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An ointment is a viscous semisolid preparation used topically on a variety of body surfaces. These include the skin and the mucous membranes of the eye (an eye ointment), vagina, anus, and nose. An ointment may or may not be medicated.

Contents

Description

The vehicle of an ointment is known as ointment base. The choice of a base depends upon the clinical indication for the ointment, and the different types of ointment bases are:

hydoroxide. coveration of aspirin The medicaments are dispersed in the base and later they get divided after the drug penetration into the living cells of skin.

Ointments are homogeneous, semi-solid preparations intended for external application to the skin or mucous membranes. They are used as emollients or for the application of active ingredients to the skin for protective, therapeutic, or prophylactic purposes and where a degree of occlusion is desired.

Ointments are formulated using hydrophobic, hydrophilic, or water-emulsifying bases to provide preparations that are immiscible, miscible, or emulsifiable with skin secretions. They can also be derived from hydrocarbon (fatty), absorption, water-removable, or water-soluble bases.

Evaluation of ointments

  1. Drug content
  2. Release of medicament from base
  3. Medicament penetration
  4. Consistency of the preparation
  5. Absorption of medicament into blood stream
  6. Irritant effect

Properties which affect choice of an ointment base are:

  1. Stability
  2. Penetrability
  3. Solvent property
  4. Irritant effects
  5. Ease of application and removal

Methods of preparation of ointments

Trituration: In this finely subdivided insoluble medicaments are evenly distributed by grinding with a small amount of the base followed by dilution with gradually increasing amounts of the base.

Fusion: In this method the ingredients are melted together in descending order of their melting points and stirred to ensure homogeneity.

Topical medication forms

  • Cream - Emulsion of oil and water in approximately equal proportions. Penetrates stratum corneum outer layer of skin well.
  • Ointment - Combines oil (80%) and water (20%). Effective barrier against moisture loss.
  • Gel - Liquefies upon contact with the skin.
  • Paste - Combines three agents - oil, water, and powder; an ointment in which a powder is suspended.
  • Powder[1]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Doctor, why are you prescribing an ointment?"; American Academy of Dermatology

External links


Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From BibleWiki


Various fragrant preparations, also compounds for medical purposes, are so called (Ex 30:25; Ps 1332; Isa 1:6; Amos 6:6; Jn 12:3; Rev 18:13).

This entry includes text from Easton's Bible Dictionary, 1897.

what mentions this? (please help by turning references to this page into wiki links)

This article needs to be merged with OINTMENT (Jewish Encyclopedia).







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