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Oliguria
ICD-10 R34.
ICD-9 788.5
MeSH D009846

Oliguria is the decreased production of urine.[1] The decreased production of urine may be a sign of dehydration, renal failure, hypovolemic shock or urinary obstruction/urinary retention.

It can be contrasted with anuria, which represents a more complete suppression of urination.

Contents

Definition

Oliguria is defined as a urine output that is less than 1 mL/kg/h in infants, less than 0.5 mL/kg/h in children, and less than 400 mL/day (equals 17mL/hour) in adults.[2]

Olig- (or oligo-) is a Greek prefix meaning small or few.[3]

Anuria is defined as less than 50mL urine output per day.

Testing

Perform ultrasound examination of the kidney to rule out obstructive processes.

Pathophysiology

The pathophysiologic mechanisms causing oliguria can be categorized globally in three different categories:

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Postoperative oliguria

Patients usually have decrease in urine output after a major operation that may be a normal physiological response to:

  • fluid/ blood loss – decreased glomerular filtration rate secondary to hypovolemia and/or hypotension
  • response of adrenal cortex to stress -increase in aldosterone (Na and water retention) and antidiuretic hormone (ADH) release

Oliguria in infants

Oliguria, when defined as less than 1 mL/kg/h, in infants is not considered to be a reliable sign of renal failure.[4]

References

  1. ^ oliguria at Dorland's Medical Dictionary
  2. ^ Klahr S, Miller S (1998). "Acute oliguria". N Engl J Med 338 (10): 671–5. doi:10.1056/NEJM199803053381007. PMID 9486997.   Free Full Text.
  3. ^ http://biology.about.com/od/prefixesandsuffixeso/g/blo3.htm
  4. ^ Arant B (1987). "Postnatal development of renal function during the first year of life". Pediatr Nephrol 1 (3): 308–13. doi:10.1007/BF00849229. PMID 3153294.  

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