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Old English
Englisc, Anglisc, Ænglisc
Spoken in Modern .England (except the extreme southwest and northwest), parts of modern Scotland south-east of the Forth, and the eastern fringes of modern Wales.^ Vortigern told the chief of the Jutes, called Hengist, that if they would help him fight the northern Celts, they would be given land in south-eastern England, modern day Kent.
  • Anglo-Saxon : British Pride 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.britishpride.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Steven Oppenheimer has a strong argument for the fact that South East England was germanic before the Romans arrived.

^ In east Sussex and Kent this South-eastern dialect attains to a more distinctive character.

Language extinction developed into Middle English by the 12th century
Language family Indo-European
Writing system Anglo-Saxon runes
Latin alphabet
Language codes
ISO 639-1 None
ISO 639-2 ang
ISO 639-3 ang
.Old English (Englisc, Anglisc, Ænglisc) or Anglo-Saxon[1] is an early form of the English language that was spoken and written in parts of what are now England and south-eastern Scotland between at least the mid-5th century and the mid-12th century.^ The etymology of the word "English" is a derivation from the 12th century Old English englisc or Engle , plural form Angles ("of, relating to, or characteristic of England").
  • English language @ Top40-Charts.info 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: Original source]

^ '''English''' is a West Germanic language that developed in England during History of Anglo-Saxon England.
  • English Language - Home - oo.vg 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC english-language.oo.vg [Source type: Original source]

^ F is a twelfth-century bilingual (Old English and Latin) version of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle .
  • Christian Heroism and the West Saxon Achievement: The Old English Poetic Evidence 24 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.sfsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.What survives through writing represents primarily the literary register of Anglo-Saxon.^ Anglo-Saxon artists also worked in fresco , ivory , stone carving, metalwork (see Fuller brooch for example) and enamel , but few of these pieces have survived.
  • Anglo-Saxons - TvWiki, the free encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.tvwiki.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Yet before the advent of Christianity, through the missionary work of St. Augustus beginning in 597AD, Anglo-Saxon England adhered to a rich polytheistic faith.
  • Anglo-Saxon : British Pride 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.britishpride.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Although the Americans had demonstrated their Anglo-Saxonism through the conquest of the continent, that status was seriously undermined by the way they governed it.
  • Paul A. Kramer | Empires, Exceptions, and Anglo-Saxons: Race and Rule between the British and United States Empires, 1880?1910 | The Journal of American History, 88.4 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

.It is a West Germanic language and is closely related to Old Frisian.^ Later, it was strongly influenced by the closely related North Germanic language Norse , spoken by the Viking s who settled mainly in the north-east and the east coast down to London (see Danelaw , Jórvík ).
  • English language - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Alistair Campbell defines Old English as 'the vernacular Germanic language of Great Britain as it is recorded in manuscripts and inscriptions dating from before about 1100'.
  • BeowulfTranslations.net: Pronunciation of Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.beowulftranslations.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Examines Old English as part of a larger language group in the Germanic family that also includes Gothic , old Norse, Old Saxon, Old Frisian, Old Low Franconian , and Old High German.
  • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

.It also experienced heavy influence from Old Norse, a member of the related North Germanic group of languages.^ Old Norse language of Viking invaders.
  • English Language - Home - oo.vg 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC english-language.oo.vg [Source type: Original source]

^ "Old English language - Latin influence" .
  • English language @ Top40-Charts.info 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: Original source]

^ English was further influenced by the Old Norse language of Viking invaders.
  • English language @ Top40-Charts.info 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: Original source]

Contents

Development

.Old English was not static, and its usage covered a period of approximately 700 years[2] – from the Anglo-Saxon migrations that created England in the 5th century to some time after the Norman Conquest of 1066 when the language underwent a dramatic transition.^ F is a twelfth-century bilingual (Old English and Latin) version of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle .
  • Christian Heroism and the West Saxon Achievement: The Old English Poetic Evidence 24 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.sfsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ I really should have been a nineteenth century scholar of language and Old English.
  • Alliterative: Old English Archives 24 January 2010 1:12 UTC allitera.tive.org [Source type: Original source]

^ England comes from the anglo-saxon enga-land (the land of the English).

.During this early period it assimilated some aspects of the languages with which it came in contact, such as the Celtic languages and the two dialects of Old Norse from the invading Vikings, who occupied and controlled large tracts of land in northern and eastern England, which came to be known as the Danelaw.^ Old Norse language of Viking invaders.
  • English Language - Home - oo.vg 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC english-language.oo.vg [Source type: Original source]

^ English was further influenced by the Old Norse language of Viking invaders.
  • English language @ Top40-Charts.info 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Later, it was strongly influenced by the closely related North Germanic language Norse , spoken by the Viking s who settled mainly in the north-east and the east coast down to London (see Danelaw , Jórvík ).
  • English language - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

Germanic origins

.The most important force in shaping Old English was its Germanic heritage in its vocabulary, sentence structure and grammar, which it shared with its related languages in continental Europe.^ Changes to Old English vocabulary .
  • English Language - Home - oo.vg 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC english-language.oo.vg [Source type: Original source]

^ "Old English language - Latin influence" .
  • English language @ Top40-Charts.info 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Articles Related to the English language .
  • English language @ Top40-Charts.info 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: Original source]

.Some of these features are shared with the other West Germanic languages with which Old English is grouped, while some other features are traceable to the reconstructed Proto-Germanic language from which all Germanic languages are believed to have derived.^ English is a West Germanic language heavily influenced, in comparison with other Germanic languages, by French and Latin .
  • English language - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "Old English language - Latin influence" .
  • English language @ Top40-Charts.info 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: Original source]

^ There were also some other groups of Germans coming as Frisians.

.Like other Germanic languages of the period, Old English was fully inflected with five grammatical cases (nominative, accusative, genitive, dative, and instrumental, though the instrumental was very rare), which had dual plural forms for referring to groups of two objects (but only in the personal pronouns) in addition to the usual singular and plural forms.^ Several old genitives and plural forms continued to exist,, and the dative or prepositional case has usually a final e..

^ The dual and plural are usually reciprocal, except for verbs of personal care (e.g.
  • Old Skourene 24 January 2010 1:12 UTC zompist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ English language including the Middle English period.
  • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

.It also assigned gender to all nouns, including those that describe inanimate objects: for example, sēo sunne (the Sun) was feminine, while se mōna (the Moon) was masculine (cf.^ In all other cases it is me or I. I is subjective and me is objective – for example: I am happy (I am the subject of that sentence) – or she hits me (she is the subject, me is the object).
  • 10 Common English Language Errors - Listverse 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

^ Anyone who cares at all, including those who care a lot, could care less.
  • 10 Common English Language Errors - Listverse 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

^ Feminine nouns are those ending in -ness, - u, -rdon, -u or -ung in the nominative.

modern .German die Sonne and der Mond).^ Worse yet, whereas the English article "the" is gender independent, it is rendered "der, des, dem, den, das, or die" in German depending in part on the gender.
  • "Anglo-Saxons - World’s Worst or Best Linguists?" - Telegraph 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

Latin influence

.A large percentage of the educated and literate population of the time were competent in Latin, which was the scholarly and diplomatic lingua franca of Europe at the time.^ English as a lingua franca for Europe is a new variant of the English language created to become the common language in Europe, spoken in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland .
  • English language - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Catholic monks mainly wrote or copied text in Latin, the prevalent Medieval lingua franca of Europe.
  • English language @ Top40-Charts.info 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Catholic monks mainly wrote or copied text in Latin, prevalent Medieval lingua franca of Europe.
  • English Language - Home - oo.vg 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC english-language.oo.vg [Source type: Original source]

.It is sometimes possible to give approximate dates for the entry of individual Latin words into Old English based on which patterns of linguistic change they have undergone.^ Changes to Old English vocabulary .
  • English Language - Home - oo.vg 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC english-language.oo.vg [Source type: Original source]

^ "Old English language - Latin influence" .
  • English language @ Top40-Charts.info 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Before literacy in the vernacular "Old English" or Latin became widespread, the Runic alphabet , called the futhorc (also known as futhark ), was used for inscriptions.
  • Anglo-Saxons - TvWiki, the free encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.tvwiki.tv [Source type: Original source]

.There were at least three notable periods of Latin influence.^ The main periods in the influence of Latin in England: .

^ There was a gradual transition from cremation early in the settlement period to inhumation as the English were influenced by British customs and particularly as they were introduced to Christianity.
  • The 5th Century Anglo-Saxon Invasion of England 11 September 2009 22:13 UTC www.mnsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are five major periods in time that I've identified specific influences in dominionism among pentecostals: .
  • Daily Kos: A history of Dominion/"Kingdom Now"/Restoration Theology 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.The first occurred before the ancestral Saxons left continental Europe for Britain.^ It appeared in northern Europe some centuries before our era, but the first signs date from the 7th century b.C..

.The second began when the Anglo-Saxons were converted to Christianity and Latin-speaking priests became widespread.^ Before literacy in the vernacular "Old English" or Latin became widespread, the Runic alphabet , called the futhorc (also known as futhark ), was used for inscriptions.
  • Anglo-Saxons - TvWiki, the free encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.tvwiki.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Roman Christianity is brought to Britain for the first time by St. Augustine , sent from Pope Gregory to convert the Saxons.
  • Anglo-Saxons - TvWiki, the free encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.tvwiki.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ The British were not the exemplars of Anglo-Saxon civilization, it seemed, but "a bully among nations, speaking softly to the powerful and browbeating with intolerable insolence the weak and helpless."
  • Paul A. Kramer | Empires, Exceptions, and Anglo-Saxons: Race and Rule between the British and United States Empires, 1880?1910 | The Journal of American History, 88.4 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

.The third and largest single transfer of Latin-based words happened after the Norman Conquest of 1066, when an enormous number of Norman words began to influence the language.^ "Old English language - Latin influence" .
  • English language @ Top40-Charts.info 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Latin languages could have influences from the Celtic languages.

^ Main article: Old English language Anglo-Saxon, also called Old English, was the language spoken under Alfred the Great and continued to be the common language of England (non- Danelaw ) until after the Norman Conquest of 1066 when, under the influence of the Anglo-Norman language spoken by the Norman ruling class, it changed into Middle English roughly between 1150-1500.
  • Anglo-Saxons - TvWiki, the free encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.tvwiki.tv [Source type: Original source]

.Most of these Oïl language words were themselves derived from Old French and ultimately from classical Latin, although a notable stock of Norse words were introduced or re-introduced in Norman form.^ ''Langues d'oïl'', including French and Old Norman: List of English words of French origin .
  • English Language - Home - oo.vg 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC english-language.oo.vg [Source type: Original source]

^ These words have mostly been imported from other languages, usually French.
  • English language - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Most of them arose between 1000 and 400 years ago, coming from the merger of Anglo-Saxon and Norman French into Middle English, followed by the Great Vowel Shift during the late Middle Ages and the mass borrowing of hundreds or thousands of Latin words during the Renaissance and the Enlightenment.

.The Norman Conquest approximately marks the end of Old English and the advent of Middle English.^ Brief history of Old English language to the Norman Conquest.
  • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Main article: Old English language Anglo-Saxon, also called Old English, was the language spoken under Alfred the Great and continued to be the common language of England (non- Danelaw ) until after the Norman Conquest of 1066 when, under the influence of the Anglo-Norman language spoken by the Norman ruling class, it changed into Middle English roughly between 1150-1500.
  • Anglo-Saxons - TvWiki, the free encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.tvwiki.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ The researches of Prince L. L. Bonaparte and Dr Ellis were directed specially to the classification and mapping of the existing dialects,' and the relation of these to the dialects of Old and Middle English.

.One of the ways the influence of Latin can be seen is that many Latin words for activities came to also be used to refer to the people engaged in those activities, an idiom carried over from Anglo-Saxon but using Latin words.^ This is also applied to words taken from Latin and adapted to the anglo-saxon.

^ Use of the term "Anglo Saxon" today .
  • Anglo-Saxons - TvWiki, the free encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.tvwiki.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Surely many people have seen this example: .

.This can be seen in words like militia, assembly, movement, and service.^ A great deal of the foundation for dominionism within the Assemblies and other pentecostal groups is the "word-faith" movement--aka "name it and claim it".
  • Daily Kos: A history of Dominion/"Kingdom Now"/Restoration Theology 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.The language was further altered by the transition away from the runic alphabet (also known as futhorc or fuþorc) to the Latin alphabet, which was also a significant factor in the developmental pressures brought to bear on the language.^ Before literacy in the vernacular "Old English" or Latin became widespread, the Runic alphabet , called the futhorc (also known as futhark ), was used for inscriptions.
  • Anglo-Saxons - TvWiki, the free encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.tvwiki.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ From the 15th most of the Germanic languages that had been in touch with Latin used its alphabet.

^ English runic alphabet or futhorc, which are the 6 first letters, too.

.Old English words were spelt as they were pronounced.^ The etymology of the word "English" is a derivation from the 12th century Old English englisc or Engle , plural form Angles ("of, relating to, or characteristic of England").
  • English language @ Top40-Charts.info 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: Original source]

^ The Kraft Old English sliced cheese packages (they only come in 8oz packages) are readily available at most large Supermarkets.
  • Kraft Old English Cheese - Home Cooking - Chowhound 24 January 2010 1:12 UTC chowhound.chow.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All Old English words normally have the heavy stress on the first syllable of the root.
  • BeowulfTranslations.net: Pronunciation of Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.beowulftranslations.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The "silent" letters in many Modern English words were pronounced in Old English: for example, the c in cniht, the Old English ancestor of the modern knight, was pronounced.^ Most of the consonants are pronounced as in Modern English.
  • BeowulfTranslations.net: Pronunciation of Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.beowulftranslations.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A bibliography of Old English word studies.
  • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ While the Old English sheepdog's origins remain a mystery, there are many theories, most of which favor a link with the Bearded Collie or the Russian Owtchar.
  • Dog Pictures - Old English Sheepdog 24 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.5stardog.com [Source type: General]

.Another side-effect of spelling words phonetically was that spelling was extremely variable – the spelling of a word would reflect differences in the phonetics of the writer's regional dialect, and also idiosyncratic spelling choices which varied from author to author, and even from work to work by the same author.^ You will note variations in the spelling of the name even in the same document.
  • The Marvel Family History/Page One 10 September 2009 21:46 UTC www.marvelcreations.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a computer geek, I get carried away thinking about what an interesting project it would be to write a program automatically converting from one spelling system to another.

^ Tristan: I can't tell if you are being serious, but: the reformed orthography should account for irregular dialectal differences with different spellings.

Thus, for example, the word and could be spelt either and or ond.

Norse influence

The approximate extent of Old Norse and related languages in the early 10th century:       Old West Norse dialect       Old East Norse dialect       Old Gutnish dialect       Crimean Gothic       Old English       Other Germanic languages with which Old Norse still retained some mutual intelligibility
.The second major source of loanwords to Old English was the Scandinavian words introduced during the Viking invasions of the 9th and 10th centuries.^ A bibliography of Old English word studies.
  • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The etymology of the word "English" is a derivation from the 12th century Old English englisc or Engle , plural form Angles ("of, relating to, or characteristic of England").
  • English language @ Top40-Charts.info 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: Original source]

^ During the 12th century, while this change was going on, we see a great confusion of grammatical forms, the full inflections of Old English standing side by side in the same sentence with the levelled ones of Middle English.

.In addition to a great many place names, these consist mainly of items of basic vocabulary, and words concerned with particular administrative aspects of the Danelaw (that is, the area of land under Viking control, which included extensive holdings all along the eastern coast of England and Scotland).^ Although I was an intermediate learner Jean also reached back to some basic concepts, such as the usage of the words ser and estar, and we explored many different scenarios.
  • Yelapa English Spanish Institute reviews and student ratings for Yelapa English Spanish Institute language school in Yelapa, Mexico 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.languageschoolreviewer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In these incursions they tried to burn things related to religion, an they also discovered that England was a rich bad-protected place.

^ There are many words in English coined to describe forms of particular non-English languages that contain a very high proportion of English words.
  • English language @ Top40-Charts.info 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: Original source]
  • English Language - Home - oo.vg 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC english-language.oo.vg [Source type: Original source]

.The Vikings spoke Old Norse, a language related to Old English in that both derived from the same ancestral Proto-Germanic language.^ Old Norse language of Viking invaders.
  • English Language - Home - oo.vg 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC english-language.oo.vg [Source type: Original source]

^ "Old English language - Latin influence" .
  • English language @ Top40-Charts.info 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Articles Related to the English language .
  • English language @ Top40-Charts.info 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: Original source]

.It is very common for the intermixing of speakers of different dialects, such as those that occur during times of political unrest, to result in a mixed language, and one theory holds that exactly such a mixture of Old Norse and Old English helped accelerate the decline of case endings in Old English.^ English speakers have many different accents , which often signal the speaker's native dialect or language.
  • English language @ Top40-Charts.info 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Old Norse language of Viking invaders.
  • English Language - Home - oo.vg 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC english-language.oo.vg [Source type: Original source]

^ "Old English language - Latin influence" .
  • English language @ Top40-Charts.info 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: Original source]

.Apparent confirmation of this is the fact that simplification of the case endings occurred earliest in the north and latest in the southwest, the area farthest away from Viking influence.^ Old English was further influenced by the invading Viking tribes in the 8th Century, who brought their Norse language to the North of England.

^ It is beyond the resources of Wealth to keep the smut away from its premises or its own fingers' ends; and as for Poverty, it surrenders itself to the dark influence without a struggle.
  • Our Old Home: a series of English sketches, Nathaniel Hawthorne, 1863, 1883 24 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Original source]

.Regardless of the truth of this theory, the influence of Old Norse on the English language has been profound: responsible for such basic vocabulary items as sky, leg, the pronoun they, the verb form are, and hundreds of other words.^ Changes to Old English vocabulary .
  • English Language - Home - oo.vg 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC english-language.oo.vg [Source type: Original source]

^ A bibliography of Old English word studies.
  • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The oldest word in the English language is “town” .
  • 25 English Language Oddities - Listverse 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

Celtic influence

.Traditionally, many maintain that the influence of Celtic on English has been small, citing the small number of Celtic loanwords taken into the language.^ "Old English language - Latin influence" .
  • English language @ Top40-Charts.info 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Latin languages could have influences from the Celtic languages.

^ It is a wide ranging term, taking in the English-speaking world's language, culture, technology, wealth, influence, markets and economy.
  • Anglo-Saxons - TvWiki, the free encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.tvwiki.tv [Source type: Original source]

The number of Celtic loanwords is of a lower order than either Latin or Scandinavian. .However, a minority view is that distinctive Celtic traits can be discerned in syntax from the post-Old English period.^ Detailed examination of change in syntax in Old and Middle English.
  • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This view had the justification that, looked upon by themselves, either as vehicles of thought or as objects of study and analysis, Old English or Anglo-Saxon and Modern English are, for all practical ends, distinct languages, - as much so, for example, as Latin and Spanish.

^ You may view all our old english sheepdog dog breeders by selecting the page numbers or if you wish you may select another dog breed below.
  • Old English Sheepdog dog breeders 24 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.wellbredpets.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3]

Dialects

.Old English should not be regarded as a single monolithic entity just as Modern English is also not monolithic.^ The speaker of Modern English who wants to read Old English texts aloud needs to observe the following points: .
  • BeowulfTranslations.net: Pronunciation of Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.beowulftranslations.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Begins with an explanation of Phonetics and Modern English sounds before moving through Old English sounds and dialects, Middle English sounds and dialect and the Language of Chaucer, and finally Modern English inflections.
  • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Old English was just not made to subordinate that much.
  • Alliterative: Old English Archives 24 January 2010 1:12 UTC allitera.tive.org [Source type: Original source]

.Within Old English, there was language variation.^ "Old English language - Latin influence" .
  • English language @ Top40-Charts.info 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Alistair Campbell defines Old English as 'the vernacular Germanic language of Great Britain as it is recorded in manuscripts and inscriptions dating from before about 1100'.
  • BeowulfTranslations.net: Pronunciation of Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.beowulftranslations.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While the Old English sheepdog's origins remain a mystery, there are many theories, most of which favor a link with the Bearded Collie or the Russian Owtchar.
  • Dog Pictures - Old English Sheepdog 24 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.5stardog.com [Source type: General]

.Thus, it is misleading, for example, to consider Old English as having a single sound system.^ So for the sounds of th, especially the sound in that, the Old English thorn (p) continued to be used.

^ The key to the values of the letters, and thus to the pronunciation of Old English, is also to be found in the Celtic tongues whence the letters were taken.

^ Beowulf , variously dated from the seventh century to the eleventh, provides only the most notorious example of the fluidity in dating to which Old English poetry is subject.
  • Christian Heroism and the West Saxon Achievement: The Old English Poetic Evidence 24 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.sfsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Rather, there were multiple Old English sound systems.^ While the Old English sheepdog's origins remain a mystery, there are many theories, most of which favor a link with the Bearded Collie or the Russian Owtchar.
  • Dog Pictures - Old English Sheepdog 24 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.5stardog.com [Source type: General]

^ And there often seems to be a (wrong-headed) belief that it’s better to hire a Middle English specialist who can teach Old English than it is to hire an Old English specialist who can teach Old English.
  • Alliterative: Old English Archives 24 January 2010 1:12 UTC allitera.tive.org [Source type: Original source]

^ So for the sounds of th, especially the sound in that, the Old English thorn (p) continued to be used.

.Old English has variation along regional lines as well as variation across different times.^ Initially, Old English was a diverse group of dialects, reflecting the varied origins of the Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms of Great Britain.
  • English language @ Top40-Charts.info 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: Original source]

^ English time vs Norwegian time "hour"), and differences in Phonology can obscure words which actually are genetically related ("enough" vs. German genug , Danish nok ).
  • English language @ Top40-Charts.info 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: Original source]

^ At the time of the Norman conquest , Old English developed into Middle English , borrowing heavily from the Norman (Anglo-French) vocabulary and spelling conventions.
  • English language @ Top40-Charts.info 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: Original source]

.For example, the language attested in Wessex during the time of Æthelwold of Winchester, which is named Late West Saxon (or Æthelwoldian Saxon), is considerably different from the language attested in Wessex during the time of Alfred the Great's court, which is named Early West Saxon (or Classical West Saxon or Alfredian Saxon).^ Main article: Anglo-Saxon art Anglo-Saxon art covers the period from the time of King Alfred (871-899), with the revival of English culture after the end of the Viking raids, to the early 12th century, when Romanesque art became the new movement.
  • Anglo-Saxons - TvWiki, the free encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.tvwiki.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ If our materials were more extensive, it would probably be necessary to divide the Old English into several periods; as it is, considerable differences have been shown to exist between the " early West-Saxon " of King Alfred and the later language of the i z th century, the earlier language having numerous phonetic and inflectional distinctions which are "levelled" in the later, the inflectional changes showing that the tendency to pass from the synthetical to the analytical stage existed quite independently of the Norman Conquest.

^ South-western dialect occupying Somerset, Wilts, Dorset, Gloucester and western Hampshire, which, with the Devonian dialect beyond it, are the descendants of early southern English and the still older West-Saxon of Alfred.

.Furthermore, the difference between Early West Saxon and Late West Saxon is of such a nature that Late West Saxon is not directly descended from Early West Saxon (despite what the similarity in name implies).^ The early entries in the Chronicle come from the oral traditions of the West Saxon (Wessex) kings, probably heroic poetry, which has been artificially fitted into an annalistic format.
  • The 5th Century Anglo-Saxon Invasion of England 11 September 2009 22:13 UTC www.mnsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Despite the stark opposition between the heroic and the Christian that Alcuin and others perceived, the fact that the Lindisfarne community could fall subject to such criticism is evidence that others even within the Church saw things differently.
  • Christian Heroism and the West Saxon Achievement: The Old English Poetic Evidence 24 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.sfsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ South-western dialect occupying Somerset, Wilts, Dorset, Gloucester and western Hampshire, which, with the Devonian dialect beyond it, are the descendants of early southern English and the still older West-Saxon of Alfred.

.The four main dialectal forms of Old English were Mercian, Northumbrian, Kentish, and West Saxon.^ There are four dialects distinguishable in the extant monuments -- Northumbrian, Mercian, Kentish, West-Saxon.
  • BeowulfTranslations.net: Pronunciation of Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.beowulftranslations.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ West Saxon dialect.

^ The earliest specimens of the language of the Germanic invaders of Britain that exist point to three well-marked dialect groups: the Anglian (in which a further distinction may be made between the Northumbrian and the Mercian, or SouthHumbrian); the Saxon, generally called West-Saxon from the almost total lack of sources outside the West-Saxon domain; and the Kentish.

[4] Each of those dialects was associated with an independent kingdom on the island. .Of these, all of Northumbria and most of Mercia were overrun by the Vikings during the 9th century.^ Mercia and Northumbria appear to be the most likely possibilities as other sources record contact with the Franks from these kingdoms towards the end of the 8th century.
  • ENGLAND, ANGLO-SAXON KINGS 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC fmg.ac [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But these flattering views were soon overcast by the appearance of the Danes, who, during some centuries, kept the Anglo-Saxons in perpetual inquietude, committed the most barbarous ravages upon them, and at last reduced them to grievous servitude.
  • Online Library of Liberty - II. The Anglo-Saxons - The History of England, vol. 1 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Mercia and Northumbria appear to be the most likely possibilities as other sources record contact between the Franks and these kingdoms towards the end of the 8th century.
  • ENGLAND, ANGLO-SAXON KINGS 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC fmg.ac [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The portion of Mercia and all of Kent that were successfully defended were then integrated into Wessex.^ These seven kingdoms were the most important and, of them, the most important was Northumbria, then Anglia, next Mercia, Essex, Kent, Sussex and Wessex.

^ By modifying the laws of Ine of Wessex, Offa of Mercia, and Aethelberht of Kent, Alfred implied that his laws applied to all those realms.
  • Franks and Anglo-Saxons 613-899 by Sanderson Beck 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Franks and Anglo-Saxons 613-899 by Sanderson Beck 1 October 2009 3:53 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Virginia contained all the land that was later divided into the states of Delaware, Maryland and Pennsylvania, also portions of other surrounding states.
  • The Marvel Family History/Page One 10 September 2009 21:46 UTC www.marvelcreations.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After the process of unification of the diverse Anglo-Saxon kingdoms in 878 by Alfred the Great, there is a marked decline in the importance of regional dialects.^ The anglo-saxon kingdoms were monarchies.

^ The importance of each dialect had to do with that of the kingdom.

^ To be sure, Anglo-Saxonism had a long and insidious career ahead in diverse cultural and political arenas in the United States.
  • Paul A. Kramer | Empires, Exceptions, and Anglo-Saxons: Race and Rule between the British and United States Empires, 1880?1910 | The Journal of American History, 88.4 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

.This is not because they stopped existing; regional dialects continued even after that time to this day, as evidenced both by the existence of Middle and Modern English dialects later on, and by common sense–-people do not spontaneously adopt another dialect when there is a sudden change of political power.^ Main article: Old English language Anglo-Saxon, also called Old English, was the language spoken under Alfred the Great and continued to be the common language of England (non- Danelaw ) until after the Norman Conquest of 1066 when, under the influence of the Anglo-Norman language spoken by the Norman ruling class, it changed into Middle English roughly between 1150-1500.
  • Anglo-Saxons - TvWiki, the free encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.tvwiki.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Then the good sense of the people wakes up so far as to take tacit part with them, to cast off reverence for the Church; and there follows an age of unbelief.

^ Detailed examination of change in syntax in Old and Middle English.
  • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

The first page of the Beowulf manuscript
.However, the bulk of the surviving documents from the Anglo-Saxon period are written in the dialect of Wessex, Alfred's kingdom.^ The anglo-saxon kingdoms were monarchies.

^ You are from the Anglo-Saxon time period.
  • Alliterative: Old English Archives 24 January 2010 1:12 UTC allitera.tive.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Anglo-Saxon artists also worked in fresco , ivory , stone carving, metalwork (see Fuller brooch for example) and enamel , but few of these pieces have survived.
  • Anglo-Saxons - TvWiki, the free encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.tvwiki.tv [Source type: Original source]

.It seems likely that with consolidation of power, it became necessary to standardise the language of government to reduce the difficulty of administering the more remote areas of the kingdom.^ The puzzle regarding Wessex and other areas where cooperation apparently occurred is why more of the British language and culture was not assimilated.
  • The 5th Century Anglo-Saxon Invasion of England 11 September 2009 22:13 UTC www.mnsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This, like most innovations, introduced confusion, and rendered it convenient or necessary to use k in all words in which the power of k was wanted before those vowels.
  • A Compendious Dictionary of the English Language - Wikisource 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ When written sources became available in the seventh century, these areas were Germanic in both culture and language.
  • The 5th Century Anglo-Saxon Invasion of England 11 September 2009 22:13 UTC www.mnsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As a result, documents were written in the West Saxon dialect.^ West Saxon dialect.

^ One of these dialects, Late West Saxon, eventually came to dominate.
  • English Language - Home - oo.vg 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC english-language.oo.vg [Source type: Original source]

^ The Kentish and West-Saxon are sometimes, especially in later times, grouped together as southern dialects as opposed to midland and northern.

.Not only this, but Alfred was passionate about the spread of the vernacular and brought many scribes to his region from Mercia in order that previously unwritten texts be recorded.^ Alistair Campbell defines Old English as 'the vernacular Germanic language of Great Britain as it is recorded in manuscripts and inscriptions dating from before about 1100'.
  • BeowulfTranslations.net: Pronunciation of Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.beowulftranslations.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Simeon of Durham records that, after ldgyth's first husband was murdered on the orders of Eadric "Streona/the Acquisitor" Ealdorman of Mercia, ldgyth was arrested and brought to Malmesbury on the orders of King thelred II who had confiscated her husband's properties in the north of England [1888] .
  • ENGLAND, ANGLO-SAXON KINGS 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC fmg.ac [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mercian dialect was important during the 8th century, mainly thanks to king Alfred, who ordered the translation into OE of some texts.

[5]
.The Church was affected likewise, especially since Alfred initiated an ambitious programme to translate religious materials into English.^ Mercian dialect was important during the 8th century, mainly thanks to king Alfred, who ordered the translation into OE of some texts.

^ The need for translation into the vernacular arose, therefore, with the extensive evangelization and the growth of the Anglo-Saxon Church in the 6th century.
  • THE ANGLO-SAXON VERSION 11 September 2009 22:13 UTC www.watch.pair.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Something of value was lost when Old English morphed into Middle English and then Modern English; otherwise I would be able to read Beowulf without a translation.

In order to retain his patronage and ensure the widest circulation of the translated materials, the monks and priests engaged in the programme worked in his dialect. Alfred himself seems to have translated books out of Latin and into English, notably Pope Gregory I's treatise on administration, Pastoral Care
.Because of the centralisation of power and the Viking invasions, there is little or no written evidence for the development of non-Wessex dialects after Alfred's unification.^ Because of that global spread, English has developed a host of List of dialects of English language and English-based creole languages and pidgins.
  • English Language - Home - oo.vg 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC english-language.oo.vg [Source type: Original source]

^ There's little else in your postings though that suggests that this is the most well developed aspect of your character.

^ In the late 9th century, after the Viking invasion, king Alfred tried to recover the cultural situation in England.

Grammar

Phonology

The inventory of classical Old English (i.e. Late West Saxon) surface phones, as usually reconstructed, is as follows.
  Bilabial Labiodental Dental Alveolar Postalveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Stop p  b     t  d     k  ɡ  
Affricate         tʃ  (dʒ)      
Nasal m     n     (ŋ)  
Fricative   f  (v) θ  (ð) s  (z) ʃ (ç) (x)  (ɣ) h
Approximant       r   j w  
Lateral approximant       l        
The sounds marked in parentheses in the chart above are allophones:
  • [dʒ] is an allophone of /j/ occurring after /n/ and when geminated
  • [ŋ] is an allophone of /n/ occurring before /k/ and /ɡ/
  • [v, ð, z] are allophones of /f, θ, s/ respectively, occurring between vowels or voiced consonants
  • [ç, x] are allophones of /h/ occurring in coda position after front and back vowels respectively
  • [ɣ] is an allophone of /ɡ/ occurring after a vowel, and, at an earlier stage of the language, in the syllable onset.
Monophthongs Short Long
Front Back Front Back
Close i  y u iː  yː
Mid e  (ø) o eː  (øː)
Open æ ɑ æː ɑː
.The front mid rounded vowels /ø(ː)/ occur in some dialects of Old English, but not in the best attested Late West Saxon dialect.^ Of these the southern is simply the old West-Saxon, with the vowels levelled to e.

^ Perhaps the best known piece of Anglo-Saxon art is the Bayeux Tapestry which was commissioned by a Norman patron from English artists working in the traditional Anglo-Saxon style.
  • Anglo-Saxons - TvWiki, the free encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.tvwiki.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ The researches of Prince L. L. Bonaparte and Dr Ellis were directed specially to the classification and mapping of the existing dialects,' and the relation of these to the dialects of Old and Middle English.

Diphthongs Short (monomoraic) Long (bimoraic)
First element is close iy[6] iːy
Both elements are mid eo eːo
Both elements are open æɑ æːɑ

Morphology

.Unlike modern English, Old English is a language rich with morphological diversity and is spelled essentially as it is pronounced.^ Some of these changes have reached us thanks to Caxton, a printer who preferred the `old way' of spelling: some words are written close to the old form, but pronounced in the modern way.

^ This view had the justification that, looked upon by themselves, either as vehicles of thought or as objects of study and analysis, Old English or Anglo-Saxon and Modern English are, for all practical ends, distinct languages, - as much so, for example, as Latin and Spanish.

^ I really should have been a nineteenth century scholar of language and Old English.
  • Alliterative: Old English Archives 24 January 2010 1:12 UTC allitera.tive.org [Source type: Original source]

.It maintains several distinct cases: the nominative, accusative, genitive, dative and (vestigially) instrumental, remnants of which survive only in a few pronouns in modern English.^ This does represent an older linguistic pattern which has survived to the modern English.
  • Alliterative: Old English Archives 24 January 2010 1:12 UTC allitera.tive.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Verdurian is also nominative/accusative, with case marked on the noun and verb agreement with the subject; compare So aknó brisr e .
  • Old Skourene 24 January 2010 1:12 UTC zompist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Semantically, we can talk about three possible case roles: experiencer (subject of intransitive) actor (subject of transitive) patient (object of transitive) English is a nominative/accusative language: Actors and experiencers have the same case, nominative .
  • Old Skourene 24 January 2010 1:12 UTC zompist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Syntax

Word order

.The word order of Old English is widely believed to be subject-verb-object (SVO) as in modern English and most Germanic languages.^ Modern Germanic languages .
  • English language @ Top40-Charts.info 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: Original source]

^ The oldest word in the English language is “town” .
  • 25 English Language Oddities - Listverse 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

^ "Old English language - Latin influence" .
  • English language @ Top40-Charts.info 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: Original source]

.The word order of Old English, however, was not overly important because of the aforementioned morphology of the language.^ A bibliography of Old English word studies.
  • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The oldest word in the English language is “town” .
  • 25 English Language Oddities - Listverse 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

^ "Old English language - Latin influence" .
  • English language @ Top40-Charts.info 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: Original source]

.As long as declension was correct, it did not matter whether you said, "My name is..."^ You said I did.
  • English language @ Top40-Charts.info 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: Original source]

^ As for "my challenge", did you really took an unknown text, did you really asked somebody to do the "encipherment" and did you really read it out loud in front of a huge audience?

^ You can’t do something “on accident,” it happens “by accident.” I correct my students (I teach high school science) and my co-workers.
  • 10 Common English Language Errors - Listverse 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

as "Mīn nama is..." or "Nama mīn is..."
Questions
Because of its similarity with Old Norse, it is believed that the word order of Old English changed when asking a question, from SVO to VSO; i.e. swapping the verb and the subject.
"I am..." becomes "Am I...?"
"Ic eom..." becomes "Eom ic...?"

Orthography

The runic alphabet used to write Old English before the introduction of the Latin alphabet.
.Old English was first written in runes (futhorc) but shifted to a (minuscule) half-uncial script of the Latin alphabet introduced by Irish Christian missionaries.^ "Old English language - Latin influence" .
  • English language @ Top40-Charts.info 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: Original source]

^ English runic alphabet or futhorc, which are the 6 first letters, too.

^ Before literacy in the vernacular "Old English" or Latin became widespread, the Runic alphabet , called the futhorc (also known as futhark ), was used for inscriptions.
  • Anglo-Saxons - TvWiki, the free encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.tvwiki.tv [Source type: Original source]

This was replaced by insular script, a cursive and pointed version of the half-uncial script. .This was used until the end of the 12th century when continental Carolingian minuscule (also known as Caroline) replaced the insular.^ It was used from 5th-6th century until the MidE period.

^ The document is undated, but includes entries until the late-14th century, although it is not known what earlier sources provided for the basis for the earliest entries.
  • ENGLAND, ANGLO-SAXON KINGS 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC fmg.ac [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Latin used until 5th century wasn't a learned Latin.

.The letter yogh was adapted from Irish ecclesiastical forms of Latin ‹g› ; the letter ðæt ‹ð› (called eth or edh in modern English) was an alteration of Latin ‹d›, and the runic letters thorn and wynn are borrowings from futhorc.^ English runic alphabet or futhorc, which are the 6 first letters, too.

^ When literacy became more prevelant a form of Latin script was used with a few letters derived from the futhork; 'eth', 'wynn', and 'thorn'.
  • Anglo-Saxons - TvWiki, the free encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.tvwiki.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Before literacy in the vernacular "Old English" or Latin became widespread, the Runic alphabet , called the futhorc (also known as futhark ), was used for inscriptions.
  • Anglo-Saxons - TvWiki, the free encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.tvwiki.tv [Source type: Original source]

.Also used was a symbol for the conjunction and, a character similar to the number seven (‹›, called a Tironian note), and a symbol for the relative pronoun þæt, a thorn with a crossbar through the ascender (‹›).^ It is also used as a relative conjunction, and also as an article, as seen above.

.Macrons¯› over vowels were rarely used to indicate long vowels.^ Well, “Acting person” doesn’t really make sense… the -ess /-ix suffix has long been used as a feminizing diminutive , not just an indicator of gender.
  • 10 Common English Language Errors - Listverse 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

Also used occasionally were abbreviations for following m’s or n’s. .All of the sound descriptions below are given using IPA symbols.^ This is the English consonantal system using symbols from the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA).
  • English language @ Top40-Charts.info 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: Original source]

^ The descriptions below are simply a first approximation; the full usage of the verb is best explained after all the forms have been presented, and I therefore discuss it farther on, under Syntax .
  • Old Skourene 24 January 2010 1:12 UTC zompist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Conventions of modern editions

.A number of changes are traditionally made in published modern editions of the original Old English manuscripts.^ For this article, unless specified otherwise, reference is made by line number to the editions of Old English poems as presented in the pertinent volumes of The Anglo-Saxon Poetic Records as follows: Krapp, Junius Manuscript ; Krapp, Vercelli Book ; Krapp, The Exeter Book ; Dobbie, Beowulf and Judith , and Dobbie, Minor Poems .
  • Christian Heroism and the West Saxon Achievement: The Old English Poetic Evidence 24 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.sfsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Detailed examination of change in syntax in Old and Middle English.
  • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Begins with an explanation of Phonetics and Modern English sounds before moving through Old English sounds and dialects, Middle English sounds and dialect and the Language of Chaucer, and finally Modern English inflections.
  • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

Some of these conventions include the introduction of punctuation and the substitutions of symbols. The symbols ‹e›, ‹f›, ‹g›, ‹r›, ‹s› are used in modern editions, although their shapes in the insular script are considerably different. The insular symbols ‹ſ› and ‹ʃ› are substituted by their modern counterpart ‹s›. Insular ‹ȝ[7] is usually substituted with its modern counterpart ‹g› (which is ultimately a Carolingian symbol).
Additionally, modern manuscripts often distinguish between a velar and palatal ‹c› and ‹g› with diacritic dots above the putative palatals: ‹ċ›, ‹ġ›. The wynn symbol ‹ƿ› is usually substituted with ‹w›. Kentish ‹æ› is sometimes substituted with modern ‹ę›..August 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Macrons are usually found in modern editions to indicate putative long vowels, while they are usually lacking in the originals.^ The macron is used to mark long vowels.

^ When we have disyllabic adjectives with a long vowel first syllable, they generally lose the medial syllable vowel.

^ As for the old gentlemen themselves, they put me queerly in mind of the Salem Custom House, and the venerable personages whom I found so quietly at anchor there.
  • Our Old Home: a series of English sketches, Nathaniel Hawthorne, 1863, 1883 24 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Original source]

.The decision to add macrons is usually etymologically-based as they are printed even when these vowels are in unstressed positions where they would most probably be short.^ That would even be counter-productive, probably.
  • Charles Bremner - Times Online - WBLG: Bringing up French Anglo-Saxons 1 October 2009 3:53 UTC timescorrespondents.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Such a question would perplex even the most knowledgeable man, and, to young Arthur, it seemed an impossible query.
  • Fun with the English Language 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.lifesmith.com [Source type: Original source]

^ (We can reconcile these two rules by supposing that in the ancestral language, a final vowel was doubled, with the usual - r - insertion between identical vowels: * gitrara ; the final vowel was then lost.
  • Old Skourene 24 January 2010 1:12 UTC zompist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In older printed editions of Old English works, an acute accent mark was used to maintain cohesion between Old English and Old Norse printing.^ Before literacy in the vernacular "Old English" or Latin became widespread, the Runic alphabet , called the futhorc (also known as futhark ), was used for inscriptions.
  • Anglo-Saxons - TvWiki, the free encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.tvwiki.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Examines Old English as part of a larger language group in the Germanic family that also includes Gothic , old Norse, Old Saxon, Old Frisian, Old Low Franconian , and Old High German.
  • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Discusses trends in Old English scholarship, the divide between philologists and linguists, Kuhns Law, and the future of the field of OE language study.
  • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

The alphabetical symbols found in Old English writings and their substitute symbols found in modern editions are listed below:
Symbol Description and notes
a Short /ɑ/. Spelling variations like ‹land› ~ ‹lond› "land" suggest it may have had a rounded allophone [ɒ] before [n] in some cases)
ā Long /ɑː/. Rarely found in manuscripts, but usually distinguished from short ‹a› in modern editions.
æ Short /æ/. Before 800 the digraph ‹ae› is often found instead of ‹æ›. .During the 8th century ‹æ› began to be used more frequently was standard after 800. In 9th century Kentish manuscripts, a form of ‹æ› that was missing the upper hook of the ‹a› part was used.^ Kentish dialect was not so important as the two above, but during part of the 8th and the 9th centuries it was so important.

^ When literacy became more prevelant a form of Latin script was used with a few letters derived from the futhork; 'eth', 'wynn', and 'thorn'.
  • Anglo-Saxons - TvWiki, the free encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.tvwiki.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ From the late 8th century, Vikings began to approach the island, for example, on 787 in Dorset.

Kentish ‹æ› may be either /æ/ or /e/ although this is difficult to determine.
ǣ Long /æː/. Rarely found in manuscripts, but usually distinguished from short ‹æ› in modern editions.
b Represented /b/. .Also represented [v] in early texts before 800. For example, the word "sheaves" is spelled ‹scēabas› in an early text but later (and more commonly) as ‹scēafas›.^ Substratum: in a place we have language A, but before they spoke that language, they spoke language B. Some B elements appear in the newest language A. We find an example of this with some Latin words adapted into Celtic in Britain.

^ Befor advocàting a spelling reform, take a longr text u dòn't kno and ask sombody tu du the spelling chànges u would like to hav.

^ I was recently given a list with these words, and more, that are commonly misused.
  • 10 Common English Language Errors - Listverse 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

c Except in the digraphs ‹sc›, ‹cg›, either /tʃ/ or /k/. .The /tʃ/ pronunciation is sometimes written with a diacritic by modern editors: most commonly ‹ċ›, sometimes ‹č› or ‹ç›.^ The changes of pitch most commonly encountered in English are the rising pitch and the falling pitch , although the fall-rising pitch and/or the rise-falling pitch are sometimes used.
  • English language @ Top40-Charts.info 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: Original source]

.Before a consonant letter the pronunciation is always /k/; word-finally after ‹i› it is always /tʃ/.^ Korean doesn’t use consonant clusters, so English words written in Korean letters, and Koreans’ pronunciation of those words, always come out rather strangely.
  • 25 English Language Oddities - Listverse 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

^ The superlatively long word honorificabilitudinitatibus (27 letters) alternates consonants and vowels.
  • 25 English Language Oddities - Listverse 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

^ The genitive is formed by infixing - i - in the singular, - u - in the plural, after the last non-final vowel in the root (or to put it another way, before the final consonant of the root).
  • Old Skourene 24 January 2010 1:12 UTC zompist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Otherwise a knowledge of the historical linguistics of the word in question is needed to predict which pronunciation is needed.^ Linguistic Data Consortium at the University of Pennsylvania provides database that contains pronunciations captured in audiofiles for more than 50,000 common English words.
  • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

.(See The distribution of velars and palatals in Old English for details.^ Discusses in detail the compilation of the Old English Dictionary .
  • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Detailed examination of change in syntax in Old and Middle English.
  • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Further examines and offers an explanation on the distribution of a species of apposition between finite verbs in Old English verse as a stylistic element.
  • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

)
cg [ddʒ] (the surface pronunciation of geminate /jj/); occasionally also for /ɡɡ/
d Represented /d/. In the earliest texts, it also represented /θ/ but was soon replaced by ‹ð› and ‹þ›. .For example, the word meaning "thought" (lit.^ For example, in sounds /ð/-// we find that there are few words in which using either of them we have two meanings, those two sounds do not help to distinguish between words so, why are they still used?

^ I always thought that floccinoccinihilipilification (29 letters) was considered the longest word in the english language It means the act of doing something worthless.
  • 25 English Language Oddities - Listverse 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

^ There’s certainly no shortage of examples of words changing meaning over time, surprisingly frequently to their exact opposites!
  • 10 Common English Language Errors - Listverse 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

mood-i-think, with -i- as in ."handiwork") was written ‹mōdgidanc› in a Northumbrian text dated 737, but later as ‹mōdgeþanc› in a 10th century West Saxon text.^ As early as the seventh century, the Northumbrian cowherd Caedmon incorporated into the religious vocabulary of Anglo-Saxon Christianity the language of the Germanic warband.
  • Christian Heroism and the West Saxon Achievement: The Old English Poetic Evidence 24 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.sfsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The 1st real Germanic text date of the 2nd century A.D. It was written in runic characters.

^ Kirby does not consider that the epithet means that Offa aspired to lordship over all the Anglo-Saxons or that it necessarily had the same significance as it later had in the 10th century [623] .
  • ENGLAND, ANGLO-SAXON KINGS 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC fmg.ac [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

ð Represented /θ/ and its allophone [ð]. .Called ðæt in Old English (now called eth in Modern English), ‹ð› is found in alternation with thorn ‹þ› (both representing the same sound) although it is more common in texts dating before Alfred.^ So for the sounds of th, especially the sound in that, the Old English thorn (p) continued to be used.

^ It is used to represent the same sound we have nowadays.

^ Offers both Modern English to Old English and Old-English to Modern English dictionaries online.
  • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

Together with ‹þ› it replaced earlier ‹d› and ‹th›. .First attested (in definitely dated materials) in the 7th century.^ The first OE texts are dated on 7th century.

^ Few charters have survived, and none at all which are dated after the first decade of the 8th century.
  • ENGLAND, ANGLO-SAXON KINGS 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC fmg.ac [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The early 7th century King Rdwald is the first king of the East Angles about whom the sources give any information other than his name.
  • ENGLAND, ANGLO-SAXON KINGS 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC fmg.ac [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After the beginning of Alfred's time, ‹ð› was used more frequently for medial and final positions while ‹þ› became increasingly used in initial positions, although both still varied.^ When literacy became more prevelant a form of Latin script was used with a few letters derived from the futhork; 'eth', 'wynn', and 'thorn'.
  • Anglo-Saxons - TvWiki, the free encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.tvwiki.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ It is more likely that Osweald was another son of King thelwulf, listed in the document after his older brother Alfred, although it is also possible that he was the son of either of King thelred's older brothers, King thelbald or King thelberht.
  • ENGLAND, ANGLO-SAXON KINGS 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC fmg.ac [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From 834 Viking raids of Frisia became more frequent, and the port of Dorestad was plundered four times.
  • Franks and Anglo-Saxons 613-899 by Sanderson Beck 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Franks and Anglo-Saxons 613-899 by Sanderson Beck 1 October 2009 3:53 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

.Some modern editions attempt to regularise the variation between ‹þ› and ‹ð› by using only ‹þ›.^ Early Modern Literary Studies Special Issue 1 from April 1997 includes articles derived from applying the Early Modern English Dictionary Database to studies that vary between, for instance, examination of Shakespeares use of archaisms and reinterpretations of some of Shakespeares plays including Loves Labours Lost and The Tempest .
  • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ I also wanted to use some kind of commentary volume, but given the expense of the two other texts, I only added a recommended text, The Cambridge Companion to Chaucer .
  • Alliterative: Old English Archives 24 January 2010 1:12 UTC allitera.tive.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There are also some non-existing letters in OE, for example, letter b was only used in Latin texts, and it is considered an allophone of f.

[8]
e Short /e/.
ę Either Kentish /æ/ or /e/ although this is difficult to determine. .A modern editorial substitution for a form of ‹æ› missing the upper hook of the ‹a› found in 9th century texts.^ Christianity (both Celtic and Roman forms) replaced the old gods in England around the 8th and 9th centuries AD. The Synod of Whitby settled the choice for the Roman form.
  • Anglo-Saxons - TvWiki, the free encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.tvwiki.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ The pedigrees of three kings of the East Saxons, Offa, Swithred and Sigered, are found in a 9th century West Saxon manuscript [147] .
  • ENGLAND, ANGLO-SAXON KINGS 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC fmg.ac [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Eighty simple cures could be found in Bald's Leechbook , and about two hundred saints were described in the 9th-century Martyrology .
  • Franks and Anglo-Saxons 613-899 by Sanderson Beck 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Franks and Anglo-Saxons 613-899 by Sanderson Beck 1 October 2009 3:53 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

ē Long /eː/. Rarely found in manuscripts, but usually distinguished from short ‹e› in modern editions.
ea Short /æɑ/; after ‹ċ›, ‹ġ›, sometimes /æ/ or /ɑ/.
ēa Long /æːɑ/. Rarely found in manuscripts, but usually distinguished from short ‹ea› in modern editions. After ‹ċ›, ‹ġ›, sometimes /æː/.
eo Short /eo/; after ‹ċ›, ‹ġ›, sometimes /o/
ēo Long /eːo/. Rarely found in manuscripts, but usually distinguished from short ‹eo› in modern editions.
f /f/ and its allophone [v]
g Mostly absent in Old English works, but used as a substitute for ‹ȝ› in modern editions.
ȝ /ɡ/ and its allophone [ɣ]; /j/ and its allophone [dʒ] (when after ‹n›). .In modern printed editions of Old English works, the symbol ‹g› is used instead of the more common ‹ȝ›.^ Before literacy in the vernacular "Old English" or Latin became widespread, the Runic alphabet , called the futhorc (also known as futhark ), was used for inscriptions.
  • Anglo-Saxons - TvWiki, the free encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.tvwiki.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ In fact, in Modern English we can still use the bare infinitive after a verb of perception in this way (‘I saw him run’).
  • Alliterative: Old English Archives 24 January 2010 1:12 UTC allitera.tive.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Numerous old forms of comparison were in use, which have not come down to Modern English, as herre, ferre, longer, hext= higher, farther, longer, highest.

The /j/ and [dʒ] pronunciations are sometimes written ‹ġ› or ‹ȝ› by modern editors. .Before a consonant letter the pronunciation is always [ɡ] (word-initially) or [ɣ] (after a vowel).^ Different verb forms (as well as derived nouns) are created by placing vowels before, between, or after these consonants, or by adding affixes.
  • Old Skourene 24 January 2010 1:12 UTC zompist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Another thing thats ALWAYS bugged me was when people were suppoed to say “the” pronounced thee, as in before a vowel, but only said the the normal way.
  • 10 Common English Language Errors - Listverse 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

^ I always thought that floccinoccinihilipilification (29 letters) was considered the longest word in the english language It means the act of doing something worthless.
  • 25 English Language Oddities - Listverse 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

Word-finally after ‹i› it is always /j/. .Otherwise a knowledge of the historical linguistics of the word in question is needed to predict which pronunciation is needed.^ Linguistic Data Consortium at the University of Pennsylvania provides database that contains pronunciations captured in audiofiles for more than 50,000 common English words.
  • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

.(See The distribution of velars and palatals in Old English for details.^ Discusses in detail the compilation of the Old English Dictionary .
  • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Detailed examination of change in syntax in Old and Middle English.
  • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Further examines and offers an explanation on the distribution of a species of apposition between finite verbs in Old English verse as a stylistic element.
  • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

)
h /h/ and its allophones [ç, x]. .In the combinations ‹hl›, ‹hr›, ‹hn›, ‹hw›, the second consonant was certainly voiceless.^ HL, HN, HR the h is marking that the following consonant is devoiced, a voiceless sound that has lost his voice.

i Short /i/.
ī Long /iː/. Rarely found in manuscripts, but usually distinguished from short ‹i› in modern editions.
ie Short /iy/; after ‹ċ›, ‹ġ›, sometimes /e/.
īe Long /iːy/. Rarely found in manuscripts, but usually distinguished from short ‹ie› in modern editions. After ‹ċ›, ‹ġ›, sometimes /eː/.
k /k/ (rarely used)
l /l/; probably velarised (as in Modern English) when in coda position.
m /m/
n /n/ and its allophone [ŋ]
o Short /o/.
ō Long /oː/. Rarely found in manuscripts, but usually distinguished from short ‹o› in modern editions.
oe Short /ø/ (in dialects with this sound).
ōe Long /øː/ (in dialects with this sound). Rarely found in manuscripts, but usually distinguished from short ‹oe› in modern editions.
p /p/
qu A rare spelling of /kw/, which was usually written as ‹cƿ› (= ‹cw› in modern editions).[9]
r /r/; the exact nature of /r/ is not known. It may have been an alveolar approximant [ɹ] as in most modern accents, an alveolar flap [ɾ], or an alveolar trill [r].
s A substitution for an insular symbol resembling ‹ʃ› that is used in modern printed editions of .Old English works.^ Breeders are working hard to keep it out of the Olde English Bulldogge, therefore, no dog with bad hips is bred.
  • Old English Bulldog Breed Information 24 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.heydogs.com [Source type: General]

^ Old English section of larger comparative work on Germanic languages contains substantial bibliography .
  • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ "The Year’s Work in Old English Studies 1996."
  • Old English Bibliography 1999 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.u.arizona.edu [Source type: Academic]

It represents /s/ and its allophone [z].
sc /ʃ/ or occasionally /sk/.
t /t/
th Represented /θ/ in the earliest texts but was soon replaced by ‹ð› and ‹þ›. .For example, the word meaning "thought" was written ‹mōdgithanc› in a 6th century Northumbrian text, but later as ‹mōdgeþanc› in a 10th century West Saxon text.^ As early as the seventh century, the Northumbrian cowherd Caedmon incorporated into the religious vocabulary of Anglo-Saxon Christianity the language of the Germanic warband.
  • Christian Heroism and the West Saxon Achievement: The Old English Poetic Evidence 24 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.sfsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The 1st real Germanic text date of the 2nd century A.D. It was written in runic characters.

^ Kirby does not consider that the epithet means that Offa aspired to lordship over all the Anglo-Saxons or that it necessarily had the same significance as it later had in the 10th century [623] .
  • ENGLAND, ANGLO-SAXON KINGS 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC fmg.ac [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

þ An alternate symbol called thorn used instead of ‹ð›. Represents /θ/ and its allophone [ð]. Together with ‹ð› it replaced the earlier ‹d› and ‹th›. .First attested (in definitely dated materials) in the 8th century.^ Few charters have survived, and none at all which are dated after the first decade of the 8th century.
  • ENGLAND, ANGLO-SAXON KINGS 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC fmg.ac [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Less common than ‹ð› before Alfred's time, from then onward ‹þ› was used increasingly more frequently than ‹ð› at the beginning of words while its occurrence at the end and in the middle of words was rare.^ Improper use of the word “got” annoys me more than any of the above.
  • 10 Common English Language Errors - Listverse 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

^ More than, less than, happier than, sadder than.
  • 10 Common English Language Errors - Listverse 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

^ Argues that evidence does not support constrainment of the use of contracted verbs by specific syntactic conditions; that contracted forms occur more frequently in unstressed positions in verse; and that there are more specific conditions in which uncontracted forms are used rather than contracted forms.
  • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Some modern editions attempt to regularise the variation between ‹þ› and ‹ð› by using only ‹þ›.^ Early Modern Literary Studies Special Issue 1 from April 1997 includes articles derived from applying the Early Modern English Dictionary Database to studies that vary between, for instance, examination of Shakespeares use of archaisms and reinterpretations of some of Shakespeares plays including Loves Labours Lost and The Tempest .
  • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ I also wanted to use some kind of commentary volume, but given the expense of the two other texts, I only added a recommended text, The Cambridge Companion to Chaucer .
  • Alliterative: Old English Archives 24 January 2010 1:12 UTC allitera.tive.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There are also some non-existing letters in OE, for example, letter b was only used in Latin texts, and it is considered an allophone of f.

u /u/ and /w/ in early texts of continental scribes. The /w/ ‹u› was eventually replaced by ‹ƿ› outside of the north of the island.
uu Short /w/ in early texts of continental scribes. Outside of the north, it was generally replaced by ‹ƿ›.
ū Long /uː/. Rarely found in manuscripts, but usually distinguished from short ‹u› in modern editions.
w /w/. A modern substitution for ‹ƿ›.
ƿ Runic wynn. Represents /w/, replaced in modern print by ‹w› to prevent confusion with ‹p›.
x /ks/ (but according to some authors, [xs ~ çs])
y Short /y/.
ȳ Long /yː/. Rarely found in manuscripts, but usually distinguished from short ‹y› in modern editions.
z /ts/. A rare spelling for ‹ts›. Example: /betst/ "best" is rarely spelled ‹bezt› for more common ‹betst›.
Doubled consonants are geminated; the geminate fricatives ‹ðð›/‹þþ›, ‹ff› and ‹ss› cannot be voiced.

Literature

.Old English literature, though more abundant than literature of the continent before AD 1000, is nonetheless scant.^ ENG 340: Old English Literature .
  • - Department of English Language and Literature 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC english.cua.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Before literacy in the vernacular "Old English" or Latin became widespread, the Runic alphabet , called the futhorc (also known as futhark ), was used for inscriptions.
  • Anglo-Saxons - TvWiki, the free encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.tvwiki.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ ENG 642: Old English Literature II .
  • - Department of English Language and Literature 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC english.cua.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In his supplementary article to the 1935 posthumous edition of Bright's Anglo-Saxon Reader, Dr. James Hulbert writes:
.In such historical conditions, an incalculable amount of the writings of the Anglo-Saxon period perished.^ The immediate impulse behind such disembodiment of Anglo-Saxonism was to preserve its viability in an Anglo-American world being transformed by immigration.
  • Paul A. Kramer | Empires, Exceptions, and Anglo-Saxons: Race and Rule between the British and United States Empires, 1880?1910 | The Journal of American History, 88.4 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If the first level of Anglo-Saxonist colonial argument was historical, its second level was political, relating Anglo-Saxons' peculiar political and moral talents to Philippine annexation.
  • Paul A. Kramer | Empires, Exceptions, and Anglo-Saxons: Race and Rule between the British and United States Empires, 1880?1910 | The Journal of American History, 88.4 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ That outcome suggested that, while Anglo-Saxonism had served its function in making continental and insular expansion continuous historically and politically, it remained fragile along multiple axes.
  • Paul A. Kramer | Empires, Exceptions, and Anglo-Saxons: Race and Rule between the British and United States Empires, 1880?1910 | The Journal of American History, 88.4 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

.What they contained, how important they were for an understanding of literature before the Conquest, we have no means of knowing: the scant catalogs of monastic libraries do not help us, and there are no references in extant works to other compositions....How incomplete our materials are can be illustrated by the well-known fact that, with few and relatively unimportant exceptions, all extant Anglo-Saxon poetry is preserved in four manuscripts.^ I mean no they didn’t.
  • 10 Common English Language Errors - Listverse 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

^ They believe only in Anglo-Saxons.

^ Anglo-Saxon literature .
  • Anglo-Saxons - TvWiki, the free encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.tvwiki.tv [Source type: Original source]

.Old English was one of the first vernacular languages to be written down.^ Before literacy in the vernacular "Old English" or Latin became widespread, the Runic alphabet , called the futhorc (also known as futhark ), was used for inscriptions.
  • Anglo-Saxons - TvWiki, the free encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.tvwiki.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Begins with an explanation of Phonetics and Modern English sounds before moving through Old English sounds and dialects, Middle English sounds and dialect and the Language of Chaucer, and finally Modern English inflections.
  • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Examines Old English as part of a larger language group in the Germanic family that also includes Gothic , old Norse, Old Saxon, Old Frisian, Old Low Franconian , and Old High German.
  • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Some of the most important surviving works of Old English literature are Beowulf, an epic poem; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, a record of early English history; and Caedmon's Hymn, a Christian religious poem.^ The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that she was killed by the Mercians [534] .
  • ENGLAND, ANGLO-SAXON KINGS 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC fmg.ac [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ F is a twelfth-century bilingual (Old English and Latin) version of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle .
  • Christian Heroism and the West Saxon Achievement: The Old English Poetic Evidence 24 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.sfsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, E, 686 and 687.
  • ENGLAND, ANGLO-SAXON KINGS 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC fmg.ac [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are also a number of extant prose works, such as sermons and saints' lives, biblical translations, and translated Latin works of the early Church Fathers, legal documents, such as laws and wills, and practical works on grammar, medicine, and geography.^ These works include genres such as epic poetry , hagiography , sermons , Bible translations, legal works, chronicles , riddles, and others.
  • Anglo-Saxons - TvWiki, the free encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.tvwiki.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Production included original works in both Latin and Old English, such as Asser’s Latin Life of King Alfred and the vernacular Anglo-Saxon Chronicle , first compiled as a national chronicle in the early 890s.
  • Christian Heroism and the West Saxon Achievement: The Old English Poetic Evidence 24 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.sfsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ There are a number of regional dialects of Scots, and pronunciation, grammar and lexis of the traditional forms differ, sometimes substantially, from other varieties of English.
  • English language @ Top40-Charts.info 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: Original source]

.Still, poetry is considered the heart of Old English literature.^ Apo koinou in Old English Poetry?"
  • Old English Bibliography 1999 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.u.arizona.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ A standard text in Old English courses for a century, the first half of the text comprises a grammar, and the second half a reader of Old English poetry and prose.
  • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Beowulf , variously dated from the seventh century to the eleventh, provides only the most notorious example of the fluidity in dating to which Old English poetry is subject.
  • Christian Heroism and the West Saxon Achievement: The Old English Poetic Evidence 24 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.sfsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Nearly all Anglo-Saxon authors are anonymous, with a few exceptions, such as Bede and Caedmon.^ Anglo-Saxon artists also worked in fresco , ivory , stone carving, metalwork (see Fuller brooch for example) and enamel , but few of these pieces have survived.
  • Anglo-Saxons - TvWiki, the free encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.tvwiki.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Searches are performed using Anglo-Saxon author, source author, or through textual bibliographies.
  • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ As early as the seventh century, the Northumbrian cowherd Caedmon incorporated into the religious vocabulary of Anglo-Saxon Christianity the language of the Germanic warband.
  • Christian Heroism and the West Saxon Achievement: The Old English Poetic Evidence 24 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.sfsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

Comparison with other historical forms of English

.Old English is often erroneously used to refer to any form of English other than Modern English.^ Before literacy in the vernacular "Old English" or Latin became widespread, the Runic alphabet , called the futhorc (also known as futhark ), was used for inscriptions.
  • Anglo-Saxons - TvWiki, the free encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.tvwiki.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ The etymology of the word "English" is a derivation from the 12th century Old English englisc or Engle , plural form Angles ("of, relating to, or characteristic of England").
  • English language @ Top40-Charts.info 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Begins with an explanation of Phonetics and Modern English sounds before moving through Old English sounds and dialects, Middle English sounds and dialect and the Language of Chaucer, and finally Modern English inflections.
  • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The term Old English does not refer to varieties of Early Modern English such as are found in Shakespeare or the King James Bible, nor does it refer to Middle English, the language of Chaucer and his contemporaries.^ English language including the Early-Modern period.
  • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ English language including the Middle English period.
  • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ It is organized by historical period (Old English, Middle English, Early-Modern, and Present-Day).
  • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The following timeline helps place the history of the English language in context.^ History of the English language .
  • English language @ Top40-Charts.info 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: Original source]

^ A History of the English Language 5 th edition .
  • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ A history of the English language (5th ed.
  • English language @ Top40-Charts.info 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: Original source]

The dates used are approximate dates. .Language change is gradual, and cannot be as easily demarcated as are historical or political events.^ See English-language vowel changes before historic r .
  • English language @ Top40-Charts.info 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: Original source]

Examples

Beowulf

.The first example is taken from the opening lines of the epic poem Beowulf.^ The most famous works from this period include the poem Beowulf , which has achieved national epic status in Britain.
  • Anglo-Saxons - TvWiki, the free encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.tvwiki.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Ingeld was a heroic figure from Germanic tradition whose renown is attested by the bareness of the allusion to his story in the Beowulf poem (lines 2020 ff.
  • Christian Heroism and the West Saxon Achievement: The Old English Poetic Evidence 24 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.sfsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

This passage describes how Hrothgar's legendary ancestor Scyld was found as a baby, washed up on the shore, and adopted by a noble family. The translation is quite literal and represents the original poetic word order. .As such, it is not typical of Old English prose.^ A standard text in Old English courses for a century, the first half of the text comprises a grammar, and the second half a reader of Old English poetry and prose.
  • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Essays in this collection examines all facets of Old English poetry and prose including meter, vocabulary, archaisms and modernisms, as well as specific linguistic matter such as line-end hyphens and Old English weak-genitive plurals.
  • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Early popular textbook that provides a history, etymology and syntax, several Old English texts both prose and poetry, and a Old English-Modern English/Modern English-Old English glossary.
  • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The modern cognates of original words have been used whenever practical to give a close approximation of the feel of the original poem.^ For example, the word close can be used in the phrase "Close the door" but not "do not go close to the landing gear".
  • English language @ Top40-Charts.info 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Also, Americans give me odd looks when I use the word “learnt” instead of “learned”.
  • 10 Common English Language Errors - Listverse 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

^ In US English, practice is used as either a verb (doing word), or noun (naming word).
  • 10 Common English Language Errors - Listverse 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

.The words in brackets are implied in the Old English by noun case and the bold words in parentheses are explanations of words that have slightly different meanings in a modern context.^ A bibliography of Old English word studies.
  • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Begins with an explanation of Phonetics and Modern English sounds before moving through Old English sounds and dialects, Middle English sounds and dialect and the Language of Chaucer, and finally Modern English inflections.
  • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The word " parents " may in this context mean " relatives " more broadly.
  • ENGLAND, ANGLO-SAXON KINGS 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC fmg.ac [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Notice how what is used by the poet where a word like lo or behold would be expected.^ We find that final s in days because French words used it for the plural, and some English words ended in as, so words like day had this plural ending in s in analogy to these words.

^ I don’t know if it’s a broadcasting thing like how singers don’t like to vocalise the ending ’s’ in any words.
  • 10 Common English Language Errors - Listverse 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

^ In Spanish, the feminine word “la poeta” can be used for males, and the equivalent “la poetesa” is like “woman poet.” Interestingly enough, “el poeteso” is a HUGE insult for a man–it’s the diminutive “poetesa” with switched grammatical gender.
  • 10 Common English Language Errors - Listverse 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

This usage is similar to what-ho!, both an expression of surprise and a call to attention.
Line Original Translation
[1] Hwæt! wē Gār-Dena in geār-dagum, What! We of Gare-Danes (lit. Spear-Danes) in yore-days,
[2] þeod-cyninga, þrym gefrunon, of thede(nation/people)-kings, did thrum (the masses) frayne (learn about by asking),
[3] hu ða æþelingas ellen fremedon. how those athelings (noblemen) did ellen (fortitude/courage/zeal) freme (promote).
[4] Oft Scyld Scefing sceaþena þreatum, Oft did Scyld Scefing of scather threats (troops),
[5] monegum mægþum, meodosetla ofteah, of many maegths (clans; cf. Irish cognate Mac-), of mead-settlements atee (deprive),
[6] egsode eorlas. Syððan ærest wearð [and] ugg (induce loathing in, terrify; related to "ugly") earls. Sith (since, as of when) erst (first) [he] worthed (became)
[7] feasceaft funden, he þæs frofre gebad, [in] fewship (destitute) found, he of this frover (comfort) aboded,
[8] weox under wolcnum, weorðmyndum þah, [and] waxed under welkin (firmament/clouds), [and amid] worthmint (honour/worship) threed (thrived/prospered)
[9] oðþæt him æghwylc þara ymbsittendra oth that (until that) [to] him each of those umsitters (those "sitting" or dwelling roundabout)
[10] ofer hronrade hyran scolde, over whale-road (kenning for "sea") did hark (attention) shall (owe),
[11] gomban gyldan. Þæt wæs god cyning! [and] yeme (heed/obedience; related to "gormless") yield. That was [a] good king!
A semi-fluent translation in Modern English would be:
Lo! .We have heard of majesty of the Spear-Danes, of those nation-kings in the days of yore, and how those noblemen promoted zeal.^ Simeon of Durham names " Ethelstan the son-in-law of king Ethelred " among those killed in battle by the Danes " in East AngliaRingmere " [1843] .
  • ENGLAND, ANGLO-SAXON KINGS 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC fmg.ac [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Clbs 7.228 18 How sweet those hours when the day was not long enough to communicate and compare our intellectual jewels...the proud anecdotes of our heroes...

Scyld Scefing took away mead-benches from bands of enemies, from many tribes; he terrified earls. .Since he was first found destitute (he gained consolation for that) he grew under the heavens, prospered in honours, until each of those who lived around him over the sea had to obey him, give him tribute.^ I knew him a little, and (since, Heaven be praised, few English celebrities whom I chanced to meet have enfranchised my pen by their decease, and as I assume no liberties with living men) I will conclude this rambling article by sketching my first interview with Leigh Hunt.
  • Our Old Home: a series of English sketches, Nathaniel Hawthorne, 1863, 1883 24 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Those plotting against the king or harboring those who did could lose their lives and all their possessions.
  • Franks and Anglo-Saxons 613-899 by Sanderson Beck 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Franks and Anglo-Saxons 613-899 by Sanderson Beck 1 October 2009 3:53 UTC san.beck.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the first sentence kau - is used to promote him from absolutive to ergative; in the second the demotion is automatic since no other argument is possible.
  • Old Skourene 24 January 2010 1:12 UTC zompist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

That was a good king!

The Lord's Prayer

.This text of The Lord's Prayer is presented in the standardised West Saxon literary dialect.^ West Saxon dialect has the most important amount of OE texts.

^ West Saxon dialect.

^ Examines dialect awareness and linguistic divisions in medieval England as it is seen in various histories and literary texts.
  • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

Line Original Translation
[1] Fæder ure þu þe eart on heofonum, Father of ours, thou who art in heaven,
[2] Si þin nama gehalgod. Be thy name hallowed.
[3] To becume þin rice, Come thy riche (kingdom),
[4] gewurþe ðin willa, on eorðan swa swa on heofonum. Worth (manifest) thy will, on earth as also in heaven.
[5] Urne gedæghwamlican hlaf syle us todæg, Our daily loaf do sell (give) to us today,
[6] and forgyf us ure gyltas, swa swa we forgyfað urum gyltendum. And forgive us of our guilts as also we forgive our guilty[10]
[7] And ne gelæd þu us on costnunge, ac alys us of yfele. And do not lead thou us into temptation, but alese (release/deliver) us of (from) evil.
[8] Soþlice. Soothly.

Charter of Cnut

.This is a proclamation from King Canute the Great to his earl Thorkell the Tall and the English people written in AD 1020. Unlike the previous two examples, this text is prose rather than poetry.^ King Canute & his wife had two children: .
  • ENGLAND, ANGLO-SAXON KINGS 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC fmg.ac [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ King Alfred the Great of England supplies King Anarawd of Gwynedd with English troops to assist in his successful reconquest of Seisyllwg on behalf of his brother, King Cadell.
  • Anglo-Saxons - TvWiki, the free encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.tvwiki.tv [Source type: Original source]

^ Anglo-Saxons had always been known by their language, laws, religion, and institutions; some Britons and Americans (including Theodore Roosevelt) referred to the "English-speaking peoples," rather than the "Anglo-Saxon race."
  • Paul A. Kramer | Empires, Exceptions, and Anglo-Saxons: Race and Rule between the British and United States Empires, 1880?1910 | The Journal of American History, 88.4 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

For ease of reading, the passage has been divided into sentences while the pilcrows represent the original division.
Original Translation
¶ Cnut cyning gret his arcebiscopas and his leod-biscopas and Þurcyl eorl and ealle his eorlas and ealne his þeodscype, twelfhynde and twyhynde, gehadode and læwede, on Englalande freondlice. ¶ Cnut, king, greets his archbishops and his lede'(people's)'-bishops and Thorkell, earl, and all his earls and all his peopleship, greater (having a 1200 shilling weregild) and lesser (200 shilling weregild), hooded(ordained to priesthood) and lewd(lay), in England friendly.
And ic cyðe eow, þæt ic wylle beon hold hlaford and unswicende to godes gerihtum and to rihtre woroldlage. And I kithe.(make known/couth to) you, that I will be [a] hold(civilised) lord and unswiking(uncheating) to God's rights(laws) and to [the] rights(laws) worldly.^ I like the dessert one it makes you click like “oh that’s right” lOl but yeah it’s cool.
  • 10 Common English Language Errors - Listverse 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC listverse.com [Source type: General]

¶ Ic nam me to gemynde þa gewritu and þa word, þe se arcebiscop Lyfing me fram þam papan brohte of Rome, þæt ic scolde æghwær godes lof upp aræran and unriht alecgan and full frið wyrcean be ðære mihte, þe me god syllan wolde. ¶ I nam.(took) me to mind the writs and the word that the Archbishop Lyfing me from the Pope brought of Rome, that I should ayewhere(everywhere) God's love(praise) uprear(promote), and unright(outlaw) lies, and full frith(peace) work(bring about) by the might that me God would(wished) [to] sell'(give).^ Weep not for me my parents dear / I am not dead but sleeping here / I was not yours but God’s alone / he loved me best & took me home / J. W. Smyth .
  • Old English Cemetery - St. Thomas, Ontario, Canada 24 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.elginogs.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Inscribed upon the cross we see / in glowing letters, God is love / he bears our sins upon the tree / he brings us mercy from above.
  • Old English Cemetery - St. Thomas, Ontario, Canada 24 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.elginogs.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For God so loved the world that / he gave his only begotten son / that whosoever Believeth in him / should not perish but have / everlasting life.
  • Old English Cemetery - St. Thomas, Ontario, Canada 24 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.elginogs.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

¶ Nu ne wandode ic na minum sceattum, þa hwile þe eow unfrið on handa stod: nu ic mid godes fultume þæt totwæmde mid minum scattum. ¶ Now, ne went(withdrew/changed) I not my shot(financial contribution, cf. .Norse cognate in scot-free) the while that you stood(endured) unfrith(turmoil) on-hand: now I, mid(with) God's support, that [unfrith] totwemed(separated/dispelled) mid(with) my shot(financial contribution).^ Will Rogers 10) If you think health care is expensive now, wait until you see what it costs when it's free.
  • Fun with the English Language 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.lifesmith.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But it is a characteristic of this grand edifice that it permits you to smile as freely under the roof of its central nave as if you stood beneath the yet grander canopy of heaven.
  • Our Old Home: a series of English sketches, Nathaniel Hawthorne, 1863, 1883 24 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Original source]

Þa cydde man me, þæt us mara hearm to fundode, þonne us wel licode: and þa for ic me sylf mid þam mannum þe me mid foron into Denmearcon, þe eow mæst hearm of com: and þæt hæbbe mid godes fultume forene forfangen, þæt eow næfre heonon forð þanon nan unfrið to ne cymð, þa hwile þe ge me rihtlice healdað and min lif byð. Tho.(then) [a] man kithed(made known/couth to) me that us more harm had found(come upon) than us well liked(equalled): and tho(then) fore(travelled) I, meself, mid(with) those men that mid(with) me fore(travelled), into Denmark that [to] you most harm came of(from): and that[harm] have [I], mid(with) God's support, afore(previously) forefangen(forestalled) that to you never henceforth thence none unfrith(breach of peace) ne come the while that ye me rightly hold(behold as king) and my life beeth.^ I paced its length, outside of the wall, and found it only seventeen of my paces, and not more than ten of them in breadth.
  • Our Old Home: a series of English sketches, Nathaniel Hawthorne, 1863, 1883 24 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Silently, I reinforced, remaining anxious, quite scared, afraid, While intrusive tap did then come thrice - O, so stronger than sounded afore.
  • Fun with the English Language 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.lifesmith.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The third was the man to whom I owed most in England, the warm benignity of whose nature was never weary of doing me good, who led me to many scenes of life, in town, camp, and country, which I never could have found out for myself, who knew precisely the kind of help a stranger needs, and gave it as freely as if he had not had a thousand more important things to live for.
  • Our Old Home: a series of English sketches, Nathaniel Hawthorne, 1863, 1883 24 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Original source]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The term Anglo-Saxon came to refer to all things of the early English period by the 16th century, including language, culture, and people. While this is still the preferred term for the latter two aspects, the language starting from the 19th century began to be called Old English. This is because the language itself began to be studied in detail, and scholars recognised the continued development of the English language from the Anglo-Saxon period to Middle English and through to the present day. However many authors still use the term Anglo-Saxon to refer to the language.
    Crystal, David (2003). The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521530334. 
  2. ^ See Timeline of the Anglo-Saxon invasion and takeover of Britain
  3. ^ http://www.rotary-munich.de/2005-2006/theo-vennemann.pdf
  4. ^ Campbell, Alistair (1959). .Old English Grammar.^ Bright's Old English Grammar .
    • Anglo-Saxon-msg 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.florilegium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ An Old English Grammar.
    • Anglo-Saxon-msg 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.florilegium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Diamond, Robert E. Old English Grammar and Reader.
    • Anglo-Saxon-msg 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.florilegium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 4. ISBN 0-19-811943-7.
     
  5. ^ Moore, Samuel, and Knott, Thomas A. The Elements of Old English. 1919. Ed. James R. Hulbert. 10th ed. Ann Arbor, Michigan: George Wahr Publishing Co., 1958.
  6. ^ It is uncertain whether the diphthongs spelt ie/īe were pronounced [i(ː)y] or [i(ː)e]. The fact that this diphthong was merged with /y(ː)/ in many dialects suggests the former.
  7. ^ Insular ‹ȝ› is not equivalent to Middle English yoghȝ›.
  8. ^ See also Pronunciation of English th.
  9. ^ The spelling ‹qu› is much more common in later Middle English.
  10. ^ Lit. "guiltend" meaning "person or persons in the act of sinning", from the participial adj. meaning "in the act of sinning"; cf. Latin cognate participial suffix -ant, thus "guiltant ones".

Bibliography

Sources

  • Whitelock, Dorothy (ed.) .(1955) English Historical Documents; vol.^ English Historical Documents Vol.
    • ENGLAND, ANGLO-SAXON KINGS 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC fmg.ac [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    I: c. 500–1042
    . London: Eyre & Spottiswoode

General

  • Baker, Peter S. (2003). .Introduction to Old English.^ Barney, Stephen A. Word-Hoard: An Introduction to Old English Vocabulary.
    • Anglo-Saxon-msg 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.florilegium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Introduction includes brief overview of grammar before moving to a mixture of canonical and non-canonical Old and Middle English texts.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Peter Bakers site contains course information, a link to Electronic Introduction to Old English , and links to several Anglo-Saxon bibliographies, and further resource links.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    Blackwell Publishing. .ISBN 0-631-23454-3. 
  • Baugh, Albert C.; & Cable, Thomas.^ By: Albert C. Baugh and Thomas Cable .
    • English language @ Top40-Charts.info 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Baugh, Albert C.; Thomas Cable (2002).
    • English language @ Top40-Charts.info 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Baugh, Albert C., and Thomas Cable.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    (1993). .A History of the English Language (4th ed.^ History of the English language .
    • English language @ Top40-Charts.info 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: Original source]

    ^ A history of the English language (5th ed.
    • English language @ Top40-Charts.info 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: Original source]

    ^ A history of English language teaching .
    • English language @ Top40-Charts.info 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: Original source]

    ). London: Routledge.
  • Earle, John (2005). .A Book for the Beginner in Anglo-Saxon.^ Ctr 6.152 6 ...one of the traits down in the books as distinguishing the Anglo-Saxon is a trick of self-disparagement.

    ^ "Anglo-Saxon Scholarship and Viking Raids: the Exeter Book Contextualised."
    • Old English Bibliography 1999 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.u.arizona.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The Liturgical Books of Anglo-Saxon England (Kalamazoo, 1995): Milton McC. Gatch, Speculum 74 (1999), 470-71.
    • Old English Bibliography 1999 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.u.arizona.edu [Source type: Academic]

    Bristol, PA: Evolution Publishing. ISBN 1-889758-69-8.
      (Reissue of one of 4 eds. 1877–1902)
  • Hogg, Richard M. (ed.). (1992). .The Cambridge History of the English Language: (Vol 1): the Beginnings to 1066.^ Begins with an explanation of Phonetics and Modern English sounds before moving through Old English sounds and dialects, Middle English sounds and dialect and the Language of Chaucer, and finally Modern English inflections.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The Cambridge History of Medieval English Literature .
    • Old English Bibliography 1999 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.u.arizona.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language .
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Hogg, Richard; & Denison, David (eds.^ Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ) .(2006) A History of the English Language.^ The Cambridge History of the English Language.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ University of Torontos History of the English Language site - http://www.chass.utoronto.ca/~cpercy/hell/ .
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Meiklejohn, J.M.D. The English Language: Its Grammar, History, and Literature, with Chapters on Composition, Versification, Paraphrasing, and Punctuation .
    • Language Standards 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC docs.google.com [Source type: Academic]

    .Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Jespersen, Otto (1909–1949) A Modern English Grammar on Historical Principles.^ Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1960.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    7 vols. .Heidelberg: C. Winter & Copenhagen: Ejnar Munksgaard
  • Lass, Roger (1987) The Shape of English: structure and history.^ English Words: History and Structure .
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ This central structure is the White Tower, and the whole circuit of ramparts and enclosed edifices constitutes what is known in English history, and still more   widely and impressively in English poetry, as the Tower.
    • Our Old Home: a series of English sketches, Nathaniel Hawthorne, 1863, 1883 24 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Original source]

    London: J. M. Dent & Sons
  • Lass, Roger (1994). .Old English: A historical linguistic companion.^ Discusses trends in Old English scholarship, the divide between philologists and linguists, Kuhns Law, and the future of the field of OE language study.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Offers comprehensive examination of Black English historically and linguistically.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Resources For History of the English Language and English Historical Linguistics - http://www.ujaen.es/dep/filing/HEL_Resources/index.html .
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.^ Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1960.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ISBN 0-521-43087-9.
     
  • Millward, Celia (1996). .A Biography of the English Language.^ The Adventure of English: The Biography of a Language .
    • English language @ Top40-Charts.info 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: Original source]

    Harcourt Brace. .ISBN 0-15-501645-8. 
  • Mitchell, Bruce, and Robinson, Fred C. (2001).^ Mitchell, Bruce, and Fred C. Robinson.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Mitchell, Bruce, and Fred C. Robinson, ed., Beowulf (Oxford and Cambridge, MA, 1998): Peter J. Dendle, Envoi 8 (1999), 62-64; E. G. Stanley, N&Q 46 (1999), 169-70.
    • Old English Bibliography 1999 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.u.arizona.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ LEARNING OLD ENGLISH GRAMMAR: Mitchell, Bruce and Fred C. Robinson, eds.
    • Anglo-Saxon-msg 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.florilegium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .A Guide to Old English (6th edition ed.^ Aims at providing a practical guide—a description of characteristics, development and change—to the early stages of the English language: Old English, Middle English, and Early Modern English.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Includes a very brief history of Old English, an alphabet and pronunciation guide, a sample from the prologue of Beowulf, and some external links.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Brights Old English Grammar and Reader 3 rd Edition .
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ). Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-22636-2. 
  • Quirk, Randolph; & Wrenn, C. L. (1957). .An Old English Grammar (2nd ed.^ An introduction to functional grammar (2nd ed.
    • English language @ Top40-Charts.info 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: Original source]

    ^ English as a Global Language (2nd ed.
    • English language @ Top40-Charts.info 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Cambridge encyclopedia of the English language (2nd ed.
    • English language @ Top40-Charts.info 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: Original source]

    ) .London: Methuen.
  • Strang, Barbara M. H. (1970) A History of English.^ Fennell, Barbara A. A History of English: A Sociolinguistic Approach .
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    London: Methuen.

External history

.
  • Robinson, Orrin W. (1992).^ Robinson, Orrin (1992).
    • English language @ Top40-Charts.info 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.top40-charts.info [Source type: Original source]

    .Old English and Its Closest Relatives.^ Robinson, Orrin W. Old English and Its Closest Relatives: A Survey of the Earliest Germanic Languages .
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ DNA was also obtained from men living in Friesland as it is considered to be one of the a source locations for the Anglo-Saxons and because the Frisian language is considered to be the closest surviving language to Old English [3] .
    • Anglo-Saxons - TvWiki, the free encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.tvwiki.tv [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The languge today which is closest to Old English is Frisian, which is spoken by a few hundred thousand people in the northern part of the Netherlands and Germany.
    • Anglo-Saxons - TvWiki, the free encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.tvwiki.tv [Source type: Original source]

    .Stanford University Press.^ Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1992.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .ISBN 0-8047-2221-8. 
  • Bremmer Jr, Rolf H. (2009).^ Bremmer, Rolf H., Jr, ed., Franciscus Junius F. F. and His Circle (Amsterdam and Atlanta, 1998): H. B. M. Harmsen, ES 80 (1999), 485-87.
    • Old English Bibliography 1999 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.u.arizona.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Bremmer, Rolf H., Jr. "The Correspondence of Johannes de Laet (1581-1649) as a Mirror of His Life."
    • Old English Bibliography 1999 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.u.arizona.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Bremmer, Rolf H., Jr. "The Reception of the Acts of John in Anglo-Saxon England."
    • Old English Bibliography 1999 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.u.arizona.edu [Source type: Academic]

    An Introduction to Old Frisian. History, Grammar, Reader, Glossary. .Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
  • Stenton, F. M. (1971).^ Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 1999.
    • Old English Bibliography 1999 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.u.arizona.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Amsterdam: John Benjamins, B.V., 1977.
    • Language Standards 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC docs.google.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 1991.
    • Language Standards 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC docs.google.com [Source type: Academic]

    .Anglo-Saxon England (3rd ed.^ Anglo-Saxon England 28.
    • Old English Bibliography 1999 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.u.arizona.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that she left England with her mother in Summer 1067 and found refuge at the court of Malcolm King of Scotland [1939] .
    • ENGLAND, ANGLO-SAXON KINGS 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC fmg.ac [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Liturgical Books of Anglo-Saxon England (Kalamazoo, 1995): Milton McC. Gatch, Speculum 74 (1999), 470-71.
    • Old English Bibliography 1999 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.u.arizona.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ). .Oxford: Clarendon Press.^ Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1923.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1970.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

Orthography/Palaeography

  • Bourcier, Georges. (1978). .L'orthographie de l'anglais: Histoire et situation actuelle.^ Hagiographies: histoire internationale de la littérature hagiographique latine et vernaculaire en Occident des origines à 1550 .
    • Old English Bibliography 1999 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.u.arizona.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Delisle, L. (1867) Histoire du chteau et des sires de Saint-Sauveur-le-Vicomte (Valognes), Pices justificatives, 10, p.
    • ENGLAND, ANGLO-SAXON KINGS 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC fmg.ac [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Histoire ecclésiastique du peuple anglais,1: Conquête et conversion .
    • Old English Bibliography 1999 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.u.arizona.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.
  • Campbell, A. (1959).^ "Der älteste touronische Pandekt, Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France lat.
    • Old English Bibliography 1999 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.u.arizona.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .Old English Grammar.^ Bright's Old English Grammar .
    • Anglo-Saxon-msg 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.florilegium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ An Old English Grammar.
    • Anglo-Saxon-msg 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.florilegium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Diamond, Robert E. Old English Grammar and Reader.
    • Anglo-Saxon-msg 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.florilegium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • Elliott, Ralph W. V. (1959).^ Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1965.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1967.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1983.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    Runes: An introduction. .Manchester: Manchester University Press.
  • Keller, Wolfgang.^ Saxon England_ (Manchester University Press, 1986).
    • Anglo-Saxon-msg 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.florilegium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Dress in Anglo-Saxon England,_ Manchester University Press, .
    • Anglo-Saxon-msg 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.florilegium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Chronicon of Thietmar of Merseburg (2001) (Manchester University Press) 2.1, p.
    • ENGLAND, ANGLO-SAXON KINGS 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC fmg.ac [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    (1906). Angelsächsische Paleographie, I: Einleitung. Berlin: Mayer & Müller.
  • Ker, N. R. (1957). .A Catalogue of Manuscripts Containing Anglo-Saxon.^ The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records the death of " king thelheard " in 740 (manuscript E) and 741 (manuscript A) [1396] .
    • ENGLAND, ANGLO-SAXON KINGS 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC fmg.ac [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary, Based on the Manuscript .
    • Anglo-Saxon-msg 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.florilegium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Peter Bakers site contains course information, a link to Electronic Introduction to Old English , and links to several Anglo-Saxon bibliographies, and further resource links.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .Oxford: Clarendon Press.^ Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1923.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1970.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

  • Ker, N. R. (1957: 1990). .A Catalogue of Manuscripts Containing Anglo-Saxon; with supplement prepared by Neil Ker originally published in Anglo-Saxon England; 5, 1957. Oxford: Clarendon Press ISBN 0198112513
  • Page, R. I. (1973).^ Anglo-Saxon England 28.
    • Old English Bibliography 1999 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.u.arizona.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records the death of " king thelheard " in 740 (manuscript E) and 741 (manuscript A) [1396] .
    • ENGLAND, ANGLO-SAXON KINGS 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC fmg.ac [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that she left England with her mother in Summer 1067 and found refuge at the court of Malcolm King of Scotland [1939] .
    • ENGLAND, ANGLO-SAXON KINGS 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC fmg.ac [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    An Introduction to English Runes. London: Methuen.
  • Scragg, Donald G. (1974). A History of English Spelling. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Phonology

  • Anderson, John M; & Jones, Charles. (1977). .Phonological structure and the history of English.^ This central structure is the White Tower, and the whole circuit of ramparts and enclosed edifices constitutes what is known in English history, and still more   widely and impressively in English poetry, as the Tower.
    • Our Old Home: a series of English sketches, Nathaniel Hawthorne, 1863, 1883 24 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ English Words: History and Structure .
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    North-Holland linguistics series (No. 33). Amsterdam: North-Holland.
  • Brunner, Karl. (1965). Altenglische Grammatik (nach der angelsächsischen Grammatik von Eduard Sievers neubearbeitet) (3rd ed.). Tübingen: Max Niemeyer.
  • Campbell, A. (1959). .Old English Grammar.^ Bright's Old English Grammar .
    • Anglo-Saxon-msg 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.florilegium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ An Old English Grammar.
    • Anglo-Saxon-msg 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.florilegium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Diamond, Robert E. Old English Grammar and Reader.
    • Anglo-Saxon-msg 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.florilegium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Oxford: Clarendon Press.^ Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1923.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1970.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

  • Girvan, Ritchie. (1931). Angelsaksisch Handboek; E. L. Deuschle (transl.). (Oudgermaansche Handboeken; No. 4). Haarlem: Tjeenk Willink.
  • Halle, Morris; & Keyser, Samuel J. (1971). English Stress: its form, its growth, and its role in verse. New York: Harper & Row.
  • Hockett, Charles F. (1959). ."The stressed syllabics of Old English". Language, 35 (4), 575–597.
  • Hogg, Richard M. (1992).^ Begins with an explanation of Phonetics and Modern English sounds before moving through Old English sounds and dialects, Middle English sounds and dialect and the Language of Chaucer, and finally Modern English inflections.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Examines Old English as part of a larger language group in the Germanic family that also includes Gothic , old Norse, Old Saxon, Old Frisian, Old Low Franconian , and Old High German.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Robinson, Orrin W. Old English and Its Closest Relatives: A Survey of the Earliest Germanic Languages .
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .A Grammar of Old English, I: Phonology.^ Online encyclopedia offers hyperlinks to Middle English history, culture, scribal activity, and a concise grammar and phonology .
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ A standard text in Old English courses for a century, the first half of the text comprises a grammar, and the second half a reader of Old English poetry and prose.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ An Old English Grammar and Exercise Book: With Inflections, Syntax, Selection for Reading, and Glossary .
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
  • Kuhn, Sherman M. (1961).^ Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1980.
    • Language Standards 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC docs.google.com [Source type: Academic]

    ."On the Syllabic Phonemes of Old English". Language, 37 (4), 522–538.
  • Kuhn, Sherman M. (1970).^ Begins with an explanation of Phonetics and Modern English sounds before moving through Old English sounds and dialects, Middle English sounds and dialect and the Language of Chaucer, and finally Modern English inflections.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Examines Old English as part of a larger language group in the Germanic family that also includes Gothic , old Norse, Old Saxon, Old Frisian, Old Low Franconian , and Old High German.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Robinson, Orrin W. Old English and Its Closest Relatives: A Survey of the Earliest Germanic Languages .
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ."On the consonantal phonemes of Old English". In: J. L. Rosier (ed.^ Examines, for instance, synonyms, syllabic and consonantal phonemes, and cursus in Old English texts.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Liuzza, R. M., ed., The Old English Version of the Gospels , 1 (Oxford and New York, 1994): Mary P. Richards, JEGP 98 (1999), 248-50.
    • Old English Bibliography 1999 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.u.arizona.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ) .Philological Essays: studies in Old and Middle English language and literature in honour of Herbert Dean Merritt (pp. 16–49).^ Collected essays on Old English by editor of the Middle English Dictionary.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ English language including the Middle English period.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ A bibliography of Old English word studies.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    The Hague: Mouton.
  • Lass, Roger; & Anderson, John M. (1975). .Old English Phonology.^ Illustrates Middle English distinctions from Old English, Middle English phonology and accidence, .
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Provides linguistic terminology and charts for phonology, consonants and vowels and dipthongs.sound changes, and spelling for each period of the English language including the Old English period.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    (Cambridge studies in linguistics; No. 14). .Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Luick, Karl.^ Reuter, T. (1995) Germany in the high middle ages c.1050-1200 (Cambridge University Press), p.
    • ENGLAND, ANGLO-SAXON KINGS 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC fmg.ac [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    (1914–1940). Historische Grammatik der englischen Sprache. Stuttgart: Bernhard Tauchnitz.
  • Maling, J. (1971). ."Sentence stress in Old English". Linguistic Inquiry, 2, 379–400.
  • McCully, C. B.; & Hogg, Richard M. (1990).^ Discusses trends in Old English scholarship, the divide between philologists and linguists, Kuhns Law, and the future of the field of OE language study.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Old English: A Historical Linguistic Companion .
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Orton, P.R. Verbal Apposition, Coordination and Metrical Stress in Old English.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ."An account of Old English stress". Journal of Linguistics, 26, 315–339.
  • Moulton, W. G. (1972).^ Discusses trends in Old English scholarship, the divide between philologists and linguists, Kuhns Law, and the future of the field of OE language study.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Old English: A Historical Linguistic Companion .
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Orton, P.R. Verbal Apposition, Coordination and Metrical Stress in Old English.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    "The Proto-Germanic non-syllabics (consonants)". In: F. van Coetsem & H. L. Kurfner (Eds.), Toward a Grammar of Proto-Germanic (pp. 141–173). Tübingen: Max Niemeyer.
  • Sievers, Eduard (1893). Altgermanische Metrik. Halle: Max Niemeyer.
  • Wagner, Karl Heinz (1969). .Generative Grammatical Studies in the Old English language.^ A bibliography of Old English word studies.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Begins with an explanation of Phonetics and Modern English sounds before moving through Old English sounds and dialects, Middle English sounds and dialect and the Language of Chaucer, and finally Modern English inflections.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Examines Old English as part of a larger language group in the Germanic family that also includes Gothic , old Norse, Old Saxon, Old Frisian, Old Low Franconian , and Old High German.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    Heidelberg: Julius Groos.

Morphology

  • Brunner, Karl. (1965). Altenglische Grammatik (nach der angelsächsischen Grammatik von Eduard Sievers neubearbeitet) (3rd ed.). Tübingen: Max Niemeyer.
  • Campbell, A. (1959). .Old English grammar.^ Introduction includes brief overview of grammar before moving to a mixture of canonical and non-canonical Old and Middle English texts.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Catherine Ball developed this site for those people interested in learning some basic Old English sans dictionary and grammar book.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Verbix , is a non-profit organization that promotes linguistic diversity, offers a basic overview of Old English grammar including an interactive verb conjugter .
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .Oxford: Clarendon Press.^ Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1923.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1970.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

  • Wagner, Karl Heinz. (1969). .Generative grammatical studies in the Old English language.^ DNA was also obtained from men living in Friesland as it is considered to be one of the a source locations for the Anglo-Saxons and because the Frisian language is considered to be the closest surviving language to Old English [3] .
    • Anglo-Saxons - TvWiki, the free encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.tvwiki.tv [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Introductory Language Work: A Simple, Varied, and Pleasing, but Methodical, Series of Exercises in English to Precede the Study of Technical Grammar .
    • Language Standards 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC docs.google.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ "Rhetorical Strategies in Old English Prose: a Study of Three Dramatic Monologues."
    • Old English Bibliography 1999 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.u.arizona.edu [Source type: Academic]

    Heidelberg: Julius Groos.

Syntax

  • Brunner, Karl. (1962). Die englische Sprache: ihre geschichtliche Entwicklung (Vol. II). .Tübingen: Max Niemeyer.
  • Kemenade, Ans van.^ Kemenade, Ans van.
    • Old English Bibliography 1999 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.u.arizona.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Fischer, Olga, Ans van Kemenade , Willem Koopman , and Wim van der Wurff .
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    (1982). Syntactic Case and Morphological Case in the History of English. Dordrecht: Foris.
  • MacLaughlin, John C. (1983). .Old English Syntax: a handbook.^ Early popular textbook that provides a history, etymology and syntax, several Old English texts both prose and poetry, and a Old English-Modern English/Modern English-Old English glossary.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Examines related changes in morphology and syntax that occurred between Old English and Early Modern English.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Detailed examination of change in syntax in Old and Middle English.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    Tübingen: Max Niemeyer.
  • Mitchell, Bruce. (1985). .Old English Syntax (Vols.^ Detailed examination of change in syntax in Old and Middle English.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Old English Syntax.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Aspects of Old English Poetic Syntax: Where Clauses Begin .
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    1–2). .Oxford: Clarendon Press (no more published)
    • Vol.1: Concord, the parts of speech and the sentence
    • Vol.2: Subordination, independent elements, and element order
  • Mitchell, Bruce.^ Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1983.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1953.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .(1990) A Critical Bibliography of Old English Syntax to the end of 1984, including addenda and corrigenda to "Old English Syntax" .^ A bibliography of Old English word studies.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Detailed examination of change in syntax in Old and Middle English.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Examines related changes in morphology and syntax that occurred between Old English and Early Modern English.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .Oxford: Blackwell
  • Traugott, Elizabeth Closs.^ Traugott , Elizabeth Closs .
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    (1972). .A History of English Syntax: a transformational approach to the history of English sentence structure.^ This central structure is the White Tower, and the whole circuit of ramparts and enclosed edifices constitutes what is known in English history, and still more   widely and impressively in English poetry, as the Tower.
    • Our Old Home: a series of English sketches, Nathaniel Hawthorne, 1863, 1883 24 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Early popular textbook that provides a history, etymology and syntax, several Old English texts both prose and poetry, and a Old English-Modern English/Modern English-Old English glossary.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ English Words: History and Structure .
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
  • Visser, F. Th.^ New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1971.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ London: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1972.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    (1963–1973). .An Historical Syntax of the English Language (Vols.^ Following these historical listings are sections of bibliography on English as a World Language and on specific Englishes such as Australian English or Jamaican English.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ An impressive collection of chapters, by several contributors, that examine English in a socio-historical context as a native, second, minority and administrative language.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Resources For History of the English Language and English Historical Linguistics - http://www.ujaen.es/dep/filing/HEL_Resources/index.html .
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    1–3). Leiden: E. J. Brill.

Lexicons

Bosworth-Toller
  • Bosworth, J.; & Toller, T. Northcote. (1898). .An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary.^ A Concise Anglo-Saxon Dictionary 4 th Edition.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Anglo-Saxon Dictionary .
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .Oxford: Clarendon Press.^ Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1923.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1970.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    (Based on Bosworth's 1838 dictionary, his papers & additions by Toller)
  • Toller, T. Northcote. (1921). .An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary: Supplement.^ He is listed as eighth bretwalda in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle [1475] , supplementing the original list given by Bede.
    • ENGLAND, ANGLO-SAXON KINGS 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC fmg.ac [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ A Concise Anglo-Saxon Dictionary 4 th Edition.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Anglo-Saxon Dictionary .
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .Oxford: Clarendon Press.^ Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1923.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1970.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

  • Campbell, A. (1972). An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary: Enlarged addenda and corrigenda. .Oxford: Clarendon Press.^ Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1923.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1970.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

Clark Hall-Merritt
  • Clark Hall, J. R.; & Merritt, H. D. (1969). .A Concise Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (4th ed.^ Malcolm Godden, and Simon Keynes, ed., Anglo-Saxon England 26 (Cambridge, 1997): Ananya J. Kabir, N&Q 46 (1999), 373-74.
    • Old English Bibliography 1999 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.u.arizona.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ John D. Niles, ed., Anglo-Saxonism and the Construction of Social Identity (Gainesville, FL, 1997): Antonina Harbus, Parergon 16.2 (1999), 218-22.
    • Old English Bibliography 1999 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.u.arizona.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ A Concise Anglo-Saxon Dictionary 4 th Edition.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Toronto
  • Cameron, Angus, et al. (ed.) .(1983) Dictionary of Old English.^ Discusses in detail the compilation of the Old English Dictionary .
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Catherine Ball developed this site for those people interested in learning some basic Old English sans dictionary and grammar book.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Collected essays on Old English by editor of the Middle English Dictionary.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .Toronto: Published for the Dictionary of Old English Project, Centre for Medieval Studies, University of Toronto by the Pontifical Institute of Medieval Studies, 1983/1994. (Issued on microfiche and subsequently as a CD-ROM and on the World Wide Web.^ A bibliography of Old English word studies.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1983.
    • The Dictionary of Old English: Old English 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC slatin2.cwrl.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ It is a wide ranging term, taking in the English-speaking world's language, culture, technology, wealth, influence, markets and economy.
    • Anglo-Saxons - TvWiki, the free encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.tvwiki.tv [Source type: Original source]

    )

External links

.
Old English edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

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Wikipedia has an article on:

Proper noun

Singular
Old English
Plural
-
.
  1. The ancestor language of modern English, also called Anglo-Saxon, spoken in Britain from about 400 AD to 1100 AD. The language is a more inflected language, maintaining strong and weak verbs, nouns, and adjectives.^ A survey of the language and literature of the Anglo-Saxons (c.
    • - Department of English Language and Literature 16 January 2010 10:46 UTC english.cua.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The weak declension for adjectives is similar to that for the nouns.

    ^ Anglo-Saxon language .
    • Anglo-Saxons - TvWiki, the free encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:22 UTC www.tvwiki.tv [Source type: Original source]

    .It has a clearly marked subjunctive mood, and has 5 cases of nouns and adjectives.^ Verdurian is also nominative/accusative, with case marked on the noun and verb agreement with the subject; compare So aknó brisr e .
    • Old Skourene 24 January 2010 1:12 UTC zompist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The inflection is the change of form that words undergo to mark the distinctions for gender, number, tense, case, mood, voice and person.

    ^ But the mood in many kinds of clause varies as it does in noun clauses, and linguists argue ceaselessly about the meaning of the subjunctive and the indicative in several common constructions.
    • E-Intro to Old English - 7. Verbs 11 September 2009 22:13 UTC www.wmich.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .In addition to singular and plural grammatical numbers, there was a dual number for two people.^ Three numbers: singular, plural and dual , which was disappearing.

    ^ There are but two nations in the world--our own country and France--that can put England into this singular state.
    • Our Old Home: a series of English sketches, Nathaniel Hawthorne, 1863, 1883 24 January 2010 1:12 UTC www.ibiblio.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The most important difference is that in 1st and 2nd person besides the singular and plural we have the dual number (two people) .

    After ca. 884, many Old Norse words made their way into Old English, as Norse settlers in the Danelaw interacted with native Anglo-Saxons.

Synonyms

Related terms

Translations

See also

External links


Wikibooks

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection

Introduction: Introduction - Grammar - Orthography
Parts of speech: Nouns - Verbs - Pronouns - Adjectives - Adverbs - Participle - Gerund - Conjunctions - Prepositions
  • Introduction to Old English Development stage: 00% (as of )

History

  • History
  • Culture

Lessons

  • Se Inweorpan ~ The Alphabet, Hellos and Goodbyes, Subject Pronouns, a Short Story Development stage: 00% (as of {{{2}}})

Old English language reference and parts of speech

Old English subjects by group

Vocabulary

Appendices

  • Appendices/Common phrases
  • Appendices/Adjectives
  • Appendices//Strong Verbs
    • Appendices/Strong Verbs/Type 1a
    • Appendices/Strong Verbs/Type 1b
    • Appendices/Strong Verbs/Type 2
    • Appendices/Strong Verbs/Type 3
    • Appendices/Strong Verbs/Type 4
    • Appendices/Strong Verbs/Type 5
    • Appendices/Strong Verbs/Type 6
    • Appendices/Strong Verbs/Type 7
  • Appendices/Irregular Verbs
  • Appendices/Preterite-Present Verbs
  • Appendices/Masculine Nouns
  • Appendices/Feminine Nouns
  • Appendices/Neuter Nouns

Simple English

The Old English language, often called Anglo-Saxon, was spoken in England from 450AD to 1100AD. It is an old form of the German language which was spoken by people who came to England from what is now Germany and Denmark.

Old English is very different from Modern English; it has many more Germanic words, and its grammar is more difficult and closer to German and Latin. Old English slowly turned into Middle English after the Norman invasion of 1066.

Other websites


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 10, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Anglo-Saxons, which are similar to those in the above article.








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