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Olive oil
Olive oil

A bottle of olive oil


Fat composition
Saturated fats Palmitic acid: 7.5–20.0%
Stearic acid: 0.5–5.0%
Arachidic acid: <0.8%
Behenic acid: <0.3%
Myristic acid: <0.1%
Lignoceric acid: <1.0%
Unsaturated fats yes
    Monounsaturated fats Oleic acid: 55.0–83.0%
Palmitoleic acid: 0.3–3.5%
    Polyunsaturated fats Linoleic acid: 3.5–21.0 %
Linolenic acid: <1.5%

Properties
Food energy per 100g 3,700 kJ (880 kcal)
Melting point −6 °C (21 °F)
Boiling point 300 °C (572 °F)
Smoke point 190 °C (374 °F) (virgin)
210 °C (410 °F) (refined)
Specific gravity at 20 °C 0.9150–0.9180 (@ 15.5 °C)
Viscosity at 20 °C 84 cP
Refractive index 1.4677–1.4705 (virgin and refined)
1.4680–1.4707 (pomace)
Iodine value 75–94 (virgin and refined)
75–92 (pomace)
Acid value maximum: 6.6 (refined and pomace)
0.6 (extra-virgin)
Saponification value 184–196 (virgin and refined)
182–193 (pomace)
Peroxide value 20 (virgin)
10 (refined and pomace)

Olive oil is an oil obtained from the olive (Olea europaea; family Oleaceae), a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin. It is commonly used in cooking, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and soaps and as a fuel for traditional oil lamps. Olive oil is used throughout the world, but especially in the Mediterranean.

Contents

Producers

Over 750 million olive trees are cultivated worldwide, 95% of which are in the Mediterranean region. Most of global production comes from Southern Europe, North Africa and the Near East.

World olive oil production in 2006-2007 was 2.767 million tonnes,[1] of which Spain contributed 40% to 45%. Of the European production, 93% comes from Spain, Italy, Portugal and Greece.

Greece devotes 60% of its cultivated land to olive growing. It is the world's top producer of black olives and has more varieties of olives than any other country. Greece holds third place in world olive production with more than 132 million trees, which produce approximately 350,000 tons of olive oil annually, of which 82% is extra-virgin[2] (see below for an explanation of terms). About half of the annual Greek olive oil production is exported, but only some 5% of this reflects the origin of the bottled product[citation needed]. Greece exports mainly to European Union (EU) countries, principally Italy, which receives about three-quarters of total exports. Olives are grown for oil in Greece, with Peloponnese being the source of 65% of Greek production, as well as in Crete, the Aegean Islands and Ionian Islands. The most prized Greek olive variety for oil production is the Korōnéiki, originating from the area of Korōnē in Messenia. This variety grows well on mountain slopes and produces very small fruit; the high ratio of skin to flesh giving the oil its coveted aromatic qualities. The variety is also suited to the production of agourélaio, oil from olives that are slightly unripe. When crushed in presses that are not capable of grinding the stone, this oil is entirely free of acidity and possesses top-tier organoleptic characteristics. Because not crushing the stones reduces oil yield, production of agourélaio is limited to "boutique" presses run by entrepreneurs and small cooperatives.

Among the many different olive varieties or cultivars in Italy are Frantoio, Leccino Pendolino, and Moraiolo; in Spain the most important varieties are the Picual, Alberquina, Hojiblanca, and Manzanilla de Jaén; in Greece, Koroneiki; in France, Picholine; in California, Mission; in Portugal, Galega; in Croatia, Oblica and Leccino. The oil from the varieties varies in flavour and stability (shelf life).

Australia now produces much olive oil. Many Australian producers only make premium oils, whilst a number of corporate growers operate groves of a million trees or more and produce oils for the general market. Australian olive oil is exported to Asia and Europe.

In North America, Italian and Spanish olive oils are the best-known, and top-quality extra-virgin oils from Italy, Spain, and Greece are sold at high prices, often in "prestige" packaging. A large part of U.S. olive oil imports come from Italy, Spain, and Turkey. The U.S. imported 47,800,000 US gallons (181,000 m3) of olive oil in 1998, of which 34,600,000 US gallons (131,000 m3) came from Italy.[3]

The Republic of South Africa also produces extra virgin olive oil, with production increasing to meet demand.[4]

Regulation and adulteration

International Olive Oil Council building

The International Olive Oil Council (IOOC) is an intergovernmental organization based in Madrid, Spain, with 23 member states.[5] It promotes olive oil around the world by tracking production, defining quality standards, and monitoring authenticity. More than 85% of the world's olives are grown in IOOC member nations. The United States is not a member of the IOOC, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture does not legally recognize its classifications (such as extra-virgin olive oil). The USDA uses a different system, which it defined in 1948 before the IOOC existed. The California Olive Oil Council, a private trade group, is petitioning the USDA to adopt IOOC rules.[6]

The IOOC officially governs 95% of international production and holds great influence over the rest. IOOC terminology is precise, but it can lead to confusion between the words that describe production and the words used on retail labels. Olive oil is classified by how it was produced, by its chemistry, and by its flavor. All production begins by transforming the olive fruit into olive paste. This paste is then malaxed to allow the microscopic oil droplets to concentrate. The oil is extracted by means of pressure (traditional method) or centrifugation (modern method). After extraction the remnant solid substance, called pomace, still contains a small quantity of oil.

The EU regulates the use of different protected designation of origin labels for olive oils.

U.S. Customs regulations on "country of origin" state that if a non-origin nation is shown on the label, then the real origin must be shown on the same side of the label and in comparable size letters so as not to mislead the consumer.[7][8] Yet most major U.S. brands continue to put “imported from Italy” on the front label in large letters and other origins on the back in very small print.[9] These products are a mixture of olive oil from more than one nation and it is not clear what percentage of the olive oil is really of Italian origin. This practice makes it difficult for high quality, lower cost producers outside of Italy to enter the U.S. market, and for genuine Italian producers to compete.

An article by Tom Mueller in the August 13, 2007 issue of the The New Yorker alleges that regulation, particularly in Italy, is extremely lax and corrupt. Mueller states that major Italian shippers routinely adulterate olive oil and that only about 40% of olive oil sold as "extra virgin" actually meets the specification.[10] In some cases, colza oil with added color and flavor has been labeled and sold as olive oil.[11] This extensive fraud prompted the Italian government to mandate a new labeling law in 2007 for companies selling olive oil, under which every bottle of Italian olive oil would have to declare the farm and press on which it was produced, as well as display a precise breakdown of the oils used, for blended oils.[12] In February 2008, however, EU officials took issue with the new law, stating that under EU rules such labeling should be voluntary rather than compulsory.[13] Under EU rules, olive oil may be sold as Italian even if it only contains a small amount of Italian oil.[12]

In March 2008, 400 Italian police officers conducted "Operation Golden Oil," arresting 23 people and confiscating 85 farms after an investigation revealed a large-scale scheme to relabel oils from other Mediterranean nations as Italian.[14] In April 2008, another operation impounded seven olive oil plants and arrested 40 people in nine provinces of northern and southern Italy for adding chlorophyll to sunflower and soybean oil and selling it as extra virgin olive oil, both in Italy and abroad. 25,000 liters of the fake oil were seized and prevented from being exported.[15]

Adulterated oil is usually no more serious than passing off inferior, but safe, product as superior olive oil, but there are no guarantees. Almost 700 people died, it is believed, as a consequence of consuming rapeseed (canola) oil adulterated with aniline intended for use as an industrial lubricant, but sold in 1981 as olive oil in Spain (see toxic oil syndrome).[16]

Commercial grades

The grades of oil extracted from the olive fruit can be classified as:

  • Virgin means the oil was produced by the use of physical means and no chemical treatment. The term virgin oil referring to production is different from Virgin Oil on a retail label (see next section).
  • Refined means that the oil has been chemically treated to neutralize strong tastes (characterized as defects) and neutralize the acid content (free fatty acids). Refined oil is commonly regarded as lower quality than virgin oil; the retail labels extra-virgin olive oil and virgin olive oil cannot contain any refined oil.
  • Pomace olive oil means oil extracted from the pomace using chemical solvents, mostly hexane, and by heat.

Quantitative analysis can determine the oil's acidity, defined as the percent, measured by weight, of free oleic acid it contains. This is a measure of the oil's chemical degradation; as the oil degrades, more fatty acids are freed from the glycerides, increasing the level of free acidity and thereby increasing rancidity. Another measure of the oil's chemical degradation is the organic peroxide level, which measures the degree to which the oil is oxidized, another cause of rancidity.

In order to classify it by taste, olive oil is subjectively judged by a panel of professional tasters in a blind taste test. This is also called its organoleptic quality.

Retail grades in IOOC member nations

Italian label for "extra vergine" oil

In countries that adhere to the standards of the IOOC[17] the labels in stores show an oil's grade.

  • Extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) comes from virgin oil production only, contains no more than 0.8% acidity, and is judged to have a superior taste. Extra Virgin olive oil accounts for less than 10% of oil in many producing countries. It is used on salads, added at the table to soups and stews and for dipping.
  • Virgin olive oil comes from virgin oil production only, has an acidity less than 2%, and is judged to have a good taste.
  • Pure olive oil. Oils labeled as Pure olive oil or Olive oil are usually a blend of refined and virgin production oil.
  • Olive oil is a blend of virgin and refined production oil, of no more than 1.5% acidity. It commonly lacks a strong flavor.
  • Olive-pomace oil is refined pomace olive production oil possibly blended with some virgin production oil. It is fit for consumption, but may not be described simply as olive oil. Olive-pomace oil is rarely sold at retail; it is often used for certain kinds of cooking in restaurants.
  • Lampante oil is olive oil not suitable as food; lampante comes from olive oil's long-standing use in oil-burning lamps. Lampante oil is mostly used in the industrial market.
  • Refined olive oil is the olive oil obtained from virgin olive oils by refining methods that do not lead to alterations in the initial glyceridic structure. It has a free acidity, expressed as oleic acid, of not more than 0.3 grams per 100 grams (0.3%) and its other characteristics correspond to those fixed for this category in this standard. This is obtained by refining virgin olive oils with a high acidity level and/or organoleptic defects that are eliminated after refining. Over 50% of the oil produced in the Mediterranean area is of such poor quality that it must be refined to produce an edible product. Note that no solvents have been used to extract the oil but it has been refined with the use of charcoal and other chemical and physical filters. An obsolete equivalent is "pure olive oil".

Retail grades in the United States from the USDA

As the United States is not a member, the IOOC retail grades have no legal meaning in that country; terms such as "extra virgin" may be used without legal restrictions.

The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) currently lists four grades of olive oil. These grades were established in 1948, and are based on acidity, absence of defects, odor and flavor:[18]

  • U.S. Grade A or U.S. Fancy possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 1.4% and is "free from defects";
  • U.S. Grade B or U.S. Choice possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 2.5% and is "reasonably free from defects";
  • U.S. Grade C or U.S. Standard possesses a free fatty acid content of not more than 3.0% and is "fairly free from defects";
  • U.S. Grade D or U.S. Substandard possesses a free fatty acid content greater than 3.0% and "fails to meet the requirements of U.S. Grade C".

These grades are entirely voluntary and are available from the USDA on a fee-for-service basis.[18]

Label wording

Olive oil vendors choose the wording on their labels very carefully.

  • "100% Pure Olive Oil" is often the lowest quality available in a retail store: better grades would have "virgin" on the label.[citation needed]
  • "Made from refined olive oils" means that the taste and acidity were chemically controlled.[citation needed]
  • "From hand-picked olives" implies that the oil is of better quality, since producers harvesting olives by mechanical methods are inclined to leave olives to over-ripen in order to increase yield.[citation needed]
  • "First cold press" is generally a purely commercial wording with no factual meaning. It suggests that the oil in bottles with this label is the "first oil that came from the first press" of the olives and that no heat is used. This is incorrect.
    "Cold" is ambiguous, however a certain exception is made for the European regulation requiring processing temperature be below 27 °C in order to be named "cold pressed".[citation needed]. In Calabria (Italy) the olives are collected in October. In regions like Tuscany or Liguria, the olives collected in November and ground often at night are too cold to be processed efficiently without heating. The paste is regularly heated above the environmental temperatures, which may be as low as 10-15 °C, in order to extract the oil efficiently with only physical means. Olives pressed in warm regions like Southern Italy or Northern Africa may be pressed at significantly higher temperatures although not heated. While it is important that the pressing temperatures be as low as possible (generally below 35 °C) there is no international reliable definition of "cold pressed".
    Furthermore there is no "second" press of virgin oil, so the term "first press" means only that the oil was produced in a press vs. other possible methods.
  • The label may indicate that the oil was bottled or packed in a stated country. This does not necessarily mean that the oil was produced there. The origin of the oil may sometimes be marked elsewhere on the label; it may be a mixture of oils from more than one country.[9]

Global consumption

Greece has by far the largest per capita consumption of olive oil worldwide, over 26 liters per year; Spain and Italy, around 14 l; Tunisia, Portugal and Lebanon, around 8 l. Northern Europe and North America consume far less, around 0.7 l, but the consumption of olive oil outside its home territory has been rising steadily.

Global market

The main producing and consuming countries are:

Country Production (2005)[19] Consumption (2005)[19] Annual per capita consumption (kg)[20]
Spain 32% 20% 13.62
Italy 22% 30% 12.35
Greece 16% 9% 23.7
Tunisia 7% 2% 11.1
Turkey 5% 2% 1.2
Syria 4% 3% 7
Morocco 3% 2% 1.8
Portugal 1% 2% 7.1
United States 0% 8% 0.56
France 0% 4% 1.34
Others 10% 18% 1.18

Extraction

A cold press olive oil machine in Israel.

Olive oil is produced by grinding olives and extracting the oil by mechanical or chemical means. Green olives produce bitter oil, and overripe olives produce rancid oil, so for good extra virgin olive oil care is taken to make sure the olives are perfectly ripened. The process is generally as follows:

  1. The olives are ground into paste using large millstones (traditional method) or steel drums (modern method).
  2. If ground with mill stones, the olive paste generally stays under the stones for 30 to 40 minutes. A shorter grinding process may result in a more raw paste that produces less oil and has a less ripe taste, a longer process may increase oxidation of the paste and reduce the flavor. After grinding, the olive paste is spread on fiber disks, which are stacked on top of each other in a column, then placed into the press. Pressure is then applied onto the column to separate the vegetal liquid from the paste. This liquid still contains a significant amount of water. Traditionally the oil was shed from the water by gravity (oil is less dense than water). This very slow separation process has been replaced by centrifugation, which is much faster and more accurate. The centrifuges have one exit for the (heavier) watery part and one for the oil. Olive oil should not contain significant traces of vegetal water as this accelerates the process of organic degeneration by microorganisms. The separation in smaller oil mills is not always perfect, thus sometimes a small watery deposit containing organic particles can be found at the bottom of oil bottles.
  3. In modern steel drum mills the grinding process takes about 20 minutes. After grinding, the paste is stirred slowly for another 20 to 30 minutes in a particular container (malaxation), where the microscopic oil drops unite into bigger drops, which facilitates the mechanical extraction. The paste is then pressed by centrifugation/ the water is thereafter separated from the oil in a second centrifugation as described before.
    The oil produced by only physical (mechanical) means as described is called virgin oil. Extra virgin olive oil is virgin olive oil that satisfies specific high chemical and organoleptic criteria (low free acidity, no or very little organoleptic defects).
  4. Sometimes the produced oil will be filtered to eliminate remaining solid particles that may reduce the shelf life of the product. Labels may indicate the fact that the oil has not been filtered, suggesting a different taste. Unfiltered fresh olive oil that has a slightly cloudy appearance is called cloudy olive oil. This form of olive that was popular only amongst olive oil small scale producers is now becoming "trendy", in line with consumer's demand for more ecological and less-processed "green" products.

The remaining paste (pomace) still contains a small quantity (about 2-6%) of oil that cannot be extracted by further pressing, but only with chemical solvents. This is done in specialised chemical plants, not in the oil mills. The resulting oil is not "virgin" but "pomace oil". The term "first press", sometimes found on bottle labels, is technically meaningless, as there is no "second" press.

Constituents

Olive oil is composed mainly of the mixed triglyceride esters of oleic acid and palmitic acid and of other fatty acids, along with traces of squalene (up to 0.7%) and sterols (about 0.2% phytosterol and tocosterols). The composition varies by cultivar, region, altitude, time of harvest, and extraction process.

Olive oil contains a group of related natural products with potent antioxidant properties that give extra-virgin unprocessed olive oil its bitter and pungent taste and are esters of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol, including oleocanthal and oleuropein.[21]

Nutrition and health effects

Olive oil
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 3,701 kJ (885 kcal)
Carbohydrates 0 g
Fat 100 g
saturated 14 g
monounsaturated 73 g
polyunsaturated 11 g
omega-3 fat <1.5 g
omega-6 fat 3.5-21 g
Protein 0 g
Vitamin E 14 mg (93%)
Vitamin K 62 μg (59%)
100 g olive oil is 109 ml
Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.

Evidence from epidemiological studies suggests that a higher proportion of monounsaturated fats in the diet is linked with a reduction in the risk of coronary heart disease.[22] This is significant because olive oil is considerably rich in monounsaturated fats, most notably oleic acid.

In the United States, producers of olive oil may place the following health claim on product labels:

Limited and not conclusive scientific evidence suggests that eating about 2 tbsp. (23 g) of olive oil daily may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease due to the monounsaturated fat in olive oil. To achieve this possible benefit, olive oil is to replace a similar amount of saturated fat and not increase the total number of calories you eat in a day.[23]

This decision was announced November 1, 2004, by the Food and Drug Administration after application was made to the FDA by producers. Similar labels are permitted for foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids such as walnuts and hemp seed.[24]

There is a large body of clinical data to show that consumption of olive oil can provide heart health benefits such as favourable effects on cholesterol regulation and LDL cholesterol oxidation, and that it exerts antiinflamatory, antithrombotic, antihypertensive as well as vasodilatory effects both in animals and in humans.[25]

But some clinical evidence suggests that it is olive oil's phenolic content, rather than its fatty acid profile, that is responsible for at least some of its cardioprotective benefits. For example, a clinical trial published[26] in 2005 compared the effects of different types of olive oil on arterial elasticity. Test subjects were given a serving of 60 g of white bread and 40 ml of olive oil each morning for two consecutive days. The study was conducted in two stages. During the first stage, the subjects received polyphenol-rich oil (extra virgin oil contains the highest amount of polyphenol antioxidants). During the second phase, they received oil with only one fifth the phenolic content. The elasticity of the arterial walls of each subject was measured using a pressure sleeve and a Doppler laser. It was discovered that after the subjects had consumed olive oil high in polyphenol antioxidants, they exhibited increased arterial elasticity, while after the consumption of olive oil containing fewer polyphenols, they displayed no significant change in arterial elasticity. It is theorized that, in the long term, increased elasticity of arterial walls reduces vascular stress and consequentially the risk of two common causes of death—heart attacks and stroke. This could, at least in part, explain the lower incidence of both diseases in regions where olive oil and olives are consumed on a daily basis.

Another health benefit of olive oil seems to be its property to displace omega-6 fats, while not having any impact on omega-3 fats. This way, olive oil helps to build a more healthy balance between omega-6 fats and omega-3 fats.[citation needed]

Unlike the high amount of animal fats typical to the American diet, olive oil lowers cholesterol levels in the blood.[27] It is also known to lower blood sugar levels and blood pressure.[28]

Olive oil contains the monounsaturated fat oleic acid, having antioxidants such as vitamin E and carotenoids, and oleuropein, a chemical that prevents the oxidation of LDL particles. It is these properties that are thought to contribute to the health benefits of olive oil.[citation needed]

As they are the least processed forms of olive oil, extra virgin or virgin olive oil have more monounsaturated fat than olive oil. These types of olive oil contain more polyphenols, leading to a healthier heart and lower "bad" cholesterol.[29]

Preliminary research indicates that olive oil could possibly be a chemopreventive agent for peptic ulcer or gastric cancer, but confirmation requires further in vivo study.[30] Olive oil was also found to reduce oxidative damage to DNA and RNA, which may be a factor in preventing cancer.[31]

A high consumption of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are found in most types of vegetable oil including olive oil, may increase the likelihood that postmenopausal women may develop breast cancer.[32] A similar effect was observed on prostate cancer.[33] Other analysis suggested an inverse association between total polyunsaturated fatty acids and breast cancer risk.[34]

Uses

Culinary use

Olives in olive oil

Olive oil is the main cooking oil in countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea.

Extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) is mostly used as a salad dressing and as an ingredient in salad dressings. It is also used with foods to be eaten cold. Uncompromised by heat, the flavor is stronger. It also can be used for sautéing.

The higher the temperature to which the olive oil is heated, the more one should prefer the use of refined olive oils. When extra-virgin olive oil is heated above 350 °F (177 °C), the unrefined particles within the oil get burned. This leads to deteriorated taste and possible toxicity due to the creation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).[35] Also, the pronounced taste of extra-virgin olive oil is not a taste most people like to associate with their deep fried foods. Refined olive oils are perfectly suited for deep frying foods and should be replaced after several uses.[citation needed].

Choosing a cold-pressed olive oil can be similar to selecting a wine. The flavour of these oils vary considerably and a particular oil may be more suited for a particular dish. Also, people who like lots of tannins in their red wines might prefer more bitter olive oils.

An important issue often not realized in countries that do not produce olive oil is that the freshness makes a big difference. A very fresh oil, as available in an oil producing region, tastes noticeably different from the older oils available elsewhere. In time, oils deteriorate and become stale. One-year old oil may be still pleasant to the taste, but it is surely less fragrant than fresh oil. After the first year olive oil should be used for cooking, not for foods to be eaten cold, like salads.

The taste of the olive oil is influenced not only by the soil that the olive trees grow on, but also by the moment when the olives have been harvested and ground.

Olive oil has more uses than just consuming, it also works as a natural and safe lubricant. For example, lubricating the machinery that is used within the kitchen (grinders, blenders, cookware, etc.)

Comparative properties of common cooking fats (per 100g)
Total Fat Saturated Fat Monounsaturated Fat Polyunsaturated Fat Protein
Butter 81g 51g 21g 3g 1g
Vegetable Shortening (hydrogenated) 71g 23g 8g 37g 0g
Olive Oil 100g 14g 73g 11g 0g
Lard 100g 39g 45g 11g 0g

Skin care

In addition to the internal health benefits of olive oil, topical application is quite popular with fans of natural health remedies. Extra Virgin Olive Oil is the preferred grade for moisturizing the skin, especially when used in the oil cleansing method (OCM). OCM is a method of cleansing and moisturizing the face with a mixture of extra virgin olive oil, castor oil (or another suitable carrier oil) and a select blend of essential oils. Olive oil is also used by some to reduce ear wax buildup.[36]

Olive oil can be used as an effective shaving oil to shave facial and other body hair giving results that are equivalent to expensive commercial products.[37].

In Calabria the women regularly use the oil of olive to take care of their hair and hands.[citation needed]

Studies on mice showed that application of olive oil immediately following exposure to UVB rays has a preventive effect on the formation of tumors and skin cancer.[38][39]

Jeanne Calment, who holds the record for the longest confirmed lifespan, reportedly attributed her longevity and relatively youthful appearance to olive oil, which she said she poured on all her food and rubbed into her skin.[40]

Extra-virgin olive oil helps in making your hair healthy and adding gloss to it.[citation needed]

Medicinal use

Olive oil is unlikely to cause allergic reactions, and as such is used in preparations for lipophilic drug ingredients. It does have demulcent properties, and mild laxative properties, acting as a stool softener. It is also used at room temperature as an ear wax softener. Olive oil is also a potent blocker of intestinal contractions, and can be used to treat excessive Borborygmus.

Oleocanthal from olive oil is a non-selective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase (COX) similar to classical NSAIDs like ibuprofen. It has been suggested that long-term consumption of small quantities of this compound from olive oil may be responsible in part for the low incidence of heart disease associated with a Mediterranean diet.

Religious use

Olive tree in Portugal

Olive oil also has religious symbolism for healing and strength and to consecration—God's setting a person or place apart for special work. This may be related to its ancient use as a medicinal agent and for cleansing athletes by slathering them in oil then scraping them.

Judaism

In Jewish observance, olive oil is the only fuel allowed to be used in the seven-branched Menorah (not a candelabrum since the use of candles was not allowed) in the Mishkan service during the Exodus of the tribes of Israel from Egypt, and later in the permanent Temple in Jerusalem. It was obtained by using only the first drop from a squeezed olive and was consecrated for use only in the Temple by the priests, which is where the expression pure olive oil originates, stored in special containers. A menorah similar to the Menorah used in the Mishkan is now used during the holiday of Hanukkah that celebrates the miracle of the last of such containers being found during the re-dedication of the Temple (163 BC), when its contents lasted for far longer then they were expected to, allowing more time for more oil to be made. Although candles can be used to light the hanukkiah, oil containers are preferred, to imitate the original Menorah. Another use of oil in Jewish religion is for anointing the kings of the Kingdom of Israel, originating from King David. Tzidkiyahu was the last anointed King of Israel. One unusual use of olive oil in the Talmud is for bad breath, by creating a water-oil-salt mouthwash.[citation needed] The Talmud also states that frequent consumption of olive oil is good for one's memory.[41]

Christianity

The Catholic and Orthodox Churches use olive oil for the Oil of Catechumens (used to bless and strengthen those preparing for Baptism) and Oil of the Sick (used to confer the Sacrament of Anointing of the Sick). Olive oil mixed with a perfuming agent like balsam is consecrated by bishops as Sacred Chrism, which is used to confer the sacrament of Confirmation (as a symbol of the strengthening of the Holy Spirit), in the rites of Baptism and the ordination of priests and bishops, in the consecration of altars and churches, and, traditionally, in the anointing of monarchs at their coronation. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) and a number of other religions use olive oil when they need to consecrate an oil for anointings.

Eastern Orthodox Christians still use oil lamps in their churches, home prayer corners and in the cemeteries. A vigil lamp consists of a votive glass containing a half-inch of water and filled the rest with olive oil. The glass has a metal holder that hangs from a bracket on the wall or sits on a table. A cork float with a lit wick floats on the oil. To douse the flame, the float is carefully pressed down into the oil. Makeshift oil lamps can easily be made by soaking a ball of cotton in olive oil and forming it into a peak. The peak is lit and then burns until all the oil is consumed, whereupoon the rest of the cotton burns out. Olive oil is a usual offering to churches and cemeteries.

In Orthodox Church, olive oil is a product not consumed during lent or penance while Orthodox monks use it sparingly in their diet. Exceptions are in feast days and Sundays.

Islam

In Islam, olive oil is mentioned in the Quranic verse: "Allah is the light of the Heavens and the Earth. An example of His light is like a lantern inside which there is a torch, the torch is in a glass bulb, the glass bulb is like a bright planet lit by a blessed olive tree, neither Eastern nor Western, its oil almost glows, even without fire touching it, light upon light." The Noble Qur’an also mentions olives as a sacred plant: "By the fig and the olive, and the Mount of Sinai, and this secure city."[42] Olive oil is also reported to have been recommended by the Prophet Muhammad in the following terms: "Consume olive oil and anoint it upon your bodies since it is of the blessed tree." He also stated that it cures 70 diseases.

Other

Olive oil is also used in soap making and as lamp oil. It also makes an excellent lubricant, and can be used in place of machine oil.

History

Olive press in Pompeii (79 AD)
Ancient Greek olive oil production workshop in Kilizman, Turkey
The Manufacture of Oil, drawn and engraved by J. Amman in the Sixteenth Century.

The olive tree is native to the Mediterranean basin; wild olives were collected by Neolithic peoples as early as the 8th millennium BC.[43] The wild olive tree originated in Asia Minor[44] in modern Turkey.

It is not clear when and where olive trees were first domesticated: in Asia Minor in the 6th millennium;[45] along the Levantine coast stretching from the Sinai Peninsula to modern Turkey in the 4th millennium;[43] or somewhere in the Mesopotamian Fertile Crescent in the 3rd millennium.[46]

A widespread view exists that the first cultivation took place on the island of Crete. The earliest surviving olive oil amphorae date to 3500 BC (Early Minoan times), though the production of olive is assumed to have started before 4000 BC. An alternative view retains that olives were turned into oil by 4500 BC by Canaanites in present-day Israel.[47]

Ancient oil press
Bodrum Museum of Underwater Archaeology, Bodrum, Turkey

Homer called it "liquid gold." In ancient Greece, athletes ritually rubbed it all over their bodies. Olive oil has been more than mere food to the peoples of the Mediterranean: it has been medicinal, magical, an endless source of fascination and wonder and the fountain of great wealth and power.

Besides food, olive oil has been used for religious rituals, medicines, as a fuel in oil lamps, soap-making, and skin care application. The importance and antiquity of olive oil can be seen in the fact that the English word oil derives from c. 1175, olive oil, from Anglo-Fr. and O.N.Fr. olie, from O.Fr. oile (12c., Mod.Fr. huile), from L. oleum "oil, olive oil" (cf. It. olio), from Gk. elaion "olive tree",[48] which may have been borrowed through trade networks from the Semitic Phoenician use of el'yon meaning "superior", probably in recognized comparison to other vegetable or animal fats available at the time. Robin Lane Fox suggests[49] that the Latin borrowing of Greek elaion for oil (Latin oleum) is itself a marker for improved Greek varieties of oil-producing olive, already present in Italy as Latin was forming, brought by Euboean traders, whose presence in Latium is signalled by remains of their characteristic pottery, from the mid-eighth century.

Recent genetic studies suggest that species used by modern cultivators descend from multiple wild populations, but a detailed history of domestication is not yet understood.[50]

Many ancient presses still exist in the Eastern Mediterranean region, and some dating to the Roman period are still in use today.[citation needed]

Eastern Mediterranean

Over 5,000 years ago oil was being extracted from olives in the Eastern Mediterranean. In the centuries that followed, olive presses became common, from the Atlantic shore of North Africa to Persia and from the Po Valley to the settlements along the Nile.[citation needed]

Olive trees and oil production in the Eastern Mediterranean can be traced to archives of the ancient city-state Ebla (2600–2240 BC), which were located on the outskirts of the Syrian city Aleppo. Here some dozen documents dated 2400 BC describe lands of the king and the queen. These belonged to a library of clay tablets perfectly preserved by having been baked in the fire that destroyed the palace. A later source is the frequent mentions of oil in Tanakh.[citation needed]

Dynastic Egyptians before 2000 BC imported olive oil from Crete, Syria and Canaan and oil was an important item of commerce and wealth. Remains of olive oil have been found in jugs over 4,000 years old in a tomb on the island of Naxos in the Aegean Sea. Sinuhe, the Egyptian exile who lived in northern Canaan about 1960 BC, wrote of abundant olive trees.[51]

Until 1500 BC, the eastern coastal areas of the Mediterranean were most heavily cultivated. Olive trees were certainly cultivated by the Late Minoan period (1500 BC) in Crete, and perhaps as early as the Early Minoan.[52] The cultivation of olive trees in Crete became particularly intense in the post-palatial period and played an important role in the island's economy. The Minoans used olive oil in religious ceremonies. The oil became a principal product of the Minoan civilization, where it is thought to have represented wealth. The Minoans put the pulp into settling tanks and, when the oil had risen to the top, drained the water from the bottom.[citation needed]. Olive tree growing reached Iberia and Etruscan cities well before the 8th century BC through trade with the Phoenicians and Carthage, then spread into Southern Gaul by the Celtic tribes during the 7th century BC.

The first recorded oil extraction is known from the Hebrew Bible and took place during the Exodus from Egypt, during the 13th century BC. During this time, the oil was derived through hand-squeezing the berries and stored in special containers under guard of the priests. A commercial mill for non-sacramental use of oil was in use in the tribal Confederation and later in 1000 BC., the fertile crescent, and area consisting of present day Palestine, Lebanon, and Israel. Over 100 olive presses have been found in Tel Miqne (Ekron), where the Biblical Philistines also produced oil. These presses are estimated to have had output of between 1,000 and 3,000 tons of olive oil per season.

Olive trees were planted in the entire Mediterranean basin during evolution of the Roman republic and empire. According to the historian Pliny, Italy had "excellent olive oil at reasonable prices" by the first century AD, "the best in the Mediterranean", he maintained, a claim probably disputed by many ancient olive growers. Thus olive oil was very common in Hellene and Latin cuisine. According to legend, the city of Athens obtained its name because Athenians considered olive oil essential, preferring the offering of the goddess Athena (an olive tree) over the offering of Poseidon (a spring of salt water gushing out of a cliff).

The Spartans were the Hellenes who used oil to rub themselves while exercising in the gymnasia. The practice served to eroticise and highlight the beauty of the male body. From its beginnings early in the seventh century BC, the decorative use of olive oil quickly spread to all of Hellenic city states, together with naked appearance of athletes, and lasted close to a thousand years despite its great expense.[53][54]

See also

References

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  3. ^ G. Steven Sibbett, Louise Ferguson, Joann L Coviello, Margaret Lindstrand (2005). Olive Production Manual. ANR Publications. p. 158. 
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  5. ^ International Olive Oil Council International Olive Council
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  9. ^ a b McGee, Dennis. "Deceptive Olive Oil Labels on Major Brands (includes photos)". http://oliveoilonly.org/impurity/olive-oil-labels-false-labeling.htm. Retrieved 2008-11-09. 
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  17. ^ "www.internationaloliveoil.org/web/aa-ingles/corp/institution/aa-institution-ini.html". http://www.internationaloliveoil.org/web/aa-ingles/corp/institution/aa-institution-ini.html. 
  18. ^ a b "United States Standard for Grades of Olive Oil". United States Department of Agriculture. http://www.ams.usda.gov/AMSv1.0/getfile?dDocName=STELDEV3011889. Retrieved 2008-11-16. 
  19. ^ a b United Nations Conference on Trade and Development Site
  20. ^ "California and World Olive Oil Statistics"" PDF at UC Davis.
  21. ^ The phenolic compounds of olive oil: structure, biological activity and beneficial effects on human health E. Tripoli, M. Giammanco, G. Tabacchi, D. Di Majo, S. Giammanco, and Maurizio La Guardia. Nutrition Research Reviews 18, 98–112 (2005) DOI: 10.1079/NRR200495
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  23. ^ United States Food and Drug Administration Site
  24. ^ New York Times, November 2, 2004, "Olive Oil Makers Win Approval to Make Health Claim on Label"
  25. ^ Covas MI (March 2007). "Olive oil and the cardiovascular system". Pharmacol. Res. 55 (3): 175–86. doi:10.1016/j.phrs.2007.01.010. PMID 17321749. 
  26. ^ Turner R, Etienne N, Alonso MG, et al. (January 2005). "Antioxidant and anti-atherogenic activities of olive oil phenolics". Int J Vitam Nutr Res 75 (1): 61–70. doi:10.1024/0300-9831.75.1.61. PMID 15830923. 
  27. ^ Mayo Clinic. "Olive Oil: Which Type Is Best?." ScienceDaily 14 August 2007. 19 November 2007
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    Olive Oil and Reduced Need for Antihypertensive Medications archinte.ama-assn.org
  29. ^ Mayo Clinic
  30. ^ Romero C, Medina E, Vargas J, Brenes M, De Castro A (February 2007). "In vitro activity of olive oil polyphenols against Helicobacter pylori". J Agric Food Chem. 55 (3): 680–6. doi:10.1021/jf0630217. PMID 17263460. 
    "New Potential Health Benefit Of Olive Oil For Peptic Ulcer Disease." ScienceDaily 14 February 2007
  31. ^ Machowetz A, Poulsen HE, Gruendel S, et al. (January 2007). "Effect of olive oils on biomarkers of oxidative DNA stress in Northern and Southern Europeans". Faseb J. 21 (1): 45–52. doi:10.1096/fj.06-6328com. PMID 17110467. 
    "New Year's Resolution No. 1: Prevent Cancer, Use Olive Oil." ScienceDaily 12 December 2006.
  32. ^ Emily Sonestedt, Ulrika Ericson, Bo Gullberg, Kerstin Skog, Håkan Olsson, Elisabet Wirfält (2008). "Do both heterocyclic amines and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids contribute to the incidence of breast cancer in postmenopausal women of the Malmö diet and cancer cohort?". The International Journal of Cancer (UICC International Union Against Cancer) 123 (7): 1637–1643. doi:10.1002/ijc.23394. PMID 10970215. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/120780752/abstract. Retrieved 2008-11-30. 
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  34. ^ Valeria Pala, Vittorio Krogh, Paola Muti, Véronique Chajès, Elio Riboli, Andrea Micheli, Mitra Saadatian, Sabina Sieri, Franco Berrino (2001). "Erythrocyte Membrane Fatty Acids and Subsequent Breast Cancer: a Prospective Italian Study". JNCL 93. PMID 11459870. http://jnci.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/93/14/1088. Retrieved 2008-11-30. 
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  38. ^ [1] Arief Budiyanto, Nazim U. Ahmed, An Wu, Toshinori Bito, Osamu Nikaido, Toshihiko Osawa, Masato Ueda, Masamitsu Ichihashi, "Protective effect of topically applied olive oil against photocarcinogenesis following UVB exposure of mice", Carcinogenesis, Vol. 21, No. 11, pp. 2085-2090, Nov. 2000.
  39. ^ [2] Ichihashi, M : Ahmed, N U : Budiyanto, A : Wu, A : Bito, T : Ueda, M : Osawa, T, "Preventive effect of antioxidant on ultraviolet-induced skin cancer in mice. ", J-Dermatol-Sci., Vol. 23, Suppl. 1S45-50, Mar. 2000.
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  43. ^ a b Davidson, s.v. Olives
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  45. ^ Rosenblum, p. [10 "INSERT TITLE"]. 10. 
  46. ^ Pagnol, p. [19 "INSERT TITLE"]. 19. 
  47. ^ Ehud Galili et al., "Evidence for Earliest Olive-Oil Production in Submerged Settlements off the Carmel Coast, Israel", Journal of Archaeological Science 24:1141–1150 (1997); Pagnol, p. 19, says the 6th millennium in Jericho, but cites no source.
  48. ^ Random House Unabridged Dictionary, s.v. "olive" and "oil"
  49. ^ Fox, Travelling Heroes in the Epic Age of Homer, 2008:127.
  50. ^ Guillaume Besnarda, André Bervillé, "Multiple origins for Mediterranean olive (Olea europaea L. ssp. europaea) based upon mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms", Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences—Series III—Sciences de la Vie 323:2:173–181 (February 2000); Catherine Breton, Michel Tersac and André Bervillé, "Genetic diversity and gene flow between the wild olive (oleaster, Olea europaea L.) and the olive: several Plio-Pleistocene refuge zones in the Mediterranean basin suggested by simple sequence repeats analysis", Journal of Biogeography 33:11:1916 (November 2006)
  51. ^ "Ancient Egyptian texts: The Tale of Sinuhe". http://www.reshafim.org.il/ad/egypt/texts/sinuhe.htm. 
  52. ^ F.R. Riley, "Olive Oil Production on Bronze Age Crete: Nutritional properties, Processing methods, and Storage life of Minoan olive oil", Oxford Journal of Archaeology 21:1:63–75 (2002)
  53. ^ Thomas F. Scanlon, "The Dispersion of Pederasty and the Athletic Revolution in sixth-century BC Greece", in Same-Sex Desire and Love in Greco-Roman Antiquity and in the Classical Tradition of the West, ed. B. C. Verstraete and V. Provencal, Harrington Park Press, 2005
  54. ^ Nigel M. Kennell, "Most Necessary for the Bodies of Men: Olive Oil and its By-products in the Later Greek Gymnasium" in Mark Joyal (ed.), In Altum: Seventy-Five Years of Classical Studies in Newfoundland, 2001; pp119–33

Further reading

  • Alan Davidson, The Oxford Companion to Food"', Oxford, 1999. ISBN 0-19-211579-0.
  • Jean Pagnol, L'Olivier, Aubanel, 1975. ISBN 2-7006-0064-9.
  • Mort Rosenblum, Olives: The Life and Lore of a Noble Fruit, North Point Press, 1996. ISBN 0-86547-503-2.

Simple English

Olive oil is a vegetable oil. It is made by getting the juice of the fruits of the olive tree. These are called olives. The oil is used in cooking, as well as cosmetics , traditional medicine, and as a fuel for oil lamps.

People see it as a healthy addition to their diet because of the high level of unsaturated fats (mainly oleic acid) and polyphenols.

Producers

At more than one-third of the world's olive trees, Spain is the top producer of olive oil in the world.[1]

References









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