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Oligomenorrhea
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 N91.5
ICD-9 626.1
DiseasesDB 14843

Oligomenorrhea is the medical term for infrequent uterine bleeding episodes with intervals of more than 35 days. The duration of such events may vary.[1]

Oligomenorrhea can also be a result of prolactinomas (adenomas of the anterior pituitary). It may also be caused by thyrotoxicosis, hormonal changes in perimenopause, and Graves disease. "Endurance exercises such as running or swimming can affect the reproductive physiology of women athletes. Female runners[2][3], swimmers[4] and ballet dancers[5] menstruate infrequently in comparison to nonatheletic women of comparable age[6] or not at all (amenorrhea). The degree of menstrual abnormality is directly proportional to the intensity of the exercise. For example, Malina et al., (1978)[7] have shown menstrual irregularity is more common, and more severe among tennis players than among golfers" (modified by a student paper written by A. Lord)[8] Breastfeeding has also been linked to irregularity of menstrual cycles due to hormones which delay ovulation.

Eating disorders can also result in oligomenorrhea. Although menstrual disorders are most strongly associated with Anorexia nervosa, Bulimia nervosa may also result in oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea. There is some controversy regarding the exact mechanism for the menstrual dysregulation, since amenorrhea may sometimes precede substantial weight loss in some anorexics; thus some researchers hypothesize that some as-yet unrecognized neuroendocrine phenomenon may be involved, and the menstrual irregularities may be related to the biological undergirding of the disorders, rather than a result of nutritional deficiencies.

References

  1. ^ Berek JS, Adashi EY, Hillard PA. Novak's Gynecology, 12 th Ed.. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore (1996), ISBN 0-683-00593-6.  
  2. ^ Dale E, Gerlach DH, Wilhite AL (1979). "Menstrual dysfunction in distance runners". Obstet Gynecol 54 (1): 47–53. PMID 313033.  
  3. ^ Wakat DK, Sweeney KA, Rogol AD (1982). "Reproductive system function in women cross-country runners". Med Sci Sports Exerc 14 (4): 263–9. PMID 7132642.  
  4. ^ Frisch RE, Gotz-Welbergen AV, McArthur JW, et al. (1981). "Delayed menarche and amenorrhea of college athletes in relation to age of onset of training". JAMA 246 (14): 1559–63. doi:10.1001/jama.246.14.1559. PMID 7277629.  
  5. ^ Warren MP (1980). "The effects of exercise on pubertal progression and reproductive function in girls". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 51 (5): 1150–7. PMID 6775000.  
  6. ^ http://www.duofertility.com/en/my-fertility/medical-info/causes-of-infertility/female-infertility/ovulatory-dysfunction/egg-production/oligomenorrhea.
  7. ^ Malina RM, Spirduso WW, Tate C, Baylor AM (1978). "Age at menarche and selected menstrual characteristics in athletes at different competitive levels and in different sports". Med Sci Sports 10 (3): 218–22. PMID 723515.  
  8. ^ Pechenik, J (2007). A Short Guide To Writing About Biology. Harrisonburg: Pearson Education, Inc..

See also

External links


Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiversity

Oligomenorrhoea is defined as infrequent menstruation characterized by a cycle length between 6 weeks and 6 months.

Differential Diagnosis

Ovarian disorders

  • Resistant Ovary Syndrome
  • Premature Ovarian Failure
  • Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome
  • Turner's Syndrome

Cervical disorders

  • Cervical stenosis

Hypothalamic disorders

  • Kallmann's Syndrome

Pituitary disorders

  • Prolactin Secreting Adenomas
  • Craniopharyngiomas
  • Disorders of thyroid function

Diagnosis

The diagnosis of oligomenorrhoea is made using the following clinical skills:

References

O'Connor, J. Pathology 2nd ed. Mosby. Edinburgh. 2002.

McCarthy, A & Hunter, B (2003) Master Medicine: Obstetrics and Gynaecology (2nd ed.) Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunder

www.gpnotebook.co.uk








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