smith. pp. 88. ISBN 1-58685-361-9. http://books.google.com/books?id=VJKroULBUpgC&printsec=copyright&dq="ohio"+"march+17+1803"#PPA88,M1. 
  9. ^ "Creation of the Board of Elections". Mahoning County Board of Elections. http://www.mahoningcountyoh.gov/DepartmentsAgencies/Departments/BoardofElections/CreationofBOE/tabid/821/Default.aspx. Retrieved 2009-03-25. 
  10. ^ a b "The Governors of Ohio". Ohio Historical Society. 2007-01-08. http://www.ohiohistory.org/onlinedoc/ohgovernment/governors/. Retrieved 2009-03-25. 
  11. ^ a b Hershey, William (2006-11-08). "Strickland becomes first Dem governor since '91". Middletown Journal. http://www.middletownjournal.com/hp/content/oh/story/news/local/2006/11/08/ddn110806gov.html. Retrieved 2009-03-25. 
  12. ^ a b "About Lee". Office of the Governor. 2009. http://www.governor.ohio.gov/AboutUs/AboutLee/tabid/57/Default.aspx. Retrieved 2009-03-25. 
  13. ^ "Democrats Jennifer Brunner, Lee Fisher to run for U.S. Senate". Associated Press. 2009-02-17. http://www.cantonrep.com/archive/x1802686467/Democrats-Jennifer-Brunner-Lee-Fisher-to-run-for-U-S-Senate. Retrieved 2009-03-27. 
  14. ^ a b "George Voinovich". Washington Post. http://projects.washingtonpost.com/congress/members/v000126/. Retrieved 2009-03-27. 
  15. ^ a b "Sherrod Brown". Washington Post. http://projects.washingtonpost.com/congress/members/b000944/. Retrieved 2009-03-27. 
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  21. ^ Mithun (1999), p. 312
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  48. ^ Small earthquake beneath Central Lake Erie, Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological Survey.
  49. ^ The Ohio Seismic Network
  50. ^ Catalog of Ohio Earthquakes, at the Ohio Department of Natural Resources web site
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  54. ^ a b c Knepper (1989), p. 10.
  55. ^ a b Knepper (1989), p. 11.
  56. ^ a b c Knepper (1989), p. 13.
  57. ^ Knepper (1989), p. 14.
  58. ^ Roseboom (1967), p. 20.
  59. ^ Knepper (1989), pp. 14–17.
  60. ^ Knepper (1989), pp. 43–44.
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  63. ^ "The Date of Ohio Statehood", Frederick J. Blue, Ph.D., Ohio Academy of History Newsletter, Volume 23, Autumn 2002
  64. ^ Clearing up the Confusion surrounding OHIO's Admission to Statehood
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  66. ^ Roseboom and Weisenburger (1967), p. 188.
  67. ^ Cayton (2002), p. 129.
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  69. ^ Cayton (2002), pp. 128–129.
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  110. ^ Leip, David. "Presidential General Election Results Comparison - Ohio". US Election Atlas. http://uselectionatlas.org/RESULTS/compare.php?year=2008&fips=39&f=1&off=0&elect=0&type=state. Retrieved December 31, 2009. 
  111. ^ a b Heinrichs, Ann (2003). Ohio. Minneapolis, M.N.: Compass Point Books. pp. 42. ISBN 0-7565-0316-7. http://books.google.com/books?id=VTnyaU2WkmUC&pg=PT43&lpg=PT43&dq=ohio+seven+presidents&source=bl&ots=RB3Duj9lsk&sig=hlKOhCWiW3vUtjtO8j9est4SL_k&hl=en&ei=L_XPSd6bHdrVlQffldHqCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=9&ct=result. 
  112. ^ Holli (1999), p. 162.
  113. ^ " A grain of sand for your thoughts", The Economist, December 20, 2005, retrieved December 23, 2005.
  114. ^ a b c d e f "Graphic: Donkey Stampede". Columbus Dispatch. 2008-08-22. http://www.dispatchpolitics.com/live/content/local_news/stories/2008/08/22/demgraphic.html?adsec=politics&sid=101. Retrieved 2009-03-29. 
  115. ^ "President / Vice President: November 4, 2008" (ASPX). Ohio Secretary of State. 2008-11-04. http://www.sos.state.oh.us/SOS/elections/electResultsMain/2008ElectionResults/pres110408.aspx. Retrieved 2009-03-29. 
  116. ^ Hallett, Joe; Mark Niquette, Jonathan Riskind (2008-11-06). "Total-state Approach Aided Obama". Columbus Dispatch. http://www.dispatchpolitics.com/live/content/local_news/stories/2008/11/06/copy/howwin.ART_ART_11-06-08_A1_4KBQDF8.html?adsec=politics&sid=101. Retrieved 2009-03-29. 
  117. ^ Riskind, Jonathan (2008-12-24). "Ohio likely to lose 2 seats in Congress in 2012". Columbus Dispatch. http://www.dispatchpolitics.com/live/content/national_world/stories/2008/12/24/ohcong.ART_ART_12-24-08_A6_0ACB253.html?sid=101. Retrieved 2009-03-29. 
  118. ^ Brady, Jessica (2008-11-06). "Democrats Gain in Michigan and Ohio". Roll Call. http://www.rollcall.com/issues/54_54/politics/29901-1.html. Retrieved 2009-03-29. 
  119. ^ Nash, James (2008-12-07). "Kilroy is Headed to Congress". Columbus Dispatch. http://www.columbusdispatch.com/live/content/local_news/stories/2008/12/07/election.html?sid=101. Retrieved 2009-03-29. 
  120. ^ "Senators of the 111th Congress". United States Senate. http://www.senate.gov/general/contact_information/senators_cfm.cfm?State=OH. Retrieved 2009-03-29. 
  121. ^ "Rep. Marcy Kaptur (D-OH) Urges Homeowners to Stay in Foreclosed Homes". Democracy Now. 2009-02-03. http://i1.democracynow.org/2009/2/3/rep_marcy_kaptur_d_oh_urges. Retrieved 2009-03-29. 
  122. ^ a b Thomas J. Hennen's American Public Library Ratings for 2006
  123. ^ Statewide Library Scoring
  124. ^ "The Official Site of the Cincinnati Reds". Major League Baseball. http://cincinnati.reds.mlb.com/index.jsp?c_id=cin. Retrieved 2009-03-28. 
  125. ^ "The Official Site of the Cleveland Indians". Major League Baseball. http://cleveland.indians.mlb.com/index.jsp?c_id=cle. Retrieved 2009-03-28. 
  126. ^ a b "NFL Teams". National Football League. http://www.nfl.com/teams. Retrieved 2009-03-28. 
  127. ^ "NBA.com Team Index". National Basketball Association. http://www.nba.com/teams/index.html. Retrieved 2009-03-28. 
  128. ^ "NHL Teams". National Hockey League. http://www.nhl.com/ice/teams.htm. Retrieved 2009-03-28. 
  129. ^ "Major League Soccer Teams". Major League Soccer. http://www.mlsnet.com/teams/. Retrieved 2009-03-28. 
  130. ^ Griffith, Grant (2007). "Legend of the Cincinnati Red Stockings". Cincinnati Vintage Base Ball Club. http://www.1869reds.com/history/. Retrieved 2009-03-28. 
  131. ^ "Lake County Captains". Minor League Baseball. http://lakecounty.captains.milb.com/index.jsp?sid=t437. Retrieved 2009-03-28. 
  132. ^ "Mahoning Valley Scrappers". Minor League Baseball. http://web.minorleaguebaseball.com/index.jsp?sid=t545. Retrieved 2009-03-28. 
  133. ^ "The Toledo Mud Hens". Toledo Mud Hens. http://www.mudhens.com/. Retrieved 2009-03-28. 
  134. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Ohio's State Symbols". Ohio Governor's Residence and State Garden. http://www.governorsresidence.ohio.gov/children/symbols.aspx. Retrieved 2009-03-26. 
  135. ^ "Ohio Attorney General". Ohio Attorney General. http://ohioattorneygeneral.gov/citizen/kids/ohio.asp. Retrieved 2009-07-06. 
  136. ^ "Herb Capital of Ohio". Ohio Historical Society. 2005-07-01. http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=1871. Retrieved 2009-03-27. 
  137. ^ "Ohio's State Motto". Ohio Historical Society. 2005-07-01. http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=1885. Retrieved 2009-03-27. 
  138. ^ "Ohio's State Rock Song". Ohio Historical Society. 2005-07-01. http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=1878. Retrieved 2009-03-27. 

References

  • Cayton, Andrew R. L. (2002). Ohio: The History of a People. Columbus, OH: The Ohio State University Press. ISBN 0814208991
  • Knepper, George W. (1989). Ohio and Its People. Kent, OH: Kent State University Press. ISBN 978-0873387910
  • Mithun, Marianne (1999). Languages of Native North America. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  • Morris, Roy, Jr. (1992). Sheridan: The Life and Wars of General Phil Sheridan. New York: Crown Publishing. ISBN 0-517-58070-5.
  • Holli, Melvin G. (1999). The American Mayor. State College, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press. ISBN 0271018763
  • Roseboom, Eugene H.; Weisenburger, Francis P. (1967). A History of Ohio. Columbus: The Ohio Historical Society.

External links


Preceded by
Tennessee
List of U.S. states by date of statehood
Admitted on March 1, 1803 (17th)
Succeeded by
Louisiana

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Ohio Fall Colors
Ohio Fall Colors
Ohio [1] is a state in the Midwest region of the USA. The state has natural boundaries to the north (Lake Erie) and to the south (Ohio River) and is bordered by the states of Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, Pennsylvania and West Virginia. Ohio also shares Lake Erie as a border with the Canadian province of Ontario. The terrain is generally flat in the northwestern parts due to ancient glaciers, and gradually gets hillier as one heads east and southeast toward the Allegheny and Appalachian mountain ranges. Aside from a Great Lake (Erie) and a major navigable river (Ohio), the State of Ohio offers a national park (Cuyahoga Valley), a national forest (Wayne), a number of National Wildlife Refuges, and a bundle of islands on Lake Erie.
State of Ohio Regions
Comprised of 88 counties, Ohio can be roughly characterized as having 5 regions:
Northwest Ohio - flat agricultural land surrounding Toledo and stretching into Indiana to the west and Michigan to the north.
Northeast Ohio (NEO), also known as "Greater Cleveland" - rolling wooded foothills from the Allegheny Mountain range subside as they approach Lake Erie (definition of NEO includes 13 counties and 4.5 million people).
Mid-Ohio - flat agricultural land surrounding the State capital, Columbus.
Southwest Ohio - hilly areas approaching the Ohio River, surrounding Cincinnati and rolling into Kentucky.
Southeast Ohio - very hilly, coal-mining country in the foothills of the Appalachian Mountains, rolling into Pennsylvania and West Virginia and including the Wayne National Forest.
  • Columbus - the State capital and regional hub of 1.6 million residents
  • Akron - the County Seat of Summit County, was formerly known as the Rubber Capital, and has successfully made the transition from the world's tire manufacturing hub to its high-tech Polymers Research Center, now referred to as the is the Polymer Capital. It is also the home of the All-American Soap Box Derby.
  • Canton - home to the Pro Football Hall of Fame
  • Cincinnati - regional hub of 3 million residents (Cincinnati Metro and Dayton Metro), the "Queen City" is home to the Bengals and Reds. Cincinnati was the first boom town in the United States, and it's Over-the-Rhine district is the largest National Historic District in the United States.
  • Cleveland - regional hub of 3 million residents, the "Rock and Roll Capital of the World" and home to one of the five richest collections of arts and culture institutions in the US
  • Dayton - a mid-sized city famous for being the home of the Wright Brothers, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base and the Dayton International Peace Museum. Dayton can be a wonderfully charming place to visit.
  • Newark - a city with historical ties to the glass-making industry and the second-largest city in central Ohio, Newark is the home of the "Basket Building," a 4-story picnic basket-shaped building which is the corporate headquarters of the Longaberger Co.
  • Sandusky - home to Cedar Point Amusement Park.
  • Toledo - "The Glass City" is home to the Toledo Mud Hens Baseball team, a world class art museum, as well as a nationally ranked zoo and the famous Tony Packo's Cafe.
  • Cuyahoga Valley National Park - The only national park in Ohio. According to the US National Park Service, the Cuyahoga Valley is the 5th most frequently visited park in the National Park System.
  • Lake Erie Islands - Located north of Sandusky (between Cleveland and Toledo), a group of picturesque and festive islands in Lake Erie are accessible via ferry. In addition to several Ohio State Parks located on the islands, there is plenty to do including visiting wineries, restaurants, bars, marinas and beaches. One of the Islands, Put-In-Bay, is known as the "Key West of the North" for its party atmosphere, especially during the summer months.
  • North Coast Beaches - Along the southern shore of Lake Erie are a large number of public beaches. The largest natural sand beach in Ohio, Headlands Beach State Park, is located east of Cleveland, in Mentor. Cleveland Lakefront State Park also includes a large beach at its Edgewater Park, just west of downtown Cleveland. Many other beaches are available throughout Northern Ohio, including Huntington Beach, Euclid Beach and Fairport Harbor. In addition, Maumee Bay State Park, near Toledo, boasts an extensive Lake Erie Beach as well as an inland beach and various resort and banquet facilities, not to mention a challenging Scottish-links style golf course.
  • Ohio State Parks - Ohio has many states parks, spread throughout the state. Fees vary from park to park, but all are very affordable. To the North, the Parks around Lake Erie have some of the best beaches and camping areas. Many have boat launches. Inland, most are in forest areas and offer outstanding amenities to campers, picnickers, boaters and horsemen.
  • Wayne National Forest - Located in the Southeast portion of the state, includes the scenic Hocking Hills region and Lake Logan State Park.
  • Holmes County - Located halfway between Columbus and Cleveland, Holmes County is home to the world's largest population of Amish residents, along with famous attractions like Heini's Cheese, Skyview Ranch, the Amish Door and dozens of other historical Amish attractions.
"OH-IO!"
Bushel of Buckeyes
The Ohio State Buckeyes are known for their competitive college football team, but most Ohioans don't even know why their state is nicknamed after a poisonous fruit! Ohio is commonly referred to as the "Buckeye State" due to the abundance of Buckeye trees in Ohio. The trees grow a nut, which is poisonous to humans and most animals. Native Americans in Ohio called the nut "Hetuck", or "buck's eye" because of its brown circular shape with a small white oval, which resembled a buck's eye.
The name "Buckeye State" came into prominence during the Log-Cabin and Hard-Cider presidential campaign of 1840 when furniture, cabins, and cider kegs were made from buckeye wood in honor of William Henry Harrison, who was the first Ohioan to become President. In the election versus Martin Van Buren the Whig campaign song contained a reference to the buckeye. A far less poisonous and tasty candy is made to resemble to the buckeye, composed of a peanut butter center partially covered in chocolate. The resemblance is striking, and the candies are delicious.
Ohio is the 35th largest state by size, but 7th by population (11,459,011 residents in 2004 according to the US Census Bureau). Ohio's nickname is "The Heart of It All", purportedly because of its shape (kind of like a heart), its central location to the densely populated areas of the US, its mosaic of big commercial cities, small towns, industry and farmland, and its critical role in "America's Heartland" (which can refer to the Midwest agricultural sector and the Great Lakes industrial base).
Ohio has always played and continues to play a critical role in the development of the United States history and government. One of Ohio's contributions to history was the Underground Railroad network which helped escaped slaves move to the free northern states and Canada. Many Ohioans, most notably Harriet Elizabeth Beecher Stowe and John Brown campaigned against slavery.
Ohio has also been home to eight American Presidents, giving it the nickname Mother of US Presidents. American Presidents from Ohio were Ulysses Grant (18th, born in Point Pleasant), Rutherford Hayes (19th, Delaware), James Garfield (20th, Orange), Benjamin Harrison (23rd, North Bend), William McKinley (25th, Niles), William Taft (27th, Cincinnati), and Warren Harding (29th, Corsica/Blooming Grove). William Henry Harrison (9th), born in Virginia but settled (and buried) in North Bend. Ohio is considered one of the most important states in Presidential elections due to its 20 electoral votes and is often one of the few states that can go to either party. Unlike California, Illinois, New York that lean Democratic and Texas which almost always votes Republican, Ohio's voting tendencies changes from election to election.
The Wright Brothers, Orville and Wilbur, inventors of the airplane, were from Dayton in Ohio, giving the state one reason to call itself the Birthplace of Aviation (though the brothers actually flew the airplane first in Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, Dayton was their home and the place were they conducted their research, development, and fabrication activities, as well as test-flights of various glider prototypes). Ohio, however, has additional claims to the nickname. Neil Armstrong, the first man to walk the moon was an Ohioan, as was former U.S. Senator and astronaut John Glenn, who was the first American to complete an orbit of the Earth from outer space. Ohio has also been home to 23 other astronauts, the Wright Patterson Air Force Base, the NASA John H. Glenn Research Center, and National Museum of the United States Air Force.
Inventor Thomas A. Edison was born in Milan, Ohio. His birthplace and home have been preserved.

Talk

Despite what you may have heard, Ohio is very diverse with regional dialects. Around the Great Lakes, especially Cleveland and Toledo, many people speak what is commonly known as General American Dialect, or Standard Midwestern Dialect. In inner cities of Cincinnati, Cleveland, and Columbus there are hundreds of thousands of African-Americans who speak what is called Black English Vernacular. As you move South and Southeast, you may encounter those who speak Southern American English-- especially in the Greater Cincinnati Metropolitan Area.
Ohio - The Heart of It All
Ohio - The Heart of It All
  • Akron-Canton Regional Airport, 5400 Lauby Road Northwest (Exit 113 from I-77), +1-(330)-499-4221, [2]. Akron-Canton Regional Airport (IATA:CAK) is a small, easy to navigate, quick in-and-out airport. In recent years, the airport has become home to low-fare airlines such as AirTran and Frontier.  edit
  • Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky International Airport, (Follow I-275 to Exit 4 (State Route 212.) Follow the signs to airport terminals and parking.), +1-(859)-767-3151 (), [3]. Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky International Airport (IATA:CVG) is on the Kentucky side of the Ohio River, so you'll have to cross the bridge to get to Cincinnati itself. Delta has its second largest hub here.   edit
  • Cleveland Hopkins International Airport, +1-(216)-265-6030, [4]. Cleveland Hopkins International Airport (IATA:CLE) is Cleveland's main airport is located on the west side of the city. The airport is served by most of the major domestic airlines, and it is one of Continental Airlines' three U.S. hubs as well. The RTA Red Line Rapid Transit (see, below) provides frequent and fast rail service from inside the airport to the heart of downtown in roughly 22 minutes for $1.75.  edit
  • Port Columbus International Airport, 4600 International Gateway, +1-(614)-239-4083, [5]. Port Columbus International Airport (IATA:CMH) is served by all the major airlines, with direct flights to most major American cities. Aside from rental cars, the airport can also be reached by the #92 bus, or by taxi. A taxi ride to downtown will cost approximately $25.  edit
  • James M. Cox Dayton International Airport, 3600 Terminal Drive (Located in the town of Vandalia), +1-(937)-454-8200, [6]. James M. Cox Dayton International Airport (IATA:DAY) is located in the northern part of the metropolitan area. Nonstop service is available to Atlanta, Baltimore, Charlotte, Chicago, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Dallas/Ft. Worth, Denver, Detroit, Miami, Milwaukee, Minneapolis, Newark, New York, Orlando, Philadelphia, St. Louis and Washington, D.C. Dayton is the nation's number one 90-minute air market, meaning the city can be reached in 90 minutes or less by 55 percent of the population. Even if your destination is in a different part of the state, it is often cheaper to fly into the smaller Dayton airport, so it is worthwhile it to compare fares.  edit

By car

The State of Ohio is served by the following interstate highways:
  • I-70 splits the state in half, linking Columbus, Dayton and Springfield beyond Pennsylvania to the east and beyond Indiana to the west.
  • I-71 connects the three big cities, starting in Cleveland and running southwest through Columbus and Cincinnati, then beyond Kentucky.
  • I-75 runs along the western part of the state, serving Cincinnati and Toledo and connecting them to Michigan to the north and beyond Kentucky to the south.
  • I-76 serving Akron and Youngstown and connecting to Pennsylvania to the east.
  • I-77 starts in Cleveland and runs south through Akron, Canton, New Philadelphia and Marietta and continues beyond West Virginia.
  • I-80 is the Ohio Turnpike (a toll road) that runs across the northern part of the state, serving Cleveland, Akron, Toledo and Youngstown (where I-80 and I-76 criss cross) and beyond Pennsylvania to the east and Indiana to the west.
  • I-90 also serves the far northern part of the state, including Cleveland and Toledo, merges with the Ohio Turnpike (I-80) for a stretch and continues beyond Pennsylvania to the east and Indiana to the west.

By boat

Many boaters utilize the Great Lakes, St. Lawrence Seaway and their connection points as a travel route. There are many marinas and public boat ramps available for this purpose. Also, the Great Lakes Cruising Company [8] and the American Canadian Caribbean Line [9] provide cruises that include Cleveland on the itineria. There are also steamboat and cruise options connecting points along Ohio and Mississippi Rivers.
noframe
Most points within Ohio are easily accessible by auto with longest distances across the state of about 300 miles and less than 5 hours in driving time. For instance, driving from Cleveland-to-Columbus and Columbus-to-Cincinnati via I-71 takes about 2 hours (give or take 15 minutes). The larger cities in the state all have public mass transit systems.
  • State Route 2 (North Coast Scenic Byway) is a principal route between Toledo and Cleveland that provides easy access to not only the Lake Erie Islands but also one of the worlds most famous amusement parks Cedar Point.
  • State Route 3 (3C Highway) runs from Cincinnati to Cleveland via Columbus and receives it's nickname from the fact that it runs through Ohio's three largest cities, all of which begin with the letter "C".
  • I-70 splits the state in half, linking Columbus, Dayton and Springfield beyond Pennsylvania to the east and beyond Indiana to the west.
  • I-71 connects the three big cities, starting in Cleveland and running southwest through Columbus and Cincinnati, then beyond Kentucky.
  • I-75 runs along the western part of the state, serving Cincinnati and Toledo and connecting them to Michigan to the north and beyond Kentucky to the south.
  • I-76 serving Akron and Youngstown and connecting to Pennsylvania to the east.
  • I-77 starts in Cleveland and runs south through Akron, Canton, New Philadelphia and Marietta and continues beyond West Virginia.
  • I-80 is the Ohio Turnpike (a toll road) that runs across the northern part of the state, serving Cleveland, Akron, Toledo and Youngstown (where I-80 and I-76 criss cross) and beyond Pennsylvania to the east and Indiana to the west.
  • I-90 also serves the far northern part of the state, including Cleveland and Toledo, merges with the Ohio Turnpike (I-80) for a stretch and continues beyond Pennsylvania to the east and Indiana to the west.

By Thumb

Like most of the midwest, highways are long, straight, and flat, and drivers are often going long distances--in other words, a hitchhiker's dream. Be aware that most if not all interstate highways are closed to pedestrians, so you're probably better off trying to catch a ride from an on-ramp. I-80 is the preferred route for those trying to travel across the state east or west.

See

If you want to experience all things Ohio, below are some attractions that can guide you throughout the Buckeye State.
  • National Inventors Hall of Fame Museum - The National Inventors Hall of Fame is located in Akron
  • Akron Art Museum - The Akron Art Museum's new addition is the first building in the United States built by Wolf Prix and his Vienna, Austria based architecture firm, Coop Himmelb(l)au. It's grand opening was in July, 2007 after being closed for 2 years for renovations.
  • Pro Football Hall of Fame - The NFL's Hall of Fame is located in Canton
The National Underground Railroad Freedom Center
The National Underground Railroad Freedom Center
  • Cincinnati Art Museum - Has a great collection of African, Asian, and Islamic art. There's also a great collection by local artists. The Zagat Survey named The Cincinnati Art Museum to be the Best Art Museum in the nation-- a tie with the Chicago Art Academy and the Museum of Modern Art in New York.
  • Cincinnati Zoo - The second oldest zoo in the United States and one of the world's most successful breeding zoos.
  • National Underground Railroad Freedom Center - Retraces the history of the struggle of American slaves to escape to freedom by way of the underground railroad. The museum also looks at slavery and genocide through out the rest of the world. Cincinnati was picked as the home of the museum due to its strategic location on the underground railroad.
The Rock & Roll Hall of Fame
The Rock & Roll Hall of Fame
  • Rock and Roll Hall of Fame - The Hall of Fame is located on Cleveland's Lake Erie Shore.
  • Center of Science and Industry (COSI) - A really cool museum for adults and children alike is located in Columbus, but has a branch in Toledo also.
  • National Museum of the U. S. Air Force - The National Museum of the U. S. Air Force is located on the Wright Patterson Air Force Base in Dayton.
  • Neil Armstrong Air and Space Museum - The Air and Space Museum is located in Wapakonetaand is easily seen off of I-75. It is the birth place of Neil Armstrong. The museum boasts many space artifacts and an Astro-Theater where air and space movies and projected on the interior of a dome.
  • Dayton International Peace Museum - The Peace Museum is located in Dayton and is easily accessed from I-75 Exit 53B, First St. Exit. The museum has exhibits about the world's rich, but often overlooked, history of peace and nonviolence. Member of the International Network of Museums for Peace. For more information, www.DaytonPeaceMuseum.org or 937-22PEACE (937-227-3223)
  • The AMA's Motorcycle Hall of Fame Museum - Located just east of Columbus, on the campus of the American Motorcyclist Association in Pickerington, Ohio, the non-profit Museum tells the exciting stories and preserves the history of American motorcycling. The Museum is also home to the Motorcycle Hall of Fame, honoring the distinguished men and women who have played a vital role in shaping the sport and business of motorcycling, thanks to their competitive spirit, passion, vision and entrepreneurship. For more information, [10] or (614) 856-2222.
  • The Lincoln Highway. If you are a visitor to United States or Ohio, an alternative to the well developed interstate highway system, is the Lincoln Highway which is an East/West transcontinental highway conceived in 1913 specifically for automobile traffic. It is not a speedy road to follow as it passes through, rather than around the Cities and Villages on its path from coast to coast. In Ohio it was (not now, in a lot of cases) known as US Route 30, although US Route 30 remains, much of it has been moved from the original Lincoln Highway, to a newer four lane highway also know as US Route 30. In Ohio the Lincoln Highway runs from East Liverpool, Ohio, West to Fort Wayne, Indiana, through the center of Ohio, and through many of its more scenic areas and communities. You will have no problem finding and enjoying food and lodging, that will be extremely different and likely less expensive than the ""cookie cutter"" offerings along the interstate highways.
Riverfest's famous Waterfall
Riverfest's famous Waterfall
  • Oktoberfest Zinzinnati - Cincinnati's Oktoberfest showcases the rich German heritage of Southwestern Ohio, as well as tasty samples of German-style music, food and beer. First held in 1976, the event has grown to be North America's largest Oktoberfest with over 500,000 people attending each year.
  • Tall Stacks - Held on the shores of the Ohio River in Cincinnati is a large festival paying tribute to Cincinnati's river boat history and has numerous concerts. Tall Stacks is held every three or four years.
  • Riverfest- Riverfest is Cincinnati's largest bash and is held on the banks of the Ohio during the Labor Day weekend. The event is essentially the spectacular Rozzi's fireworks display, which last for half-an-hour and is choreographed to music by local radio station WEBN. There's also a famous race between rubber ducks called the Rubber Duck Regatta [11].
  • Cleveland International Film Festival - first held in 1977, is the largest film festival in Ohio. The festival featured over 200 films, representing more than 40 countries, as well as panel discussions and an area filmmakers conference.
  • Ohio State Fair[12]- The annual event celebrating Ohio and it's history is held in Columbus.
  • Columbus Arts Festival - the Columbus' welcome-to-summer event, pairing the finest artists and craftspeople with continuous entertainment including art activities, musical performances and food from the area's finest restaurants.
  • The Jazz and Ribs Festival - brings together some of today's most popular and innovative jazz artists with mouth watering ribs from all across the country. Held in Columbus.
  • Riverfest Presented by Outdoor Source[13]- A service of the Mid-Ohio Regional Planning Commission celebrates Ohio's rivers and waterways. Event activities include boating on the scioto river, live music, educational exhibits, rock climbing, recycled arts and much more.
Progressive Field - Home of the Cleveland Indians
Progressive Field - Home of the Cleveland Indians
Cincinnati
  • Cincinnati Bengals - Cincinnati's professional football team.
  • Cincinnati Reds - Cincinnati's Major League Baseball team in the National League. The team is also the oldest professional baseball team.
  • Cleveland Browns - A National Football League team in Cleveland.
  • Cleveland Indians - A Major League Baseball team in Cleveland in the American League.
  • Cleveland Cavaliers - Cleveland's NBA Basketball team.
  • Columbus Blue Jackets - A NHL Hockey team in Columbus.
  • Columbus Crew - A Major League Soccer team in Columbus.
  • Ohio State University Buckeyes - Ohio sports the second most Division 1A collegiate sports schools (8) in the nation, but it's premier athletic program is at OSU in Columbus.
  • Toledo Mud Hens - One of the most famous minor league franchises in all of sports, with the finest Minor League Baseball stadium in the country, as voted by Newsweek Magazine.
  • Cleveland City Stars -Professional soccer team currently competing in United Soccer League's First Division.

Amusement parks

Ohio has been nicknamed the "Roller Coaster Capital of the World" due to the number of record breaking amusement park rides that call Ohio home. The two most noteworthy parks in Ohio are Cedar Point and King's Island.
Cincinnati
  • Kings Island and Boomerang Bay Water Park Resort is located in Mason near Cincinnati.
  • Coney Island is a small historical amusement park on the Ohio River in Cincinnati.
  • The Beach Waterpark is a waterpark located close to Kings Island on I-71.
  • Great Wolf Lodge Is an indoor-waterpark lodge also next to Kings Island.
Cleveland
  • Cedar Point is located in Sandusky.
  • Geauga Lake's Wildwater Kingdom is a waterpark located in Aurora near Cleveland.
  • Pioneer Waterland is a waterpark located in Chardon, Ohio.

Eat

Not only are there great places to dine and things to eat throughout Ohio, but these cuisines, several of which define American Food, were born in Ohio:
Northwest
  • Tony Packo's Cafe (Toledo, OH) - The establishment made famous by actor Jamie Farr's character in M*A*S*H, this restaurant is famous for its hearty food including Hungarian hot dogs, beef, chicken, and vegetarian chili, as well as Chicken Paprikas, a local favorite. In 2006 this restaurant opened a branch adjacent to the world famous Toledo Mud Hens beseball stadium and enjoys a lively atmosphere throughout the baseball season.
Northeast
  • Maple Syrup go to Geauga County in Northeast Ohio, the Village of Burton is the heart of maple country, but maple syrup is produced and is available throughout most of the State.
  • Salisbury Steak created by and named for Clevelander Dr. James H. Salisbury who desired to perfect the meat curing process (you can pay homage to him at Lakeview Cemetery near University Circle). Just ask the Menches brothers who must claim, "It's just a fancy hamburger covered in gravy."
Mid-Ohio
  • Roasted/Candy Buckeyes - where else would you go for either delicious snack but the Buckeye State?
Southwest
  • Banana Split - Ernest Hazard of Wilmington is one of the supposed inventors of the banana and ice cream treat
  • Goetta - is a peasant food of German origin that is popular in the greater Cincinnati area. It is primarily composed of ground meat and oats. Traditionally used as a breakfast meat.
  • Cincinnati Chili - is a regional style of chili characteristically served over spaghetti or as a coney sauce. While served in many regular restaurants, it is most often associated with several fast-food chains in the Cincinnati area, including Skyline Chili, Gold Star, Empress, and Dixie.

Drink

Ohio's liquor laws are somewhere in the middle in terms of restrictions. Beer, wine, and liquor (42 proof and under) can be found in many stores. It can be sold until 1 AM (some stores don't have the permit to sell some or all types of the alcohol on Sundays). Hard liquor can be purchased at state liquor agencies (some of which are found in grocery stores). These stores also sell wine, beer, soda, mixers, etc. and have an earlier closing time.

Breweries

Cleveland
  • Great Lakes Brewery the restaurant is in the Ohio City district of Cleveland. The microbrews are available at many bars, restaurants, grocery stores, and even gas stations. The restaurant has gunshots in its walls from Eliot Ness, the former Cleveland Chief of Police, and the FBI man who busted the mob in the early 20th century.
Toledo
  • Maumee Bay Brewing Company - This brewpub, located in the famous Oliver House in downtown Toledo, is known for its wide variety of locally produced microbrews and wood fired pizzas. In addition to a small, but diverse brewery museum, this building is also home to the upscale Rockwell's Restaurant as well as Mutz, a local sports bar and popular hangout after Toledo Mud Hens games.

Ohio Wineries

The first major winery in Ohio was founded by Nicholas Longworth near the banks of the Ohio River in Southwest Ohio. Due to the fertile land wine producing became one Ohio's important industries and at by the 1860's was leading the U.S. in wine production. Due to crop disasters and prohibition wine producing in Ohio dwindled. Wines produced in Ohio have become increasingly popular, though, still largely undiscovered by tourists and locals alike.
  • Al-Bi Winery Company
  • Broad Run Cheesehouse & Swiss Heritage Winery, Tuscarawas County
  • Chalet Debonné Vineyards, Madison (www.debonne.com)
  • Dankorona Winery, Aurora
  • Ferrante Winery, Geneva (www.ferrantewinery.com)
  • Firelands Winery
  • Flint Ridge Vineyard
  • Harmony Hill Vineyards and Estate Winery
  • Heineman's Winery, located on Put-In-Bay
  • Jilbert Winery, Valley City
  • Kinkead Ridge
  • Laurello Vineyards, Geneva (www.laurellovineyards.com)
  • Lonz Winery, Middle Bass Island
  • Maize Valley Farm Market and Winery, just east of Hartville.
  • Markko Vineyards [14]
  • Mon Ami Winery, [15]] Catawba Island
  • Shamrock Vineyard
  • Winery at Versailles
  • Woodstone Creek Winery & Distillery
  • Virant Family Winery, Inc.

Sleep

Visitors may want to consider staying at one of Ohio's Resort Lodges or State Parks, which are spread thoughout the state. Most are very pleasant to visit and offer an an opportunity to visit Ohio's great outdoors. The Lodges offer outstanding locations and amenities, while the Parks usually offer primitive camping, camping, backpacking, group camps, horseman camps and boat camping. All are State of Ohio owned, some are operated by contractors.

Stay healthy

Ohioans passed "SmokeFree Ohio" ballot measure in 2006 banning smoking in most public areas with very few exceptions. Hotels that have designated smoking rooms in hotels, motels, and other lodging facilities may still allow smoking in smoking rooms under the new law. Restaurants and bars are forbidden from allowing smoking or ashtrays on their premises unless they have an outdoor patio.
If you're at a place that is in violation of the law you can report the violation to the Ohio Department of Health by calling the toll-free number: 1-866-559-6446. Alternatively, you can email a complaint to NoSmoke@odh.ohio.gov. You must include the following information for a complaint to be followed up on: the business' name, nature of the complaint, a complete address; including the street number, street name, city and zip code.
Even if you are driving through Ohio, in the winter months you want to make sure that you have enough clothes to keep you warm in the event you have difficulties. Temperatures often get below -0- F. Drivers heading into Ohio from the South will want to make sure their vehicles are prepared for freezing weather. Have the antifreeze in your radiator checked as well as replacing any widow washer solvent with a product that will not freeze. Be prepared with extra warm clothes, shoes, head cover and gloves.
January in Ohio - 22 Degrees
In general, Ohio is a fairly safe state. The biggest threat toward all visitors is the weather. However use caution when entering inner-cities.

Get out

Ohio is geographically located in the Heartland of the United States-- which makes it easy to take a trip to much of the United States of America and even Canada.
  • Indiana- State directly to the West, home of Indianapolis and the Indy 500.
  • Kentucky- State directly to the South, home of Louisville and Lexington (Kentucky) and the Kentucky Derby.
  • Pennsylvania - State directly to the East, home of Philadelphia and Pittsburgh. Known for its revolutionary war era historical sites (mainly in Philadelphia) and its steel industry.
  • Michigan - State to the North, home of Detroit. Has about 12,000 inland lakes, 38 deep-water ports, more miles of coastline than any state but Alaska, and more lighthouses than any other U.S. state.
  • Ontario - Canadian province to the North, home of Ottawa Canada's capital, as well as Ontario's own capital Toronto.
  • West Virginia - State to the Southeast, home of Charleston. It's often called the "Mountain State", being the only state in the USA to lie completely within a mountain range (in this case, the Appalachians).
  • Chicago- City to the West. Chicago is the largest Midwestern city, located on Lake Michigan.
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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

="">See Ohio (disambiguation) for articles sharing the title Ohio.

OHIO, a north central state of the United States of America, lying between latitudes 38° 27' and 41° 57' N. and between longitudes 80° 34' and 84° 49' W. It is bounded N. by Michigan and Lake Erie, E. by Pennsylvania and by the Ohio river which separates it from West Virginia, S. by the Ohio river which separates it from West Virginia and Kentucky, and W. by Indiana. The total area is 41,040 sq. m., 300 sq. m. being water surface.
Table of contents

Physiography

The state lies on the borderland between the Prairie Plains and the Alleghany Plateau. .The disturbances among the underlying rocks of Ohio have been slight, and originally the surface was a plain only slightly undulating; stream dissection changed the region to one of numberless hills and valleys; glacial drift then filled up the valleys over large broken areas, forming the remarkably level till plains of northwestern Ohio; but at the same time other areas were broken by the uneven distribution of the drift, and south-eastern Ohio, which was unglaciated, retains its rugged hilly character, gradually merging with the typical plateau country farther S.E. The average elevation of the state above the sea is about 850 ft., but extremes vary from 425 ft.^ If, however, the mistake is one that the same pupil makes habitually, he should be stopped instantly, on every occasion, until the habit is broken up.
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^ Rosenkranz has well said that we are not thoroughly educated in any thing till it has taken on the form of habit; in other words, habit is the form which all true education takes.
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^ The same letters are found in the words organ , urge , energy , thaumaturgy , and many others,--all these words express in some form the idea of work.
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at the confluence of the Great Miami and Ohio rivers in the S.W. corner to 1540 ft. on the summit of Hogues Hill about 12 m. E. of Bellefontaine in the west central part.
.The main water-parting is formed by a range of hills which are composed chiefly of drift and extend W.S.W. across the state from Trumbull county in the N.E. to Darke county, or about the middle of the W. border.^ Sunlight, air, and in some places, water are about the only gifts bestowed upon us without some sort of expenditure on our part.
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North of this water-parting the rivers flow into Lake Erie; S. of it into the Ohio river. Nearly all of the streams in the N.E. part of the state have a rapid current. .Those that flow directly into the lake are short, but some of the rivers of this region, such as the Cuyahoga and the'Grand, are turned by drift ridges into circuitous courses and flow through narrow valleys with numerous falls and rapids.^ It is probable that some such process as this is often gone through with by those who have not thought of the peculiar form of mental activity they are exercising.
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Passing the village of Cuyahoga Falls the Cuyahoga river descends more than 200 ft. in 3 m.; a part of its course is between walls of sandstone too ft. or more in height, and near its mouth, at Cleveland, its bed has been cut down through 60 ft. of drift. .In the middle N. part of the state the Black, Vermilion and Huron rivers have their sources in swamps on the water-parting and flow directly to the lake through narrow valleys.^ If we can do this completely, the attention is perfect,-- no force is lost; if not, the power in part escapes like lost water through a leaky dam.
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The till plains of north-western Ohio are drained chiefly by the Maumee and Sandusky rivers, with their tributaries, and the average fall of the Maumee is only 1.1 ft. per mile, while that of the Sandusky decreases from about 7 ft. per mile at Upper Sandusky to 2.5 ft. per mile below Fremont. .South of the water-parting the average length of the rivers is greater than that of those N. of it, and their average fall per mile is much less.^ In training, perhaps the saving is less; nevertheless, one can train twenty in a class in much less time than it would take to train them singly.
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^ RIGIDNESS.--When a lesson, reasonable in kind and length, has been assigned in the way we have indicated, the teacher should be satisfied with nothing less than complete work.
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^ It is not of much consequence to find the length of a pole that is partly in the mud, partly in the water, and partly in the air!
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In the S.W. the Great Miami and Little Miami rivers have uniform falls through basins that are decidedly rolling and that contain the extremes of elevation for the entire state. The central and S. middle part is drained by the Scioto river and its tributaries. The basin of this river is formed mostly in Devonian shale, and is bounded on the W. by a limestone rim and on the E. by preglacial valleys filled with glacial drift. In its middle portion the basin is about 40 m. wide and only moderately rolling, but toward the mouth of the river the basin becomes narrow and is shut in by high hills. In the E. part of Ohio the Muskingum river and its tributaries drain an area of about 7750 sq. m. or nearly one-fifth of the entire state. Much of the unglacial or driftless portion of the state is embraced within its limits, and although the streams now have a gentle or even sluggish flow, they have greatly broken the surface of the country. The upper portion of the basin is about 100 m. in width, but it becomes quite narrow below Zanesville. The Ohio river flows for 436 m. through a narrow valley on the S. border of the state, and Lake Erie forms the N. boundary for a distance of 230 m. At the W. end of the lake are Sandusky and Maumee bays, each with a good natural harbour. In this vicinity also are various small islands of limestone formation which are attractive summer resorts. .On Put-in-Bay Island are some interesting "hydration" caves, i.e. caves formed by the uplifting and folding of the rocks while gypsum was forming beneath, followed by the partial collapse of those rocks when the gypsum passed into solution.^ The Will.--- The action of the Will takes only one form, but it involves two elements, as appears in the following definition : There is not action of the Will when we execute without any choice; nor does choice constitute an act of the Will unless some effort is put forth in consequence of our choice.
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.Ohio has no large lakes within its limits, but there are several small ones on the water-parting, especially in the vicinity of Akron and Canton, and a few large reservoirs in the W. central section.^ There is no danger that one will have too much will, if only it is joined with right motives and sound judgment.
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^ How much dishonesty would there be in the world if no one ever had such a wish as this?
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^ But the disadvantage will weigh in favor of small classes, and the limit is one person.
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Fauna

Bears, wolves, bison, deer, wild turkeys and wild pigeons were common in the primeval forests of Ohio, but they long ago disappeared. .Foxes are still found in considerable numbers in suitable habitats; opossums, skunks and raccoons are plentiful in some parts of the state; and rabbits and squirrels are still numerous.^ Among the lowly and the poor is to be found, in the germ, some of the best directive ability in the state.
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All the song-birds and birds of prey of the temperate zone are plentiful. Whitefish, bass, trout and pickerel are an important food supply obtained from the waters of the lake, and some perch, catfish and sunfish are caught in the rivers and brooks.

Flora

.Ohio is known as the "Buckeye State" on account of the prevalence of the buckeye (Aesculus glabra). The state was originally covered with a dense forest mostly of hardwood timber, and although the merchantable portion of this has been practically all cut away, there are still undergrowths of young timber and a great variety of trees.^ We have known a great many young teachers who have risen from your position to such places, and we think every one spent money out of his meager salary in the very ways we are commending, although he could not "afford" it.
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.The white oak is the most common, but there are thirteen other varieties of oak, six of hickory, five of ash, five of poplar, five of pine, three of elm, three of birch, two of locust and two of cherry.^ Take your food regularly, --two or three times a day, as best agrees with you, --eat when the time comes, and at no other time; take nothing between meals.
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Beech, black walnut, butternut, chestnut, catalpa, hemlock and tamarack trees are also common. Among native fruits are the blackberry, raspberry, elderberry, cranberry, wild plum and pawpaw (Asimina triloba). Buttercups, violets, anemones, spring beauties, trilliums, arbutus, orchids, columbine, laurel, honeysuckle, golden rod and asters are common wild flowers, and of ferns there are many varieties.

Climate

.The mean annual temperature of Ohio is about 51° F.; in the N., 49.5°, and in the S., 53.5° But except where influenced by Lake Erie the temperature is subject to great extremes; at Coalton, Jackson county, in the S.E. part of the state, the highest recorded range of extremes is from 104° to - 38° or 142°; at Wauseon, Fulton county, near the N.W. corner, it is from 104° to - 32° or 136°; while at Toledo on the lake shore the range is only from 99° to - 16° or 115° F. July is the warmest month, and in most parts of the state January is the coldest; in a few valleys, however, February has a colder record than January.^ So is he who pretends to a great love for his pupils which he does not feel; or he who pretends to know all about a subject of which is he is ignorant.
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^ TESTING.--We mean, by testing, the ascertaining of the pupil's knowledge of the lesson assigned for that particular hour; this should be the first and most important part of the recitation.
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^ Most of the common forms of exercise call into action only a part of the muscles; well devised gymnastics exercise all,--hence, their advantage.
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The normal annual precipitation for the entire state is 38.4 in. It is greater in the S.E. and least in the N.W. At Marietta, for example, it is 42.1 in., but at Toledo it is only 30 8 in. Nearly 60% of it comes in the spring and summer. The average annual fall of snow is about 37 in. in the N. and 22 in. in the S. The prevailing winds in most parts are westerly, but sudden changes, as well as the extremes of temperature, are caused mainly by the frequent shifting of the wind from N.W. to S.W. and from S.W. to N.W. At Cleveland and Cincinnati the winds blow mostly from the S.E.

Soil

.In the driftless area, the S.E. part of the state, the soil is largely a decomposition of the underlying rocks, and its fertility varies according to their composition; there is considerable limestone in the E. central portion, and this renders the soil very productive.^ As for the training, a large and very valuable part of it results directly from good management.
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^ The resources of a state are not confined to its mineral wealth, its fertile soil, its navigable waters, etc.
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In the valleys also are strips covered with a fertile alluvial deposit. .In the other parts of the state the soil is composed mainly of glacial drift, and is generally deep and fertile.^ In other words, the school, the home, the church, the printed page, and society,--all take part in the training of the rising generation.
  • Hewett.Pedagogy.html 20 November 2009 5:59 UTC www.nimbus.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The resources of a state are not confined to its mineral wealth, its fertile soil, its navigable waters, etc.
  • Hewett.Pedagogy.html 20 November 2009 5:59 UTC www.nimbus.org [Source type: Original source]

.It is deeper and more fertile, however, in the basins of the Great Miami and Little Miami rivers, where there is a liberal mixture of decomposed limestone and where extensive areas with a clay subsoil are covered with alluvial deposits.^ Sham is despicable anywhere, but nowhere more despicable than in ornament, because nowhere else is there so little excuse for it.
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^ No doubt, however, there is a great deal of brain activity of which we are not conscious.
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North of the lower course of the Maumee river is a belt of sand, but Ohio drift generally contains a large mixture of clay.

Agriculture

Ohio ranks high as an agricultural state. Of its total land surface 24,501,820 acres or nearly 94% was, in 1900, included in farms and 78.5% of all the farm land was improved. There were altogether 276,719 farms; of these 93,028 contained less than 50 acres, 182,802 contained less than loo acres, 150,060 contained less than 175 acres, 26,659 contained 175 acres or more, and 164 contained moo acres or more. The average size of the farms decreased from 125.2 acres in 1850 to 99.2 acres in 1880 and 88.5 acres in 1900. Nearly seven-tenths of the farms were worked in 1900 by owners or part owners, 24,051 were worked by cash tenants, 51,880 were worked by share tenants, and 1969 were worked by negroes as owners, tenants or managers. There is a great variety of produce, but the principal crops are Indian corn, wheat, oats, hay, potatoes, apples and tobacco. In 1900 the acreage of cereals constituted 68.4% of the acreage of all crops, and the acreage of Indian corn, wheat and oats constituted 99.3% of the total acreage of cereals. The Indian corn crop was 67,501,144 bushels in 1870; 152,055,390 bushels in 1899 and 153,062,000 in 1909, when it was grown on 3,875,000 acres and the state ranked seventh among the states of the Union in the production of this cereal. The wheat crop was 27,882,159 bushels in 1870; 50,376,800 bushels (grown on 3,209,014 acres) in 1899; and 23,532,000 bushels (grown on 1,480,000 acres) in 1909. The oat crop was 25,347,549 bushels in 1870; 42,050,910 bushels (grown on 1,115,149 acres) in 1899; and 56,225,000 bushels (grown on 1,730,000 acres) in 1909. The barley crop decreased from 1,715,221 bushels in 1870 to 1,053,240 bushels in 1899 and 829,000 bushels in 1909. The number of swine was 1,964,770 in 1850; 3,285,789 in 190o; and 2,047,000 in 1910. The number of cattle was 1,358,947 in 1850; 2,117,925 in 1900; and 1,925,000 in 1910. In 1900 there were 868,832 and in 1910 947, 000 milch cows in the state. The number of sheep decreased slightly between 1870 and 1900, when there were 4,030,021; in 1910 there were 3,203,000 sheep in the state. The number of horses was 463,397 in 1850; 1,068,170 in 190o; and 977,000 in 1910. The cultivation of tobacco was of little importance in the state until about 1840; but the product increased from 10,454,449 lb in 1850 to 34,735,235 lb in 1880, and to 65,957,100 lb in 1899, when the crop was grown on 71,422 acres; in 1909 the crop was 83,250,000 lb, grown on 90,000 acres. The value of all farm products in 1899 was $ 2 57, 06 5, 826. Indian corn, wheat and oats are grown in all parts, but the W. half of the state produces about three-fourths of the Indian corn and two-thirds of the wheat, and in the N. half, especially in the N.W. corner, are the best oat-producing counties. The N.E. quarter ranks highest in the production of hay. Domestic animals are evenly distributed throughout the state; in no county was their total value, in June 1900, less than $500,000, and in only three counties (Licking, Trumbull and Wood) did their value exceed $2,000,000; in 73 counties their value exceeded $1,000,000, but was less than $2,000,000. Dairying and the production of eggs are also important industries in all sections. Most of the tobacco is grown in the counties on or near the S.W. border.

Fisheries

Commercial fishing is important only in Lake Erie. In 1903 the total catch there amounted to 10,748,986 lb, valued at $317,027. Propagation facilities are being greatly improved, and there are stringent laws for the protection of immature fish. Inland streams and lakes are well supplied with game fish; state laws prohibit the sale of game fish and their being taken, except with hook and line.

Mineral Products

The mineral wealth of Ohio consists largely of bituminous coal and petroleum, but the state also ranks high in the production of natural gas, sandstone, limestone, grindstone, lime and gypsum. The coal fields, comprising a total area of 10,000 sq. m. or more, are in the E. half of the state. .Coal was discovered here as early as 1770, and the mining of it was begun not later than 1828, but no accurate account of the output was kept until 1872, in which year it was 5,315,294 short tons; this was increased to 18,988,150 short tons in 1900, and to 26,270,639 short tons in 1908 - in 1907 it was 32,142,419 short tons.^ Ohio Universal Use Tax Return - (Short form for tax years 2008 and later) eForm Adobe Reader 9.1 or greater is required for PDF fill-in forms.
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There are 29 counties in which coal is produced, but 81.4% of it in 1908 came from Belmont, Athens, Jefferson, Guernsey, Perry, Hocking, Tuscarawas and Jackson counties. Two of the most productive petroleum fields of the United States are in part in Ohio; the Appalachian field in the E. and S. parts of the state, and the Lima-Indiana field in the N.W. part. .Some petroleum was obtained in the S.E. as early as 1859, but the state's output was comparatively small until after petroleum was discovered in the N.W. in 1884; in 1883 the output was only L7,632 barrels, four years later it was 5,022,632 barrels, and in 1896 it was 23,941,169 barrels, or 39% of the total output in the United States.^ Universal Use Tax Return - 2008 For year 2008 and later only .
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For the next ten years, however, there was a decrease, and in 1908 the output had fallen to 10,858,797 barrels, of which 6,748,676 barrels (valued at $6,861,885) was obtained in the Lima district, 4,109,935 barrels (valued at $7,315,667) from the southeast district, and 186 barrels (valued at $950), suitable for lubricating purposes, from the Mecca-Belden district in Trumbull and Lorain counties. Natural gas abounds in the eastern, central and north-western parts of the state. That in the E. was first used in 1866, the N.W. field was opened in 1884, and the central field was opened in 1887. The value of the state's yearly flow increased steadily from $ioo,000 in 1885 to $5,215,669 in 1889, decreased from the latter year to $1,171,777 in 1897, and then increased to $ 8, 2 44, 8 35 in 1908. Some of the best sandstone in the United States is obtained from Cuyahoga and Lorain counties; it is exceptionally pure in texture (about 97% being pure silica), durable and evenly coloured light buff, grey or blue grey. From the Ohio sandstone known as Berea grit a very large portion of the country's grindstones and pulpstones has been obtained; in 1908 the value of Ohio's output of these stones was $482,128. Some of the Berea grit is also suitable for making oilstones and scythestones. Although the state has a great amount of limestone, especially in Erie and Ottawa counties, its dull colour renders it unsuitable for most building purposes.` It is, however, much used as a flux for melting iron and for making quick lime. The quantity of Portland cement made in Ohio increased from 57,000 barrels in 1890 to 563,113 barrels in 1902 and to 1,521,764 barrels in 1908. Beds of rock gypsum extend over an area of 150 acres or more in Ottawa county. There is some iron ore in the eastern and south-eastern parts of the state, and the mining of it was begun early in the 19th century; but the output decreased from 254,294 long tons in 1889 to only 26,585 long tons (all carbonate) in 1908. Ohio, in 1908, produced 3,4 2 7,47 8 barrels of salt valued at $864,710. Other valuable minerals are clay suitable for making pottery, brick and tile (in 1908 the value of the clay working products was $26,622,490) and sand suitable for making glass. The total value of the state's mineral products in 1908 amounted to $134,499,335.

Manufactures

The total value of the manufactures increased from $348,298,390 in 1880 to $641,688,064 in 1890, and to $832,438,113 in 1900. The value of the factory product was $748,670,855 in 1900 and $960,811,857 in 1905.1 The most important manufacturing industry is that of iron and steel. This industry was established near Youngstown in 1804. The value of the products increased from $65,206,828 in 1890 to $138,935,256 in 1900 and to $152,859,124 in 1905. Foundry and machine-shop products, consisting largely of engines, boilers, metal-working machinery, wood-working machinery, pumping machinery, mining machinery and stoves, rank second among the state's manufactures; their value increased from $43,617,07 2 in 1890 to $72,399,632 in 1900, and to $94,507,691 in 1905. Flour and grist mill products rank third in the state; the value of the products decreased from $39,468,409 in 1890 to $37,39 0 ,3 6 7 in 1900, and then increased to $40,855,566 in 1905. Meat (slaughtering and packing) was next in the value of the product, and increased from $20,660,780 in 1900 to $28,729,044 in 1905. Clay products rank fifth in the state; they increased in value from $16,480,812 in 1900 to $25,686,870 in 1905. Boots and shoes rank sixth; their value increased from $8,489,728 in 1890 to $17,920,854 in 1900 and to $25,140,220 in 1905. Other leading manufactures are malt liquors ($21,620,794 in 1905), railway rolling-stock consisting largely of cars ($21,428,227), men's clothing ($18,496,173), planing mill products ($17,725,711), carriages and wagons ($16,096,125), distilled liquors ($15,976,523), rubber and elastic goods ($15,963,603), furniture ($13,322,608), cigars and cigarettes ($13,241,230), agricultural implements ($12,891,197), women's clothing ($12,803582), lumber and timber products ($12,567,992), soap and candles. ($11,791,223), electrical machinery, apparatus and supplies ($11,019,235), paper and wood pulp ($10,961,527) and refined petroleum ($10,948,864).
T he great manufacturing centres are Cleveland, Cincinnati, Youngstown, Toledo, Columbus, Dayton and Akron, and in 1905 the value of the products of these cities amounted to 56.7% of that for the entire state. A large portion of the iron and steel is manufactured in Cleveland, Youngstown, Steubenville, Bellaire, Lorain and Ironton. Most of the automobiles are manufactured in Cleveland; most of the cash registers and calculating machines in Dayton; most of the rubber and elastic goods in Akron; nearly one-half of the liquors and about three-fourths of the men's clothing in Cincinnati. East Liverpool leads in the manufacture of pottery; Toledo in flour and grist mill products; Springfield in agricultural implements; Cincinnati and Columbus in boots and shoes; Cleveland in women's clothing.

Transportation and Commerce

.The most important natural means of transportation are the Ohio river on the S. border and Lake 1 The statistics of 1905 were taken under the direction of the United States Census Bureau, but products other than those of the factory system, such, for example, as those of the hand trades, were excluded.^ Request to Transport Other Tobacco Products Between Distributors .
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^ Other Tobacco Products Out-of-State Distributor Tax Return .
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Erie on the N. border. One of the first great public improvements made within the state was the connexion of these waterways by two canals - the Ohio & Erie Canal from Cleveland to Portsmouth, and the Miami & Erie Canal from Toledo to Cincinnati. The Ohio & Erie was opened throughout its entire length (309 m.) in 1832. The Miami & Erie was completed from Middletown to Cincinnati in 1827; in 1845 it was opened to the lake (250 m. from Cincinnati). The national government began in 1825 to extend the National Road across Ohio from Bridgeport, opposite Wheeling, West Virginia, through Zanesville and Columbus, and completed it to Springfield in 1837. Before the completion of the Miami & Erie Canal to Toledo, the building of railways was begun in this region, and in 1836 a railway was completed from that city to Adrian, Michigan. By the close of 1850 the railway mileage had increased to 575 m., and for the next forty years, with the exception of the Civil War period, more than 2000 m. of railways were built during each decade. At the close of 1908 there was a total mileage of 9,300.45 m. Among the railways are the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis, the Baltimore & Ohio, the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern, the New York, Chicago & St Louis, the Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis (Pennsylvania), the Pittsburgh, Ft. Wayne & Chicago (Pennsylvania), the Nypano (Erie), the Wheeling & Lake Erie, the Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton, the Detroit, Toledo & Ironton, and the Norfolk & Western. As the building of steam railways lessened, the building of suburban and interurban electric railways was begun, and systems of these railways have been rapidly extended until all the more populous districts are connected by them.
Ohio has six ports of entry. They are Cleveland, Toledo, Sandusky, Cincinnati, Columbus and Dayton, and the value of the foreign commerce passing through these in 1909 amounted to $9,483,974 in imports (more than one-half to Cleveland) and $10,920,083 in exports (nearly eight-ninths from Cleveland). Of far greater volume than the foreign commerce is the domestic trade in coal, iron, lumber, &c., largely by way of the Great Lakes.

Population

The population of Ohio in the various census years was: (1800) 45,365; (1810) 230,760; (1820) 581,434; (1830) 937,9 0 3; (1840) 1 ,5 1 9,4 6 7; (1850) 1 ,9 80 ,3 2 9; (1860) 2 ,339,5 11; (1870) 2,665,260; (1880) 3, 1 9 8,062; (1890) 3,672,316; (1900) 4,157,545; (1910) 4,767,121. In 1900 Ohio ranked fourth in population among the states. Of the total population in 1900, 4,060, 204 or 9 7.6% were white and 97,34 1 were coloured (96,901 negroes, 371 Chinese, 27 Japanese and 42 Indians). Of the same total 3,6 9 8,811 or 88.9% were native-born and 458,734 were foreign-born; 93.8% of the foreign-born consisted of the following: 204,160 natives of Germany, 65,553 of Great Britain, 55,018 of Ireland, 22,767 of Canada (19,864 English Canadian), 16,822 of Poland, 15,131 of Bohemia, 11,575 of Austria and 11,321 of Italy. In 1906 there were 1,742,873 communicants of different religious denominations, over one-third being Roman Catholics and about one-fifth Methodists. From 1890 to 1900 the urban population (i.e. population of incorporated places having 4000 inhabitants or more) increased from 1,387,884 to 1,864,519, and the semiurban (i.e. population of incorporated places having less than 4000 inhabitants) increased from 45 8, 0 33 t o 549,74 1, but the rural (i.e. population outside of incorporated places) decreased from 1,826,412 to 1,743, 2 85. The largest cities are Cleveland, Cincinnati, Toledo, Columbus (the capital), Dayton, Youngstown, Akron, Springfield, Canton, Hamilton, Zanesville and Lima.

Administration

Ohio is governed under the constitution of 1851 as amended in 1875, 1883, 1885, 1 9 02, 1 9 03, and 1905. An amendment may be proposed at any time by either branch of the General Assembly, and if after being approved by three-fifths of the members of both branches it is also approved at a general election by a majority of those voting on the question it is declared adopted; a constitutional convention may be called after a favourable two-thirds vote of the members of each branch of the Assembly and a favourable popular vote - a majority of those voting on the question; and the question of calling such a convention must be submitted to a popular vote at least once every twenty years. Under the constitution of 1802 and 1851 the suffrage was limited to "white male" citizens of the United States, but since the adoption of the Fifteenth Amendment to the Federal Constitution (1870), negroes vote, though the constitution is unchanged. Since 18 9 4 women who possess the usual qualifications required of men may vote for and be voted for as members of boards of education. The constitution requires that all elections be by ballot, and the Australian ballot system was adopted in 1891; registration is required in cities having a population of 11,800 or more. The executive department consists of a governor, lieutenant-governor, secretary of state, auditor, treasurer and attorney-general. As a result of the dispute between Governor Arthur St Clair and the Territorial legislature, the constitution of 1802 conferred nearly all of the ordinary executive functions on the legislature. The governor's control over appointments was strengthened by the constitution of 1851 and by the subsequent creation of statutory offices, boards and commissions, but the right of veto was not given to him until the adoption of the constitutional amendments of 1903. The power as conferred at that time, however, is broader than usual, for it extends not only to items in appropriation bills, but to separate sections in other measures, and, in addition to the customary provision for passing a bill over the governor's veto by a two-thirds vote of each house it is required that the votes for repassage in each house must not be less than those given on the original passage. The governor is elected in November of even-numbered years for a term of two years. He is commanderin-chief of the static military and naval forces, except when they are called into the service of the United States. He grants pardons and reprieves on the recommendation of the state board of pardons. If he die in office, resign or be impeached, the officers standing next in succession are the lieutenant-governor, the president of the Senate, and the speaker of the House of Representatives in the order named.
Members of the Senate and House of Representatives are elected for terms of two years; they must be residents of their respective counties or districts for one year preceding election, unless absent on public business of the state or of the United States. The ratio of representation in the Senate is obtained by dividing the total population of the state by thirty-five, the ratio in the House by dividing the population by one hundred. The membership in each house, however, is slightly above these figures, owing to a system of fractional representation and to the constitutional amendment of 1903 which allows each county at least one representative in the House of Representatives. The constitution provides for a reapportionment every ten years beginning in 1861. Biennial sessions are held beginning on the first Monday in January of the even-numbered years. The powers of the two houses are equal in every respect except that the Senate passes upon the governor's appointments and tries impeachment cases brought before it by the House of Representatives. .The constitution prohibits special, local and retroactive legislation, legislation impairing the obligation of contracts, and legislation levying a poll tax for county or state purposes or a tax on state, municipal and public school bonds (amendment of 1905), and it limits the amount and specifies the character of public debts which the legislature may contract.^ School District Income Tax Return and Instructions - 2002 The previous version of this form listed a school district income tax rate for Massillon CSD (Stark County).
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^ School District Income Tax Instructions - 2002 The previous version of this form listed a school district income tax rate for Massillon CSD (Stark County).
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^ School District Income Tax Return - 2008 Because of recently enacted legislation, you do not have to make any "miscellaneous federal tax adjustments" on your income tax return.
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The judicial department in 1910 was composed of a supreme court of six judges, eight circuit courts.' of three judges each, ten districts (some with sub-divisions) of the common pleas court, the superior court of Cincinnati, probate courts, courts of insolvency in Cuyahoga and Hamilton counties, juvenile courts (established in 1904), justice of the peace courts and municipal courts. Under the constitution of 1802 judges were chosen by the legislature, but since 1851 they have been elected by direct popular vote - the judges of the supreme court being chosen at large. They are removable on complaint by a concurrent resolution approved by a two-thirds majority in each house of the legislature. The constitution provides that the terms of supreme and circuit judges shall be such even number of years not less than six as may be prescribed by the legislature - the statutory provision is six years - that of the judges of the common pleas six years, that of the probate judges four years, that of other judges such even number of years not exceeding six as may be prescribed by the legislature - the statutory provision is six years - and that of justices of the peace such even number of years not exceeding four as may be thus prescribed - the statutory provision is four years.

Local Government

The county and the township are the units of the rural, the city and the village the units of the urban local The provision for circuit courts was first made in the constitution by an amendment of 1883.
government. The chief county authority is the board of commissioners of three members elected for terms of two years. The other officials are the sheriff, treasurer and coroner, elected for two years; the auditor, recorder, clerk of courts, prosecuting attorney, surveyor and infirmary directors, elected for two years; and the board of school examiners (three) and the board of county visitors (six, of whom three are women), appointed usually by the probate judge for three years. The chief township authority is the board of trustees of three members, elected by popular vote for two years. In the parts of the state settled by people from New England township meetings were held in the early days, but their functions were gradually transferred ,, to the trustees, and by 1820 the meetings had been given up almost entirely. The other township officials are the clerk, treasurer, assessor, supervisor of roads, justices of the peace, constables, board of education and board of health. Under the constitution of 1802, municipal corporations were established by special legislation. The constitution of 1851, however, provided for a general law, and the legislature in 1852 enacted a "general municipal corporations act," the first of its kind in the United States. The system of classification adopted in time became so elaborate that many municipalities became isolated, each in a separate class, and the evils of special legislation were revived. Of the two chief cities, Cleveland (under a special act providing for the government of Columbus and Toledo, also) in1892-1902was governed under the federal plan, which centralized power in the hands of the mayor; in Cincinnati there was an almost hopeless diffusion of responsibility among the council and various executive boards. The supreme court in June 1902 decided that practically all the existing municipal legislation was special in character and was therefore unconstitutional. (State ex. rel. Kniseley vs. Jones, 66 Ohio State Reports, 453. See also 66 Ohio State Reports, 491.) A special session of the legislature was called, and a new municipal code was adopted on the 22nd of October which went into effect in April 1903; it was a compromise between the Cleveland and the Cincinnati plans, with some additional features necessary to meet the conditions existing in the smaller cities. In order to comply with the court's interpretation of the constitution, municipalities were divided into only two classes, cities and villages, the former having a population of five thousand or more; the chief officials in both cities and villages were the mayor, council, treasurer and numerous boards of commissions. This was an attempt to devise a system of government that would apply to Cleveland, a city of 400,000 inhabitants, and to Painesville with its 5000 inhabitants. The code was replaced by the Paine Law of 1909, which provided for a board of control (something like that under the "federal plan" in Cleveland, Columbus and Toledo) of three members: the mayor and the directors (appointed and removable by the mayor) of two municipal departments - public service and public safety, the former including public works and parks, and the latter police, fire, charities, correction and buildings. The mayor's appointments are many, and are seldom dependent on the consent of the - council. A municipal civil service commission of three members (holding office for three years) is chosen by the president of the board of education, the president of the city council, and the president of the board of sinking fund commissioners; the pay (if any) of these commissioners is set by each city. The city auditor, treasurer and solicitor are elected, as under the code.
.In 1908 a direct primary law was passed providing for party primaries, those of all parties in each district to be held at the same time (annually) and place, before the same election board, and at public expense, to nominate candidates for township and municipal offices and members of the school board; nominations to be by petition signed by at least 2% of the party voters of the political division, except that for United States senators a of 1% is the minimum.^ School District Estate Income Tax Return and Instructions -- All Taxable Years .
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^ Memorandum Regarding Requirements for State Consents to Board of Education Bond Issue Elections .
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The law does not make the nomination of candidates for the United States Senate by this method mandatory nor such choice binding upon the General Assembly.

Laws

.The property rights of husband and wife are nearly equal; a wife may hold her property the same as if single, and a widower or a widow is entitled to the use for life of one-third of the real estate of which his or her deceased consort was seized at the time of his or her death.^ Certificate of Estate Tax Payment and Real Property Disclosure for Dates of Death on or after Nov.
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Among the grounds on which a divorce may be obtained are adultery, extreme cruelty, fraud, abandonment for three years, gross neglect of duty, habitual drunkenness, a former existing marriage, procurement of divorce without the state by one party, which continues marriage binding on the other, and imprisonment in a penitentiary. For every family in which there is a wife, a minor son, or an unmarried daughter, a homestead not exceeding $loon in value, or personal property not exceeding $500-in value, is exempt from sale for the satisfaction of debts.
In 1908 an act was passed providing for local option in regard to the sale of intoxicating liquors, by an election to be called an initiative petition, signed by at least 35% of the electors of a county.

Charitable and Penal Institutions

The state charitable and penal institutions are supervised by the board of charities of six members ("not more than three ... from the same political party") appointed by the governor, and local institutions by boards of county visitors of six members appointed by the probate judge. Each state institution in addition has its own board of trustees appointed by the governor, and each county infirmary is under the charge of three infirmary directors chosen by popular vote. There are hospitals for the insane at Athens, Columbus, Dayton, Cleveland, Carthage (to m. from Cincinnati; Longview Hospital), Massillon, Toledo and Lima; a hospital for epileptics at Gallipolis, opened in 1893; institutions for feeble-minded, for the blind (opened 1839) and for the deaf (opened 1829) at Columbus; a state sanatorium for tuberculous patients at Mt. Vernon (opened 1909); an institution for crippled and deformed children (authorized in 1907); a soldiers' and sailors' orphans' home at Xenia (organized in 1869 by the Grand Army of the Republic); a home for soldiers, sailors, marines, their wives, mothers and widows, and army nurses at Madison (established by the National Women's Relief Corps; taken over by the state, 1904); and soldiers' and sailors' homes at Sandusky (opened 1888), supported by the state, and at Dayton, supported by the United States. The state penal institutions are the boys' industrial school near Lancaster (established in 1854 as a Reform Farm), the girls' industrial home (1869) at Rathbone near Delaware, the reformatory at Mansfield (authorized 1884, opened 1896) and the penitentiary at Columbus (1816).

Education

Congress in 1785 set apart 1 sq. m. in each township of 36 sq. m. for the support of education. The public school system, however, was not established until 1825, and then it developed very slowly. .The office of state commissioner of common schools was created in 1837, abolished in 1840 and revived in 1843. School districts fall into four classes - cities, villages, townships and special districts - each of which has its own board of education elected by popular vote.^ Memorandum Regarding Requirements for State Consents to Board of Education Bond Issue Elections .
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Laws passed in 1877, 1890, 1893 and 1902 have made education compulsory for children between the ages of eight and fourteen. The school revenues are derived from the sale and rental of public lands granted by Congress, and of the salt and swamp lands devoted by the state to such purposes, from a uniform levy of one mill on each dollar of taxable property in the state, from local levies (averaging 7.2 mills in township districts and 10.07 mills in separate districts in 1908), from certain fines and licences, and from tuition fees paid by non-resident pupils. .The total receipts from all sources in 1908 amounted to $25,987,021; the balance from the preceding year was $11,714,135, and the total expenditures were $24,695,157. Three institutions for higher education are supported in large measure by the state: Ohio University at Athens, founded in 1804 on the proceeds derived from two townships granted by Congress to the Ohio Company; Miami University (chartered in 1809) at Oxford, which received the proceeds from a township granted by Congress in the Symmes purchase; and Ohio State University (1873) at Columbus, which received the proceeds from the lands granted by Congress under the act of 1862 for the establishment of agricultural and mechanical colleges, and reorganized as a university in 1878. Wilberforce University (1856), for negroes, near Xenia, is under the control of the African Methodist Episcopal Church; but the state established a normal and industrial department in 1888, and has since contributed to its maintenance.^ Grant for Purchases of New Manufacturing Machinery and Equipment (Taxpayer's Taxable Year Ending in 2007) - 2007 .
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^ Grant for Purchases of New Manufacturing Machinery and Equipment (Taxpayer's Taxable Year Ending in 2008) - 2008 .
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^ Grant for Purchases of New Manufacturing Machinery and Equipment (Taxpayer's Taxable Year Ending in 2006) - 2006 .
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Under an act of 1902 normal colleges, supported by the state, have also been created in connexion with Ohio and Miami universities. Among the numerous other colleges and universities in the state are Western Reserve University (1826) at Cleveland, the university of Cincinnati (opened 1873) at Cincinnati, and Oberlin College (1833) at Oberlin.

Finance

The revenues of the state are classified into four funds; the general revenue fund, the sinking fund, the state common school fund and the university fund. .The chief sources of the general revenue fund are taxes on real and personal property, on liquors and cigarettes, on corporations and on inheritances; in 1909 the net receipts for this fund were $8,043,257, the disbursements $9,103,301, and the cash balance at the end of the fiscal year $3,428,705. There is a tendency to reduce the rate on real property, leaving it as a basis for local taxation.^ Tax Rates Book - 2004 For use when filing 2004 personal property tax returns on general businesses or 2003 personal property tax reports on public utilities.
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^ Guidelines for Filing Ohio Personal Property Tax Returns - 2008 Figures on the 945S return were corrected on 3/14/08.
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^ Return of Exempt Personal Property This form is to be used for tax years 2003, 2004 and 2005 ONLY. .
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The rate on collateral inheritances is 5%, on direct inheritances 2%, on the excess above $3000. There are state, county and municipal boards of equalization. A special tax is levied for the benefit of the sinking fund - one-tenth of a mill in 1909. The commissioners of 'the fund are the auditor, the secretary of state and the attorney-general. The public debt, which began to accumulate in 1825, was increased by the canal expenditures to $16,880,000 in 1843. The constitution of 1851 practically deprived the legislature of the power to create new obligations. The funded debt was then gradually reduced until the last installment was paid in 1903. There still remains, however, an irredeemable debt due to the common schools, Ohio University and Ohio State University, in return for their public lands. About one-half of the annual common school fund is derived from local taxes; the state levy for this fund in 1909 was one mill, and the total receipts were $2,382,353. The university fund is derived from special taxes levied for the four institutions which receive aid from the state; in 1909 the levy was 0.245 mills and the total receipts were $582,843. Several banks and trading houses with banking privileges were incorporated by special statutes between 1803 and 1817. Resentment was aroused by the establishment of branches of the Bank of the United States at Chillicothe and Cincinnati in 1817, and an attempt was made to tax them out of existence. State officials broke into the vaults of the Chillicothe branch in 1819 and took out $100,000 due for taxes. The Federal courts compelled a restoration of the money and pronounced the taxing law unconstitutional. In 1845 the legislature chartered for twenty years the State Bank of Ohio, based on the model of the State Bank of Indiana of 1834. It became a guarantee of conservative banking, and was highly successful. There were at one time thirtysix branches. Most of the state institutions secured Federal charters after the establishments of the national banking system (1863-1864), but the high price of government bonds and the large amount of capital required led to a reaction, which was only partially checked by the reduction of the minimum capital to $25,000 under the currency act of the 14th of March 1900.

History

Ohio was the pioneer state of the old North-West Territory, which embraced also what are now the states of Indiana, Illinois, Michigan and Wisconsin, and the N.E. corner of Minnesota. When discovered by Europeans, late in the first half of the 17th century, the territory included within what is now Ohio was mainly a battle-ground of numerous Indian tribes and the fixed abode of none except the Eries who occupied a strip along the border of Lake Erie. From the middle to the close of the 17th century the French were establishing a claim to the territory between the Great Lakes and the Ohio river by discovery and occupation, and although they 'had provoked the hostility of the Iroquois Indians they had helped the Wyandots, Miamis and Shawnees to banish them from all territory W. of the Muskingum river. Up to this time the English had based their claim to the same territory on the discovery of the Atlantic Coast by the Cabots and upon the Virginia, Massachusetts and Connecticut charters under which these colonies extended westward to the Pacific Ocean. In 1701, New York, seeking another claim, obtained from the Iroquois a grant to the king of England of this territory which they claimed to have conquered but from which they had subsequently been expelled, and this grant was confirmed in 1726 and again in 1744 About 1730 English traders from Pennsylvania and Virginia began to visit the eastern and southern parts of the territory and the crisis approached as a French Canadian expedition under Celeron de Bienville took formal possession of the upper Ohio Valley by planting leaden plates at the mouths of the principal streams. This was in 1749 and in the same year George II. chartered the first Ohio Company, formed by Virginians and London merchants trading with Virginia for the purpose of colonizing the West. This company in 1750 sent Christopher Gist down the Ohio river to explore the country as far as the mouth of the Scioto river; and four years later the erection of a fort was begun in its interest at the forks of the Ohio. The French drove the English away and completed the fort (Fort Duquesne) for themselves. The Seven Years' War was the immediate consequence and this ended in the cession of the entire North-West to Great Britain. The former Indian allies of the French, however, immediately rose up in opposition to British rule in what is known as the Conspiracy of Pontiac (see Pontiac), and the supression of this was not completed until Colonel Henry Bouquet made an expedition (1764) into the valley of the Muskingum and there brought the Shawnees, Wyandots and Delawares to terms. With the North-West won from the French Great Britain no longer recognized those claims of her colonies to this territory which she had asserted against that nation, but in a royal proclamation of the 7th of October 1763 the granting of land W. of the Alleghanies was forbidden and on the 22nd of June 1774 parliament passed the Quebec Act which annexed the region to the province of Quebec. This was one of the grievances which brought on the War of Independence and during that war the North-West was won for the Americans by George Rogers Clark. During that war also, those states which had no claims in the West contended that title to these western lands should pass to the Union and when the Articles of Confederation were submitted for ratification in 1777, Maryland refused to ratify them except on that condition. The result was that New York ceded its claim to the United States in 1780, Virginia in 1784, Massachusetts in 1785 and Connecticut in 1786. Connecticut, however, excepted a strip bordering on Lake Erie for 120 m. and containing 3,250,000 acres. This district, known as the Western Reserve, was ceded in 1800 on condition that Congress would guarantee the titles to land already granted by the state. Virginia reserved a tract between the Little Miami and Scioto rivers, known as the Virginia Military District, for her soldiers in the War of Independence.
When the war was over and these cessions had been made a great number of war veterans wished an opportunity to repair their broken fortunes in the West, and Congress, hopeful of receiving a large revenue from the sale of lands here, passed an ordinance on the 20th of May 1785 by which the present national system of land-surveys into townships 6 In. sq. was inaugurated in what is now S.W. Ohio in the summer of 1786. In March 1786 the second Ohio Company (q.v.), composed chiefly of New England officers and soldiers, was organized in Boston, Massachusetts, with a view to founding a new state between Lake Erie and the Ohio river. The famous North-West Ordinance was passed by Congress on the 13th of July 1787. This instrument provided a temporary government for the Territory with the understanding that, as soon as the population was sufficient, the representative system should be adopted, and later that states should be formed and admitted into the Union. There were to be not. less than three nor more than five states. Of' these the easternmost (Ohio) was to be bounded on the N., E. and S. by the Lakes, Pennsylvania and the Ohio river, and on the W. by a line drawn due N. from the mouth of the Great Miami river to the Canadian boundary, if there were to be three states, or to its intersection with an E. and W. line drawn through the extreme S. bend of Lake Michigan, if there were to be five. Slavery was forbidden by the sixth article of the ordinance; and the third article read: "Religion, morality and knowledge being necessary to good government and the happiness of mankind, schools and the means of education shall for ever be encouraged." After the adoption of the North-West Ordinance the work of settlement made rapid progress. There were four main centres. The Ohio Company founded Marietta at the mouth of the Muskingum in 1788, and this is regarded as the oldest permanent settlement in the state. An association of New Jerseymen, organized by John Cleves Symmes, secured a grant from Congress in1788-1792to a strip of 248,540 acres on the Ohio between the Great Miami and the Little Miami, which came to be known as the Symmes Purchase. Their chief settlements were Columbia (1788) and Cincinnati (1789). The Virginia Military District, between the Scioto and the Little Miami, reserved in 1784 for bounties to Virginia continental troops, was colonized in large measure by people from that state. Their chief towns were Massieville or Manchester (17 9 o) and Chillicothe (1796). A small company of Connecticut people under Moses Cleaveland founded Cleveland in 17 9 6 and Youngstown was begun a few years later, but that portion of the state made very slow progress until after the opening of the Ohio & Erie Canal in 1832.
During the Territorial period (1787-1803) Ohio was first a part of the unorganized North-West Territory (1787-1799), then a part of the organized North-West Territory (1799-1800), and then the organized North-West Territory (1800-1803), Indiana Territory having been detached from it on the W. in 1800. The first Territorial government was established at Marietta in October 1787, and General Arthur St Clair (1734-1818), the governor, arrived in the summer of 1788. His administration was characterized by the final struggle with the Indians and by a bitter conflict between the executive and the legislature, which greatly influenced the constitutional history of the state. The War of Independence was succeeded by a series of Indian uprisings. Two campaigns, the first under General Josiah Harmar (1753-1813) in 17 9 0, and the second under General St Clair in 17 9 1, failed on account of bad management and ignorance of Indian methods of warfare, and in 1793 General Anthony Wayne was sent out in command of a large force of regulars and volunteers. The decisive conflict, fought on the 20th of August 1794, near the rapids of the Maumee, is called the battle of Fallen Timbers, because the Indians concealed themselves behind the trunks of trees which had been felled by a storm. Wayne's dragoons broke through the brushwood, attacked the left flank of the Indians and soon put them to flight. In the treaty of Greenville (3rd August 1795) the Indians ceded their claims to the territory E. and S. of the Cuyahoga, the Tuscarawas, and an irregular line from Fort Laurens (Bolivar) in Tuscarawas county to Fort Recovery in Mercer county, practically the whole E. and S. Ohio. The Jay Treaty was ratified in the same year, and in 1796 the British finally evacuated Detroit and the Maumee and Sandusky forts. .By cessions and purchases in 1804, 1808 and1817-1818the state secured all of the lands of the Indians except their immediate homes, and these were finally exchanged for territory W. of the Mississippi.^ Inter-County Return of Taxable Business Property - 2009 The tangible personal property tax has been phased out for 2009 for all filers except telephone and inter-exchange telecommunications companies, or entities leasing property to these companies.
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^ County Return of Taxable Business Property - 2009 The tangible personal property tax has been phased out for 2009 for all filers except telephone and inter-exchange telecommunications companies, or entities leasing property to these companies.
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The last remnant migrated in 1841. General Wayne's victory was followed by an extensive immigration of New Englanders, of Germans, Scotch-Irish and Quakers from Pennsylvania, and of settlers from Virginia and Kentucky, many of whom came to escape the evils of slavery. This rapid increase of population led to the establishment of the organized Territorial government in 17 99, to the restriction of that government in Ohio in 1800, and to the admission of the state into the Union in 1803.
The Congressional Enabling Act of the 30th of April 1802 followed that alternative of the North-West Ordinance which provided for five states in determining the boundaries, and in consequence the Indiana and Michigan districts were detached. A rigid adherence to the boundary authorized in 1787, however, would have resulted in the loss to Ohio of 470 sq. m. of territory in the N.W. part of the state, including the lake port of Toledo. After a long and bitter dispute - the Toledo War (see Toledo)- the present line, which is several miles N. of the S. bend of Lake Michigan, was definitely fixed in 1837, when Michigan came into the Union. (For the settlement of the eastern boundary, see Pennsylvania.) After having been temporarily at Marietta, Cincinnati, Chillicothe and Zanesville the capital was established at Columbus in 1816.
Since Congress did not pass any formal act of admission there has been some controversy as to when Ohio became a state. The Enabling Act was passed on the 30th of April 1802, the first state legislature met on the 1st of March 1803, the Territorial judges gave up their offices on the 15th of April 1803, and the Federal senators and representatives took their seats in Congress on the 17th of October 1803. Congress decided in 1806 in connexion with the payment of salaries to Territorial officials that the 1st of March 1803 was the date when state government began. During the War of 1812 the Indians under the lead of Tecumseh were again on the side of the British. Battles were fought at Fort Meigs (1813) and Fort Stephenson (Fremont, 1813) and Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry's naval victory on Lake Erie in 1813 was on the Ohio side of the boundary line.
Owing to the prohibition of slavery the vast majority of the early immigrants to Ohio came from the North, but, until the Mexican War forced the slavery question into the foreground, the Democrats usually controlled the state, because the principles of that party were more in harmony with frontier ideas of equality. The Whigs were successful in the presidential elections of 1836 and 1840, partly because of the financial panic and partly because their candidate, William Henry Harrison, was a "favourite son," and in the election of 1844, because of the unpopularity of the Texas issue. Victory was with the Democrats in 1848 and 1852, but since the organization of the Republican party in 1854 the state has uniformly given to the Republican presidential candidates its electoral votes. In the Civil War Ohio loyally supported the Union, furnishing 319,659 men for the army. Dissatisfaction with the President's emancipation programme resulted in the election of a Democratic Congressional delegation in 1862, but the tide turned again after Gettysburg and Vicksburg; Clement L. Vallandigham, the Democratic leader, was deported from the state by military order, and the Republicans were successful in the elections of 1863 and 1864. A detachment of the Confederate cavalry under General John Morgan invaded the state in 1863, but was badly defeated in the battle of Buffington's Island (July 18th). Democratic governors were elected in 1873, 1877, 1883, 1889, 1905, 1908 and 1910. Five presidents have come from Ohio, William Henry Harrison, Rutherford B. Hayes, James A. Garfield, William McKinley, Jr., and William Howard Taft.
Territorial Period (1787-1803).
Arthur St Clair..1787-1802Federalist Charles W. Byrd (Acting)..1802-1803Dem.-Repub. Period of Statehood. Edward Tiffin..1803-1807Dem.-Repub.
Thomas Kirker (Acting).1807-1809Samuel Huntington.1809-1811Return Jonathan Meigs.1811-1814Othniel Looker (Acting).1814-1815Thomas Worthington..1815-1819Ethan Allen Brown.1819-1822Allen Trimble (Acting).1822-1823Jeremiah Morrow..1823-1827Allen Trimble.1827-1831Duncan McArthur1831-1833Robert Lucas.1833-1837Joseph Vance.1837-1839Wilson Shannon.1839-1841Thomas Corwin.1841-1843Wilson Shannon1843-1844Thomas W. Bartley (Acting)1844-1845Mordecai Bartley..1845-1847William Bebb.1847-1849Seabury Ford.1849-1851Reuben Wood.1851-1853William Medill (Acting, 1853)1853-1856Salmon P. Chase..1856-1860William Dennison, Jr..1860-1862David Tod..1862-1864John Brough.1864-1865Charles Anderson (Acting).1865-1866Jacob D. Cox.1866-1868Rutherford B. Hayes.1868-1872Edward F. Noyes..1872-1874William Allen.1874-1876Rutherford B. Hayes.1876-1877Thomas L. Young (Acting).1877-1878Richard M. Bishop1878-1880Charles Foster.1880-1884George Hoadley.1884-1886Joseph B. Foraker.1886-1890James E. Campbell .
William McKinley, Jr...1890-1892 1892-1896 Asa S. Bushnell..1896-1900George K. Nash.1900-1904Myron T. Herrick..1904-1906John M. Pattison 1 1906 Andrew Lintner Harris1906-1909Judson Harmon.. 1909 - Bibliography. -FOr a brief but admirable treatment of the physiography see Stella S. Wilson, Ohio (New York, 1902), and a great mass of material on this subject is contained in the publications of the Geological Survey of Ohio (1837 et seq.). For the administration see the Constitution of the State of Ohio, adopted June 1851 (Norwalk, Ohio, 1897), and amendments of 1903 and 1905 published separately; the annual reports of the state treasurer, auditor, board of state charities and commissioner of common schools, the Ellis municipal code (1902) and the Harrison school code (1904). The Civil Code, issued 1852, the Criminal Code in 1869 and the Revised Statutes in 1879, have several times been amended and published in new editions. There are two excellent secondary accounts: Samuel P. Orth, The Centralization of Administration in Ohio, in the Columbia University Studies in History, Economics and Public Law, xvi. No. 3 (New York, 1903); and Wilbur H. Siebert, The Government of Ohio, its History and Administration (New York, 1904). B. A. Hinsdale's History and Civil Government of Ohio (Chicago, 1896) is more elementary. For local government see J. A. Wilgus, "Evolution of Township Government in Ohio," in the Annual Report of the American Historical Association for 18 94, pp. 403-412 (Washington, 1895); D. F. Wilcox, Municipal Government in Michigan and Ohio, in the Columbia University Studies in History, Economics and Public Law, v. No. 3 (New York, 18 95); J. A. Fairlie, "The Municipal Crisis in Ohio," in the Michigan Law Review for February 1903; and Thomas L. Sidlo, "Centralization in Ohio Municipal Government," in the American Political Science Review for November 1909. On education see George B. Germann, National Legislation concerning Education, its Influence and Effect in the Public Lands east of the Mississippi River, admitted prior to 1820 (New York, 1899); J. J. Burns, Educational History of Ohio (Columbus, 1905).
Archaeology and History: P. G. Thomson's Bibliography of Ohio (Cincinnati, 1880) is an excellent guide to the study of Ohio's history. For archaeology see Cyrus Thomas's Catalogue of Prehistoric Works ' Died in office.
East of the Rocky Mountains (Washington, 1891), and his Report on the Mound Explorations of the Bureau of Ethnology in the 12th Report (1894) of that Bureau, supplementing his earlier bulletins, Problem of the Ohio Mounds and the Circular, Square and Octagonal Earthworks of Ohio (1889); and W. K. Moorehead, Primitive Man in Ohio (New York, 1892). The best history is Rufus King, Ohio; First Fruits of the Ordinance of 1787 (Boston and New York, 1888), in the "American Commonwealths" series. Alexander Black's Story of Ohio (Boston, 1888) is a short popular account. B. A. Hinsdale, The Old North-west (2nd ed., New York, 1899), is good for the period before 1803. Of the older histories Caleb Atwater, History of the State of Ohio, Natural and Civil (Cincinnati, 1838), and James W. Taylor, History of the State of Ohio: First Period 1650-1787 (Cincinnati, 1854), are useful. For the Territorial period, and especially for the Indian wars of 1790-1794, see W. H. Smith (ed.), The St Clair Papers: Life and Services of Arthur St Clair (2 vols., Cincinnati, 1882); Jacob Burnet, Notes on the Early Settlement of the North-Western Territory (Cincinnati, 1847), written from the Federalist point of view, and hence rather favourable to St Clair; C. E. Slocum, Ohio Country between 1783 and 1815 (New York, 1910); and John Armstrong's Life of Anthony Wayne in Sparks' "Library of American Biography" (Boston, 1834-1838), series i. vol. iv. See also F. P. Goodwin, The Growth of Ohio (Cincinnati, 1907) and R. E. Chaddock, Ohio before 1850 (New York, 1908). There is considerable material of value, especially for local history, in the Ohio Archaeological and Historical Society Publications (Columbus, 1887), and in Henry Howe, Historical Collections of Ohio (1st ed., Cincinnati, 1847; Centennial edition [enlarged], 2 vols., Columbus, 1889-1891). T. B. Galloway, "The Ohio-Michigan Boundary Line Dispute," in the Ohio Archaeological and Historical Society Publications, vol. iv. pp. 199-230, is a good treatment of that complicated question. W. F. Gephart's Transportation and Industrial Development in the Middle West (New York, 1909), in the Columbia University Studies in History, Economics and Public Law, is a commercial history of Ohio.


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

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Wikipedia has an article on:

Contents

English

Map of US highlighting Ohio

Etymology

From Iroquoian, meaning "great water" or "great river"

Pronunciation

Proper noun

Singular
Ohio
Plural
-
Ohio
  1. A state of the United States of America. Capital and largest city: Columbus.
  2. A river flowing SW from Pennsylvania to the Mississippi River in Illinois.

Derived terms

Translations

See also


Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Familypedia

State of Ohio
Flag of Ohio State seal of Ohio
Flag of Ohio SealImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
Nickname(s)Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif: The Buckeye State,
"Birthplace of Aviation" "The Heart Of It All"
Motto(s)Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif: With God
Map of the United States with Ohio highlighted
Official language(s)Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif English de facto
CapitalImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Columbus
Largest cityImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Columbus
Largest metro areaImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Greater Cleveland
AreaImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  Ranked 34thImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
 - Total 44,825 sq miImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
(116,096 km²Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif)
 - Width 220 miles (355 kmImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif)
 - Length 220 miles (355 km)
 - % water 8.7
 - Latitude 38° 24′ N to 41° 59′ N
 - Longitude 80° 31′ W to 84° 49′ W
PopulationImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  Ranked 7thImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
 - Total (2000Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif) 11,353,140
 - DensityImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif 277.26/sq mi 
107.05/km² (9th)
ElevationImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  
 - Highest point Campbell Hill[1]
1,550 ft  (472 m)
 - Mean 853 ft  ({{{MeanElev}}} m)
 - Lowest point Ohio River[1]
455 ft  (139 m)
Admission to UnionImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  March 1 1803 (17th,
declared retroactively on
August 7 1953)
GovernorImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Ted Strickland (D)
U.S. SenatorsImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif George V. Voinovich (R)
Sherrod Brown (D)
Congressional DelegationImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif ListImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
Time zoneImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Eastern: UTC-5/-4
Abbreviations OHImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif US-OHImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
Web site www.ohio.gov
Ohio (IPA: /oʊˈhaɪoʊ/, /oʊˈhaɪə/ (non-standard)) is a Midwestern state of the United States. Part of the Great Lakes region, Ohio has long been a cultural and geographical crossroads. .At the time of European contact and in the years that followed, Native Americans in today's Ohio included the Iroquois, Miamis, and Wyandots.^ She was a Native American medicine woman and as time went on younger generations saw her as a witch and as such she was harassed.
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Beginning in the 1700s, the area was settled by people from New England, the Middle States, Appalachia, and the upper south.
.Prior to 1984, the United States Census Bureau considered Ohio part of the North Central Region.^ It was once part of the Ohio Turnpike built in 1831, until the state rebuilt the road into a straight four-lane road in 1969.
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[2] .That region was renamed "Midwest" and split into two divisions.^ If you take this road down it will split into two different roads.
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.Ohio is now in the East North Central States division.^ North Central State College .
  • Scholarships.com - Ohio Colleges & Universities 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.scholarships.com [Source type: News]

[3] Ohio also has the highest density of population of any state not on the Atlantic Ocean.
Ohio was the first state admitted to the Union under the Northwest Ordinance. Its U.S. postal abbreviation is OH; its old-style abbreviation was O. Natives of Ohio are known as Ohioans.

Contents

Etymology

.The name "Ohio" derives from the Seneca word ohi:yo’, meaning "beautiful river" or "large creek", which was originally the name of both the Ohio River and Allegheny River.^ The result is that he learns words about a world he never saw, and he hunts out names on a map that means nothing beyond the thing itself.
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^ This spot was named the Our House by an 1800's owner who invited people from the many boats docking at the Ohio River city of Gallipolis with the words "come on over to our house".
  • Shadowlands Haunted Places Index - Ohio 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.theshadowlands.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The creek is named for an Ohio militia scout who was killed on one of the bluffs above the creek by Indians during the War of 1812.
  • Shadowlands Haunted Places Index - Ohio 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.theshadowlands.net [Source type: Original source]

[4][5][6]

History

[[Image:DSCN3504 ohiocompany e.JPG|left|thumb|Plaque commemorating the Northwest Ordinance outside Federal Hall in lower ManhattanLink title}}
Main article: History of Ohio

Native Americans

After the so-called Beaver Wars, the powerful Iroquois confederation of the New York area claimed much of the Ohio country as a hunting and, probably most importantly, a beaver-trapping ground. .After the devastation of epidemics and war in the mid-1600s, which had largely emptied the Ohio country of indigenous people by the mid-to-late seventeenth century, the land gradually became repopulated by the mostly Algonquian-speaking descendants of its ancient inhabitants, that is, descendants of the Adena, Hopewell, and Mississippian cultures.^ Canal Fulton is a very historic town located on the Ohio Erie Canal and was a boom town for miners and canalers back in the mid 19th century.
  • Shadowlands Haunted Places Index - Ohio 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.theshadowlands.net [Source type: Original source]

Many of these Ohio-country nations were multi-ethnic and sometimes multi-linguistic societies born out of the earlier devastation brought about by disease, subsequent social instability, Iroquois. They subsisted on agriculture (corn, sunflowers, beans, etc.) supplemented by seasonal hunts. .By the 1650s they were very much part of a larger global economy brought about by fur trade.^ In a good recitation, the pupil does much the larger part of the talking.
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.The indigenous nations to inhabit Ohio in the historical period (most clearly after 1700) included the Miamis (a large confederation), Wyandots (made up of refugees, especially from the fractured Huron confederacy), Delawares (pushed west from their historic homeland in New Jersey), Shawnees (also pushed west, although they may be descended from the Fort Ancient people of Ohio), Ottawas (more commonly associated with the upper Great Lakes region), Mingos (like the Wyandot, a recently-formed composite of refugees from Iroquois and other societies), and Eries (gradually absorbed into the new, multi-ethnic "republics," namely the Wyandot).^ If the text-book has questions printed in it, it is rarely best to use them; they may aid the pupil in preparing his lesson, but in recitation other questions should generally be put.
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^ In this way, he will grow into the habit of "composition" as naturally and as easily as he becomes accustomed to hear and to use the forms of oral speech.
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^ Education is the same thing in all the ages; its principles are unchanging; and its methods must conform to these principles, if they are right methods, however they may vary in form.
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.Ohio country was also the site of Indian massacres, such as the Yellow Creek Massacre (Chief Logan) and Gnadenhutten.^ The creek is named for an Ohio militia scout who was killed on one of the bluffs above the creek by Indians during the War of 1812.
  • Shadowlands Haunted Places Index - Ohio 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.theshadowlands.net [Source type: Original source]

Colonial and Revolutionary Eras

During the 18th century, the French set up a system of trading posts to control the fur trade in the region.
In 1754, France and Great Britain fought a war known in the United States as the French and Indian War. As a result of the Treaty of Paris, the French ceded control of Ohio and the rest of the Old Northwest to Great Britain. Pontiac's Rebellion in the 1760s challenged British military control, which ended with the American victory in the American Revolution. In the Treaty of Paris in 1783 Britain ceded all claims to Ohio to the United States.

Northwest Territory: 1787-1803

The United States created the Northwest Territory under the Northwest Ordinance of 1787. Slavery was not permitted. Settlement began with the founding of Marietta by the Ohio Company of Associates, which had been formed by a group of American Revolutionary War veterans. Following the Ohio Company, the Miami Company (also referred to as the "Symmes Purchase") claimed the southwestern section and the Connecticut Land Company surveyed and settled the Connecticut Western Reserve in present-day Northeast Ohio. .The old Northwest Territory originally included areas that had previously been known as Ohio Country and Illinois Country.^ Bellefontaine - Camp Wilson - This is a camp over 100 years old, there are numerous ghosts that are said to roam the camp at night, the most haunted area is known as the Y tree.
  • Shadowlands Haunted Places Index - Ohio 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.theshadowlands.net [Source type: Original source]

.As Ohio prepared for statehood, Indiana Territory was created, reducing the Northwest Territory to approximately the size of present-day Ohio plus the eastern half of the Lower Peninsula of Michigan and the eastern tip of the Upper Peninsula.^ More stories surface each day in this fascinating town on the southern tip of Ohio.
  • Shadowlands Haunted Places Index - Ohio 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.theshadowlands.net [Source type: Original source]

.Under the Northwest Ordinance, any of the states to be formed out of the Northwest Territory would be admitted as a state once the population exceeded 60,000. Although Ohio's population numbered only 45,000 in December 1801, Congress determined that the population was growing rapidly and Ohio could begin the path to statehood with the assumption that it would exceed 60,000 residents by the time it would become a state.^ It can be attracted and held for a short time only; but this will is not strong enough to enable him to attend against his inclination, nor after he has become weary.
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^ It was once part of the Ohio Turnpike built in 1831, until the state rebuilt the road into a straight four-lane road in 1969.
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^ There are supposedly 5 of these across the state of Ohio that when they are connected they form a pentagram.
  • Shadowlands Haunted Places Index - Ohio 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.theshadowlands.net [Source type: Original source]

Statehood: 1803 - present

Eight U.S. presidents hailed from Ohio at the time of their elections, giving rise to the nickname "Mother of Presidents", a sobriquet it shares with Virginia. .Seven presidents were born in Ohio, making it second to Virginia's eight, but Virginia-born William Henry Harrison and his grandson, Benjamin Harrison, (who also lived part of his adult life in Indiana) settled in, led their political careers from and/or were buried in North Bend, on the family compound, founded by William's father-in-law John Cleves Symmes.^ Whether to sleep the first part of the night or the last is a question each may settle for himself, but let him take care not to cut the night at both ends.
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In 1835, Ohio fought a mostly bloodless boundary war with Michigan over the Toledo Strip known as the Toledo War. .Congress intervened and, as a condition for admittance as a state of the Union, Michigan was forced to accept the western two-thirds of the Upper Peninsula, in addition to the eastern third that was already part of the state, in exchange for giving up its claim to the Toledo Strip.^ PENSIONS.--In some European countries, they obviate the necessity of the third requirement we have mentioned by giving pensions to superannuated teachers; and the same thing has been proposed in some of our States.
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^ Third.-- He ought to keep up constant professional work by reading professional literature, books and periodicals, and by attending and taking part in professional meetings.
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(A war between two states may be unusual, but the Toledo War is not unique; Pennsylvania and Maryland fought Cresap's War over a border dispute a century earlier.)
.Ohio's central position and its population gave it an important place during the Civil War, and the Ohio River was a vital artery for troop and supply movements, as were Ohio's railroads.^ In the summer of 1988, during a Civil War re-enactment, many of the people present heard the sounds of a woman crying.
  • Shadowlands Haunted Places Index - Ohio 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.theshadowlands.net [Source type: Original source]

^ It is important that all should be in their permanent places as soon as possible, in order that they may enter on the real work of the term, and that all may be supplied with the proper textbooks.
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^ The place is know for cult activity and violent deaths, and supposedly during the 20's was the site of a railroad accident.
  • Shadowlands Haunted Places Index - Ohio 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.theshadowlands.net [Source type: Original source]

.At the end of the Civil War, three top Union generals were all from Ohio: Grant, Sherman, and Sheridan.^ Dayton - Witches Tower - It is a tower about 6 stories high, which was built on top of a burial ground in the time of the Civil War.
  • Shadowlands Haunted Places Index - Ohio 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.theshadowlands.net [Source type: Original source]

.Ohio also contributed more soldiers per-capita than any other state in the Union.^ We may be sure that nature makes no mistake in this, any more than in other exhibitions of child-life.
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^ No other study, except reading, can be made more interesting to the child, or can be made to lead out the thoughts in all directions more successfully than geography.
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^ In October of that year, five teens were killed when their 1968 Impala was hit by a 1969 Roadrunner going more than 100 miles per hour.
  • Shadowlands Haunted Places Index - Ohio 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.theshadowlands.net [Source type: Original source]

In 1912 a Constitutional Convention was held with Charles B. Galbreath as Secretary. The result reflected the concerns of the Progressive Era. .It introduced the initiative and the referendum, allowed the General Assembly to put questions on the ballot for the people to ratify laws and constitutional amendments originating in the Legislature as well.^ It is certain that, in many places, the people are not as earnest as they should be to have their children well taught, nor have they the knowledge that they ought to have as to what constitutes good teaching.
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^ If the text-book has questions printed in it, it is rarely best to use them; they may aid the pupil in preparing his lesson, but in recitation other questions should generally be put.
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^ We have now considered some of the general questions of government; in our next chapter, we will point out some of the specific things necessary to the teacher in order that he may govern well.
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.Under the Jeffersonian principle that laws should be reviewed once a generation, the constitution provided for a recurring question to appear on Ohio's general election ballots every 20 years.^ It should be understood that a review of the last lesson is always in order; also, that when any thing in the present lesson is met that relates to something learned in any former lesson, a review of the former lesson in regard to the point in question is to be expected.
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^ The recitation should begin at once, under a "full head of steam," and should be kept up in that way till it closes.
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^ An asylum was here in the 1800's and a mysterious light has appeared over 20 years.
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.The question asks whether a new convention is required.^ It is also asked whether the mind can attend to more than one thing at a time; much has been written on this question.
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Although the question has appeared in 1932, 1952, 1972, and 1992, it has never been approved. Instead constitutional amendments have been proposed by petition to the legislature hundreds of times and adopted in a majority of cases.
On February 19 1803, President Jefferson signed an act of Congress that approved Ohio's boundaries and constitution. However, Congress had never passed a resolution formally admitting Ohio as the 17th state. The current custom of Congress declaring an official date of statehood did not begin until 1812, with Louisiana's admission as the 18th state. Although no formal resolution of admission was required, when the oversight was discovered in 1953, Ohio congressman George H. Bender introduced a bill in Congress to admit Ohio to the Union retroactive to March 1 1803. At a special session at the old state capital in Chillicothe, the Ohio state legislature approved a new petition for statehood that was delivered to Washington, D.C. on horseback. On August 7 1953 (the year of Ohio's 150th anniversary), President Eisenhower signed an act that officially declared March 1 1803 the date of Ohio's admittance into the Union.
See also: Category:History of Ohio

Law and government

Main article: Government of Ohio
.
Ohio's capital is Columbus, located close to the center of the state.
^ Kent - Kent University - Stuart Hall - This Vacant dorm located on Kent State's campus, not far from the student center has several rumors of hauntings.
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^ Columbus - Mirror Lake - Ohio State - There was a student who drowned in Mirror Lake at Ohio State University back in the sixties.
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^ Columbus - Ohio State University - Alpha Delta Pi Sorority - According to some girls in that house, a girl in another sorority got sick and died in the house years ago.
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The executive branch is made up of six officers: Governor and lieutenant governor, Secretary of state, Attorney general, Auditor, and Treasurer. .Governor Ted Strickland took office as governor in January 2007. The legislative branch of Ohio government, the Ohio General Assembly, is made up of two houses--the senate, which has 33 members, and the house of representatives, which has 99 members.The judicial branch is headed by the supreme court, which has one chief justice and six associate justices.^ Legend has it, one of the sorority members hung herself in the boiler room at the house.
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^ An article on the Columbian House is in one of the "Haunted Ohio" series books.
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^ Fully one third of the text-book is usually made up of matter wholly irrelevant, consisting either of preposterous puzzles or of work that is special and technical.
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.In the United States federal government, Ohio has 18 seats in the United States House of Representatives.^ Columbus - Ohio State University - Alpha Delta Pi Sorority - According to some girls in that house, a girl in another sorority got sick and died in the house years ago.
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Geography

[[Image:DSCN4516 portconneautflag e.jpg|right|thumb|The Ohio coast of Lake Erie.]]
Map of Ohio.
Physical geography of Ohio.
See also: List of counties in Ohio
Further information: List of cities in OhioImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gifList of villages in OhioImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gifList of Ohio townshipsImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif, and Ohio public landsImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif

Ohio's geographic location has proved to be an asset for economic growth and expansion. .Because Ohio links the Northeast to the Midwest, much cargo and business traffic passes through its borders on its well-developed highways.^ Ohio Withholding Tax Extension Payment Coupon for Pass-Through Entities and Trusts - 2006 .
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^ Ohio Estimated Withholding Tax Payment Coupon for Pass-Through Entities and Trusts - 2009 .
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^ Ohio Estimated Withholding Tax Payment Coupon for Pass-Through Entities and Trusts - 2008 .
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Ohio has the nation's 10th largest highway network, and is within a one-day drive of 50% of North America's population and 70% of North America's manufacturing capacity.[7] To the North, Lake Erie gives Ohio 312 miles (502 km) of coastline,[8] which allows for numerous seaports. Ohio's southern border is defined by the Ohio River (with the border being at the 1793 low-water mark on the north side of the river), and much of the northern border is defined by Lake Erie. Ohio's neighbors are Pennsylvania to the east, Michigan to the northwest, Ontario to the north, Indiana to the west, Kentucky on the south, and West Virginia on the southeast.
Ohio's borders were defined by metes and bounds in the Enabling Act of 1802 as follows:
Bounded on the east by the Pennsylvania line, on the south by the Ohio River, to the mouth of the Great Miami River, on the west by the line drawn due north from the mouth of the Great Miami aforesaid, and on the north by an east and west line drawn through the southerly extreme of Lake Michigan, running east after intersecting the due north line aforesaid, from the mouth of the Great Miami until it shall intersect Lake Erie or the territorial line, and thence with the same through Lake Erie to the Pennsylvania line aforesaid.

Note that Ohio is bounded by the Ohio River, but nearly all of the river itself belongs to Kentucky and West Virginia. .In 1980, the U.S. Supreme Court held that, based on the wording of the cession of territory by Virginia (which, at that time included what is now Kentucky and West Virginia), the boundary between Ohio and Kentucky (and by implication, West Virginia) is the northern low-water mark of the river as it existed in 1792.[9] Ohio has only that portion of the river between the river's 1792 low-water mark and the present high-water mark.^ This spot was named the Our House by an 1800's owner who invited people from the many boats docking at the Ohio River city of Gallipolis with the words "come on over to our house".
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^ In other rooms, there have been times where the window shades of only a couple of rooms would flap frantically, but there's now evidence of any wind and no person standing by the windows.
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^ Spencerville - West Of Lima - Bloody Bridge - A residual episode of a scuffle between men, the woman screaming and falling into the water.
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The border with Michigan has also changed, as a result of the Toledo War, to angle slightly northeast to the north shore of the mouth of the Maumee River.
Much of Ohio features glaciated plains, with an exceptionally flat area in the northwest being known as the Great Black Swamp. .This glaciated region in the northwest and central state is bordered to the east and southeast first by a belt known as the glaciated Allegheny Plateau, and then by another belt known as the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau.^ East Liverpool - Beaver Creek State Park - Part of an 1830s canal system, known as Grethen's Lock, is named for the ghost of a young Dutch girl.
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Most of Ohio is of low relief, but the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau features rugged hills and forests.
The rugged southeastern quadrant of Ohio, stretching in an outward bow-like arc along the Ohio River from the West Virginia Panhandle to the outskirts of Cincinnati, forms a distinct socio-economic unit. .Known somewhat erroneously as Ohio's "Appalachian Counties" (they are actually in the Allegheny Plateau), this area's coal mining legacy, dependence on small pockets of old manufacturing establishments, and even distinctive regional dialect set this section off from the rest of the state and, unfortunately, create a limited opportunity to participate in the generally high economic standards of Ohio.^ Alliance - The Old Orphanage - There is an old orphanage owned by a local family that sets right off a side street.
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^ Wooster - The Olde Jaol Restaurant - The fine dining area of the restaurant, in this former Wayne County Jail in Wooster, used to actually be the cell block.
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^ The college has blocked off an old tunnel connecting the basement to the college chapel, due to 'student complaints', and the door to that section of the basement has been locked.
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In 1965 the United States Congress passed the Appalachian Regional Development Act, at attempt to "address the persistent poverty and growing economic despair of the Appalachian Region."[10] This act defines 29 Ohio counties as part of Appalachia.[11] .While 1/3 of Ohio's land mass is part of the federally defined Appalachian region, only 12.8% of Ohioans live there (1.476 million people.^ Ohio CAT 12 Scan Specifications - 2009 (For Software Developers Use Only) .
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)[12]
Significant rivers within the state include the Cuyahoga River, Great Miami River, Maumee River, Muskingum River, and Scioto River. The rivers in the northern part of the state drain into the northern Atlantic Ocean via Lake Erie and the St. Lawrence River, and the rivers in the southern part of the state drain into the Gulf of Mexico via the Ohio and then the Mississippi. .The worst weather disaster in Ohio history occurred along the Great Miami River in 1913. Known as the Great Dayton Flood, the entire Miami River watershed flooded, including the downtown business district of Dayton.^ (The Mound Builders by Robert Silverberg, Ohio University Press, Athens) Oxford - Miami University - Peabody Hall - This hall has been known to have many sightings along with the sighting of a Ms. Helen Peabody.
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As a result, the Miami Conservancy District was created as the first major flood plain engineering project in Ohio and the United States.[13]
Grand Lake St. Marys in the west central part of the state was constructed as a supply of water for canals in the canal-building era of 1820–1850. For many years this body of water, over 20 square miles (52 km²), was the largest artificial lake in the world. .It should be noted that Ohio's canal-building projects were not the economic fiasco that similar efforts were in other states.^ Ohio Corporation Franchise Tax Report - 2004 Please note correction on page 6, Minimum Fee Requirements, Thresholds, $50, should read, "(2) the .
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^ In a similar way, other principles of morality should be treated, as occasion calls for the treatment.
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Some cities, such as Dayton, owe their industrial emergence to location on canals, and as late as 1910 interior canals carried much of the bulk freight of the state.

Climate

The climate of Ohio is a humid continental climate (Koppen climate classification Dfa) throughout most of the state except in the extreme southern counties of Ohio's Bluegrass region section which are located on the northern periphery of the humid subtropical climate and Upland South region of the United States. .Summers are hot and humid throughout the State, while winters are generally cool to cold.^ There were cold spots throughout the house.- November 2003 update - burned down summer of 2002.
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Precipitation is moderate year-round. .Severe weather is not uncommon in the State as it is a battleground between cold Arctic air and warm Gulf air for much of the year, although there are fewer tornadoes in Ohio than in states more to the west.^ Now, the school exercises which we call recitations ought to include much more than is expressed by the literal meaning of the verb, to recite.
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^ That such moral training should receive much attention is school can not be question; character is more than intellectual power or acquisition.
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^ And if you go there late at night and touch the ball and its warm the witch is in her grave and if its cold she is out searching for souls.
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Severe lake effect snowstorms are also not uncommon on the southeast shore of Lake Erie, which also provides a moderating effect on the climate there.
Although predominantly not in a subtropical climate, some warmer-climate flora and fauna does reach well into Ohio. .For instance, a number of trees with more southern ranges, such as the blackjack oak, Quercus marilandica, are found at their northerlymost in Ohio just north of the Ohio River.^ More stories surface each day in this fascinating town on the southern tip of Ohio.
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.Also evidencing this climatic transition from a subtropical to continental climate, several plants such as the Southern magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora), Albizia julibrissin (mimosa), Crape Myrtle, and even the occasional Needle Palm are hardy landscape materials regularly used as street, yard, and garden plantings in the Bluegrass region of Ohio; but these same plants will simply not thrive in much of the rest of the State.^ There are supposedly 5 of these across the state of Ohio that when they are connected they form a pentagram.
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^ And the same is true when the pupil has come to know that his teacher will take all pains to avoid doing him an injustice, even though he may have occasion to treat him severely.
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^ On the occasion of such a school exhibition as we have recommended, a short talk or paper from the teacher may do much; or he may get the people to meet for a discussion of educational topics in the long winter evenings.
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.This interesting change may be observed while traveling through Ohio on Interstate 75 from Cincinnati to Toledo; the observant traveler of this diverse state may even catch a glimpse of Cincinnati's common wall lizard, one of the few examples of permanent "subtropical" fauna in Ohio.^ Interest Penalty on Underpayment of Ohio or School District Income Tax -- Short Method - 2009 This form may only be used by individuals.
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^ CONSTRUCTION OF THE PROGRAMME.--a few general hints on making a programme may be given; but full instructions are impossible unless one could know all the circumstances and conditions.
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^ Interest Penalty for Underpayment of Estimated Tax -- Long Method - 2008 This form may be used by individuals, pass-through entities and fiduciaries.
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In the state of Ohio, the overall temperature is very warm. Most of the state is in the humid continental climate. Ohio's summers average in the upper 80's or lower 90's for much of the state. Ohio's winters are very cold which average in the mid to upper 30's. Excessive heat warnings and flash flood warnings are not uncommon to the state of Ohio in the summer. .And you should expect heavy snow and cold temperatures in the winter, especially if you live in the southeast border of Lake Erie, the lake effect is the most severe in that particular part of the state.^ TESTING.--We mean, by testing, the ascertaining of the pupil's knowledge of the lesson assigned for that particular hour; this should be the first and most important part of the recitation.
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Records

The highest recorded temperature was 113 °F (45 °C), near Gallipolis on July 21 1934.[14] The lowest recorded temperature was -39 °F (-39 °C), at Milligan on February 10 1899.[15]

Important cities

See also: List of cities in Ohio
City and metropolitan data are from the US Census Bureau's 2006 estimates:
Rank City Population[16] Metro Pop[17]
1 Columbus 733,203 1,725,570
2 Cleveland 444,313 2,114,155
3 Cincinnati 332,252 2,104,218
4 Toledo 298,446 653,695
5 Akron 209,704 700,943
6 Dayton 156,771 838,940
7 Youngstown 81,520 586,939
8 Parma 80,009 2,114,155
9 Canton 78,924 409,764
10 Lorain 70,592 2,114,155
Columbus is the capital of Ohio, near the geographic center of the state. Other Ohio cities functioning as centers of United States metropolitan areas include Akron (home of University of Akron), Canton (home of Pro Football Hall of Fame, Malone College, and The Timken Company), Cincinnati (home of University of Cincinnati), Cleveland (home of Rock and Roll Hall of Fame), Dayton (home of University of Dayton), Lima (home of University of Northwestern Ohio), Mansfield (home of Mansfield Motorsports Park), Sandusky (home of Cedar Point), Springfield (home of Wittenberg University), Toledo (home of University of Toledo), and Youngstown (home of Youngstown State University).
Note: The Cincinnati metropolitan area extends into Kentucky and Indiana, and the Youngstown metropolitan area extends into Pennsylvania.

Economy

Ohio is a major producer of machines, tires and rubber products, steel, processed foods, tools, and other manufactured goods. .This is not immediately obvious because Ohio specializes in capital goods (goods used to make other goods, such as machine tools, automobile parts, industrial chemicals, and plastic moldings).^ So all these powers may be used for good or for bad purposes, and it should be the business of education to make all these powers efficient, and also to lead to their right use in all cases, and to prevent their wrong use.
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^ He should be required to use good language in his answers; but it should generally be other language than that of the book.
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^ There can be no question, other things being equal, that any one will make a better teacher by attending even a tolerably good Normal school.
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Nevertheless, there are well known Ohio consumer items including some Procter & Gamble products, Smuckers jams and jellies, and Day-Glo paints.
There are also numerous automobile plants in Ohio that manufacture cars, most notably the Jeep plant in Toledo, where the vehicles have been made since their initial release in World War II. Honda, Ford, and General Motors also have or had automobile plants in Ohio; in the case of the latter, one of their plants in Ohio (Lordstown Assembly, near Youngstown) is located right off the Ohio Turnpike with its own exit.
Ohio is the site of the invention of the airplane, resulting from the experiments of the Wright brothers in Dayton. (Wright State University located in Dayton is named in their honor.) Production of aircraft in the USA is now centered elsewhere, but a large experimental and design facility, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base has been located near Dayton and serves in the co-ordination of production of US military aircraft. On the base are located Wright Hill and Huffman Prairie, where many of the earliest aerodynamic experiments of the Wright brothers were performed. Ohio today also has many aerospace, defense, and NASA parts and systems suppliers scattered throughout the state.
As part of the Corn Belt, agriculture also plays an important role in the state's economy. There is also a small commercial fishing sector on Lake Erie, and the principal catch is yellow perch. In addition, Ohio's historical attractions, varying landscapes, and recreational opportunities are the basis for a thriving tourist industry. Over 2,500 lakes and 43,000 miles (70,000 km) of river landscapes are a paradise for boaters, fishermen, and swimmers. Three major amusement parks, Cedar Point, Geauga Lake, and Kings Island, are also important to the tourism industry. .Of special historical interest are the Native American archaeological sites—including grave mounds and other sites.^ In no other way can he keep out of "ruts," or keep up his own interest in what he is doing, and thus avoid that humdrum monotony which is a special bane of the teacher's work.
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.The Bureau of Economic Analysis estimates that Ohio's gross state product in 2004 was $419 billion[2].^ The richest products of any state, estimated even on a pecuniary basis alone, are its best men and women.
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Per capita personal income in 2003 was $30,129, 25th in the nation. Ohio's agricultural outputs are soybeans, dairy products, corn, tomatoes, hogs, cattle, poultry, and eggs. Its industrial outputs are transportation equipment, fabricated metal products, machinery, food processing, and electricity equipment.
Ohio is recognized for its health care, due to several flagship hospitals that operate in the northeast region of the state. The Cleveland Clinic, ranked among the three leading hospitals in the U.S., has its world headquarters and main campus in Cleveland. Its partner, the University Hospitals of Cleveland health system, includes the Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital, ranked among the top ten children's hospitals in the country. Cincinnati Children's Hospital is the leading center for research into childhood diseases in the state.

Demographics

.As of 2006, Ohio has an estimated population of 11,478,006,[18] which is an increase of 7,321 from the prior year and an increase of 124,861 since the year 2000. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 263,004 people (that is 938,169 births minus 675,165 deaths) and a decrease from net migration of -145,718. Immigration from outside the United States contributed of a growth of 92,101 people, most coming from Asia, yet net migration within the country resulted in a decrease of 237,819 people.^ Strictly speaking, one can not give another an education; he may contribute the culture, but the growth must always come from within, by the pupil's own effort.
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Ohio has witnessed an increase in the Laotian American and Thai American populations, as well as Asian Indians and Latin Americans.
The center of population of Ohio is also located in Morrow County, in the county seat of Mount Gilead [3]. {{US DemogTable|Ohio|03-39.csv|= | 86.83| 12.18| 0.67| 1.41| 0.06|= | 1.70| 0.19| 0.05| 0.02| 0.01|= | 86.27| 12.66| 0.66| 1.68| 0.07|= | 2.05| 0.20| 0.05| 0.03| 0.01|= | 0.32| 4.98| -1.57| 20.32| 9.32|= | -0.11| 4.97| -1.96| 20.48| 11.15|= | 22.11| 5.70| 3.04| 10.81| -0.26}} As of 2004, Ohio's population included about 390,000 foreign-born (3.4%).
The largest ancestry groups in Ohio are German (25.2%), Irish (12.7%), African American (11.5%), English (9.2%), American (8.5%), and Italian (6.0%).
German is the largest reported ancestry in most of the counties in Ohio, especially in the northwest and in the extreme southwest. Ohioans who cited American and British ancestry are present throughout the state as well, particularly in the south-central part of the state. The cities of Cleveland, Cincinnati, and Dayton have large African-American communities. The cities of Cleveland and Toledo have sizable Hispanic populations, while the Cleveland and Columbus areas have the largest Asian populations. Greater Cleveland is home to a notably large Jewish community. Other Ohio cities, such as Cincinnati, also have sizable Jewish populations.
6.6% of Ohio's population were reported as under 5, 25.4% under 18, and 13.3% were 65 or older. Females made up approximately 51.4% of the population.
Ohio Population Density Map
Population Growth in Ohio

Political demographics and history

See also: U.S. Electoral College, Politics of Ohio, Ohio Democratic Party, and Ohio Republican Party
Politically, Ohio is considered a swing state. The Economist notes that, "This slice of the mid-west contains a bit of everything American—part north-eastern and part southern, part urban and part rural, part hardscrabble poverty and part booming suburb,"[19]
.The mixture of urban and rural areas, and the presence of both large blue-collar industries and significant white-collar commercial districts leads to a balance of conservative and liberal population that (together with the state's 20 electoral votes, more than most swing states) makes the state very important to the outcome of national elections.^ We may be sure that nature makes no mistake in this, any more than in other exhibitions of child-life.
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^ An attempt to make the conversation conform strictly to some prescribed pattern will make an oral lesson more mechanical, dull, and unproductive than the most formal recitation of lessons memorized from a tolerable text-book.
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^ Besides, a good thing said by one of the class is very likely to impress itself on the other members more than it would if the same thing had been said by the teacher.
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Ohio was a deciding state in the 2004 presidential election between George W. Bush and John Kerry. Bush narrowly won the state's 20 electoral votes by a margin of 2 percentage points and 50.8% of the vote [4]. .The state supported Democrat Bill Clinton in 1992 and 1996, but supported Republican George W. Bush in 2000 and 2004. Ohio was also a deciding factor in the 1948 presidential election when Democrat Harry S. Truman defeated Republican Thomas Dewey (who had won the state four years earlier) and in the 1976 presidential election when Democrat Jimmy Carter defeated Republican Gerald Ford by a slim margin in Ohio and took the election.^ Ohio Amended School District Income Tax Return Only for Years 2006 and Prior - 2004 .
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Ohio's demographics cause many to consider the state as a microcosm of the nation as a whole. .A Republican presidential candidate has never won the White House without winning Ohio, and Ohio has gone to the winner of the election in all but two contests since 1892, backing only losers Thomas E. Dewey in 1944 (Ohio's John Bricker was his running mate) and Richard M. Nixon in 1960.^ If, however, he finds that, with all his care, he has made a mistake, the only manly way, the only safe way, is to acknowledge his error and take the back step.
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Consequently, the state is very important to the campaigns of both major parties. Ohio had 20 electoral votes in the Electoral College in 2004.
.Many political analysts divide the state into five distinct regions: a central region and one in each corner.^ Some one has said that the world's work may be divided into two kinds: viz., job-work and professional work.
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These regions are as different from each other as most states, and the largest (northeast) is only twice the size of the smallest (southeast). The northeast, including Cleveland, Youngstown, Lorain/Elyria, and other industrial areas, votes solidly Democrat largely due to its traditionally strong unions. The northwest is largely farmland with a few small manufacturing cities such as Toledo and Lima, and leans slightly Republican. The southwest is the most heavily Republican part of the state, especially in the suburbs in between Dayton and Cincinnati. Libertarian candidates also run surprisingly strongly in this area. The Appalachian regions in the Southeast are a swing bloc, tending to favor the candidates who have strong economic agendas. .The central part of the state, consisting of Columbus and its suburbs, is typical of many newly large cities: a poor urban Democratic core surrounded by a rich suburban Republican ring.^ Government .--A large part of school management consists in government, but by no means all of it.
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^ A large part of school management consists in government, but by no means all of it.
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^ Many years ago, the writer took charge of a large grammar-school in an eastern city.
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Ohio is known as the "Modern Mother of Presidents", having sent eight of its native sons to the White House. Seven of them were Republicans, and the other was a member of the Whig Party.
"Ohio has excelled as a recruiting-ground for national political leaders. .Between the Civil War and 1920, seven Ohioans were elected to the presidency, ending with Harding's election in 1920. At the same time, six Ohioans sat on the US Supreme Court and two served as Chief Justices....'Not since the Virginia dynasty dominated national government during the early years of the Republic' notes historian R. Douglas Hurt, 'had a state made such a mark on national political affairs.'^ And the simplest uses of capitals and punctuation marks may also be taught at the same time.
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^ Nor should it be made a small affair,--let not the body of the child be assailed for any but a serious cause, and then let the infliction be such that there will be no wish to have it repeated.
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^ Imagination .-- During the early years of a child's life, no power is more active that Imagination.
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Ohioans dominated national politics for seventy years, because Ohio was to a large extent a microcosm of the nation. Hurt writes that the elements of that microcosm were 'the diversity of the people, the strength of the industrial and agricultural economy, and the balance between rural and urban populations.' .He continues: 'The individuals who played major roles in national affairs appealed to broad national constituencies because they learned their skills in Ohio, where political success required candidates to reconcile wide differences among the voters.^ Ohio Individual Income Tax Return eForm - 2008 Adobe Reader 9.1 or greater is required for PDF fill-in forms.
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^ Can they not manage a lesson on the geography of Ohio, using different text-books?
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^ Ohio Individual Income Tax Return eForm - 2009 Adobe Reader 9.1 or greater is required for PDF fill-in forms.
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Ohioans were northerners and southerners as well as easterners and westerners. Consequently, Ohio's politicians addressed constituencies that were the same as those across the nation.' Finally, the pragmatic and centrist character of Ohio politics, Hurt asserts, has made it 'job-oriented rather than issue oriented.'"[20]

Education

Ohio's system of public education is outlined in the state constitution's Article VI and Title XXXIII of the Ohio Revised Code. Ohio's system is substantially similar to other states'. Ohio has a Department of Education, a State Board of Education, and then nearly 700 districts that have their own boards of education and administrations. .The Ohio Board of Regents governs and assists with Ohio's system of higher education, especially public colleges and universities.^ Here is the strongest argument for high schools and colleges which shall offer the fullest education of all, at the public cost.
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Colleges and universities

Main article: List of colleges and universities in Ohio
(note: the University of Dayton is not one of Ohio's state universities; it is a private, Roman Catholic university run by the Society of Mary)

Libraries

Ohio is home to some of the nation's highest-ranking public libraries.[21] The 2006 study by Thomas J. Hennen Jr. ranked Ohio as number one in a state-by-state comparison. For 2006, Ohio's three largest library systems were all ranked in the top ten for American cities of 500,000 or more:[22]
The Ohio Public Library Information Network is an organization that provides Ohio residents with internet access to their 251 public libraries. OPLIN also provides Ohioans with free home access to high-quality, subscription research databases.
Ohio also offers the OhioLINK program, allowing Ohio's libraries (particularly those from colleges and universities) access to materials in other libraries. .The program is largely successful in allowing researchers access to books and other media that might not otherwise be available.^ The lesson has been carefully assigned at some previous time, to be learned from a book or from some other available source.
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Sports

Professional

.The first openly all-professional sports team called Ohio home; baseball's Cincinnati Red Stockings, formed in 1869.^ This preparation for higher professional rank should be of a three-fold nature: First .--The teacher should constantly push forward in the subjects he is called upon to teach.
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Today, Ohio is home to many professional sports teams, including six major professional sports league franchises.
Ohio is currently the only state to have teams in each of the major leagues where no one city or metro area could lay claim to the "Grand Slam," though Cleveland briefly held this status from 1976 to 1978. Current teams in the "big four" include:
Additionally, the Columbus Crew is a charter member of Major League Soccer and is noted for both its strong, stable fan base and Columbus Crew Stadium, the first soccer-specific stadium in the United States.
The Browns and Bengals have an instate rivalry now tied at 38 wins a piece after the Browns beat the Bengals in September of 2007. The Browns however consider the Pittsburgh Steelers their arch rival; that rivalry is the oldest in the American Football Conference (AFC). .The Browns won all 4 All-American Football Conference Championships before joining the NFL in 1950. They won 4 NFL Championships before the advent of the Super Bowl, most recently a 10-7 win over the heavily favored Baltimore Colts in the 1964 Championship game.^ The recent movement in favor of memorizing literary "gems" is worthy of all commendation.
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Outside of Cincinnati-Dayton area, football fan loyalties in Ohio are said to be "down with the Browns." The Bengals fan base is more concentrated in southwest Ohio and most of eastern and central Kentucky. The Steelers fan base within Ohio is on the Pennsylvania border, particularly the Youngstown and Steubenville-Weirton, WV-Wheeling, WV areas. (The Steelers actually played a few home games in Youngstown in the 1930's so as not to compete too much with the then-more popular University of Pittsburgh football team.) The San Francisco 49ers also enjoy a small following in the Youngstown area as the team's owners, John & Denise York are based out of the Youngstown suburb of Canfield.
In contrast to the Browns-Bengals rivalry, Reds-Indians fan bases are split more or less evenly within the state, with the north and east sides of the state being Indian territory and the south and west comprising Reds land. The Detroit Tigers have a sizable minority of fans in northwest Ohio, thanks to Toledo's proximity to Detroit, the Toledo Mud Hens' historical status as the Tigers' top farm club for much of their history and once-regular broadcasts of Tigers games on Toledo television.
The Cavaliers, as Ohio's only NBA franchise, command NBA fan loyalties statewide. Their recent success and the play of Akron native LeBron James have greatly raised the team's profile both within the rest of Ohio and nationwide.
While the Blue Jackets are Ohio's only NHL franchise, they have yet to establish a strong tradition and following outside Columbus and the Detroit Red Wings continue to maintain a sizable fan base in northwest Ohio.
Former major league teams:

Other Ohio Professional Sports Teams

College and high school

.Ohio is also known for being full of rabid fans of college and high school football.^ Here is the strongest argument for high schools and colleges which shall offer the fullest education of all, at the public cost.
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Ohio State is the 5th winningest program in NCAA history and has 7 National Championships and 7 Heisman Trophy winners. Cincinnati, Akron, Ohio, Miami University, Bowling Green, Toledo and Kent State all also compete in Division I Football Bowl Subdivison, the highest level of College Football. Toledo holds one of the nation's longest Division I football winning streaks, winning 35 consecutive games from 1969 to 1971 under quarterback Chuck Ealey. Youngstown State is a perennial power in Division I Football Championship Subdivision having won 4 I-AA Championships under current Ohio State Coach Jim Tressel. Mount Union College is the dynasty of Division III college football with 11 National Championships and a record 62 game winning streak at one point.
Massillon Washington High School in Massillon has won 9 high school football national championship polls and 31 state championships. Cincinnati Colerain is rising to be a dynasty in its own right, and is scheduled to face Massillon at Cleveland Browns Stadium in 2008.

Transportation

Many major east-west transportation corridors go through Ohio. .One of those pioneer routes, known in the early 1900s as "Ohio Market Route 3", was chosen in 1913 to become part of the historic Lincoln Highway which was the first road across America, connecting New York City to San Francisco.^ For this reason, the test should come early in the recitation; generally, the first thing, that it may be known whether any thing else is to be attempted.
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^ Let us all tell you that we are pointing out one of the surest roads to those very places.
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In Ohio, the Lincoln Highway linked many towns and cities together, including Canton, Mansfield, Lima, and Van Wert. The arrival of the Lincoln Highway to Ohio was a major influence on the development of the state. Upon the advent of the federal numbered highway system in 1926, the Lincoln Highway through Ohio became U.S. Highway 30.
Ohio also is home to 228 miles (367 km) of the Historic National Road.
Ohio has a highly developed network of roads and interstate highways. Major east-west through routes include the Ohio Turnpike (I-80/I-90) in the north, I-76 through Akron to Pennsylvania, U.S. 30 (the Lincoln Highway) a bit further south through Canton, Mansfield, Lima, and Van Wert, I-70 through Columbus and Dayton, and the Appalachian Highway (Ohio 32) running from West Virginia to Cincinnati. Major north-south routes include I-75 in the west through Toledo, Dayton, and Cincinnati, I-71 through the middle of the state from Cleveland through Columbus and Cincinnati into Kentucky, and I-77 in the eastern part of the state from Cleveland through Akron, Canton, New Philadelphia and Marietta down into West Virginia. Interstate 75 between Cincinnati & Dayton is one of the heaviest section of traveled interstate in Ohio.
Air travel includes Cleveland Hopkins International Airport, which is a major hub for Continental Airlines, as well as Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky International Airport (located in the state of Kentucky), which is a major hub for Delta Air Lines. Other major airports are located in Dayton, Toledo, Columbus, and Akron-Canton.
See also: List of airports in Ohio

Transportation lists

State symbols

Ohio quarter showing the "Birthplace of aviation pioneers" slogan.
Ohio buckeyes, the seed from the Ohio buckeye tree.
.There has been an attempt to make the pawpaw the state fruit, but this has been blocked by others who wish to make the apple the state fruit.^ The rules of syntax serve an admirable purpose, no doubt, but he who attempts to think of them as he speaks will make a poor speaker.
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^ There can be no question, other things being equal, that any one will make a better teacher by attending even a tolerably good Normal school.
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^ Nor should other members of the class make demonstrations to show whether the one who is reciting is going right or wrong.
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This has resulted in a bumper sticker that may often be seen in southeastern Ohio saying "I'm pro-pawpaw - and I vote!"

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Elevations and Distances in the United States. U.S Geological Survey (29 April 2005). Retrieved on November 7, 2006.
  2. ^ "Geographic Definitions"Census Region definition, United States Census Bureau, retrieved December 22 2005.
  3. ^ "Geographic Definitions" Census Region definition Attachment C, United States Census Bureau, retrieved December 22 2005
  4. ^ Dow, Dustin (2007-01-22). On the Banks of the Ohi:yo. NCAA Hoops Blog. Retrieved on 2007-02-25.
  5. ^ Mithun, Marianne. 1999. Languages of Native North America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pg. 312
  6. ^ {{cite web |url=http://americanindianstudies.osu.edu/ohio.cfm |title=Native Ohio |accessdate=2007-02-25 |work=American Indian Studies |publisher=[[Ohio State University|]]
  7. ^ "Transportation delivers for Ohio", Ohio Department of Transportation, retrieved December 22 2005
  8. ^ "Ohio Coastal Atlas" Page 1 of "County Profiles" subsection, Ohio Department of Natural Resources, retrieved December 22 2005.
  9. ^ Ohio v. Kentucky, 444 U.S. 335 (1980)
  10. ^ "History of the Appalachian Regional Commission", Appalachian Regional Commission, retrieved January 3 2006.
  11. ^ "Counties in Appalachia", Appalachian Regional Commission, retrieved January 3 2006
  12. ^ "GCT-T1 Ohio County Population Estimates--2005", The United States Census Bureau, retrieved January 3 2006. True summation of Ohio Appalachia counties population (1,476,384) obtained by adding the 29 individual county populations together (July 1 2005 data). Percentage obtained by dividing that number into that table's estimate of Ohio population as of July 1 2005 (11,464,042)
  13. ^ The History of the MCD: The Conservancy Act. Miami Conservancy District. Retrieved on January 13, 2007.
  14. ^ All-Time Temperature Minimums By State (2003) (PDF). [[National Climatic Data Center|]]. Retrieved on November 7, 2006.
  15. ^ All-Time Temperature Maximums By State (2003) (PDF). [[National Climatic Data Center|]]. Retrieved on November 7, 2006.
  16. ^ U.S. Census Bureau. Annual Estimates of the Population for Incorporated Places in Ohio, Listed Alphabetically: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2006. Retrieved on 2007-06-28.
  17. ^ U.S. Census Bureau. Annual Estimates of the Population of Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2006. Retrieved on 2007-04-05.
  18. ^ Table 1: Estimates of Population Change for the United States and States, and for Puerto Rico and State Rankings: July 1 2005 to July 1 2006. [[United States Census Bureau|]] (2006-12-22). Retrieved on December 22, 2006.
  19. ^ " A grain of sand for your thoughts", The Economist, December 20 2005, retrieved December 23 2005.
  20. ^ The American Mayor, Melvin G. Holli, Pennsylvania State University Press, 1999, Page 162. ISBN 0-271-01876-3.
  21. ^ Thomas J. Hennen's American Public Library Ratings for 2006
  22. ^ [1]
  23. ^ http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=1882
  24. ^ http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=1869

External links

All wikimedia projects
Articles on this topic in other Wikimedia projects can be found at: Ohio


<span class="FA" id="genealogy_wikia_es" style="display:none;" />

.This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia.^ Many who are most expert in the processes of analysis and parsing are exceedingly clumsy and inaccurate in their use of the English language.
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The original content was at Ohio. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License.
Facts about OhioRDF feed
Subdivision of country United States  +

This article uses material from the "Ohio" article on the Genealogy wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

Simple English

State of Ohio
File:Flag of File:Ohio state
Flag of Ohio Seal of Ohio
Also called: The Buckeye State,
"Birthplace of Aviation"
Saying(s): With God, all things are possible
Official language(s) None
Capital Columbus
Largest city Columbus
Largest metro area Cleveland
Area  Ranked 34th
 - Total 44,825 sq mi
(116,096 km²)
 - Width 220 miles (355 km)
 - Length 220 miles (355 km)
 - % water 8.7
 - Latitude 38°27'N to 41°58'N
 - Longitude 80°32'W to 84°49'W
Number of people  Ranked 7th
 - Total (2010) {{{2010Pop}}}
 - Density {{{2010DensityUS}}}/sq mi 
{{{2010Density}}}/km² (9th)
Height above sea level  
 - Highest point Campbell Hill[1]
1,550 ft  (472 m)
 - Average 853 ft  (260 m)
 - Lowest point Ohio River[1]
455 ft  (139 m)
Became part of the U.S.  March 1, 1803, (17th,
declared retroactively on
August 7, 1953)
Governor Ted Strickland (D)
U.S. Senators George V. Voinovich (R)
Sherrod Brown (D)
Time zone Eastern: UTC-5/-4
Abbreviations OH US-OH
Web site www.ohio.gov

Ohio is one of the 50 states in the United States. Its capital is Columbus. Columbus also is the largest city in Ohio.

Other large cities in Ohio are Cleveland, Cincinnati, Dayton, Akron, Toledo, and Youngstown.

Some famous people from Ohio include Wilbur and Orville Wright, author Sherwood Anderson, and actress Katie Holmes. There have also been seven American presidents from Ohio: Ulysses S. Grant, Rutherford Hayes, James Garfield, Benjamin Harrison, William McKinley, William Howard Taft, and Warren G. Harding.

Other pages

References

frr:Ohio


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 14, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Cincinnati, which are similar to those in the above article.








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