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A beach after an oil spill
.An oil spill is the release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment due to human activity, and is a form of pollution.^ Releases of petroleum into the environment occur naturally from seeps as well as from human sources.

^ Oil spill - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia An oil spill is the release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment due to human activity, and is a form of pollution.
  • Oil Pollution - ninemsn Encarta 20 November 2009 20:42 UTC au.encarta.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Oil Pollution - MSN Encarta 20 November 2009 20:42 UTC uk.encarta.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What can humans do to prevent oil spills?
  • Show Number 1005 Oil Spills 17 September 2009 14:28 UTC www.reachoutmichigan.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Show Number 1005 Oil Spills 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC reachoutmichigan.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The term often refers to marine oil spills, where oil is released into the ocean or coastal waters.^ Oil spilled into the water often reaches the shore.
  • Oil Spill K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Oil spill monitoring - Coastal Wiki .
  • Oil spill monitoring - Coastal Wiki 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC www.coastalwiki.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Oil spill spite open ocean?
  • WikiAnswers - How do you prevent oil spill 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

.The oil may be a variety of materials, including crude oil, refined petroleum products (such as gasoline or diesel fuel) or by-products, ships' bunkers, oily refuse or oil mixed in waste.^ The products refined from petroleum (gasoline, kerosene, asphalt, fuel oil, and petroleum-based chemical), however, are not natural.
  • Oil Spills - Characteristics of petroleum, Oil pollution, Incidents of oil spills 17 September 2009 14:28 UTC www.scienceclarified.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Article 2 Definitions For the purposes of this Convention: (1) "Oil" means petroleum in any form including crude oil, fuel oil, sludge, oil refuse and refined products.
  • International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response and Co-Operation (London 1990) 20 November 2009 20:42 UTC www.admiraltylawguide.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Oil can refer to many different materials, including crude oil, refined petroleum products (such as gasoline or diesel fuel) or by-products, ships' bunkers, oily refuse or oil mixed in waste.
  • Oil Spills 17 September 2009 14:28 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Spills take months or even years to clean up.^ Promise to clean up the spill, then do nothing.
  • Quarles Petroleum Fails to Report Major Oil Spill 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC home.earthlink.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Oil spill clean up equipment .
  • Oil Spill Trailer 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC www.megator.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Spills take months or even years to clean up.
  • Oil Spills 17 September 2009 14:28 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Oil also enters the marine environment from natural oil seeps.^ Oil spills in the marine environment .
  • Oil fate during oil spills in the marine environment 17 September 2009 14:28 UTC www.offshore-environment.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Oil pollution of the marine environment .

^ Fate and behavior of oil in the marine environment .
  • Oil fate during oil spills in the marine environment 17 September 2009 14:28 UTC www.offshore-environment.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1] .Most human-made oil pollution comes from land-based activity, but public attention and regulation has tended to focus most sharply on seagoing oil tankers.^ Most man-made oil pollution comes from land-based activity, but public attention and subsequent regulation has tended to focus most sharply on seagoing oil tankers [2].
  • Oil Spills 17 September 2009 14:28 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ International Tanker Owners Pollution Federation Limited - ITOPF ITOPF's technical advisers have attended on-site at over 500 oil spills in 90 countries.
  • Oil Spill Cleanup - Web Guide - People in Action 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC peopleinaction.com [Source type: General]

^ And unfortunately oil spills will continue to occur, which means that preventing oil from coming ashore is going to be most important for protecting sensitive habitat from long term damage.

Contents

Environmental effects

Duck covered in oil as a result of the 2007 San Francisco Bay oil spill.
Oil slicks on Lake Maracaibo.
Oil Slick from the Montara oil spill in the Timor Sea, September, 2009.
.The oil penetrates and opens up the structure of the plumage of birds, reducing its insulating ability, and so making the birds more vulnerable to temperature fluctuations and much less buoyant in the water.^ A decline in their insulation and flight abilities increases the vulnerability of birds.

^ Oil penetrates the structure of the plumage of birds, opening it up.

^ Do you see less oil on the water?

.It also impairs birds' flight abilities, making it difficult or impossible to forage and escape from predators.^ The oiled feathers also impairs birds' flight abilities, making it difficult or impossible to forage and escape from predators.
  • Oil Spills 17 September 2009 14:28 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Oil penetrates and opens up the structure of the plumage of birds, reducing its insulating ability, making the birds more vulnerable to temperature fluctuations.
  • Oil Spill | QUEST Community Science Blog - KQED 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC www.kqed.org [Source type: General]

.As they attempt to preen, birds typically ingest oil that covers their feathers, causing kidney damage, altered liver function, and digestive tract irritation.^ Birds die from oil spills if their feathers are covered in oil.

^ What kind of damage do oil spills cause?
  • Oil Spill! - NIE: Newspapers in Education - The Cincinnati Enquirer 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC cincinnati.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As they attempt to preen themselves, they ingest the toxic substances.
  • Oil Spill | QUEST Community Science Blog - KQED 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC www.kqed.org [Source type: General]

.This and the limited foraging ability quickly causes dehydration and metabolic imbalances.^ The limited foraging ability coupled with the ingestion of the oil quickly causes dehydration and metabolic imbalances.
  • Oil Spills 17 September 2009 14:28 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Hormonal balance alteration including changes in luteinizing protein can also result in some birds exposed to petroleum.^ Early estimates show hundreds of birds, including some Bald Eagles, have been injured or killed.

^ Petroleum soaked some 1,200 miles of coastline, killing countless birds and marine life.
  • Supreme Court reduces Exxon oil spill damages - Jun. 25, 2008 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC money.cnn.com [Source type: News]

^ Some lawmakers, including one of the state's U.S. senators, Democrat Barbara Boxer, have criticized the Coast Guard's handling of the collision and resulting spill.
  • Coast Guard: Oil spill probably due to 'human error' - CNN.com 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC edition.cnn.com [Source type: News]

[2] .Most birds affected by an oil spill die unless there is human intervention.^ Birds die from oil spills if their feathers are covered in oil.

^ Birds are affected by oil in a number of ways: .
  • PRBO Conservation Science: Cosco Busan Oil Spill 2007 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC www.prbo.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Where is the spilled oil most likely to spread?
  • Athos 1 Oil Spill 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC www.ceoe.udel.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3][4]
.Marine mammals exposed to oil spills are affected in similar ways as seabirds.^ What parts of the environment are affected by an oil spill?
  • Show Number 1005 Oil Spills 17 September 2009 14:28 UTC www.reachoutmichigan.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Show Number 1005 Oil Spills 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC reachoutmichigan.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Oil spills and the marine environment .

^ Oil spills in the marine environment .
  • Oil fate during oil spills in the marine environment 17 September 2009 14:28 UTC www.offshore-environment.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Oil coats the fur of Sea otters and seals, reducing its insulation abilities and leading to body temperature fluctuations and hypothermia.^ Oil coats the fur of Sea otters, seals, reducing their furs natural insulation abilities, leading to body temperature fluctuations and hypothermia.
  • Oil Spills 17 September 2009 14:28 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Among its toll, the spill killed hundreds of thousands of sea birds, thousands of otters, hundreds of seals as well as killer whales, bald eagles and fish.

^ Dead oiled otter a victim of the Exxon Valdez spill Prince William Sound , 1989 Oil-covered fur or feathers can't insulate marine mammals and diving birds from cold water, and when an animal cleans itself, it also swallows oil.
  • Ocean Planet: Oil Pollution 17 September 2009 14:28 UTC seawifs.gsfc.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Ingestion of the oil causes dehydration and impaired digestions.^ Ingestion of the oil also causes dehydration, and impaired digestion.
  • Oil Spills 17 September 2009 14:28 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As they attempt to preen, birds typically ingest oil that coats their feathers, causing kidney damage, altered liver function, and digestive tract irritation.
  • Oil Spills 17 September 2009 14:28 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Oiling of fur or feathers causes loss of insulating capacity and can lead to death from hypothermia, smothering, drowning, and ingestion of toxic hydrocabons.
  • Exxon Valdez oil spill - Encyclopedia of Earth 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Because oil floats on top of water, less light penetrates into the water, limiting the photosynthesis of marine plants and phytoplankton.^ Because oil is less dense than water, it floats on the water's surface.
  • Teachers' Domain: Oil Spill: Exxon Valdez, 1989 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC www.teachersdomain.org [Source type: General]

^ Oil on the water affects marine animals .

^ Major impacts from oil exploration and development because water is so limited.
  • EXXON VALDEZ OIL SPILL: Ten Years Later 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC arcticcircle.uconn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This, as well as decreasing the fauna populations, affects the food chain in the ecosystem.^ There will also be chronic longer-term effects of oil entering food-chain potentially affecting both them and their prey.
  • WDCS International - News 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC www.wdcs.org [Source type: News]

^ Over time, contaminants from the oil will be absorbed by wildlife in and around the River and tributaries and will be passed up the food chain, affecting the quality of the Delaware ecosystem for years to come.

^ Fiddler crabs are also a food source for other species - the toxins concentrated in the crabs would likely have some affect on animals further up the food chain.

Methods of cleaning

Clean-up efforts after the Exxon Valdez oil spill.
Volunteers cleaning up the aftermath of the Prestige oil spill.
A US Navy oil spill response team drills with a "Harbour Buster high-speed oil containment system".
.A sheen is usually dispersed (but not cleaned up) with detergents which makes oil settle to the bottom.^ Methods of cleaning an oil spill A sheen is usually dispersed (but not cleaned up) with detergents which makes oil settle to the bottom.
  • Oil Spills 17 September 2009 14:28 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Why is it so hard to clean up oil?
  • Oil Spill | QUEST Community Science Blog - KQED 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC www.kqed.org [Source type: General]

^ What bacteria cleans up oil spill?
  • WikiAnswers - How do you prevent oil spill 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

.Oils that are denser than water, such as Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), can be more difficult to clean as they make the seabed toxic.^ More oil on the water?

^ How do they clean up the oil on the beaches or the water after a spill?

^ Oil is more toxic than thought.
  • EXXON VALDEZ OIL SPILL: Ten Years Later 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC arcticcircle.uconn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Methods for cleaning up include:
.
  • Bioremediation: use of microorganisms[5] or biological agents[6] to break down or remove oil
  • Bioremediation Accelerator: Oleophilic, hydrophobic chemical, containing no bacteria, which chemically and physically bonds to both soluble and insoluble hydrocarbons.^ Bioremediation uses fertilizers to increase the number of oil-eating bacteria that can break down oil.
    • Human Impact 17 September 2009 14:28 UTC www.gma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Chemical dispersants -- Materials that break down the oil into its chemical constituents.
    • How are oil spills cleaned up? 17 September 2009 14:28 UTC ask.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Workers used chemicals to break down the oil.

    .The bioremedation accelerator acts as a herding agent in water and on the surface, floating molecules to the surface of the water, including solubles such as phenols and BTEX, forming gel-like agglomerations.^ Alternative technologies” are also available “in the toolbox,” Callahan says, including chemical dispersants that break down oil to distribute it throughout the water column, biological agents (such as plants and bacteria) that speed up the degradation rates, and in situ burning, which involves burning the oil slick on the water surface to prevent its spread.
    • Geotimes — February 2006 — After Katrina: Oil Spill First Responders 17 September 2009 14:28 UTC www.geotimes.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In water, it is important that PRP floats and keeps the oil on the surface, because, even if oil exposure is not immediately lethal, it can cause long-term harm if allowed to settle.
    • PRP: The Proven Solution for Cleaning Up Oil Spills 17 September 2009 14:28 UTC www.sti.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The tunas eggs float on the surface of the water, which would make them directly vulnerable to the oil spill, posing a serious threat to the Bluefin tuna population in the Mediterranean.
    • Lebanese Oil Spill May Rival Exxon Valdez Disaster 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC environment.about.com [Source type: General]

    .Non-detectable levels of hydrocarbons can be obtained in produced water and manageable water columns.^ The toxins, called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, were detected in Bay shellfish in levels dangerous to anybody who ate them for four months after the spill, according to the report.
    • Oil spill devastated Bay herring | San Francisco Examiner 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC www.sfexaminer.com [Source type: News]

    ^ The few samples that have come back from the lab show the water being drawn into the intake valves are non-detect for total petroleum hydrocarbons.
    • State Monitoring Mississippi River Oil Spill - July 25, 2008 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC gohsep.la.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ PetroLarm - Detection of ppm levels of oil in water by fluorescence.
    • RIGZONE - Oil & Gas Directory - Oil Spill 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC www.rigzone.com [Source type: General]

    By overspraying sheen with bioremediation accelerator, sheen is eliminated within minutes. .Whether applied on land or on water, the nutrient-rich emulsion, creates a bloom of local, indigenous, pre-existing, hydrocarbon-consuming bacteria.^ El Nino is a natural phenomenon that involves a change in wind and ocean current patterns, which warms surface temperatures and reduces the upwelling of nutrient-rich water.

    ^ "Bacteria enzymes will catalyze the insertion of oxygen into the hydrocarbon so that the molecule can subsequently be consumed by cellular metabolism" "Bragg et al.
    • Bioremediation of Marine Oil Spills 17 September 2009 14:28 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Then it solidifies and hardens creating a solid (foam-like) substance floating on the water (or land) surface.

    .Those specific bacteria break down the hydrocarbons into water and carbon dioxide, with EPA tests showing 98% of alkanes biodegraded in 28 days; and aromatics being biodegraded 200 times faster than in nature[7].
  • Controlled burning can effectively reduce the amount of oil in water, if done properly.^ Biodegradation is a natural process by which microbes alter and break down petroleum hydrocarbons into other substances.
    • Bioremediation of Marine Oil Spills 17 September 2009 14:28 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Bacteria in the water attack and digest the oil.
    • Oil Spills 17 September 2009 14:28 UTC www.awma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The organics are converted into water and carbon dioxide and the remains of the bacteria.
    • Geometry.Net - Science: Oil Spills 17 September 2009 14:28 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [8] .But it can only be done in low wind,[citation needed] and can cause air pollution.^ However, it can be done only when it is not windy[ citation needed ], and could cause air pollution.
    • Oil Spills 17 September 2009 14:28 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ They might not decide to burn the oil because this method causes air pollution.

    ^ Surprising though it may seem, air pollution is also a cause of water pollution.
    • Clean your home and driveway by Oil Stain Remover, Remove Concrete Stain and Oil Spill Cleanup | Oil Spill Blog 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC www.oilgoneeasy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [9]
  • .
  • Dispersants act as detergents, clustering around oil globules and allowing them to be carried away in the water.^ Dispersants: Dispersants act as detergents, clustering around oil globules and allowing it to be carried away in the water.
    • Oil Spills 17 September 2009 14:28 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Dredging: for oils dispersed with detergents and other oils denser than water.
    • Oil Spills 17 September 2009 14:28 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Specialized equipment, such as a vacuum, is then used to help remove oil from the water's surface, and chemical detergents are applied to help break up visible slicks.
    • Teachers' Domain: Oil Spill: Exxon Valdez, 1989 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC www.teachersdomain.org [Source type: General]

    [10] .This improves the surface aesthetically, and mobilizes the oil.^ While this improves the surface aesthetically, it only serves to mobilise the oil.
    • Oil Spills 17 September 2009 14:28 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Smaller oil droplets, scattered by currents, may cause less harm and may degrade more easily.^ This may be beneficial since smaller oil droplets, scattered with currents, may cause less harm and may be easier to degrade.
    • Oil Spills 17 September 2009 14:28 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In water, it is important that PRP floats and keeps the oil on the surface, because, even if oil exposure is not immediately lethal, it can cause long-term harm if allowed to settle.
    • PRP: The Proven Solution for Cleaning Up Oil Spills 17 September 2009 14:28 UTC www.sti.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Apart from the oil damage , experts fear the fertiliser could cause harmful algal blooms , suffocate fish and kill natural habitats.
    • Australian oil spill '10 times worse' than thought 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC www.physorg.com [Source type: News]

    .But the dispersed oil droplets infiltrate into deeper water and can lethally contaminate coral.^ However, the dispersed oil droplets increases infiltration into deeper water and can lethally contaminate coral.
    • Oil Spills 17 September 2009 14:28 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ So, when a truck, train, or ship accidentally dumps its cargo into a lake, stream or sea, the oil sits on top of the water and spreads across its surface.
    • Oil Spill Surface Cleanup Ignores Fish Below: Discovery News 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC dsc.discovery.com [Source type: General]

    ^ In water, it is important that PRP floats and keeps the oil on the surface, because, even if oil exposure is not immediately lethal, it can cause long-term harm if allowed to settle.
    • PRP: The Proven Solution for Cleaning Up Oil Spills 17 September 2009 14:28 UTC www.sti.nasa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Recent research indicates that some dispersants are toxic to corals.^ Moreover, recent research indicates that some dispersants are toxic to corals.
    • Oil Spills 17 September 2009 14:28 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [11]
  • .
  • Watch and wait: in some cases, nautural attentuation of oil may be most appropriate, due to the invasive nature of facilitated methods of remediation, particularly in ecologically sensitive areas.^ What areas will be hit with the most oil from the spill?
    • Oil Spill Scenario Exercise 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC www.pcds.org [Source type: General]

    ^ The marsh areas were particularly sensitive, not only to oiling, but to methods of oil spill cleanup.
    • Kurdistan oil spill, Environmental_Science, College Term Papers.com 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC www.collegetermpapers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Most of the EVOS oil in PWS has been eliminated due to natural weathering.
    • Oil Spill Assessment | Capabilities | Exponent 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC www.exponent.com [Source type: Academic]

    [citation needed]
  • Dredging: for oils dispersed with detergents and other oils denser than water.
  • Skimming: Requires calm waters
  • Solidifying[citation needed]
Equipment used includes:[8]
  • Booms: large floating barriers that round up oil and lift the oil off the water
  • Skimmers: skim the oil
  • Sorbents: large absorbents that absorb oil
  • Chemical and biological agents: helps to break down the oil
  • Vacuums: remove oil from beaches and water surface
  • Shovels and other road equipments: typically used to clean up oil on beaches

Prevention

.
  • Secondary containment - methods to prevent releases of oil or hydrocarbons into environment.
  • Oil Spill Prevention Containment and Countermeasures (SPCC) program by the United States Environmental Protection Agency.
  • Double hulling - build double hulls into vessels, which reduces the risk and severity of a spill in case of a collision or grounding.^ What are some of the things that could be done to reduce the risks of oil spills?
    • Show Number 1005 Oil Spills 17 September 2009 14:28 UTC www.reachoutmichigan.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Show Number 1005 Oil Spills 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC reachoutmichigan.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ What can humans do to prevent oil spills?
    • Show Number 1005 Oil Spills 17 September 2009 14:28 UTC www.reachoutmichigan.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Show Number 1005 Oil Spills 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC reachoutmichigan.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Double-hulls are an important method of preventing oil spills.
    • Oil Spill Concerns 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC www.arkent.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Existing single-hull vessels can also be rebuilt to have a double hull.

Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Mapping[1]

NOAA's Office of Response and Restoration[2]

.Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are used to identify sensitive shoreline resources prior to an oil spill event in order to set priorities for protection and plan cleanup strategies.^ Shoreline Rankings ESI shoreline rankings rate how sensitive an area would be to an oil spill.
  • Responding to Oil Spills | Emergency Response | NOAA's Ocean Service Office of Response and Restoration 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC response.restoration.noaa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A GIS approach to mapping oil spills in .
  • References 20 November 2009 20:42 UTC www.cs.mun.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Sensitivity Mapping for Oil Spill Response (1996) .
  • IPIECA 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC www.ipieca.org [Source type: Academic]

.By planning spill response ahead of time, the impact on the environment can be minimized or prevented.^ He has also worked as the project manager for oil spill prevention and response planning.
  • Oil Spill Recovery Institute 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC www.pws-osri.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Spills into coastal waters can harm people and the environment and cause substantial disruption of marine transportation—with potential widespread economic impacts.
  • Oil and Chemical Spills: NOAA Watch: NOAA's All-Hazard Monitor: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration: U.S. Department of Commerce 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC www.noaawatch.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Skimming:Requires calm waters Solidifying[ citation needed ] Spill Prevention Secondary Containment - methods to prevent releases of oil or hydrocarbons into environment.
  • Oil Spills 17 September 2009 14:28 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Environmental sensitivity index maps are basically made up of information within the following three categories: shoreline type, and biological and human-use resources[12].^ ESI Toolkit Tools and resources for Environmental Sensitivity Index maps.
  • Responding to Oil Spills | Emergency Response | NOAA's Ocean Service Office of Response and Restoration 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC response.restoration.noaa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ESI Exercises Training exercises for Environmental Sensitivity Index maps.
  • Responding to Oil Spills | Emergency Response | NOAA's Ocean Service Office of Response and Restoration 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC response.restoration.noaa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Using Environmental Sensitivity Maps and discussing the ecology of the region helps to draw students into seeing how animals and the ocean are connected and that physical environment is an important component of ecology.
  • teacher notes - oil spill scenario 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC www.pcds.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Shoreline Type

.Shoreline type is classified by rank depending on how easy the oil would be to cleanup, how long the oil would persist, and how sensitive the shoreline is [13].^ Classify all shorelines by type code.
  • Oil Spill Response Needs Assessment 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Shoreline Rankings ESI shoreline rankings rate how sensitive an area would be to an oil spill.
  • Responding to Oil Spills | Emergency Response | NOAA's Ocean Service Office of Response and Restoration 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC response.restoration.noaa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The time this takes depends on a series of factors, including the amount and type of oil spilled, the weather conditions and whether the oil stays at sea or is washed ashore.
  • Huge Burnaby oil spill 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC www.canada.com [Source type: News]

.The floating oil slicks put the shoreline at particular risk when they eventually come ashore, covering the substrate with oil.^ Once covered in oil, the birds are forced to move ashore where they are at risk of starvation.
  • Emergency declared in Bay Area oil spill - Environment- msnbc.com 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC www.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: News]

^ Mearns Rock It isn't easy to determine whether a particular area of shoreline has recovered from oiling during a spill, or how to expect it to look when it has.
  • Geometry.Net - Science: Oil Spills 17 September 2009 14:28 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Floating slicks may become non-floating when they spread into areas of freshwater influence.
  • Oil Spill Response Needs Assessment 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The differing substrates between shoreline types vary in their response to oiling, and influence the type of cleanup that will be required to effectively decontaminate the shoreline.^ In-situ oil burning is an effective response for oil spill cleanup on the spot.
  • Clean your home and driveway by Oil Stain Remover, Remove Concrete Stain and Oil Spill Cleanup | Oil Spill Blog 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC www.oilgoneeasy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Skimming, a technique effective only in calm waters, involves various mechanisms that physically separate the oil from water and place the oil into collection tanks.
  • oil spill -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Aqua-Guard Spill Response Designs, manufactures and supplies oil spill response cleanup equipment and services worldwide.
  • Oil Spill Equipment Information | Business.com 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC www.business.com [Source type: Reference]

.In 1995, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration extended ESI maps to lakes, rivers, and estuary shoreline types [12].^ All photos courtesy of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
  • California Coastal Commission Oil Spill Program 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC www.coastal.ca.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ In early 2007, more than 26,000 gallons of oil from the Exxon Valdez spill remained trapped in the sand along the Alaska shoreline, according to a study conducted by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).
  • Exxon Valdez Oil Spill - Profile - Exxon Valdez Oil Spill 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC environment.about.com [Source type: General]

^ It was not only Exxon; it was the Coast Guard, the State of Alaska, media from around the country, scientists, the federal government, National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration folks.
  • 20 Years After Exxon Valdez Oil Spill, Alaskan Coastline Remains Contaminated, Residents Still Struggle for Justice 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC www.democracynow.org [Source type: Original source]

.The exposure the shoreline has to wave energy and tides, substrate type, and slope of the shoreline are also taken into account – in addition to biological productivity and sensitivity.^ This activity is in the second and the third parts of the experiential learning cycle; "what, so what, now what" Now that I know about currents, waves, tides, density, oil slicks and biological parts of the ocean ...
  • teacher notes - oil spill scenario 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC www.pcds.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This finding is especially important when it comes to the timing of tides and image acquisition where significant offsets and errors in shoreline typing can occur without such recognition.
  • Oil Spill Assessment | Capabilities | Exponent 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC www.exponent.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In addition to the storage capacity criteria, a facility is regulated if due to its location the facility could reasonably be expected to discharge oil into navigable waters of the U.S. or adjoining shorelines.

.The productivity of the shoreline habitat is also taken into account when determining ESI ranking [14].^ Shoreline Rankings ESI shoreline rankings rate how sensitive an area would be to an oil spill.
  • Responding to Oil Spills | Emergency Response | NOAA's Ocean Service Office of Response and Restoration 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC response.restoration.noaa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Mangroves and marshes tend to have higher ESI rankings due to the potentially long-lasting and damaging effects of both the oil contamination and cleanup actions.^ March 24, 1989 : Cleanup crews drop dispersant but it doesn't work well because there is not enough wave action to mix it with the oil.
  • Exxon Valdez oil spill timeline - KTUU.com | Alaska's news and information source | 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC www.ktuu.com [Source type: News]

^ Boufadel says the study points out the susceptibility of beaches worldwide to long-term oil contamination, especially at higher latitudes where beaches tend to be gravel or a mixture of sand and gravel.
  • Alaska beaches still have oil from 1989 spill / The Christian Science Monitor - CSMonitor.com 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC www.csmonitor.com [Source type: News]

^ It will cover both short- and long-term environmental effects of the Montara oil spill and will include marine life surveying, wildlife and habitat studies, continued water quality testing and shoreline ecological assessments.

.Impermeable and exposed surfaces with high wave action are ranked lower due to the reflecting waves keeping oil from coming onshore, and the speed at which natural processes will remove the oil.^ Specialized equipment, such as a vacuum, is then used to help remove oil from the water's surface, and chemical detergents are applied to help break up visible slicks.
  • Teachers' Domain: Oil Spill: Exxon Valdez, 1989 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC www.teachersdomain.org [Source type: General]

^ This is called containment and is important because otherwise the oil will keep spreading out, creating a thinner and thinner layer, covering more and more surface area.

^ March 24, 1989 : Cleanup crews drop dispersant but it doesn't work well because there is not enough wave action to mix it with the oil.
  • Exxon Valdez oil spill timeline - KTUU.com | Alaska's news and information source | 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC www.ktuu.com [Source type: News]

Biological Resources

.Habitats of plants and animals that may be at risk from oil spills are referred to as “elements” and are divided by functional group.^ What plants or animals were or may have been harmed by the incident?
  • Oil Spill! - NIE: Newspapers in Education - The Cincinnati Enquirer 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC cincinnati.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How can oil spills be harmful to plants and animals?
  • Environmental Issues 17 September 2009 14:28 UTC www.informaction.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What affects do oil spills have on animals?

.Further classification divides each element into species groups with similar life histories and behaviors relative to their vulnerability to oil spills.^ The worst oil spill in history was not an accident.
  • The Worst Major Oil Spills in History - Associated Content - associatedcontent.com 17 September 2009 14:28 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ Call for probe into oil spill .
  • SFGate: Bay Spill 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC www.sfgate.com [Source type: News]

^ It was the largest oil spill in history.
  • Oil Spills 17 September 2009 14:28 UTC www.awma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are eight element groups: Birds, Reptiles and Amphibians, Fish, Invertebrates, Habitats and Plants, Wetlands, and Marine Mammals and Terrestrial Mammals.^ Seabirds, marine mammals, fish.
  • 20 Years After Exxon Valdez Oil Spill, Alaskan Coastline Remains Contaminated, Residents Still Struggle for Justice 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC www.democracynow.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Beaches searched for birds The accident is nowhere near the 11 million gallons spilled in the 1989 Exxon Valdez disaster, but it is believed to be the biggest in the San Francisco Bay since 1988 and it has fouled miles of coastline — sending environmentalists scrambling to save birds, fish, invertebrates and marine mammals.
  • Emergency declared in Bay Area oil spill - Environment- msnbc.com 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC www.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: News]

^ In that incident, a tanker hit Prince William Sound's Bligh Reef in the U.S. state of Alaska and spilled an estimated 11 to 30 million gallons of crude oil, immediately killing thousands of birds, fish and marine mammals.
  • MIDEAST: Bombing Stalls Cleanup of Massive Oil Spill - IPS ipsnews.net 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC www.ipsnews.net [Source type: News]

.Element groups are further divided into sub-groups, for example, the ‘marine mammals’ element group is divided into dolphins, manatees, pinnipeds (seals, sea lions & walruses), polar bears, sea otters and whales[12][14].^ Among its toll, the spill killed hundreds of thousands of sea birds, thousands of otters, hundreds of seals as well as killer whales, bald eagles and fish.

^ Oil coats the fur of Sea otters, seals, reducing their furs natural insulation abilities, leading to body temperature fluctuations and hypothermia.
  • Oil Spills 17 September 2009 14:28 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Waterfowl and other animals like seals and otters can become covered in oil, which breaks down the water-resistant properties of the birds' feathers, as well as the insulation provided by sea mammals' fur.
  • Howstuffworks "How do you clean up an oil spill?" 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC science.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Issues taken into consideration when ranking biological resources include the observance of a large number of individuals in a small area, whether special life stages occur ashore (nesting or molting), and whether there are species present that are threatened, endangered or rare[15].^ This includes choosing whether to disperse oil into the water and risk harming coral versus getting the oil slick off the surface of the water "so birds, mangroves, and nesting turtles aren't as affected," she said.
  • FOXNews.com - Oil-Spill Detergents More Toxic to Coral Reefs Than Oil Itself - Science News | Science & Technology | Technology News 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC www.foxnews.com [Source type: News]

^ Even where SSO patches remain, most are highly weathered, sporadically distributed at a small number of sites, and widely separated from biologically productive lower intertidal zones where most foraging by wildlife occurs.
  • Oil Spill Assessment | Capabilities | Exponent 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC www.exponent.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Individuals of large-sized wildlife species are sometimes rescued and cleaned, but micro-sized species are usually ignored.

Human-Use Resources

.Human use resources are divided into four major classifications; archaeological importance or cultural resource site, high-use recreational areas or shoreline access points, important protected management areas, or resource origins[12][15].^ Shoreline, migratory birds, wildlife, aquatic resources, recreational uses .
  • Bouchard 120 Oil Spill NRD Damages Assessment 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC www.mass.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ D183 .w6) Prioritization of areas for protection: Response plans need to decide on priority areas for protection, based on the desirability of protection of particular resources and the practicality of protecting the areas.

^ The application of bioremediation will be an important aspect of waste management now and into the future as more is learned about this technology.
  • Bioremediation of Marine Oil Spills 17 September 2009 14:28 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Academic]

.Some examples include airports, diving sites, popular beach sites, marinas, natural reserves or marine sanctuaries.^ It selects, establishes and manages National Nature Reserves and identifies and notifies Sites of Special Scientific Interest.

^ The site was located by Stea, the Birdlife partner group in Portugal and was specifically chosen because it is within a Portuguese National Marine Reserve.
  • Prestige Oil Spill in Spain & France | IFAW Web Site 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC www.ifaw.org [Source type: General]
  • Prestige Oil Spill in Spain & France | Site internet IFAW 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC www.ifaw.org [Source type: General]

^ Birds found in the region are being treated by a qualified wildlife expert on-site at Ashmore marine reserve.

Estimating the volume of a spill

.By observing the thickness of the film of oil and its appearance on the surface of the water, it is possible to estimate the quantity of oil spilled.^ Skimmers—oil spill recovery equipment that can “skim” oil from the surface of water.
  • Oil Spill Equipment Information | Business.com 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC www.business.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Spilled oil causes water worries .
  • Archived audio clips, photos, stories and videos from the oil spill | Updates - NOLA.com 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC blog.nola.com [Source type: General]

^ Oil on water surface prevents evaporation.
  • ellen tordesillas » Petition on Guimaras oil spill 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC www.ellentordesillas.com [Source type: General]

.If the surface area of the spill is also known, the total volume of the oil can be calculated.^ Bay Area oil spill .
  • Emergency declared in Bay Area oil spill - Environment- msnbc.com 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC www.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: News]

^ According to the pilots who flew over the affected area, the oil slick is not thick and no emulsion has been observed on the surface.
  • Oil Spill by Offshore Platform Statfjord A in North Sea, Norway 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC www.marinebuzz.com [Source type: General]

^ The immediate environmental effects of oil spills have been readily identified, but their long-term impact on the ecological system of an affected area is more difficult to assess.
  • oil spill -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[16]
.Oil spill model systems are used by industry and government to assist in planning and emergency decision making.^ Modelling of high density oil spills .
  • Oil spill experts address high-density oil spills 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC www.imo.org [Source type: Reference]
  • 3rd R&D Forum on High-density oil spill response 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC www.imo.org [Source type: Reference]

^ What makes oil spills so toxic for birds?
  • Oil Spill | QUEST Community Science Blog - KQED 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC www.kqed.org [Source type: General]

^ Oil Spill Cleanup using Bioremediation .
  • Oil Spill Cleanup using Bioremediation | BioWorld Products LLC 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC www.bioworldusa.com [Source type: Academic]

.Of critical importance for the skill of the oil spill model prediction is the adequate description of the wind and current fields.^ Modelling of high density oil spills .
  • Oil spill experts address high-density oil spills 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC www.imo.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Thus, spilled oil can be carried long distances by winds and currents.
  • Oil Spill Response Needs Assessment 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Prevention of oil spills has become a major priority; and of equal importance, efforts to contain and remove oil that has spilled are considered to be prevention of secondary spills.

.There is a worldwide oil spill modelling (WOSM) program.^ Modelling of high density oil spills .
  • Oil spill experts address high-density oil spills 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC www.imo.org [Source type: Reference]
  • 3rd R&D Forum on High-density oil spill response 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC www.imo.org [Source type: Reference]

^ If there were a crack in the boat, it wouldn’t have a large affect on the animals because not that much oil would spill as if it was a regular tanker.

^ Aqua-Guard Spill Response Designs, manufactures and supplies oil spill response cleanup equipment and services worldwide.
  • Oil Spill Equipment Information | Business.com 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC www.business.com [Source type: Reference]

[17]
Film thickness Quantity spread
Appearance in mm gal/sq mi L/ha
Barely visible 0.0000015 0.0000380 25 0.370
Silvery sheen 0.0000030 0.0000760 50 0.730
First trace of color 0.0000060 0.0001500 100 1.500
Bright bands of color 0.0000120 0.0003000 200 2.900
Colors begin to dull 0.0000400 0.0010000 666 9.700
Colors are much darker 0.0000800 0.0020000 1332 19.500

Largest oil spills

Oil spills of over 100,000 tonnes or 30 million US gallons, ordered by tonnes[a]
Spill / Tanker Location Date *Tonnes of crude oil Reference
Gulf War oil spill Persian Gulf January 21, 1991 1,360,000–1,500,000 [18][19]
Ixtoc I oil well Gulf of Mexico June 3, 1979–March 23, 1980 454,000–480,000 [20]
Atlantic Empress / Aegean Captain Trinidad and Tobago July 19, 1979 287,000 [21][22]
Fergana Valley Uzbekistan March 2, 1992 285,000 [19]
Nowruz oil field Persian Gulf February 1983 260,000 [23]
ABT Summer 700 nautical miles (1,300 km) off Angola 1991 260,000 [21]
Castillo de Bellver Saldanha Bay, South Africa August 6, 1983 252,000 [21]
Amoco Cadiz Brittany, France March 16, 1978 223,000 [19][21]
Amoco Haven tanker disaster Mediterranean Sea near Genoa, Italy 1991 144,000 [21]
Odyssey 700 nautical miles (1,300 km) off Nova Scotia, Canada 1988 132,000 [21]
Sea Star Gulf of Oman December 19, 1972 115,000 [19][21]
Torrey Canyon Scilly Isles, UK March 18, 1967 80,000–119,000 [19][21]
Irenes Serenade Navarino Bay, Greece 1980 100,000 [21]
Urquiola A Coruña, Spain May 12, 1976 100,000 [21]
Exxon Valdez [b] Gulf of Alaska March 24, 1989 35,000 [24]
.a One tonne of crude oil is roughly equal to 308 US gallons, or 7.33 barrels.^ It discharges millions of gallons of crude oil.
  • oil spill // Current 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC current.com [Source type: News]

^ January 12 -- NIGERIA - 40,000 barrels of oil spilled from a ruptured pipeline to one of Mobil's terminals.
  • The Mariner Group -- Oil Spill History 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC www.marinergroup.com [Source type: News]

^ The 987foot ship, second newest in Exxon Shipping Company's 20-tanker fleet, was loaded with 53,094,5 10 gallons (1,264,155 barrels) of North Slope crude oil bound for Long Beach, California.
  • Exxon Valdez Oil Spill 3 February 2010 17:42 UTC www.solcomhouse.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

b Shown for comparison

See also

References

  1. ^ http://seeps.geol.ucsb.edu/
  2. ^ C. Michael Hogan (2008) Magellanic Penguin, GlobalTwitcher.com, ed. N. Stromberg
  3. ^ Dunnet, G., Crisp, D., Conan, G., Bourne, W. (1982) "Oil Pollution and Seabird Populations [and Discussion]" Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. B 297(1087): 413–427
  4. ^ Untold Seabird Mortality due to Marine Oil Pollution, Elements Online Environmental Magazine.
  5. ^ http://www.enviroliteracy.org/article.php/540.html
  6. ^ http://www.epa.gov/oilspill/ncp/bagents.htm
  7. ^ http://www.epa.gov/emergencies/content/ncp/products/s200.htm
  8. ^ a b "Emergency Response: Responding to Oil Spills". Office of Response and Restoration. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 2007-06-20. http://response.restoration.noaa.gov/topic_subtopic_entry.php?RECORD_KEY(entry_subtopic_topic)=entry_id,subtopic_id,topic_id&entry_id(entry_subtopic_topic)=184&subtopic_id(entry_subtopic_topic)=8&topic_id(entry_subtopic_topic)=1. 
  9. ^ Oil Spills
  10. ^ "Detergent and Oil Spills". NEWTON BBS. 2002-10-12. http://www.newton.dep.anl.gov/askasci/chem00/chem00896.htm. Retrieved 2007-07-29. 
  11. ^ Barry, Carolyn (2007). Slick Death: Oil-spill treatment kills coral, Science News vol. 172, p. 67.
  12. ^ a b c d NOAA (2002). Environmental Sensitivity Index Guidelines, version 3.0. NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS OR&R 11. Seattle: Hazardous Response and Assessment Division, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 129p.
  13. ^ Gundlach, E.R. and M.O. Hayes (1978). Vulnerability of Coastal Environments to Oil Spill Impacts. Marine Technology Society. 12 (4): 18-27.
  14. ^ a b NOAA (2008). Introduction to Environmental Sensitivity Index maps. NOAA Technical Manual. Seattle: Hazardous Response and Assessment Division, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 56p.
  15. ^ a b IMO/IPIECA (1994). Sensitivity Mapping for Oil Spill Response. International Maritime Organization/ International Petroleum Industry Environmental Conservation Association Report Series, Volume 1. 22p.
  16. ^ Metcalf & Eddy. Wastewater Engineering, Treatment and Reuse. 4th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2003. 98.
  17. ^ Anderson, E.L., E. Howlett, K. Jayko, V. Kolluru, M. Reed, and M. Spaulding. 1993. The worldwide oil spill model (WOSM): an overview. Pp. 627–646 in Proceedings of the 16th Arctic and Marine Oil Spill Program, Technical Seminar. Ottawa, Ontario: Environment Canada.
  18. ^ George Draffan. "Major Oil Spills". Endgame. http://www.endgame.org/oilspills.htm. Retrieved 2007-07-29. 
  19. ^ a b c d e "History". The Mariner Group. http://www.marinergroup.com/oil-spill-history.htm. 
  20. ^ John S. Patton, Mark W. Rigler, Paul D. Boehm & David L. Fiest (1981-03-19). "Ixtoc 1 oil spill: flaking of surface mousse in the Gulf of Mexico". NPG (Nature Publishing Group). http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v290/n5803/abs/290235a0.html. Retrieved 2007-07-29. 
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Statistics". ITOPF. http://www.itopf.com/stats.html. Retrieved 2007-07-29. 
  22. ^ "Atlantic Empress/Aegean Captain". Cedre. 2006-04. http://www.cedre.fr/uk/spill/atlantic/atlantic.htm. Retrieved 2007-07-29. 
  23. ^ "Oil Spills and Disasters". infoplease. infoplease. http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0001451.html. Retrieved 2007-07-29. 
  24. ^ {{cite web|url=http://response.restoration.noaa.gov/book_shelf/26_spilldb.pdf. Retrieved 2008-03-10. (PDF) Oil Spill Case Histories 1967 – 1991, Report No. HMRAD 92-11. Seattle: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. September 1992. p. 80.

Further reading

  • The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 2004
  • Oil Spill Case Histories 1967-1991, NOAA/Hazardous Materials and Response Division, Seattle WA, 1992
  • Nelson-Smith, Oil Pollution and Marine Ecology, Elek Scientific, London, 1972; Plenum, New York, 1973

External links


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