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.An oligarchy (Greek Ὀλιγαρχία, Oligarkhía) (oligocracy) is a form of government in which power effectively rests with a small elite segment of society distinguished by royalty, wealth, family ties, military might, or religious hegemony.^ African History Glossary > Glossary O Definition: A government in which power rests with a small elite.

^ My dictionary says an oligarchy is a form of government where most or all political power effectively rests with a small segment of the society.

^ Now, the definition of an Oligarchy is a form of government where power effectively rests with a small elite segment of society distinguished by royal, wealth, family, military or religious hegemony .

.The word oligarchy is from the Greek words for "few/one" (ὀλίγος olígos) and "rule" (ἀρχή arkhē).^ An aristocratic political system is an oligarchy because only a few people in society - those who are members of the aristocracy - rule.
  • oligarchy 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC atheism.about.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The word oligarchy is from the Greek words for "few" (olgos) and "rule" (arkhe).
  • Oligarchy is a society or social system ruled by a few people. 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.sociologyindex.com [Source type: Original source]
  • IRON LAW OF OLIGARCHY. "Civil Service is a self-perpetuating oligarchy, andwhat better system is there? - The Iron Law of Oligarchy" 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC sociologyindex.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Definition: The term oligarchy means, quite literally, "rule by a few."
  • oligarchy 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC atheism.about.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Such states are often controlled by politically powerful families whose children are heavily conditioned and mentored to be heirs of the power of the oligarchy.^ Oligarchies are often controlled by a few powerful families whose children are raised and mentored to become inheritors of the power of the oligarchy, often at some sort of expense to those governed.
  • What is an Oligarchy? 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.wisegeek.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The oligarchy of leading families ruled and controlled the economy and politics of Argentina.
  • POLITICAL ECONOMIC HISTORY AND REGIONAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN ARGENTINA 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.sjsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Such states were often controlled by powerful families whose children were raised and mentored to be heirs of the power of the oligarchy.

.Oligarchies have been tyrannical throughout history, being completely reliant on public servitude to exist.^ Oligarchies have been tyrannical throughout history, being completely reliant on public servitude to exist.
  • Basics Project | Constitutional Literacy: US Constitution - Types of Government 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.basicsproject.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Oligarchies are tyrannical as they are completely reliant on public servitude to exist.
  • Oligarchy is a society or social system ruled by a few people. 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.sociologyindex.com [Source type: Original source]
  • IRON LAW OF OLIGARCHY. "Civil Service is a self-perpetuating oligarchy, andwhat better system is there? - The Iron Law of Oligarchy" 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC sociologyindex.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Adler clarifies the constant which has prevailed throughout modern history: oligarchy.
  • Swans Commentary: Preface: Bingo! Simplicity Itself; Oligarchy, by Milo Clark - mgc060a 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.swans.com [Source type: Original source]

.Although Aristotle pioneered the use of the term as a synonym for rule by the rich, for which the exact term is plutocracy, oligarchy is not always a rule by wealth, as oligarchs can simply be a privileged group.^ Although Aristotle pioneered the use of the term as a synonym for rule by the rich, for which the exact term is plutocracy, oligarchy is not always a rule by wealth, as oligarchs can simply be a privileged group.
  • Oligarchy 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Basics Project | Constitutional Literacy: US Constitution - Types of Government 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.basicsproject.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Aristotle used the term as a synonym for rule by the rich.
  • Oligarchy is a society or social system ruled by a few people. 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.sociologyindex.com [Source type: Original source]
  • IRON LAW OF OLIGARCHY. "Civil Service is a self-perpetuating oligarchy, andwhat better system is there? - The Iron Law of Oligarchy" 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC sociologyindex.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On Oligarchy Oligarchy, simply defined, is rule by the rich.

.Some city-states from ancient Greece were oligarchies.^ Historically, many city-states of ancient Greece were oligarchies.
  • Oligarchy - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ City-states from Ancient Greece were oligarchies.
  • Oligarchy is a society or social system ruled by a few people. 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.sociologyindex.com [Source type: Original source]
  • IRON LAW OF OLIGARCHY. "Civil Service is a self-perpetuating oligarchy, andwhat better system is there? - The Iron Law of Oligarchy" 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC sociologyindex.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The most common form of government in the Greek city-states was oligarchy , or "rule by a few."

.The combination of the words plutocracy and oligarchy make the word plutarchy.^ In fact, Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary defines oligarchy as "government by the few"; a different word, plutocracy, means "government by the wealthy."
  • Beck's "questions" about Obama spell "OLIGARH" [sic] | Media Matters for America 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC mediamatters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

Examples of oligarchies

.Some examples include Vaishali, the French First Republic government under the Directory, and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (only the nobility could vote).^ Most likely, we are talking about a government that will, first of all, have a transitional character and which, possibly, in some key blocs or parts will be passed on to the future successor.
  • Russia: Siloviki Take The Reins In Post-Oligarchy Era - Radio Free Europe / Radio Liberty © 2010 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.rferl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From 1881, when the first party appeared until 1900 there seems to have been some genuine enthusiasm among the politicians forthe principles of responsible government.
  • Japanese Modern State Formation 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.emayzine.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the first place, the political party, which Professor Douglas represents in Congress has dominated the government in Washington now since 1933, or for some sixteen years.
  • John G. Wright: The Reigning Oligarchy (1949) 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

.A modern example of oligarchy could be seen in South Africa during the twentieth century.^ A modern example of oligarchy could be seen in South Africa during the 20th century.
  • What is an Oligarchy? 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.wisegeek.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Are there any modern examples of an oligarchy in the world today?
  • What is an Oligarchy? 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.wisegeek.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Asim - anon42677 11 Nigeria is a practical example of an Oligarchy in modern society if Nigeria.
  • What is an Oligarchy? 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.wisegeek.com [Source type: Original source]

.Here, the basic characteristics of oligarchy are particularly easy to observe, since the South African form of oligarchy was based on race.^ South African form of oligarchy was based on race where a small percentage ruled the vast native population.
  • IRON LAW OF OLIGARCHY. "Civil Service is a self-perpetuating oligarchy, andwhat better system is there? - The Iron Law of Oligarchy" 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC sociologyindex.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This has created a unique form of capitalism which I call capitalism with South African characteristics.
  • allAfrica.com: South Africa: Concepts of Transformation and The Social Structure 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC allafrica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Series: What is transformation? The white roots of BEE 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.vryeafrikaan.co.za [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Here, the basic characteristics of oligarchy are particularly easy to observe, since the South African form of oligarchy was based on racism.
  • What is an Oligarchy? 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.wisegeek.com [Source type: Original source]

.After the Second Boer War, a tacit agreement or understanding that was reached between English- and Afrikaans-speaking whites.^ After the Boer War, a tacit agreement was reached between English- and Afrikaans -speaking whites.
  • What is an Oligarchy? 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.wisegeek.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Among the urban lower classes, antagonism between the Spanish speakers and the English- and French-speaking blacks inhibited organization in pursuit of common interests.
  • http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?frd/cstdy:@field(DOCID+pa0029) 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC lcweb2.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Wars of the Roses, fought between 1455 and 1485, brought English society to the point of breakdown.
  • Tarpley B1 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.abjpress.com [Source type: Original source]

.Together, they made up about twenty percent of the population, but this small percentage ruled the vast non-white and mixed-race population.^ South African form of oligarchy was based on race where a small percentage ruled the vast native population.
  • IRON LAW OF OLIGARCHY. "Civil Service is a self-perpetuating oligarchy, andwhat better system is there? - The Iron Law of Oligarchy" 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC sociologyindex.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Organised in separate national sections, they are united in a single worldwide organisation acting together on the main political questions, and discussing freely while respecting the rules of democracy.
  • People stand up to the oligarchy and imperialism - Declaration of the Fourth International on the political situation in Honduras 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.internationalviewpoint.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How can genuine democracy be said to exist in a society where all important decisions are made by and for the wealthiest one percent of the population?
  • The Bush cabinet: a government of the financial oligarchy 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.thefourreasons.org [Source type: News]

.Whites had access to virtually all the educational and trade opportunities, and they proceeded to deny this to the black majority even further than before.^ We place these articles at no charge on our website to serve all the people who cannot afford Monthly Review , or who cannot get access to it where they live.
  • Notes From The Editors - September 2009 - Monthly Review 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC monthlyreview.org [Source type: General]

^ Ali Reza Alavitabar has said of Iran’s new generation that "they deny all the previous generations; as if they are the first intelligent generation in recent Iranian history".

^ I saw poor, enthusiastic young people, who now have access to education, not only primary or secondary education, but they also can register for any university course.
  • MST Representative Visits Venezuela, Sees Country in Transformation 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.mstbrazil.org [Source type: Original source]

.Although this process had been going on since the mid-17th- 18th century, after 1948 it became official government policy and became known worldwide as apartheid.^ Although this process had been going on since the mid-18th century, after 1948 it became official government policy and became known worldwide as apartheid .
  • What is an Oligarchy? 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.wisegeek.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We have been aware,” wrote Die Bank , “that this plan was contemplated ever since it became known that the majority of the shares in the bus company had been acquired by the other two transport companies....
  • Lenin: 1916/imp-hsc: III. FINANCE CAPITAL AND THE FINANCIAL OLIGARCHY 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And from 1900 to 1918 political leadership rested in the hands of the oligarchy and parties were peacefully incorporated and parliamentary government became part of the political process.
  • Japanese Modern State Formation 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.emayzine.com [Source type: Original source]

.This lasted until the arrival of democracy in South Africa in 1994, punctuated by the transition to a democratically-elected government dominated by the black majority.^ This lasted until the arrival of democracy in South Africa in 1994, punctuated by the transition to a democratically-elected government dominated by the black majority.
  • What is an Oligarchy? 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.wisegeek.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Nineteenth century liberalism and democracy could clash in two ways: liberalism could undermine the democratic control of society or democracy could become tyrannical and a transition to totalitarian collectivism.
  • Democracy 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC latter-rain.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And this is occurring during a Democratic administration headed by America’s first black president, with a Democratic majority in the House and Senate.
  • Paul Craig Roberts: Americans: Serfs Ruled by Oligarchs 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: General]

.Since the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, privately owned Russia-based multinational corporations, including producers of petroleum, natural gas, and metal have become oligarchs.^ As in Russia where the wealth from privatization migrated to a small cadre of dominantly Ashkenazi oligarchs, a similar oligarch-ization is ongoing in India.
  • Oligarchy : NOVAKEO.COM 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC novakeo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After the war, Congressional investigation revealed that Fritz Thyssen's German Steel Trust, Germany's largest industrial corporation, which interlocked with Union Banking Corporation, produced a high percentage of Germany's national output of metal products and explosives.
  • Rise of the Fourth Reich: Bush Family Oligarchy 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC watch-unto-prayer.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Bush Family - Rise Of The Fourth Reich 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.rense.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And loathe as I am to say it, the Union Movement as a whole in this country has become exactly the same sort of organization it fought so hard against in the 30s -- and it is collapsing of its own misdirected weight.
  • The oligarchy of bailouts, and why we all lose - BloggingStocks 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.bloggingstocks.com [Source type: News]

.Privatization allowed executives to amass phenomenal wealth and power almost overnight.^ We are a government of leaders, not of laws, for this is a dangerous world and demands of us---do we not have a "living Constitution"?-a measure of tyranny, a measure of lawlessness, a measure, and more, of private, secret executive power.
  • Oligarchy Restored excerpted from the book Liberty Under Siege by Walter Karp 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.thirdworldtraveler.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The moderating power gave the Emperor, who also served as the executive, great power because it allowed him to override decisions of the other three branches.
  • Historical Text Archive: Electronic History Resources, online since 1990 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC historicaltextarchive.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Does the apparent association of wealth with power allow us to use the term plutocracy ?
  • ORB - Men Behind the Masque - Introduction 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.the-orb.net [Source type: Original source]

.In May 2004, the Russian edition of Forbes identified 36 of these oligarchs as being worth at least $1 billion.^ Some of these deals may have been reasonable responses to the immediate situation but it was never clear (and still isnt) what combination of interests was being served, and how.
  • America�s Financial Oligarchy Is Still in Control 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC news.goldseek.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But the market is not being cleared of its debt encumbrances, although the government may take many of these over.
  • The Bailout�s New Financial Oligarchy - part2 - Michael Hudson - financial economist and historian 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.michael-hudson.com [Source type: Original source]

[1]
.Even today, the Australian government are creating laws that resemble an oligarchy more than a democracy.^ According to the German Sociologist, Robert Michels, the few will always govern the many ("Iron Law of Oligarchy").
  • Do we live in an oligarchy or democracy? - Yahoo! Answers 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ The result is that democracy is "managed" by the ruling elite and the population has only slightly more influence than it did in the days of the Soviet Union.
  • The Descent Into Oligarchy - December 8, 2004 - The New York Sun 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.nysun.com [Source type: News]

^ The argument for generalizing is that if even an organization dedicated to the establishment of democracy cannot help becoming itself an oligarchy, a fortiori other organizations will go the same way.

See: Internet Filter

Modern democracy as oligarchy

.Robert Michels believed that any political system eventually evolves into an oligarchy.^ Writers, such as Zulma Riley, Keith Riley, Mathew Marquess, and Robert Michels, believe that any political system eventually evolves into an oligarchy.
  • IRON LAW OF OLIGARCHY. "Civil Service is a self-perpetuating oligarchy, andwhat better system is there? - The Iron Law of Oligarchy" 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC sociologyindex.com [Source type: Original source]

^ According to the German Sociologist, Robert Michels, the few will always govern the many ("Iron Law of Oligarchy").
  • Do we live in an oligarchy or democracy? - Yahoo! Answers 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ But it cannot evolve into a common 'polity' because of dramatically different value systems adhered to by its major constituents.
  • American Democracy v. European Oligarchy | The Brussels Journal 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.brusselsjournal.com [Source type: Original source]

.He called this the "iron law of oligarchy". According to this school of thought, modern democracies should be considered as oligarchies.^ This theory is called the "iron law of oligarchy".
  • IRON LAW OF OLIGARCHY. "Civil Service is a self-perpetuating oligarchy, andwhat better system is there? - The Iron Law of Oligarchy" 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC sociologyindex.com [Source type: Original source]

^ You should especially look at the “Modern Democracy as Oligarchy” section.
  • » Olbermann Nails Glenn Beck for Misspelling O.L.I.G.A.R.C.H. » Pensito Review 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.pensitoreview.com [Source type: General]

^ Has it broken the Iron Law of oligarchy?
  • Free Software v The Iron Law of Oligarchy | Libervis.com 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.libervis.com [Source type: Original source]

.In these systems, actual differences between viable political rivals are small, the oligarchic elite impose strict limits on what constitutes an 'acceptable' and 'respectable' political position, and politicians' careers depend heavily on unelected economic and media elites.^ They resulted from a political pact between economic oligarchs, political party elites and the military.
  • The James Petras website 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC petras.lahaine.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The difference between these two is essential in understanding Americanism and the American System.
  • Definations of the Political Spectrum / The American Form of Government | Welcome to TheRoarks.org 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.theroarks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In these systems, actual differences between viable political rivals are small, the oligarchic elite impose strict limits on what constitutes an 'acceptable' and 'respectable' political position, and politicians' careers depend heavily on unelected economic and media elites.
  • IRON LAW OF OLIGARCHY. "Civil Service is a self-perpetuating oligarchy, andwhat better system is there? - The Iron Law of Oligarchy" 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC sociologyindex.com [Source type: Original source]

.Thus the popular phrase: there is only one political party, the 'incumbent' party.^ So there is only one solution.
  • | Illuminati News | A Government for the People 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.illuminati-news.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Legalized Bribery.Com is not affiliated with any political party and this website is not biased towards one political party in preference over another.

^ It is controlled by the political parties and by board members who cannot even begin to arbitrate the next presidential succession, which will be a very complicated one.
  • Mexico - IFE - Worldpress.org 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.worldpress.org [Source type: News]

Corporate Oligarchy (Corporatocracy)

.Corporate oligarchy is a form of power, governmental or operational, where such power effectively rests with a small, elite group of inside individuals or influential economic entities or devices, such as banks, commercial entities that act in complicity with, or at the whim of the oligarchy, often with little or no regard for constitutionally protected prerogative.^ Usually a small group of wealthy individuals.
  • Definitions of Anthropological Terms 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC oregonstate.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Oligarchy is a form of government where most political power effectively rests with a small segment of society (typically the most powerful, whether by wealth, military strength, ruthlessness, or political influence).
  • Will America Become A Democratic Republic With A Duly Elected Oligarchy? 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC ezinearticles.com [Source type: Original source]

^ My dictionary says an oligarchy is a form of government where most or all political power effectively rests with a small segment of the society.

Athenian techniques to prevent the rise of oligarchy

.Especially during the Fourth Century BCE, after the restoration of democracy from oligarchical coups, the Athenians used the drawing of lots for selecting government officers in order to counteract what the Athenians acutely saw as a tendency toward oligarchy in government if a professional governing class were allowed to use their skills for their own benefit.^ Although Aristotle pioneered the use of the term as a synonym for rule by the rich, for which the exact term is plutocracy, oligarchy is not always a rule by wealth, as oligarchs can simply be a privileged group.
  • Basics Project | Constitutional Literacy: US Constitution - Types of Government 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.basicsproject.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Quote: The "iron law of oligarchy" states that all forms of organization, regardless of how democratic or autocratic they may be at the start, will eventually and inevitably develop oligarchic tendencies, thus making true democracy practically and theoretically impossible, especially in large groups and complex organizations.
  • Free Software v The Iron Law of Oligarchy | Libervis.com 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.libervis.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Since the military restored formal democracy there in 1983, the country has been ruled by two political parties sustained by ties to the national oligarchy.
  • Support the General Strike in Honduras! 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.socialistaction.org [Source type: Original source]

[2] .They drew lots from large groups of adult volunteers as a selection technique for civil servants performing judicial, executive, and administrative functions (archai, boulē, and hēliastai).^ There are, however, other persons of atechnical and administrative character which render impossible thedirect self-government of large groups.
  • Robert Michels - Oligarchy 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC media.pfeiffer.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In the Constitution, specific powers are delegated to three distinct branches of government: The legislative (Congress), the administrative or executive (Presidency), and the judicial (Courts and Jurors).
  • Corrupt Government 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC allrelative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They have also two different ways of electing their magistrates; for some are chosen by vote, others by lot; by the last, that the people at large may have some share in the administration; by the former, that the state may be well governed: the same may be accomplished if of the same magistrates you choose some by vote, others by lot.
  • Politics (Aristotle)/Book 6 - Wikisource 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

[3] .They even used lots for very important posts, such as judges and jurors in the political courts (nomothetai), which had the power to overrule the Assembly.^ So they used their lobbying power to block them.
  • Is humanity's future a near guaranteed dystopian oligarchy? [ed. title] - Straight Dope Message Board 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC boards.straightdope.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They fear losing important parts of their economic and political power.
  • Bolivia: Renewed offensive of the oligarchy – time to strike back! 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.marxist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since the Crown was dominant in the political system, the person who was the monarch was very important.
  • Historical Text Archive: Electronic History Resources, online since 1990 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC historicaltextarchive.com [Source type: Original source]

[4] .It is often mistaken that a tyranny and an oligarchy are the same, but they are very different.^ And does not tyranny spring from democracy in the same manner as democracy from oligarchy --I mean, after a sort?
  • Plato - Dialogues - The Republic - Book 8 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.classicallibrary.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Often an oligarchy changes into a tyranny, like most of the ancient oligarchies in Sicily; for example, the oligarchy at Leontini changed into the tyranny of Panaetius; that at Gela into the tyranny of Cleander; that at Rhegium into the tyranny of Anaxilaus; the same thing has happened in many other states.
  • Aristotle: Politics: Book 5 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.constitution.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And yet small states at times require the same offices and laws as large ones; the difference is that the one want them often, the others only after long intervals.
  • The Internet Classics Archive | Politics by Aristotle 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

See also

Government terms:
Relevant authors:

References

  1. ^ http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/60263/marshall-i-goldman/putin-and-the-oligarchs, Putin and the Oligarchs, Foreign Affairs. November/December 2004
  2. ^ M.H. Hansen, The Athenian Democracy in the Age of Demosthenes 97, 308, et al. (Oxford, 1991)
  3. ^ Bernard Manin, Principles of Representative Government 11-24 (1997).
  4. ^ Bernard Manin, Principles of Representative Government 19-23 (1997).
  • Ostwald, M. Oligarchia: The Development of a Constitutional Form in Ancient Greece (Historia Einzelschirften; 144). Stuttgart: Steiner, 2000 (ISBN 3-515-07680-8).

External links


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

OLIGARCHY (Gr. .6Myot, few, apyi, rule), in political philosophy, the term applied to a government exercised by a relatively small number of the members of a community.^ A member of a small governing faction.
  • Oligarch | Definition of Oligarch at Dictionary.com: 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It means a government by a small number of people.
  • "The financial system is playing us for chumps" Bill Moyers is told | ePluribus Media 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC discuss.epluribusmedia.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Oligarchy is a form of government where most political power effectively rests with a small segment of society (typically the most powerful, whether by wealth, military strength, ruthlessness, or political influence).
  • What is an Oligarchy? 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.wisegeek.com [Source type: Original source]

.It is thus the appropriate term for what is now generally known as "aristocracy" (q.v.^ He now succeeds in demonstrating that ecology is first of all a social issue, and criticizes - but in terms that remain very general - "capitalism."
  • t r u t h o u t | The Oligarchy and the Titanic Syndrome 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.truthout.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Such a form of government differs from each of the two just now mentioned, and is termed an aristocracy.
  • The Internet Classics Archive | Politics by Aristotle 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC classics.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Generally polity is a mixture of democracy and oligarchy (Barker, 1952: 174) but in common usage the term is reserved for mixtures that incline more towards democracy and the mixtures that incline more towards oligarchy are called aristocracies.
  • Aristotle�s System in Contemporary Times 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.mindrelief.net [Source type: Original source]

). .The meaning of the terms has substantially altered since Plato's day, for in the Republic " oligarchy" meant the rule of the wealthy, and "aristocracy" that of the really best people.^ Definition: The term oligarchy means, quite literally, "rule by a few."
  • oligarchy 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC atheism.about.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The meaning of the terms has substantially altered since Plato's day, for in the Republic " oligarchy" meant the rule of the wealthy, and "aristocracy" that of the really best people.

^ Oligarchy: (rule of the few) Power was held by a minority of wealthy people.
  • Types of Government 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.innvista.com [Source type: Original source]



Simple English

Oligarchy is a form of government. In an oligarchic system, all the power is held by a small group of people. It is usually to the most powerful people to govern the state. It was firstly used by Sparta.

Rule by the best

An oligarchy where the best rule is called Aristocracy.

Rule by the rich

If the richest people rule the country, this is called Plutocracy.

Other websites


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 28, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Oligarchy, which are similar to those in the above article.








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