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Oliver Cromwell

Portrait of Oliver Cromwell by Samuel Cooper.

In office
16 December 1653 – 3 September 1658
(&0000000000000004.0000004 years, &0000000000000261.000000261 days)
Preceded by Council of State
Succeeded by Richard Cromwell

Member of Parliament
for Cambridge
In office
1640–1642
Monarch Charles I
In office
1640–1640

Member of Parliament
for Huntingdon
In office
1628–1629

Born 25 April 1599(1599-04-25)
Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire
Died 3 September 1658 (aged 59)
Whitehall, London
Resting place Tyburn, London
Nationality English
Spouse(s) Elizabeth Bourchier
Relations Robert Cromwell (father)
Elizabeth Cromwell (mother)
Children Robert Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell
Bridget Cromwell
Richard Cromwell, Lord Protector
Henry Cromwell, Lord Deputy of Ireland
Elizabeth Cromwell
Mary Cromwell
Frances Cromwell
Alma mater Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge
Occupation Farmer; Parliamentarian; Military commander
Religion Puritan (Independent)
Signature
Military service
Nickname(s) Old Ironsides
Allegiance Roundhead
Service/branch Eastern Association (1643–1645); New Model Army (1645–1646)
Years of service 1643–1651
Rank Colonel (1643–bef. .1644); Lieutenant-General of Horse (bef.^ In 1645 he became Lieutenant-General of the horse in the New Model Army.
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1644–1645)
; Lieutenant-General of Cavalry (1645–1646)
Commands Cambridgeshire Ironsides (1643–bef. 1644); Eastern Association (bef. 1644–1645); New Model Army (1645–1646)
Battles/wars Gainsborough; Marston Moor; Newbury II; Naseby; Langport; Preston; Dunbar; Worcester
.Oliver Cromwell (25 April 1599 – 3 September 1658) was an English military and political leader best known for his involvement in making England into a republican Commonwealth and for his later role as Lord Protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland.^ (Cromwell) Lord Protector of England (and his wart) Born in 1599 and died in 1658, (September).
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^ (Cromwell) Lord Protector of England (Puritan) Born in 1599 and died in 1658, (September).
  • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

^ (Cromwell) Lord Protector of England (Olé) Born in 1599 and died in 1658, (September).
  • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

.He was one of the commanders of the New Model Army which defeated the royalists in the English Civil War.^ English Civil Wars 1642-1648 .
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^ When civil war flared up again in 1648 he commanded a large part of the New Model Army which first crushed rebellion in South Wales and then at Preston defeated a Scottish-royalist army of invasion.
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^ In 1644 Oliver Cromwell was appointed second in command of the New Model Army but it took another four years of bloody civil war before Charles was finally defeated and found himself subjected to an uneasy series of 'house arrests'.
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After the execution of King Charles I in 1649, Cromwell dominated the short-lived Commonwealth of England, conquered Ireland and Scotland, and ruled as Lord Protector from 1653 until his death from malaria in 1658.
.Cromwell was born into the ranks of the middle gentry, and remained relatively obscure for the first 40 years of his life.^ Cromwell:_ You are born into a great story, child.
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^ He ranked near the bottom of the landed elite, the landowning class often labelled 'the gentry' which dominated the social and political life of the county.
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^ Oliver Cromwell was born into a family which was for a time one of the wealthiest and most influential in the area.
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At times his lifestyle resembled that of a yeoman farmer until his finances were boosted thanks to an inheritance from his uncle. After undergoing a religious conversion during the same decade, he made an Independent style of Puritanism an essential part of his life. .Cromwell was elected Member of Parliament for Cambridge in the Short (1640) and Long (1640-49) Parliaments, and later entered the English Civil War on the side of the "Roundheads" or Parliamentarians.^ English Civil Wars 1642-1648 .
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^ In 1640 he was elected MP for Cambridge for the Short Parliament and then again for the Long Parliament but he did not really come to prominence until the First Civil War and beyond when his rise through the military ranks was quite extraordinary.
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^ A royalist Scots army invaded England but was defeated by Cromwell at Preston and by the end of 1648 the Second Civil War was over and the King was once again in custody.
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.As a soldier, he was more than capable (nicknamed "Old Ironsides") and was quickly promoted from leading a single cavalry troop to command of the entire army.^ Initially a captain in charge of a small body of mounted troops, in 1643 he was promoted to colonel and given command of his own cavalry regiment.
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^ As the year proceeded, the Resolutioners gained more support and as a result the Scottish army was resupplied with troops.
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.Cromwell was one of the signatories of Charles I's death warrant in 1649 and was a member of the Rump Parliament (1649-1653), being chosen by the Rump to take command of the English campaign in Ireland during 1649-50. He then led a campaign against the Scottish army between 1650 and 1651. On 20 April 1653 he dismissed the Rump Parliament by force, setting up a short-lived nominated assembly known as the Barebones Parliament before being made Lord Protector of England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland on 16 December 1653. He was buried in Westminster Abbey, but when the Royalists returned to power his corpse was dug up, hung in chains, and beheaded.^ In summer 1650, before embarking for Scotland, Cromwell had been appointed lord general - that is, commander in chief - of all the parliamentary forces.
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^ In Scotland, the English campaign, now led by Monck, continued relentlessly.
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^ After the trial and execution of the King, Cromwell led major military campaigns to establish English control over Ireland (1649-50) and then Scotland (1650-51), culminating in the defeat of another Scottish-royalist army of invasion at Worcester in September 1651.
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.Cromwell has been a controversial figure in the history of the British Isles – a regicidal dictator to some historians (such as David Hume and Christopher Hill) and a hero of liberty to others (such as Thomas Carlyle and Samuel Rawson Gardiner).^ Thomas Carlyle, Oliver Cromwell's Letters and Speeches with elucidations, George Routledge and Sons, London, (first published 1845), Vol.
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.In Britain he was elected as one of the Top 10 Britons of all time in a 2002 BBC poll.^ In a nationwide poll conducted by the BBC in 2002, Winston Churchill was voted the Greatest Briton of all time.
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[1] His measures against Irish Catholics have been characterized by some historians as genocidal or near-genocidal,[2] and in Ireland itself he is widely hated.[3][4]

Contents

Early years: 1599–1640

Ancestry

.Relatively few sources survive which tell us about the first 40 years of Oliver Cromwell's life.^ My thanks to you, Sir, for your valiant attempts to remind your fellow citizens what the US was all about, when it was concieved, and where it has deviated in succeeding years.
  • Truthdig - President Jonah, Meet Oliver Cromwell! 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Restoration Again The death of Oliver Cromwell in 1658 was followed two years later by the restoration of the monarchy and by the re-establishment of Episcopacy in both England and Scotland.
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^ Thomas Carlyle, Oliver Cromwell's Letters and Speeches with elucidations, George Routledge and Sons, London, (first published 1845), Vol.
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.He was born at Cromwell House in Huntingdon on 25 April 1599,[5] to Robert Cromwell (c.1560-1617) and Elizabeth Steward.^ (Cromwell) Lord Protector of England (and his wart) Born in 1599 and died in 1658, (September).
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^ (Cromwell) Lord Protector of England (Puritan) Born in 1599 and died in 1658, (September).
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^ Cromwell:_ These are my five Ely houses, and the Huntingdon farmlands.
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He was descended from Catherine Cromwell (born circa 1482), an older sister of Tudor statesman Thomas Cromwell. .Catherine was married to Morgan ap Williams, son of William ap Yevan of Wales and Joan Tudor (reportedly a granddaughter of Owen Tudor, which would make Oliver Cromwell a Tudor, a distant cousin of his Stuart foes).^ Cromwell:_ Mr. Lawes makes beautiful music, Oliver.
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^ Oliver Cromwell Applegate (1845-1938), the son of Lindsay and Elizabeth Applegate (Applegate Trail pioneers), spent his career working with Oregon Indians.
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^ Thomas Carlyle, Oliver Cromwell's Letters and Speeches with elucidations, George Routledge and Sons, London, (first published 1845), Vol.
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Note the Welsh dragon in the Commonwealth coat of arms shown below. The family line continued through Richard Cromwell (c. 1500–1544), Henry Cromwell (c. 1524–6 January 1604), then to Oliver's father Robert Cromwell (c. .1560–1617), who married Elizabeth Steward or Stewart (1564–1654) on the day of Oliver Cromwell's birth.^ Oliver Cromwell Applegate (1845-1938), the son of Lindsay and Elizabeth Applegate (Applegate Trail pioneers), spent his career working with Oregon Indians.
  • Guide to the Oliver Cromwell Applegate Papers 1841-1938 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC nwda-db.wsulibs.wsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Those who advocated voting for Cromwell told us that it was he who made it possible for our freedoms and liberties to be preserved until the present day.
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^ Oliver Cromwell Applegate was born in Oregon in 1845 to Lindsay and Elizabeth Applegate.
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Thomas thus was Oliver's great-great-great-uncle.[6]
.The social status of Cromwell's family at his birth was relatively low within the gentry class.^ Within a short period of time after the "Act of Classes" was passed, Charles I was executed by Cromwell's Rump Parliament in England.
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^ He ranked near the bottom of the landed elite, the landowning class often labelled 'the gentry' which dominated the social and political life of the county.
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.His father was a younger son, and one of 10 siblings who survived into adulthood.^ I notice that he even puts atheists (like his father) into leaning one way or another.
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As a result, Robert's inheritance was limited to a house at Huntingdon and a small amount of land. .This land would have generated an income of up to £300 a year, near the bottom of the range of gentry incomes.^ He ranked near the bottom of the landed elite, the landowning class often labelled 'the gentry' which dominated the social and political life of the county.
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[7] Cromwell himself, much later in 1654, said "I was by birth a gentleman, living neither in considerable height, nor yet in obscurity".[8]

Youth and education

Records survive of Cromwell's baptism on 29 April 1599 at St. John's Church,[9] and his attendance at Huntingdon Grammar School. He went on to study at Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, which was then a recently founded college with a strong puritan ethos. He left in June 1617 without taking a degree, immediately after the death of his father.[10] Early biographers claim he then attended Lincoln's Inn, but there is no record of him in the Inn's archives. .Biographer Antonia Fraser's 1973 work Cromwell: Our Chief of Men states Cromwell likely did train at one of the London Inns of Court during this time.^ Gordons are gone; the Douglases little better; Eglinton and Glencairn on the point of breaking; many of our chief families states are crashing."
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^ Antonia Fraser; Cromwell, Our Chief of Men.
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Fraser notes that Cromwell's grandfather, father, and two of his uncles had attended Lincoln's Inn; Cromwell also sent his son Richard there in 1647. His possible association with Lincoln's Inn would also explain in part how he met his wife-to-be, who was based in London, and whom he married in 1620.[11]
.Historian John Morrill states Cromwell was more likely to have returned home to Huntingdon, for his mother was widowed and his seven sisters were unmarried, and he, therefore, was needed at home to help his family.^ Cromwell's inheritances from his father, who died in 1617, and later from a maternal uncle were not great, his income was modest and he had to support an expanding family - widowed mother, wife and eight children.
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[12]

Marriage and family

Miniature of Elizabeth Bourchier, painted by Samuel Cooper
On 22 August 1620 at St Giles-without-Cripplegate, London,[13] Cromwell married Elizabeth Bourchier (1598–1665). They had nine children:
.
  • Robert (1621-1639), died while away at school.
  • Oliver (1622-1644), died of typhoid fever while serving as a Parliamentarian officer.
  • Bridget (1624-1681), married (1) Henry Ireton, (2) Charles Fleetwood.
  • Richard (1626-1712), his father's successor as Lord Protector.^ Spoken: He died in 1658 when his son Richard took over, but Richard wasn't as good as :- Oliver!
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    ^ The Scottish Parliament acted immediately to proclaim Charles' son as lawful successor to his father's throne.
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    ^ Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector of Great Britain and Ireland, 1932.
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    [14]
  • .
  • Henry (1628-1674), later Lord Deputy of Ireland.
  • Elizabeth (1629-1658), married John Claypole.
  • James (b.^ Lord Wariston was hunted and later executed, and Samuel Rutherford and James Guthrie were tried and condemned.
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    & d. 1632), died in infancy.
  • Mary (1637-1713), married Thomas Belasyse, 1st Earl Fauconberg.
  • Frances (1638-1720), married (1) Robert Rich, (2) Sir John Russell, 3rd Baronet.
.Elizabeth's father, Sir James Bourchier, was a London leather merchant who owned extensive land in Essex and had strong connections with puritan gentry families there.^ This was a kind of union, at least to English eyes; Sir Edwin Sandys, who had wrecked James VI's scheme in the English parliamentary session of 1606-7 in favour of his own notion of a 'perfect union', might well have approved it.
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.The marriage brought Cromwell into contact with Oliver St John and with leading members of the London merchant community, and behind them the influence of the earls of Warwick and Holland.^ Upon his return to London, Cromwell purged the House of Commons of all Presbyterian members and kept it under guard by threat of arms.
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^ Second, the Engagement brought the Scots into war again, this time on the king's side against Cromwell; but, in 1648, Cromwell sorely defeated the Engagement Army at Preston.
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^ Only don't you and John come putting more notions into Oliver's head.
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.Membership in this influential network would prove crucial to Cromwell’s military and political career.^ Cromwell's military standing gave him enhanced political power, just as his military victories gave him the confidence and motivation to intervene in and to shape political events.
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Crisis and recovery

At this stage, though, there is little evidence of Cromwell's own religion. His letter in 1626 to Henry Downhall, an Arminian minister, suggests that Cromwell had yet to be influenced by radical puritanism.[15] However, there is evidence that Cromwell went through a period of personal crisis during the late 1620s and early 1630s. He sought treatment for valde melancolicus (depression) from London doctor Theodore de Mayerne in 1628. He was also caught up in a fight among the gentry of Huntingdon over a new charter for the town, as a result of which he was called before the Privy Council in 1630.[16]
.In 1631 Cromwell sold most of his properties in Huntingdon — probably as a result of the dispute — and moved to a farmstead in St Ives.^ He made a living by farming and collecting rents, first in his native Huntingdon, then from 1631 in St Ives and from 1636 in Ely.
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This was a major step down in society compared to his previous position, and seems to have had a significant emotional and spiritual impact. .A 1638 letter survives from Cromwell to his cousin, the wife of Oliver St John, and gives an account of his spiritual awakening.^ Oliver Cromwell’s letters and speeches : with elucidations .
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^ Thomas Carlyle, Oliver Cromwell's Letters and Speeches with elucidations, George Routledge and Sons, London, (first published 1845), Vol.
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^ MARS: Oliver Cromwell’s letters and speeches : with elucidations .
  • MARS: Oliver Cromwell’s letters and speeches : with elucidations 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC digilib.gmu.edu:8080 [Source type: Academic]

.The letter outlines how, having been "the chief of sinners", Cromwell had been called to be among "the congregation of the firstborn".[15] The language of this letter, which is saturated with biblical quotations and which represents Cromwell as having been saved from sin by God's mercy, places his faith firmly within the Independent beliefs that the Reformation had not gone far enough, that much of England was still living in sin, and that Catholic beliefs and practices needed to be fully removed from the church.^ And may the mercy of God be upon England.
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^ Ireton:_ How far has this gone?
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^ Those few held firmly at Edgehill, keeping us as far from defeat as we were, though that was little enough.
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Oliver Cromwell's house in Ely
.In 1636, Cromwell inherited control of various properties in Ely from his uncle on his mother's side, as well as that uncle's job as tithe collector for Ely Cathedral.^ Cromwell's inheritances from his father, who died in 1617, and later from a maternal uncle were not great, his income was modest and he had to support an expanding family - widowed mother, wife and eight children.
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.As a result, his income is likely to have risen to around £300-400 per year;[17] and, by the end of the 1630s, Cromwell had returned to the ranks of acknowledged gentry.^ In the 1630s Charles 1's various taxes had cost Scotland about £17,000 sterling per annum.
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^ At the end of the year he was appointed second in command of the Eastern Association army, parliament's largest and most effective regional army, with the rank of lieutenant-general.
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He had become a committed puritan and had also established important family links to leading families in London and Essex.

Member of Parliament: 1628–1629 and 1640–1642

.Cromwell became the Member of Parliament for Huntingdon in the Parliament of 1628–1629, as a client of the Montagus.^ Educated at Huntingdon grammar school , now the Cromwell Museum, and at Cambridge University, he became a minor East Anglian landowner.
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He made little impression: records for the Parliament show only one speech (against the Arminian Bishop Richard Neile), which was poorly received.[18] After dissolving this Parliament, Charles I ruled without a Parliament for the next eleven years. When Charles faced the Scottish rebellion known as the Bishops' Wars, shortage of funds forced him to call a Parliament again in 1640. Cromwell was returned to this Parliament as member for Cambridge, but it lasted for only three weeks and became known as the Short Parliament. Cromwell moved his family from Ely to London in 1640.[19]
A second Parliament was called later the same year. This was to become known as the Long Parliament. Cromwell was again returned to this Parliament as member for Cambridge. .As with the Parliament of 1628-9, it is likely that Cromwell owed his position to the patronage of others, which would explain the fact that in the first week of the Parliament he was in charge of presenting a petition for the release of John Lilburne, who had become a puritan martyr after being arrested for importing religious tracts from Holland.^ Would like staff position if hostilities should break out.
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Otherwise it is unlikely that a relatively unknown member would have been given this task. .For the first two years of the Long Parliament, Cromwell was linked to the godly group of aristocrats in the House of Lords and Members of the House of Commons with which he had already established familial and religious links in the 1630s, such as the Earls of Essex, Warwick and Bedford, Oliver St John, and Viscount Saye and Sele.^ Two fellows were there from the Earl of Bedford.
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^ Let the intrigues of Parliament with the army and its leaders--notably Oliver Cromwell--to the peril of the Church and the King, stand to the world in justification.
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^ (There is a sound of argument outside, and BRIDGET CROMWELL, persuading an officer of the House to let her enter, comes in with AMOS TANNER. They are both from a long journey.
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[20] At this stage, the group had an agenda of godly reformation: the executive checked by regular parliaments, and the moderate extension of liberty of conscience. Cromwell appears to have taken a role in some of this group's political manoeuvres. In May 1641, for example, it was Cromwell who put forward the second reading of the Annual Parliaments Bill, and who later took a role in drafting the Root and Branch Bill for the abolition of episcopacy.[21]

Military commander: 1642–1646

English Civil War begins

.Failure to resolve the issues before the Long Parliament led to armed conflict between Parliament and Charles I in the autumn of 1642; this was the beginning of the English Civil War.^ English Civil Wars 1642-1648 .
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^ English Civil War .
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Before joining Parliament's forces, Cromwell's only military experience was in the trained bands, the local county militia. Now 43 years old, he recruited a cavalry troop in Cambridgeshire after blocking a valuable shipment of silver plate from Cambridge colleges that was meant for the king. Cromwell and his troop then fought at the indecisive Battle of Edgehill on 23 October 1642. The troop was recruited to be a full regiment in the winter of 1642 and 1643, making up part of the Eastern Association under the Earl of Manchester. Cromwell gained experience and victories in a number of successful actions in East Anglia in 1643, notably at the Battle of Gainsborough on 28 July.[22] After this he was made governor of Ely and made a colonel in the Eastern Association.

Marston Moor

By the time of the Battle of Marston Moor in July 1644, Cromwell had risen to the rank of Lieutenant General of horse in Manchester's army. The success of his cavalry in breaking the ranks of the Royalist horse and then attacking their infantry from the rear at Marston Moor was a major factor in the Parliamentarian victory. .Cromwell fought at the head of his troops in the battle and was slightly wounded in the neck, stepping away briefly to receive treatment during the battle, but later returning to help force the victory.^ CROMWELL, himself battered and with a slight head wound, stands by the couch._ _Cromwell:_ It is not mortal.
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[23] After Cromwell's nephew was killed at Marston Moor he wrote a famous letter to his brother-in-law. Marston Moor secured the north of England for the Parliamentarians, but failed to end Royalist resistance.
The indecisive outcome of the Second Battle of Newbury in October meant that by the end of 1644, the war still showed no signs of ending. .Cromwell's experience at Newbury, where Manchester had let the King's army slip out of an encircling manoeuvre, led to a serious dispute with Manchester, whom he believed to be less than enthusiastic in his conduct of the war.^ Let the intrigues of Parliament with the army and its leaders--notably Oliver Cromwell--to the peril of the Church and the King, stand to the world in justification.
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.Manchester later accused Cromwell of recruiting men of "low birth" as officers in the army, to which he replied: "If you choose godly honest men to be captains of horse, honest men will follow them...^ Cromwell:_ I can disabuse rumour about Scotland, I can persuade Parliament about the Presbytery, I can convince the army of your good faith as to tolerance, if you will but give me the word.
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^ Cromwell:_ Oliver, boy, you were quite right--all that you said to those men, I mean.
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^ Say that you and your like are reviled by all honest men.
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.I would rather have a plain russet-coated captain who knows what he fights for and loves what he knows than that which you call a gentleman and is nothing else".[24] At this time, Cromwell also fell into dispute with Major-General Lawrence Crawford, a Scottish Covenanter Presbyterian attached to Manchester's army, who objected to Cromwell's encouragement of unorthodox Independents and Anabaptists.^ Cromwell:_ You do not know, sir?
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^ Cromwell:_ But you know I'm right in this, mother.
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^ Cromwell:_ I call you to witness.
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[25] Cromwell's differences with the Scots, at that time allies of the Parliament, would later develop into outright enmity in 1648 and in 1650-51.
Oliver Cromwell c.1649 by Robert Walker

New Model Army

.Partly in response to the failure to capitalise on their victory at Marston Moor, Parliament passed the Self-Denying Ordinance in early 1645. This forced members of the House of Commons and the Lords, such as Manchester, to choose between civil office and military command.^ And all to satisfy the pride of a few useless members that his self-denying ordinance keeps out of command.
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All of them — except for Cromwell, whose commission was given continued extensions and was allowed to remain in parliament — chose to renounce their military positions. The Ordinance also decreed that the army be "remodeled" on a national basis, replacing the old county associations; Cromwell contributed significantly to these military reforms. .In April 1645 the New Model Army finally took to the field, with Sir Thomas Fairfax in command and Cromwell as Lieutenant-General of cavalry, and second-in-command.^ The Scout:_ General Cromwell is riding into the field with his Ironsides, sir, some six hundred strong.
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^ Then the cavalry--you have one wing, Ireton, or you must command all, since General Cromwell is not come.
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^ Fairfax:_ Since we lack General Cromwell, more depends on you, Ireton, than on any man, perhaps.
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By this time, the Parliamentarians' field army outnumbered the King's by roughly two to one.

Battle of Naseby

At the critical Battle of Naseby in June 1645, the New Model smashed the King's major army. .Cromwell led his wing with great success at Naseby, again routing the Royalist cavalry.^ Then the cavalry--you have one wing, Ireton, or you must command all, since General Cromwell is not come.
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At the Battle of Langport on 10 July, Cromwell participated in the defeat of the last sizable Royalist field army. Naseby and Langport effectively ended the King's hopes of victory, and the subsequent Parliamentarian campaigns involved taking the remaining fortified Royalist positions in the west of England. .In October 1645, Cromwell besieged and took the wealthy and formidable Catholic fortress Basing House, later to be accused of killing one hundred of its three-hundred-man Royalist garrison there after its surrender.^ Cromwell:_ And that's three of you in one house.
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^ Cromwell:_ There's a man's house.
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[26] Cromwell also took part in successful sieges at Bridgwater, Sherborne, Bristol, Devizes, and Winchester, then spent the first half of 1646 mopping up resistance in Devon and Cornwall. .Charles I surrendered to the Scots on 5 May 1646, effectively ending the First English Civil War.^ English Civil Wars 1642-1648 .
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^ English Civil War .
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Cromwell and Fairfax took the formal surrender of the Royalists at Oxford in June.

Cromwell's military style

Cromwell had no formal training in military tactics, and followed the common practice of ranging his cavalry in three ranks and pressing forward. This method relied on impact rather than firepower. His strengths were in an instinctive ability to lead and train his men, and in his moral authority. In a war fought mostly by amateurs, these strengths were significant and are likely to have contributed to the discipline of his cavalry.[27]
Cromwell also practiced tight cavalry mobile battle formations (hence the name "Ironsides"); this was an innovation in England at the time, and was a major factor in his success. .He kept his troops close together following skirmishes where they had gained superiority, rather than allowing them to chase opponents off the battlefield.^ They follow the coming argument with close personal concern.
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This facilitated further engagements in short order, which allowed greater intensity and quick reaction to battle developments. This style of command was decisive at both Marston Moor and Naseby.[28]

Politics: 1647–1649

In February 1647 Cromwell suffered from an illness that kept him out of political life for over a month. By the time of his recovery, the Parliamentarians were split over the issue of the king. A majority in both Houses pushed for a settlement that would pay off the Scottish army, disband much of the New Model Army, and restore Charles I in return for a Presbyterian settlement of the Church. .Cromwell rejected the Scottish model of Presbyterianism, which threatened to replace one authoritarian hierarchy with another.^ Cromwell:_ Daughter, we must be loving, one with another.
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The New Model Army, radicalised by the failure of the Parliament to pay the wages it was owed, petitioned against these changes, but the Commons declared the petition unlawful. During May 1647, Cromwell was sent to the army's headquarters in Saffron Walden to negotiate with them, but failed to agree. In June 1647, a troop of cavalry under Cornet George Joyce seized the king from Parliament's imprisonment. Although Cromwell is known to have met with Joyce on 31 May, it is impossible to be sure what Cromwell's role in this event was.[29]
.Cromwell and Henry Ireton then drafted a manifesto — the "Heads of Proposals" — designed to check the powers of the executive, set up regularly elected parliaments, and restore a non-compulsory Episcopalian settlement.^ Cromwell:_ Now, Henry Ireton, these gentlemen may be bears, but I won't have you make this room into a bear-pit.
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^ Cromwell:_ Will you give me my shawl, Henry Ireton.
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[30] .Many in the army, such as the Levellers led by John Lilburne, thought this was insufficient, demanding full political equality for all men, leading to tense debates in Putney during the autumn of 1647 between Fairfax, Cromwell and Ireton on the one hand, and radical Levellers like Colonel Rainsborough on the other.^ To be led by such a one.
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^ THE SCENE CLOSES SCENE IV _After dawn on July 14, 1645, the day of Naseby._ _GENERAL FAIRFAX, with IRETON--now colonel--and two other officers, is holding a council of war in his tent.
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^ To which end I am now coming home, to call out all such men as have the love of England in their hearts, and fear God.
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The Putney Debates ultimately broke up without reaching a resolution.[31] .The debates, and the escape of Charles I from Hampton Court on 12 November, are likely to have hardened Cromwell's resolve against the king.^ A room in Hampton Court, where CHARLES THE FIRST, now a prisoner with the army, is lodged._ _At a table, writing, is NEAL, the King's secretary.
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Second Civil War

The failure to conclude a political agreement with the king eventually led to the outbreak of the Second English Civil War in 1648, when the King tried to regain power by force of arms. .Cromwell first put down a Royalist uprising in south Wales led by Rowland Laugharne, winning back Chepstow Castle on May 25 and six days later forcing the surrender of Tenby.^ Will start back about first of next week, and may bring Jesse A. with him.
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The castle at Carmarthen was destroyed by burning. The much stronger castle at Pembroke, however, fell only after a siege of eight weeks. .Cromwell dealt leniently with the ex-royalist soldiers, less so with those who had previously been members of the parliamentary army, with John Poyer eventually being executed in London after the drawing of lots.^ Cromwell:_ Whoever heard that heard history being made, John.
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[32]
Cromwell then marched north to deal with a pro-Royalist Scottish army (the Engagers) who had invaded England. At Preston, Cromwell, in sole command for the first time with an army of 9,000, won a brilliant victory against an army twice that size.[33]
.During 1648, Cromwell's letters and speeches started to become heavily based on biblical imagery, many of them meditations on the meaning of particular passages.^ Oliver Cromwell’s letters and speeches : with elucidations .
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^ MARS: Oliver Cromwell’s letters and speeches : with elucidations .
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.For example, after the battle of Preston, study of Psalms 17 and 105 led him to tell Parliament that "they that are implacable and will not leave troubling the land may be speedily destroyed out of the land". A letter to Oliver St John in September 1648 urged him to read Isaiah 8, in which the kingdom falls and only the godly survive.^ Thanks Oliver for letter, and congratulates him on joining militia company.
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.This letter suggests that it was Cromwell's faith, rather than a commitment to radical politics, coupled with Parliament's decision to engage in negotiations with the king at the Treaty of Newport, that convinced him that God had spoken against both the king and Parliament as lawful authorities.^ Cromwell:_ Brethren in God, at the end of another day's labour we are met to praise Him from whom are the means to labour and its rewards.
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^ Cromwell:_ I can disabuse rumour about Scotland, I can persuade Parliament about the Presbytery, I can convince the army of your good faith as to tolerance, if you will but give me the word.
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^ The King should have his authority, but it is an authority subject to the laws of the people.
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For Cromwell, the army was now God's chosen instrument.[34] .The episode shows Cromwell’s firm belief in "Providentialism"—that God was actively directing the affairs of the world, through the actions of "chosen people" (whom God had "provided" for such purposes).^ Cromwell:_ Brethren in God, at the end of another day's labour we are met to praise Him from whom are the means to labour and its rewards.
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.Cromwell believed, during the Civil Wars, that he was one of these people, and he interpreted victories as indications of God's approval of his actions, and defeats as signs that God was directing him in another direction.^ Cromwell:_ Brethren in God, at the end of another day's labour we are met to praise Him from whom are the means to labour and its rewards.
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^ Outside in the night the Puritan troops are heard singing the One Hundred and Seventeenth Psalm: "O praise the Lord, all ye nations: praise him, all ye people.
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^ Cromwell:_ These rights of pasture belong to the people.
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King tried and executed

The trial of Charles I on January 4, 1649.
In December 1648, those MPs who wished to continue negotiations with the king were prevented from sitting by a troop of soldiers headed by Colonel Thomas Pride, an episode soon to be known as Pride's Purge. Thus gerrymandered, the remaining body of MPs, known as the Rump, agreed that Charles should be tried on a charge of treason. .Cromwell was still in the north of England, dealing with Royalist resistance when these events took place.^ Places > Europe > England > North Yorkshire .
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.However, after he returned to London, on the day after Pride's Purge, he became a determined supporter of those pushing for the king's trial and execution.^ The morning of January 30, 1649, the day of the King's execution._ _Outside the window can be seen the grey winter gloom, brightened by fallen snow.
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He believed that killing Charles was the only way to end the civil wars. The death warrant for Charles was eventually signed by 59 of the trying court's members, including Cromwell (who was the third to sign it); Fairfax conspicuously refused to sign. Charles was executed on 30 January 1649.

Establishment of the Commonwealth: 1649

Commonwealth Coat of Arms. 1649 - 1660
After the execution of the King, a republic was declared, known as the Commonwealth of England. The Rump Parliament exercised both executive and legislative powers, with a smaller Council of State also having some executive functions. Cromwell remained a member of the Rump and was appointed a member of the Council. In the early months after the execution of Charles I, Cromwell tried but failed to unite the original group of 'Royal Independents' centred around St John and Saye and Sele, which had fractured during 1648. Cromwell had been connected to this group since before the outbreak of war in 1642 and had been closely associated with them during the 1640s. However, only St John was persuaded to retain his seat in Parliament. The Royalists, meanwhile, had regrouped in Ireland, having signed a treaty with the Irish Confederate Catholics. In March, Cromwell was chosen by the Rump to command a campaign against them. Preparations for an invasion of Ireland occupied Cromwell in the subsequent months. After quelling Leveller mutinies within the English army at Andover and Burford in May, Cromwell departed for Ireland from Bristol at the end of July.

Irish campaign: 1649–1650

Cromwell led a Parliamentary invasion of Ireland from 1649–50. Parliament's key opposition was the military threat posed by the alliance of the Irish Confederate Catholics and English royalists (signed in 1649). The Confederate-Royalist alliance was judged to be the biggest single threat facing the Commonwealth. However, the political situation in Ireland in 1649 was extremely fractured: there were also separate forces of Irish Catholics who were opposed to the royalist alliance, and Protestant royalist forces that were gradually moving towards Parliament. Cromwell said in a speech to the army Council on 23 March that "I had rather be overthrown by a Cavalierish interest than a Scotch interest; I had rather be overthrown by a Scotch interest than an Irish interest and I think of all this is the most dangerous".[35]
Cromwell's hostility to the Irish was religious as well as political. He was passionately opposed to the Roman Catholic Church, which he saw as denying the primacy of the Bible in favour of papal and clerical authority, and which he blamed for suspected tyranny and persecution of Protestants in Europe.[36] Cromwell's association of Catholicism with persecution was deepened with the Irish Rebellion of 1641. This rebellion, although intended to be bloodless, was marked by massacres of English and Scottish Protestant settlers by Irish and Old English, and Gallowglass Scot Catholics in Ireland (these settlers had settled on land seized from former, native Catholic owners to make way for the non-native Protestants). These factors contributed to Cromwell's harshness in his military campaign in Ireland.[37]
Parliament had planned to re-conquer Ireland since 1641 and had already sent an invasion force there in 1647. Cromwell's invasion of 1649 was much larger and, with the civil war in England over, could be regularly reinforced and re-supplied. His nine month military campaign was brief and effective, though it did not end the war in Ireland. Before his invasion, Parliamentarian forces held only outposts in Dublin and Derry. When he departed Ireland, they occupied most of the eastern and northern parts of the country. After his landing at Dublin on 15 August 1649 (itself only recently defended from an Irish and English Royalist attack at the battle of Rathmines), Cromwell took the fortified port towns of Drogheda and Wexford to secure logistical supply from England. .At the siege of Drogheda in September 1649, Cromwell's troops massacred nearly 3,500 people after the town's capture—comprising around 2,700 Royalist soldiers and all the men in the town carrying arms, including some civilians, prisoners, and Roman Catholic priests.^ I would have you send a summons to all the people of this town and countryside.
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^ Cromwell:_ Oliver, boy, you were quite right--all that you said to those men, I mean.
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^ Cromwell:_ That is an aim of mine--to find all men of worth and learning and genius--to give them due employment.
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[38] Cromwell wrote afterwards that:
."I am persuaded that this is a righteous judgment of God upon these barbarous wretches, who have imbued their hands in so much innocent blood and that it will tend to prevent the effusion of blood for the future, which are satisfactory grounds for such actions, which otherwise cannot but work remorse and regret."^ Teach those who look too much upon Thy instrument to depend more upon Thyself.
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[39]
At the Siege of Wexford in October, another massacre took place under confused circumstances. .While Cromwell was apparently trying to negotiate surrender terms, some of his soldiers broke into the town, massacred 2,000 Irish troops and up to 1,500 civilians, and burned much of the town.^ The Scout:_ General Cromwell is riding into the field with his Ironsides, sir, some six hundred strong.
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[40] The size of this force must have been substantial in order to defeat 2000 troops, which casts doubt on the claim of sincere negotiation on behalf of Cromwell. It is notable that no disciplinary actions were taken against his forces subsequent to this second massacre.
After the massacre of Drogheda, Cromwell sent a column north to Ulster to secure the north of the country and went on to besiege Waterford, Kilkenny and Clonmel in Ireland's south-east. .Kilkenny surrendered on terms, as did many other towns like New Ross and Carlow, but Cromwell failed to take Waterford and at the siege of Clonmel in May 1650, he lost up to 2,000 men in abortive assaults before the town surrendered.^ And I know there are many other honest men of this same resolution.
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^ Fairfax_ (taking his seat, CROMWELL and the others also at the table): The battle is set.
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^ (He takes a drawing from the drawer in front of him and places it before Cromwell, on the case of papers.
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[41] One of his major victories in Ireland was diplomatic rather than military. With the help of Roger Boyle, 1st Earl of Orrery, Cromwell persuaded the Protestant Royalist troops in Cork to change sides and fight with the Parliament[42] At this point, word reached Cromwell that Charles II had landed in Scotland and been proclaimed king by the Covenanter regime. .Cromwell therefore returned to England from Youghal on 26 May 1650 to counter this threat.^ Cromwell:_ May England prosper by you.
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[43]
The Parliamentarian conquest of Ireland dragged on for almost three years after Cromwell's departure. .The campaigns under Cromwell's successors Henry Ireton and Edmund Ludlow mostly consisted of long sieges of fortified cities and guerrilla warfare in the countryside.^ Cromwell:_ Will you give me my shawl, Henry Ireton.
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^ Cromwell:_ Now, Henry Ireton, these gentlemen may be bears, but I won't have you make this room into a bear-pit.
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The last Catholic held town, Galway, surrendered in April 1652 and the last Irish troops capitulated in April of the following year.[41]
In the wake of the Commonwealth's conquest, the public practice of Catholicism was banned and Catholic priests were murdered when captured. In addition, roughly 12,000 Irish people were sold into slavery under the Commonwealth.[44] All Catholic-owned land was confiscated in the Act for the Settlement of Ireland 1652 and given to Scottish and English settlers, the Parliament's financial creditors and Parliamentary soldiers. The remaining Catholic landowners were allocated poorer land in the province of Connacht - this led to the Cromwellian attributed phrase "To hell or to Connacht". Under the Commonwealth, Catholic landownership dropped from 60% of the total to just 8%.

Debate over Cromwell's effect on Ireland

The extent of Cromwell's brutality[45][46] in Ireland has been strongly debated. Some historians argue that Cromwell never accepted that he was responsible for the killing of civilians in Ireland, claiming that he had acted harshly, but only against those "in arms".[47] Other historians, however, cite Cromwell's contemporary reports to London including that of 27th September 1649 in which he lists the slaying of 3,000 military personnel, followed by the phrase "and many inhabitants".[48] In September 1649, he justified his sack of Drogheda as revenge for the massacres of Protestant settlers in Ulster in 1641, calling the massacre "the righteous judgement of God on these barbarous wretches, who have imbued their hands with so much innocent blood."[38] However, Drogheda had never been held by the rebels in 1641—many of its garrison were in fact English royalists. On the other hand, the worst atrocities committed in Ireland, such as mass evictions, killings and deportation of over 50,000 men, women and children for indentured labour[49] to Bermuda and Barbados, were carried out under the command of other generals after Cromwell had left for England.[50] .On entering Ireland, Cromwell demanded that no supplies were to be seized from the civilian inhabitants, and that everything should be fairly purchased; "I do hereby warn....all Officers, Soldiers and others under my command not to do any wrong or violence toward Country People or any persons whatsoever, unless they be actually in arms or office with the enemy.....as they shall answer to the contrary at their utmost peril."^ Let a man think as he will, but he shall command no other man to think it.
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^ Why else have you appointed my Lord of Essex from Parliament to take command of the armed forces of this country?
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^ The Project Gutenberg EBook of Oliver Cromwell, by John Drinkwater This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever.
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Several English soldiers were hanged for disobeying these orders.[51]
.While the massacres at Drogheda and Wexford were in some ways typical of the day, especially in the context of the recently ended Thirty Years War[52] which reduced the male population of Germany by up to half, there are few comparable incidents during Parliament's campaigns in England or Scotland.^ (Again there is tumult, during which the SPEAKER leaves his chair and the House; and the session breaks up, the members leaving in passionate discussion.
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^ Quotes from Seward’s conversation, relating politics being ended during the war.
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^ But I think the issue was there decided, some few of us there learning what must now be done.
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.One possible comparison is Cromwell's siege of Basing House in 1645 - the seat of the prominent Catholic the Marquess of Winchester - which resulted in about 300 of the garrison of 1,200 being killed after being refused quarter.^ Cromwell:_ And that's three of you in one house.
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^ (The House divides, the Yeas, including CROMWELL, HAMPDEN, and IRETON, leaving the House, the Noes remaining seated.
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Contemporaries also reported civilian casualties. However, the scale of the deaths at Basing House was much smaller.[53] Cromwell himself said of the slaughter at Drogheda in his first letter back to the Council of State: "I believe we put to the sword the whole number of the defendants. I do not think thirty of the whole number escaped with their lives."[54] Cromwell's orders — "in the heat of the action, I forbade them to spare any that were in arms in the town" — followed a request for surrender at the start of the siege, which was refused. The military protocol of the day was that a town or garrison that rejected the chance to surrender was not entitled to quarter.[55] The refusal of the garrison at Drogheda to do this, even after the walls had been breached, was to Cromwell justification for the massacre.[56] Where Cromwell negotiated the surrender of fortified towns, as at Carlow, New Ross, and Clonmel, he respected the terms of surrender and protected the lives and property of the townspeople.[57] At Wexford, Cromwell again began negotiations for surrender. However, the captain of Wexford castle surrendered during the middle of the negotiations, and in the confusion some of his troops began indiscriminate killing and looting.[58] Amateur[59] Irish historian (and Drogheda native) Tom Reilly has taken this argument further, claiming that the accepted versions of the campaigns in Drogheda and Wexford in which wholesale killings of civilians on Cromwell's orders took place "were a 19th century fiction".[51] However, Reilly's conclusions have been rejected by other scholars.[60][61][62]
Although Cromwell's time spent on campaign in Ireland was limited, and although he did not take on executive powers until 1653, he is often the central focus of wider debates about whether, as historians such as Mark Levene and John Morrill suggest, the Commonwealth conducted a deliberate programme of ethnic cleansing in Ireland.[63] By the end of the Cromwellian campaign and settlement there had been extensive dispossession of landowners who were Catholic, and a huge drop in population.[64]
The sieges of Drogheda and Wexford have been prominently mentioned in histories and literature up to the present day. James Joyce, for example, mentioned Drogheda in his novel Ulysses: "What about sanctimonious Cromwell and his ironsides that put the women and children of Drogheda to the sword with the bible text God is love pasted round the mouth of his cannon?" Similarly, Winston Churchill described the impact of Cromwell on Anglo-Irish relations:
...upon all of these Cromwell's record was a lasting bane. By an uncompleted process of terror, by an iniquitous land settlement, by the virtual proscription of the Catholic religion, by the bloody deeds already described, he cut new gulfs between the nations and the creeds. .'Hell or Connaught' were the terms he thrust upon the native inhabitants, and they for their part, across three hundred years, have used as their keenest expression of hatred 'The Curse of Cromwell on you.' ...^ Cromwell:_ It's nearly a year since they made you Protector, then.
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^ Cromwell:_ And that's three of you in one house.
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^ They both shake hands with MRS. CROMWELL.) _Hampden:_ How do you do, ma'am?
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Upon all of us there still lies 'the curse of Cromwell'."[65]
Cromwell is still a figure of hatred in Ireland, his name being associated with massacre, religious persecution, and mass dispossession of the Catholic community there. As Churchill notes, a traditional Irish curse was malacht Cromail ort or "the curse of Cromwell upon you".
The key surviving statement of Cromwell's own views on the conquest of Ireland is his Declaration of the lord lieutenant of Ireland for the undeceiving of deluded and seduced people of January 1650.[66] In this he was scathing about Catholicism, saying that "I shall not, where I have the power... suffer the exercise of the Mass."[67] However, he also declared that: "as for the people, what thoughts they have in the matter of religion in their own breasts I cannot reach; but I shall think it my duty, if they walk honestly and peaceably, not to cause them in the least to suffer for the same."[67] Private soldiers who surrendered their arms "and shall live peaceably and honestly at their several homes, they shall be permitted so to do."[68] .As with many incidents in Cromwell's career, there is debate about the extent of his sincerity in making these public statements: the Rump Parliament's later Act of Settlement of 1652 set out a much harsher policy of execution and confiscation of property of anyone who had supported the uprisings.^ Cromwell:_ There's to be no yielding about that.
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^ Cromwell:_ There is a boy, Seth Tanner, we have a care for.
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^ Cromwell:_ Now, Henry Ireton, these gentlemen may be bears, but I won't have you make this room into a bear-pit.
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Scottish campaign: 1650–1651

Scots proclaim Charles as King

Cromwell left Ireland in May 1650 and several months later, invaded Scotland after the Scots had proclaimed Charles I's son as Charles II. Cromwell was much less hostile to Scottish Presbyterians, some of whom had been his allies in the First English Civil War, than he was to Irish Catholics. He described the Scots as a people fearing His [God's] name, though deceived".[69] He made a famous appeal to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, urging them to see the error of the royal alliance—"I beseech you, in the bowels of Christ, think it possible you may be mistaken."[70] The Scots' reply was robust: "would you have us to be sceptics in our religion?" This decision to negotiate with Charles II led Cromwell to believe that war was necessary.[71]

Battle of Dunbar

His appeal rejected, Cromwell's veteran troops went on to invade Scotland. At first, the campaign went badly, as Cromwell's men were short of supplies and held up at fortifications manned by Scottish troops under David Leslie. Cromwell was on the brink of evacuating his army by sea from Dunbar. However, on 3 September 1650, in an unexpected battle, Cromwell smashed the main Covenanter army at the Battle of Dunbar, killing 4,000 Scottish soldiers, taking another 10,000 prisoner and then capturing the Scottish capital of Edinburgh.[72] The victory was of such a magnitude that Cromwell called it, "A high act of the Lord's Providence to us [and] one of the most signal mercies God hath done for England and His people".[72]

Battle of Worcester

The following year, Charles II and his Scottish allies made a desperate attempt to invade England and capture London while Cromwell was engaged in Scotland. Cromwell followed them south and caught them at Worcester on 3 September 1651. At the subsequent Battle of Worcester, Cromwell's forces destroyed the last major Scottish Royalist army. .Charles II barely escaped capture, and subsequently fled to exile in France and the Netherlands, where he would remain until 1660.[73] Many of the Scottish prisoners of war taken in the campaigns died of disease, and others were sent to penal colonies in Barbados.^ He became subagent at Yainax in 1871, where he remained until the outbreak of the Modoc War.
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Scottish campaign concluded

In the final stages of the Scottish campaign, Cromwell's men, under George Monck, sacked the town of Dundee, killing up to 2,000 of its population of 12,000 and destroying the 60 ships in the city's harbour.[74] During the Commonwealth, Scotland was ruled from England, and was kept under military occupation, with a line of fortifications sealing off the Highlands, which had provided manpower for Royalist armies in Scotland, from the rest of the country. .The north west Highlands was the scene of another pro-royalist uprising in 1653-55, which was only put down with deployment of 6,000 English troops there.^ Tell him to keep three troops of horse four miles down the Leicester road there.
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[75] Presbyterianism was allowed to be practised as before, but the Kirk (the Scottish church) did not have the backing of the civil courts to impose its rulings, as it had previously.[76]
Cromwell's conquest, unwelcome as it was, left no significant lasting legacy of bitterness in Scotland. The rule of the Commonwealth and Protectorate was, the Highlands aside, largely peaceful. Moreover, there was no wholesale confiscations of land or property. Three out of every four Justices of the Peace in Commonwealth Scotland were Scots and the country was governed jointly by the English military authorities and a Scottish Council of State.[77] Although not often favourably regarded, Cromwell's name rarely meets the hatred in Scotland that it does in Ireland.

Return to England and dissolution of the Rump Parliament: 1651–1653

Cromwell dissolving the Long Parliament, by Andrew Carrick Gow
From the middle of 1649 until 1651, Cromwell was away on campaign. In the meantime, with the king gone (and with him their common cause), the various factions in Parliament began to engage in infighting. On his return, Cromwell tried to galvanise the Rump into setting dates for new elections, uniting the three kingdoms under one polity, and to put in place a broad-brush, tolerant national church. However, the Rump vacillated in setting election dates, and although it put in place a basic liberty of conscience, it failed to produce an alternative for tithes or dismantle other aspects of the existing religious settlement. In frustration, in April 1653 Cromwell demanded that the Rump establish a caretaker government of 40 members (drawn both from the Rump and the army) and then abdicate. However, the Rump returned to debating its own bill for a new government.[78] Cromwell was so angered by this that on 20 April 1653, supported by about forty musketeers, he cleared the chamber and dissolved the Parliament by force. .Several accounts exist of this incident: in one, Cromwell is supposed to have said "you are no Parliament, I say you are no Parliament; I will put an end to your sitting".[79] At least two accounts agree that Cromwell snatched up the mace, symbol of Parliament's power, and demanded that the "bauble" be taken away.^ Says no school at present, the school master having moved to Eugene, but that Gallaher is setting up a school house between Jim and Putnam’s.
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[80] .Cromwell's troops were commanded by Charles Worsley, later one of his Major Generals and one of his most trusted advisors, to whom he entrusted the mace.^ General Cromwell and his chosen troops have that, and experience; none like them.
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^ Then the cavalry--you have one wing, Ireton, or you must command all, since General Cromwell is not come.
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The establishment of Barebone's Parliament: 1653

After the dissolution of the Rump, power passed temporarily to a council that debated what form the constitution should take. They took up the suggestion of Major-General Thomas Harrison for a "sanhedrin" of saints. Although Cromwell did not subscribe to Harrison's apocalyptic, Fifth Monarchist beliefs – which saw a sanhedrin as the starting point for Christ's rule on earth – he was attracted by the idea of an assembly made up of men chosen for their religious credentials. .In his speech at the opening of the assembly on 4 July 1653, Cromwell thanked God’s providence that he believed had brought England to this point and set out their divine mission: "truly God hath called you to this work by, I think, as wonderful providences as ever passed upon the sons of men in so short a time."^ Cromwell:_ Thank you, Seth.
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^ Cromwell:_ No, thank you.
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^ Cromwell:_ I call you to witness.
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[81] Sometimes known as the Parliament of Saints or more commonly the Nominated Assembly, it was also called the Barebone's Parliament after one of its members, Praise-God Barbon. The assembly was tasked with finding a permanent constitutional and religious settlement (Cromwell was invited to be a member but declined). .However, the revelation that a considerably larger segment of the membership than had been believed were the radical Fifth Monarchists led to its members voting to dissolve it on 12 December 1653, out of fear of what the radicals might do if they took control of the Assembly.^ Says the State Republican has been “sold out.” Says Bush’s course is condemned by all except Stratton, who fears Bush more than God.
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^ Reports baby Ann better, and believes they might come down before threshing is done.
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[82]

The Protectorate: 1653–1658

Royal styles of
Oliver Cromwell
Lord Protector of the Commonwealth
Commonwealth Arms.svg
Reference style His Highness
Spoken style Your Highness
Alternative style Sir
.After the dissolution of the Barebones Parliament, John Lambert put forward a new constitution known as the Instrument of Government, closely modelled on the Heads of Proposals.^ If we assert ourselves as in this instrument, we but put the King in the way of just government.
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^ Only don't you and John come putting more notions into Oliver's head.
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.It made Cromwell Lord Protector for life to undertake “the chief magistracy and the administration of government”.^ Cromwell:_ It's nearly a year since they made you Protector, then.
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Cromwell was sworn in as Lord Protector on 16 December 1653, with a ceremony in which he wore plain black clothing, rather than any monarchical regalia.[83] .However, from this point on Cromwell signed his name 'Oliver P', standing for Oliver Protector - in a similar style to that used by English monarchs - and it soon became the norm for others to address him as "Your highness".[84] As Protector, he had the power to call and dissolve parliaments but was obliged under the Instrument to seek the majority vote of a Council of State.^ The Project Gutenberg EBook of Oliver Cromwell, by John Drinkwater This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever.
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^ Let the intrigues of Parliament with the army and its leaders--notably Oliver Cromwell--to the peril of the Church and the King, stand to the world in justification.
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Nevertheless, Cromwell's power was buttressed by his continuing popularity among the army. As the Lord Protector he was paid £100,000 a year.[85]
Cromwell had two key objectives as Lord Protector. The first was "healing and settling" the nation after the chaos of the civil wars and the regicide, which meant establishing a stable form for the new government to take.[86] .Although Cromwell declared to the first Protectorate Parliament that, "Government by one man and a parliament is fundamental," in practice social priorities took precedence over forms of government.^ Cromwell:_ Surely you are not well advised to turn off one so faithful to the cause, and so able to serve you as this man is.
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^ Cromwell:_ Parliament and the army are at one in asking for constitutional safeguards.
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Such forms were, he said, "but... dross and dung in comparison of Christ".[87] The social priorities did not, despite the revolutionary nature of the government, include any meaningful attempt to reform the social order. Cromwell declared, "A nobleman, a gentleman, a yeoman; the distinction of these: that is a good interest of the nation, and a great one!",[88] Small-scale reform such as that carried out on the judicial system were outweighed by attempts to restore order to English politics. Direct taxation was reduced slightly and peace was made with the Dutch, ending the First Anglo-Dutch War.
England's American colonies in this period consisted of the New England Confederation, the Providence Plantation, the Virginia Colony and the Maryland Colony. Cromwell soon secured the submission of these and largely left them to their own affairs, intervening only to curb his fellow Puritans who were usurping control over the Maryland Colony, by his confirming the former Catholic proprietorship and edict of tolerance there. Of all the English dominions, Virginia was the most resentful of Cromwell's rule, and Cavalier emigration there mushroomed during the Protectorate.
Cromwell famously stressed the quest to restore order in his speech to the first Protectorate parliament at its inaugural meeting on 3 September 1654. He declared that "healing and settling" were the "great end of your meeting".[89] However, the Parliament was quickly dominated by those pushing for more radical, properly republican reforms. .After some initial gestures approving appointments previously made by Cromwell, the Parliament began to work on a radical programme of constitutional reform.^ Cromwell:_ Parliament and the army are at one in asking for constitutional safeguards.
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Rather than opposing Parliament’s bill, Cromwell dissolved them on 22 January 1655.
Cromwell's signature before becoming Lord Protector in 1653, and afterwards. 'Oliver P', standing for Oliver Protector, echoes the similar style in which English monarchs had signed their names: for example, 'Elizabeth R' standing for Elizabeth Regina.
Cromwell's second objective was spiritual and moral reform. He aimed to restore liberty of conscience and promote both outward and inly godliness throughout England.[90] During the early months of the Protectorate, a set of "triers" was established to assess the suitability of future parish ministers, and a related set of "ejectors" was set up to dismiss ministers and schoolmasters who were deemed unsuitable for office. The triers and the ejectors were intended to be at the vanguard of Cromwell's reform of parish worship. This second objective is also the context in which to see the constitutional experiment of the Major Generals that followed the dissolution of the first Protectorate Parliament. .After a royalist uprising in March 1655, led by Sir John Penruddock, Cromwell (influenced by Lambert) divided England into military districts ruled by Army Major Generals who answered only to him.^ Cromwell:_ Is the army well rested, sir?
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^ The Scout:_ General Cromwell is riding into the field with his Ironsides, sir, some six hundred strong.
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^ Cromwell:_ Sir, this is a day when every man must speak the truth that is in him, or be silent in shame, and for ever.
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The 15 major generals and deputy major generals—called "godly governors"—were central not only to national security, but Cromwell's crusade to reform the nation's morals. .The generals not only supervised militia forces and security commissions, but collected taxes and ensured support for the government in the English and Welsh provinces.^ Volunteers and financial support to provide volunteers with the assistance they need, is critical to reaching Project Gutenberg-tm's goals and ensuring that the Project Gutenberg-tm collection will remain freely available for generations to come.
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Commissioners for securing the peace of the commonwealth were appointed to work with them in every county. While a few of these commissioners were career politicians, most were zealous puritans who welcomed the major-generals with open arms and embraced their work with enthusiasm. However, the major-generals lasted less than a year. Many feared they threatened their reform efforts and authority. .Their position was further harmed by a tax proposal by Major General John Desborough to provide financial backing for their work, which the second Protectorate parliament—instated in September 1656—voted down for fear of a permanent military state.^ In 2001, the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation was created to provide a secure and permanent future for Project Gutenberg-tm and future generations.
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^ If you received the work electronically, the person or entity providing it to you may choose to give you a second opportunity to receive the work electronically in lieu of a refund.
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Ultimately, however, Cromwell's failure to support his men, sacrificing them to his opponents, caused their demise. Their activities between November 1655 and September 1656 had, however, reopened the wounds of the 1640s and deepened antipathies to the regime.[91]
Half-Crown coin of Oliver Cromwell, 1658. The Latin inscription reads: OLIVAR.D.G.RP.ANG. - SCO.ET.HIB&cPRO (OLIVARIUS DEI GRATIA REIPUBLICAE ANGLIAE SCOTIAE ET HIBERNIAE ET CETERORUM PROTECTOR), meaning "Oliver, by the Grace of God Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland and other (territories)".
As Lord Protector, Cromwell was aware of the contribution the Jewish community made to the economic success of Holland, now England's leading commercial rival. .It was this—allied to Cromwell's toleration of the right to private worship of those who fell outside evangelical Puritanism—that led to his encouraging Jews to return to England in 1657, over 350 years after their banishment by Edward I, in the hope that they would help speed up the recovery of the country after the disruption of the Civil Wars.^ Intrigues with Scotland--there are none, we are assured, but if there were it would almost inevitably bring civil war again.
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^ Cromwell:_ Oliver, boy, you were quite right--all that you said to those men, I mean.
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[92]
In 1657, Cromwell was offered the crown by Parliament as part of a revised constitutional settlement, presenting him with a dilemma, since he had been "instrumental" in abolishing the monarchy. Cromwell agonised for six weeks over the offer. He was attracted by the prospect of stability it held out, but in a speech on 13 April 1657 he made clear that God's providence had spoken against the office of king: “I would not seek to set up that which Providence hath destroyed and laid in the dust, and I would not build Jericho again”.[93] The reference to Jericho harks back to a previous occasion on which Cromwell had wrestled with his conscience when the news reached England of the defeat of an expedition against the Spanish-held island of Hispaniola in the West Indies in 1655—comparing himself to Achan, who had brought the Israelites defeat after bringing plunder back to camp after the capture of Jericho.[94] .Instead, Cromwell was ceremonially re-installed as Lord Protector on 26 June 1657 (with greater powers than had previously been granted him under this title) at Westminster Hall, sitting upon King Edward's Chair which was specially moved from Westminster Abbey for the occasion.^ MRS. CROMWELL'S bedroom in Whitehall, where CROMWELL is now installed as Protector._ _MRS. CROMWELL, now aged ninety-four, is on her death-bed.
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The event in part echoed a coronation, utilising many of its symbols and regalia, such as a purple ermine-lined robe, a sword of justice and a sceptre (but not a crown or an orb). .But, most notably, the office of Lord Protector was still not to become hereditary, though Cromwell was now able to nominate his own successor.^ MRS. CROMWELL'S bedroom in Whitehall, where CROMWELL is now installed as Protector._ _MRS. CROMWELL, now aged ninety-four, is on her death-bed.
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Cromwell's new rights and powers were laid out in the Humble Petition and Advice, a legislative instrument which replaced the Instrument of Government. Despite failing to restore the Crown, this new constitution did set up many of the vestiges of the ancient constitution including a house of life peers (in place of the House of Lords). In the Humble Petition it was called the Other House as the Commons could not agree on a suitable name. Furthermore, Oliver Cromwell increasingly took on more of the trappings of monarchy. In particular, he created two baronages after the acceptance of the Humble Petition and Advice—Charles Howard was made Viscount Morpeth and Baron Gisland in July 1657 and Edmund Dunch was created Baron Burnell of East Wittenham in April 1658. Cromwell himself, however, was at pains to minimise his role, describing himself as a constable or watchman.

Death and posthumous execution

Oliver Cromwell's death mask at Warwick Castle
Cromwell is thought to have suffered from malaria (probably first contracted while on campaign in Ireland) and from "stone", a common term for urinary/kidney infections. In 1658 he was struck by a sudden bout of malarial fever, followed directly by illness symptomatic of a urinary or kidney complaint. A Venetian physician tracked Cromwell's final illness, saying Cromwell's personal physicians were mismanaging his health, leading to a rapid decline and death. The decline may also have been hastened by the death of his favourite daughter, Elizabeth Claypole, in August. He died aged 59 at Whitehall on Friday 3 September 1658, the anniversary of his great victories at Dunbar and Worcester.[95] The most likely cause of Cromwell's death was septicaemia following his urinary infection. He was buried with great ceremony, with an elaborate funeral based on that of James I, at Westminster Abbey, his daughter Elizabeth also being buried there.[96]
He was succeeded as Lord Protector by his son Richard. Although Richard was not entirely without ability, he had no power base in either Parliament or the Army, and was forced to resign in May 1659, ending the Protectorate. .There was no clear leadership from the various factions that jostled for power during the short lived reinstated Commonwealth, so George Monck, the English governor of Scotland, at the head of New Model Army regiments was able to march on London, and restore the Long Parliament.^ Cromwell:_ There could be no safety or hope while he lived.
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Under Monck's watchful eye the necessary constitutional adjustments were made so that in 1660 Charles II could be invited back from exile to be king under a restored monarchy.
Plaque commemorating the reinterment of Cromwell's head at Sidney Sussex College
In 1661, Oliver Cromwell's body was exhumed from Westminster Abbey, and was subjected to the ritual of a posthumous execution, as were the remains of John Bradshaw and Henry Ireton. (The body of Cromwell's daughter was allowed to remain buried in the Abbey.) .Symbolically, this took place on 30 January; the same date that Charles I had been executed.^ The morning of January 30, 1649, the day of the King's execution._ _Outside the window can be seen the grey winter gloom, brightened by fallen snow.
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His body was hanged in chains at Tyburn. .Finally, his disinterred body was thrown into a pit, while his severed head was displayed on a pole outside Westminster Hall until 1685. Ironically the Cromwell vault was then used as a burial place for Charles II’s illegitimate descendants.^ The King,--not the head of the state, mark you, expressing the people's will in one authority,--but this man Charles Rex, may use all these as he will.
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^ Cromwell:_ Now, Henry Ireton, these gentlemen may be bears, but I won't have you make this room into a bear-pit.
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[97] Afterwards the head changed hands several times, including the sale in 1814 to a man named Josiah Henry Wilkinson,[98][99] before eventually being buried in the grounds of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, in 1960.[100][101]

Political reputation

During his lifetime, some tracts painted him as a hypocrite motivated by power—for example, The Machiavilian Cromwell and The Juglers Discovered, both part of an attack on Cromwell by the Levellers after 1647, present him as a Machiavellian figure.[102] More positive contemporary assessments—for instance, John Spittlehouse in A Warning Piece Discharged — typically compared him to Moses, rescuing the English by taking them safely through the Red Sea of the civil wars.[103] Several biographies were published soon after his death. .An example is The Perfect Politician, which described how Cromwell "loved men more than books" and gave a nuanced assessment of him as an energetic campaigner for liberty of conscience brought down by pride and ambition.^ Cromwell:_ Men will pity him.
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^ Fairfax:_ Since we lack General Cromwell, more depends on you, Ireton, than on any man, perhaps.
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^ Cromwell:_ You can't pretend he'll make him more temperate.
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[104] An equally nuanced but less positive assessment was published in 1667 by Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon, in his History of the Rebellion and Civil Wars in England. .Clarendon famously declared that Cromwell "will be looked upon by posterity as a brave bad man".[105] He argued that Cromwell's rise to power had been helped not only by his great spirit and energy, but also by his ruthlessness.^ Sir, this country, the spirit of man in this country, has suffered grievances too great to be borne.
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Clarendon was not one of Cromwell's confidantes, and his account was written after the Restoration of the monarchy.[105]
During the early eighteenth century, Cromwell's image began to be adopted and reshaped by the Whigs, as part of a wider project to give their political objectives historical legitimacy. A version of Edmund Ludlow’s Memoirs, re-written by John Toland to excise the radical Puritanical elements and replace them with a Whiggish brand of republicanism, presented the Cromwellian Protectorate as a military tyranny. Through Ludlow, Toland portrayed Cromwell as a despot who crushed the beginnings of democratic rule in the 1640s.[106]
During the early nineteenth century, Cromwell began to be adopted by Romantic artists and poets. Thomas Carlyle continued this reassessment of Cromwell in the 1840s by presenting him as a hero in the battle between good and evil and a model for restoring morality to an age that Carlyle believed to have been dominated by timidity, meaningless rhetoric, and moral compromise. Cromwell's actions, including his campaigns in Ireland and his dissolution of the Long Parliament, according to Carlyle, had to be appreciated and praised as a whole.
By the late nineteenth century, Carlyle's portrayal of Cromwell, stressing the centrality of puritan morality and earnestness, had become assimilated into Whig and Liberal historiography. .The Oxford civil war historian Samuel Rawson Gardiner concluded that "the man—it is ever so with the noblest—was greater than his work".[107] Gardiner stressed Cromwell’s dynamic and mercurial character, and his role in dismantling absolute monarchy, while underestimating Cromwell’s religious conviction.^ Fairfax:_ Since we lack General Cromwell, more depends on you, Ireton, than on any man, perhaps.
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[108] Cromwell’s foreign policy also provided an attractive forerunner of Victorian imperial expansion, with Gardiner stressing his “constancy of effort to make England great by land and sea”.[109]
During the first half of the twentieth century, Cromwell's reputation was often influenced by the rise of fascism in Germany and Italy. Wilbur Cortez Abbott, for example—a Harvard historian—devoted much of his career to compiling and editing a multi-volume collection of Cromwell's letters and speeches. In this work, which was published between 1937 and 1947, Abbott began to argue that Cromwell was a proto-fascist. However, subsequent historians such as John Morrill have criticised both Abbott's interpretation of Cromwell and his editorial approach.[110] Ernest Barker similarly compared the Independents to the Nazis. Nevertheless, not all historical comparisons made at this time drew on contemporary military dictators.
Late twentieth century historians have re-examined the nature of Cromwell's faith and of his authoritarian regime. Austin Woolrych explored the issue of "dictatorship" in depth, arguing that Cromwell was subject to two conflicting forces: his obligation to the army and his desire to achieve a lasting settlement by winning back the confidence of the political nation as a whole. Woolrych argued that the dictatorial elements of Cromwell's rule stemmed not so much from its military origins or the participation of army officers in civil government, as from his constant commitment to the interest of the people of God and his conviction that suppressing vice and encouraging virtue constituted the chief end of government.[111]
Historians such as John Morrill, Blair Worden and J. C. Davis have developed this theme, revealing the extent to which Cromwell’s writing and speeches are suffused with biblical references, and arguing that his radical actions were driven by his zeal for godly reformation.[112]

Monuments

1899 Statue of Cromwell by Hamo Thornycroft outside the Palace of Westminster, London
  • In Westminster Abbey the site of Cromwell’s burial was marked, during the 19th century, by a floor stone, laid in what is now the Air Force Chapel, reading “THE BURIAL PLACE OF OLIVER CROMWELL 1658–1661[113]
  • In 1875, a statue of Cromwell by Matthew Noble was erected in Manchester outside the cathedral, a gift to the city by Mrs Abel Heywood in memory of her first husband.[114] It was the first such large-scale statue to be erected in the open anywhere in England and was a realistic likeness, based on the painting by Peter Lely and showing Cromwell in battledress with drawn sword and leather body armour. The statue was unpopular with the local Conservatives and with the large Irish immigrant population alike. When Queen Victoria was invited to open the new Manchester Town Hall, she is alleged to have consented on condition that the statue of Cromwell be removed. The statue remained, Victoria declined, and the Town Hall was opened by the Lord Mayor. During the 1980s the statue was more appropriately relocated outside Wythenshawe Hall, which had been occupied by Cromwell and his troops.[115]
  • During the 1890s plans to erect a statue of Cromwell outside Parliament caused considerable controversy. Pressure from the Irish Nationalist Party[116] forced the withdrawal of a motion to seek public funding for the project and eventually it was funded privately by Lord Rosebery.[117] In 2008 the statue was restored to mark the 350th anniversary of Cromwell’s death.[118]
  • A statue of Cromwell also stands outside The Academy in Bridge Street, Warrington,[119] an historic building which is now home to the Warrington Guardian newspaper. .Cromwell fought the battle of Warrington Bridge against Scottish Royalists in the town in 1648.
  • As First Lord of the Admiralty before the First World War, Winston Churchill suggested naming a British battleship HMS Oliver Cromwell.^ Let the intrigues of Parliament with the army and its leaders--notably Oliver Cromwell--to the peril of the Church and the King, stand to the world in justification.
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    ^ First Agent:_ Is this Mr. Oliver Cromwell's?
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    The suggestion did not meet with royal approval.[120]
  • In 1940 “Cromwell” was the codeword warning that German invasion of Britain was imminent.

In popular culture

Bust of Cromwell, Guildhall Art Gallery
  • Cromwell’s adoption by the French Romantic movement was typified by Victor Hugo’s 1827 play Cromwell, often considered to be symbolic of the French romantic movement, which represents Cromwell as a ruthless yet dynamic Romantic hero. .A similar impression of a world-changing individual with a strong will and personality was provided in 1831 in the picture by French artist Hippolyte Delaroche, depicting the legendary visit by Cromwell to the body of Charles I after the King’s execution.
  • 1970 saw the release of the Ken Hughes film Cromwell starring Richard Harris in the leading role.^ Let the intrigues of Parliament with the army and its leaders--notably Oliver Cromwell--to the peril of the Church and the King, stand to the world in justification.
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    To Kill a King, a film of 2003 focussed on the relationship between Dougray Scott as Fairfax and Tim Roth as Cromwell, with Rupert Everett as King Charles I. .Jack Shepherd’s 2004 play Through a Cloud, set in 1656, imagines a meeting between Cromwell and John Milton.
  • Cromwell has also appeared in popular song, such as:
  • Oliver Cromwell, played by Dominic West, is one of the main characters in the 2008 Channel 4 TV miniseries The Devil's Whore.
  • Popular Australian fantasy author Kate Forsyth's made Oliver Cromwell in her series The Chain of Charms.
  • Protagonist “Alucard” of the Japanese manga, Hellsing, refers to his power limitation system as the Cromwell Authorization System.
  • In the The Adventures of Luther Arkwright, a comic book fantasy adventure spanning countless alternative universes, modern day England is a fascist theocracy ruled by a descendant of Cromwell.
  • Orson Scott Card’s alternate historical fantasy novel series The Tales of Alvin Maker diverges from reality in that folk magic actually works, and because (unknown to him — he would’ve executed them for witchcraft had he known) at least one of his physicians had a healing “knack,” Cromwell did not die so young, so the English Restoration never happened, causing drastic alterations in the 19th Century North American setting of the series (e.g. there were four separate nations in the area occupied by the real United States of the time, only one of which had that name).^ Cromwell:_ Take him to our lodging, daughter.
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    ^ Cromwell:_ What time is John coming?
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    ^ Did you set it down?
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    Cromwell himself does not appear in the series.
  • “Cromwell Road” remains a popular street name in many British towns and cities, and towns in New Zealand and the United States have been named “Cromwell.”

Footnotes

  1. ^ "Ten greatest Britons chosen". BBC. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/tv_and_radio/2341661.stm. Retrieved 2008-11-27. 
  2. ^ genocidal or near-genocidal:
    • Breton Albert (ed). 1995, Nationalism and Rationality, Cambridge University Press, Chapter Regulating nations and ethnic communities by Brendam O'Leary and John McGarry p 248. "Oliver Cromwell offered the Irish Catholics a choice between genocide and forced mass population transfer. They could go 'To Hell or to Connaught!'"
    • Coogan Tim-Pat, . 2002. The Troubles: Ireland's Ordeal and the Search for Peace. ISBN 978-0312294182. Page 6. "The massacres by Catholics of Protestants, which occurred in the religious wars of the 1640s, were magnified for propagandist purposes to justify Cromwell's subsequent genocide."
    • Ellis, Peter Berresford. 2002. Eyewitness to Irish History. John Wiley & Sons Inc. Page 108. ISBN 978-0471266334. "It was to be the justification for Cromwell's genocidal campaign and settlement."
    • Levene Mark, 2005, Genocide in the Age of the Nation-State, I.B.Tauris: London: "Considered overall, an Irish population collapse from 1.5 or possibly over 2 million inhabitants at the onset of the Irish wars in 1641, to no more than 850,000 eleven years later represents an absolutely devastating demographic catastrophe. Undoubted the largest proportion of this massive death toll did not arise from direct massacre but from hunger and then bubonic plagues, especially from the outbreak between 1649 and 1652. Even so, the relationship to the worst years of the fighting is all too apparent.
      [The Act of Settlement of Ireland], and the parliamentary legislation which succeeded it the following year, is the nearest thing on paper in the English, and more broadly British, domestic record, to a programme of state-sanctioned and systematic ethnic cleansing of another people. The fact that it did not include 'total' genocide in its remit, or that it failed to put into practice the vast majority of its proposed expulsions, ultimately, however, says less about the lethal determination of its makers and more about the political, structural and financial weakness of the early modern English state. For instance, though the Act begins rather ominously by claiming that it was not its intention to extirpate the whole Irish nation, it then goes on to list five categories of people who, as participators in or alleged supporters of the 1641 rebellion and its aftermath, would automatically be forfeit of their lives. It has been suggested that as many as 100,000 people would have been liable under these headings. A further five categories - by implication an even larger body of 'passive' supporters of the rebellion - were to be spared their lives but not their property."
    • Levene, Mark. 2005. Genocide in the Age of the Nation State: Volume 2. Page 55, 56 & 57. A sample quote describes the Cromwellian campaign and settlement as "a conscious attempt to reduce a distinct ethnic population". ISBN 978-1845110574
    • Levene, Mark and Roberts Penny. 1999, The Massacre in History, Berghahn Books: Oxford: "Further evidence for a massacre-ridden civil war in Ireland appears to come from population figures. Though military and civilian deaths from civil war were not light in England or in Scotland, in neither country did war inflict a clear drop in population level. It was otherwise in Ireland. Up to 1641 the population had risen steadily: one million in 1500, 1.4 in 1600, 2.1 in 1641; but then there occurred a sharp fall so that numbers stood at 1.7 million by 1672. After this, renewed growth took the population to 2.2 million in 1687, and 2.8 in 1712. By far the greater part of this massive decline - some four hundred thousand people or 19% of the 1641 population - took place in the 1640s and 1650, and was the direct or indirect result of over a decade of warfare. Ireland's civil war death toll is comparable to the devastation suffered during the Second World War by countries such as the Soviet Union, Poland, or Yugoslavia, and suggests that the war-time massacres which so contributed to these horrific modern figures, also occurred in mid-seventeenth-century Ireland."
    • Lutz,James M and Lutz Brenda J, 2004. Global Terrorism, Routledge, London, p.193: "The draconian laws applied by Oliver Cromwell in Ireland were an early version of ethnic cleansing. The Catholic Irish were to be expelled to the northwestern areas of the island. Relocation rather than extermination was the goal."
    • O'Leary, Brendan, Callaghy Thomas M., Ian S. Lustick, 2001, Right-Sizing the State: The Politics of Moving Borders, Oxford University Press: "Ethnic expulsion is a right-peopling strategy, the intended, direct or indirect, forcible movement by state officials, or sanctioned paramilitaries, of the whole or part of a community from its current homeland, usually beyond the sovereign borders of the state. A population can also be forcibly 'repatriated', or pushed back towards its alleged 'homeland', as happened to blacks during the high tide of apartheid in South Africa. We may distinguish two paradigm forms: creating 'Serbian exiles', that is coerced transfers within a state or empire, and 'creating refugees', that is, the expulsion of populations beyond the sovereign border. Examples of the former include the treatment of indigenous peoples throughout the world; the Irish Catholics moved by Oliver Cromwell to Connaught during 1649-50 and after; and national minorities within the Soviet Union."
    • Stewart, Frances. War and Underdevelopment: Economic and Social Consequences of Conflict v. 1, (Queen Elizabeth House Series in Development Studies), Oxford University Press. 2000. "Faced with the prospect of an Irish alliance with Charles II, Cromwell carried out a series of massacres to subdue the Irish. Then, once Cromwell had returned to England, the English Commissary, General Henry Ireton, adopted a deliberate policy of crop burning and starvation, which was responsible for the majority of an estimated 600,000 deaths out of a total Irish population of 1,400,000."
    • Ethnic Cleansing of Ireland, International Institute of Social History Website (Based in the Netherlands), "Roman Catholic Irish were subdued to ethnic cleansing policy by Oliver Cromwell. After his suppression of a rebellion against the English in 1649 he ordered that the Irish were allowed to live west of the Shannon river only. During guerrilla warfare that followed thousands of Irish died or were sold as slaves to America. Cromwell had promised Irish land to the business investors and soldiers who had helped him perform his expeditions. The 'Act for the Attainder of the Rebels in Ireland' of 17 September 1656 is part of this programme. The land of rebels is attained and 'rebels' are defined in such a way that all Catholics match. By the end of 1656 four fifths of the Irish land was in Protestant hands."
  3. ^ "Of all these doings in Cromwell's Irish Chapter, each of us may say what he will. Yet to everyone it will at least be intelligible how his name came to be hated in the tenacious heart of Ireland". John Morley, Biography of Oliver Cromwell. Page 298. 1900 and 2001. ISBN 978-1421267074.; "Cromwell is still a hate figure in Ireland today because of the brutal effectiveness of his campaigns in Ireland. Of course, his victories in Ireland made him a hero in Protestant England." [1] British National Archives web site. Accessed March 2007; [2] From a history site dedicated to the English Civil War. "... making Cromwell's name into one of the most hated in Irish history". Accessed March 2007. Site currently offline. WayBack Machine holds archive here [3]
  4. ^  ; From the Channel 4 History site: [4] "Cromwell's name has always been execrated by Irish Catholics for the massacre at Drogheda. He is also hated for the transplanting of Protestant settlers to Ireland, a policy established in the reign of Elizabeth I." Accessed March 2007.
  5. ^ David Plant. "Oliver Cromwell 1599-1658". British-civil-wars.co.uk. http://www.british-civil-wars.co.uk/biog/oliver-cromwell.htm. Retrieved 2008-11-27. 
  6. ^ "Cromwell". Tudorplace.com.ar. http://www.tudorplace.com.ar/CROMWELL.htm. Retrieved 2008-11-27. 
  7. ^ Gaunt, p.31.
  8. ^ Speech to the First Protectorate Parliament, 4 September 1654, quoted in Roots, Ivan (1989). Speeches of Oliver Cromwell (Everyman's Classics), ISBN 0-460-01254-1, p.42.
  9. ^ British Civil Wars, Commonwealth and Proctectorate 1638-1660
  10. ^ Cromwell, Oliver in Venn, J. & J. A., Alumni Cantabrigienses, Cambridge University Press, 10 vols, 1922–1958.
  11. ^ Cromwell: Our Chief of Men, by Antonia Fraser, 1973, ISBN 0297765566, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, p. 24.
  12. ^ Morrill, John (1990). ."The Making of Oliver Cromwell", in Morrill, John (ed.^ Cromwell:_ Mr. Lawes makes beautiful music, Oliver.
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    ^ The Project Gutenberg EBook of Oliver Cromwell, by John Drinkwater This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever.
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    ^ Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 .
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    ), Oliver Cromwell and the English Revolution (Longman), ISBN 0-582-01675-4, p.24.
  13. ^ British Civil Wars, Commonwealthand Proctectorate 1638-1660
  14. ^ Gardiner, Samuel Rawson (1901). Oliver Cromwell, ISBN 1-4179-4961-9, p.4; Gaunt, Peter (1996). Oliver Cromwell (Blackwell), ISBN 0-631-18356-6, p.23.
  15. ^ a b Morrill, p.34.
  16. ^ Morrill, pp.24–33.
  17. ^ Gaunt, p.34.
  18. ^ Morrill, pp.25-26.
  19. ^ Cromwell: Our Chief of Men, by Antonia Fraser, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London 1973
  20. ^ Adamson, John (1990). "Oliver Cromwell and the Long Parliament", in Morrill, p.57.
  21. ^ Adamson, p.53.
  22. ^ David Plant. "1643: Civil War in Lincolnshire". British-civil-wars.co.uk. http://www.british-civil-wars.co.uk/military/1643-lincolnshire.htm#gainsborough. Retrieved 2008-11-27. 
  23. ^ Cromwell: Our Chief of Men, by Antonia Fraser, London 1973, ISBN 0297765566, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, pp. 120-129.
  24. ^ Letter to Sir William Spring, September 1643, quoted in Carlyle, Thomas (ed.) (1904 edition). Oliver Cromwell's letters and speeches, with elucidations, vol I, p.154; also quoted in Young and Holmes (2000). The English Civil War, (Wordsworth), ISBN 1840222220, p.107.
  25. ^ "Sermons of Rev Martin Camoux: Oliver Cromwell". http://trinitychurchsutton.org.uk/Sermons/Sermon_999.htm. 
  26. ^ Kenyon, John & Ohlmeyer, Jane (eds.) (2000). The Civil Wars: A Military History of England, Scotland, and Ireland 1638-1660 (Oxford University Press), ISBN 0-19-280278-X, p.141
  27. ^ Woolrych, Austin (1990). Cromwell as a soldier, in Morrill, pp.117–118.
  28. ^ Cromwell: Our Chief of Men, by Antonia Fraser, London 1973, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, ISBN 0297765566, pp. 154-161
  29. ^ Coward, pp.188-95.
  30. ^ Although there is debate over whether Cromwell and Ireton were the authors of the Heads of Proposals or acting on behalf of Saye and Sele: Adamson, John (1987). "The English Nobility and the Projected Settlement of 1647", in Historical Journal, 30, 3; Kishlansky, Mark (1990). "Saye What?" in Historical Journal 33, 4.
  31. ^ Woolrych, Austin (1987). Soldiers and Statesmen: the General Council of the Army and its Debates (Clarendon Press), ISBN 0-19-822752-3, ch.2–5.
  32. ^ "Spartacus: Rowland Laugharne at www.Spartacus.Schoolnet.co.uk". http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/STUlaugharneJ.htm. 
  33. ^ Gardiner, pp.144–47; Gaunt (1997) 94-97.
  34. ^ Adamson, pp.76–84.
  35. ^ Quoted in Lenihan, Padraig (2000). Confederate Catholics at War (Cork University Press), ISBN 1-85918-244-5, p.115.
  36. ^ Fraser, pp.74-76.
  37. ^ Fraser, pp.326-328.
  38. ^ a b Kenyon & Ohlmeyer, p.98.
  39. ^ Cromwell, Oliver (1846). Thomas Carlyle. ed. Oliver Cromwell's letters and speeches, with elucidations. William H. Colyer. pp. 128. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=SvQoAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA128&dq=%22I+am+persuaded+that+this+is+a+righteous+judgment+of+God+upon+these+barbarous+wretches%22&cd=5#v=onepage&q=%22I%20am%20persuaded%20that%20this%20is%20a%20righteous%20judgment%20of%20God%20upon%20these%20barbarous%20wretches%22&f=false. Retrieved 22/01/10. 
  40. ^ Fraser, Antonia (1973). Cromwell, Our Chief of Men, and Cromwell: the Lord Protector (Phoenix Press), ISBN 0-7538-1331-9 pp.344-46.
  41. ^ a b Kenyon & Ohlmeyer, p.100.
  42. ^ Fraser, pp.321-322; Lenihan, p.113.
  43. ^ Fraser, p.355.
  44. ^ Kenyon, Ohlmeyer, p.314.
  45. ^ Christopher Hill, 1972, God's Englishman: Oliver Cromwell and the English Revolution, Penguin Books: London, p.108: "The brutality of the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland is not one of the pleasanter aspects of our hero's career ..."
  46. ^ Barry Coward, 1991, Oliver Cromwell, Pearson Education: Rugby, p.74: "Revenge was not Cromwell's only motive for the brutality he condoned at Wexford and Drogheda, but it was the dominant one ..."
  47. ^ Philip McKeiver, 2007, A New History of Cromwell's Irish Campaign
  48. ^ Micheal O'Siochru, 2008, God's Executioner, Oliver Cromwell and the Conquest of Ireland, p. 83, 90
  49. ^ O'Callaghan, Sean (2000). To Hell or Barbados. Brandon. ISBN 0863222870. 
  50. ^ Lenihan, p.1O22; "After Cromwell returned to England in 1650, the conflict degenerated into a grindingly slow counter insurgency campaign punctuated by some quite protracted sieges...the famine of 1651 onwards was a man made response to stubborn guerrilla warfare. Collective reprisals against the civilian population included forcing them out of designated 'no man's lands' and the systematic destruction of foodstuffs".
  51. ^ a b Reilly, Tom, Cromwell - An Honourable Enemy: The Untold Story of the Cromwellian Invasion of Ireland (2000).
  52. ^ Woolrych, Austin (1990). Cromwell as soldier, in Morrill, John (ed.), Oliver Cromwell and the English Revolution (Longman), ISBN 0-582-01675-4, p. 112: "viewed in the context of the German wars that had just ended after thirty years of fighting, the massacres at Drogheda and Wexford shrink to typical casualties of seventeenth-century warfare".
  53. ^ J.C. Davis, Oliver Cromwell, pp. 108-110.
  54. ^ Abbott, Writings and Speeches, vol II, p.124.
  55. ^ Woolrych, Austin (1990). Cromwell as soldier, p. 111; Gaunt, p. 117.
  56. ^ Lenihan, p.168.
  57. ^ Gaunt, p.116.
  58. ^ Stevenson, Cromwell, Scotland and Ireland, in Morrill, p.151.
  59. ^ [5] "From the Author"..."The reaction - among the under forties on the whole - was good, but among historians and the over forties it was bad. They can't seem to accept that an amateur could discover such a fundamental flaw in Irish history, i.e. that neither Cromwell or his men ever engaged in the killing of any unarmed civilians throughout his entire nine month campaign."
  60. ^ John Morrill. "Rewriting Cromwell: A Case of Deafening Silences." Canadian Journal of History. December 2003: 19.
  61. ^ "Eugene Coyle. Review of Cromwell - An Honourable Enemy. History Ireland". http://web.archive.org/web/20010221184835/http://www.historyireland.com/resources/reviews/review1.html. 
  62. ^ Micheal O'Siochru, 2008, God's Executioner, Oliver Cromwell and the Conquest of Ireland, p. 83-93
  63. ^ Citations for genocide, near genocide and ethnic cleansing:
    • Albert Breton (Editor, 1995). Nationalism and Rationality. Cambridge University Press 1995. Page 248. "Oliver Cromwell offered Irish Catholics a choice between genocide and forced mass population transfer"
    • Ukrainian Quarterly. Ukrainian Society of America 1944. "Therefore, we are entitled to accuse the England of Oliver Cromwell of the genocide of the Irish civilian population.."
    • David Norbrook (2000).Writing the English Republic: Poetry, Rhetoric and Politics, 1627-1660. Cambridge University Press. 2000. In interpreting Andrew Marvell's contemporarily expressed views on Cromwell Norbrook says; "He (Cromwell) laid the foundation for a ruthless programme of resettling the Irish Catholics which amounted to large scale ethnic cleansing."
    • Alan Axelrod (2002). Profiles in Leadership, Prentice-Hall. 2002. Page 122. "As a leader Cromwell was entirely unyielding. He was willing to act on his beliefs, even if this meant killing the king and perpetrating, against the Irish, something very nearly approaching genocide"
    • John Morrill (2003). Rewriting Cromwell - A Case of Deafening Silences, Canadian Journal of History. December 2003. "Of course, this has never been the Irish view of Cromwell.
      Most Irish remember him as the man responsible for the mass slaughter of civilians at Drogheda and Wexford and as the agent of the greatest episode of ethnic cleansing ever attempted in Western Europe as, within a decade, the percentage of land possessed by Catholics born in Ireland dropped from sixty to twenty. In a decade, the ownership of two-fifths of the land mass was transferred from several thousand Irish Catholic landowners to British Protestants. The gap between Irish and the English views of the seventeenth-century conquest remains unbridgeable and is governed by O.K. Chesterton's mirthless epigram of 1917, that "it was a tragic necessity that the Irish should remember it; but it was far more tragic that the English forgot it."
    • James M Lutz, Brenda J Lutz, (2004). Global Terrorism, Routledge:London, p.193: "The draconian laws applied by Oliver Cromwell in Ireland were an early version of ethnic cleansing. The Catholic Irish were to be expelled to the northwestern areas of the island. Relocation rather than extermination was the goal."
    • Mark Levene (2005). Genocide in the Age of the Nation State: Volume 2. ISBN 978-1845110574 Page 55, 56 & 57. A sample quote describes the Cromwellian campaign and settlement as "a conscious attempt to reduce a distinct ethnic population".
    • Mark Levene (2005). Genocide in the Age of the Nation-State, I.B.Tauris: London:
      [The Act of Settlement of Ireland], and the parliamentary legislation which succeeded it the following year, is the nearest thing on paper in the English, and more broadly British, domestic record, to a programme of state-sanctioned and systematic ethnic cleansing of another people. The fact that it did not include 'total' genocide in its remit, or that it failed to put into practice the vast majority of its proposed expulsions, ultimately, however, says less about the lethal determination of its makers and more about the political, structural and financial weakness of the early modern English state.
  64. ^ Frances Stewart (2000). War and Underdevelopment: Economic and Social Consequences of Conflict v. 1 (Queen Elizabeth House Series in Development Studies), Oxford University Press. 2000. "Faced with the prospect of an Irish alliance with Charles II, Cromwell carried out a series of massacres to subdue the Irish. Then, once Cromwell had returned to England, the English Commissary, General Henry Ireton, adopted a deliberate policy of crop burning and starvation, which was responsible for the majority of an estimated 600,000 deaths out of a total Irish population of 1,400,000."
  65. ^ Winston S. Churchill, 1957, A History of the English Speaking Peoples: The Age of Revolution, Dodd, Mead and Company: New York (p. 9): "We have seen the many ties which at one time or another have joined the inhabitants of the Western islands, and even in Ireland itself offered a tolerable way of life to Protestants and Catholics alike. Upon all of these Cromwell's record was a lasting bane. By an uncompleted process of terror, by an iniquitous land settlement, by the virtual proscription of the Catholic religion, by the bloody deeds already described, he cut new gulfs between the nations and the creeds. "Hell or Connaught" were the terms he thrust upon the native inhabitants, and they for their part, across three hundred years, have used as their keenest expression of hatred "The Curse of Cromwell on you." The consequences of Cromwell's rule in Ireland have distressed and at times distracted English politics down even to the present day. To heal them baffled the skill and loyalties of successive generations. They became for a time a potent obstacle to the harmony of the English-speaking people through-out the world. Upon all of us there still lies 'the curse of Cromwell'.
  66. ^ Abbott, W.C. (1929). Writings and Speeches of Oliver Cromwell, Harvard University Press, pp.196-205.
  67. ^ a b Abbott, p.202.
  68. ^ Abbott, p.205.
  69. ^ Lenihan, p.115.
  70. ^ Gardiner, p.194.
  71. ^ Stevenson, David (1990). Cromwell, Scotland and Ireland, in Morrill, John (ed.), Oliver Cromwell and the English Revolution (Longman), ISBN 0-582-01675-4, p.155.
  72. ^ a b Kenyon & Ohlmeyer, p.66.
  73. ^ Cromwell: Our Chief of Men, by Antonia Fraser, London 1973, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, ISBN 0297765566, pp. 385-389.
  74. ^ [6]
  75. ^ Kenyon & Ohlmeyer, p.306.
  76. ^ Parker, Geoffrey (2003). Empire, War and Faith in Early Modern Europe, p.281.
  77. ^ Kenyon & Ohlmeyer, p.320.
  78. ^ Worden, Blair (1977). The Rump Parliament (Cambridge University Press), ISBN 0-521-29213-1, ch.16-17.
  79. ^ Abbott, p.643
  80. ^ Abbott, p.642-643.
  81. ^ Roots, Ivan (1989). Speeches of Oliver Cromwell (Everyman classics), ISBN 0-460-01254-1, pp.8-27.
  82. ^ Woolrych, Austin (1982). Commonwealth to Protectorate (Clarendon Press), ISBN 0-19-822659-4, ch.5-10.
  83. ^ Gaunt, p.155.
  84. ^ Gaunt, p.156.
  85. ^ A History of Britain - The Stuarts. Ladybird. 1991. ISBN 0-7214-3370-7. 
  86. ^ Hirst, Derek (1990). "The Lord Protector, 1653–8", in Morrill, p.172.
  87. ^ Quoted in Hirst, p.127.
  88. ^ "Cromwell, At the Opening of Parliament Under the Protectorate (1654)". Strecorsoc.org. http://www.strecorsoc.org/docs/cromwell.html. Retrieved 2008-11-27. 
  89. ^ Roots, pp.41-56.
  90. ^ Hirst, p.173.
  91. ^ Durston, Christopher (1998). The Fall of Cromwell's Major-Generals in English Historical Review 1998 113(450): pp.18–37, ISSN 0013-8266 .
  92. ^ Hirst, p.137.
  93. ^ Roots, p.128.
  94. ^ Worden, Blair (1985). "Oliver Cromwell and the sin of Achan", in Beales, D. and Best, G. (eds.) History, Society and the Churches, ISBN 0-521-02189-8, pp.141–145.
  95. ^ Gaunt, p.204.
  96. ^ "Cambridge County Council website". http://www.cambridgeshire.gov.uk/leisure/museums/cromwell/online/. 
  97. ^ Westminster Abbey site news
  98. ^ Staff. "Roundhead on the Pike", Time magazine, 6 May, 1957
  99. ^ By Terri Schlichenmeyer. "Missing body parts of famous people". CNN. http://www.cnn.com/2007/LIVING/wayoflife/08/21/mf.missing.famous/index.html?imw=Y&iref=mpstoryemail. Retrieved 2008-11-27. 
  100. ^ Gaunt, p.4.
  101. ^ Cromwell's head, the Cromwell Museum, Cambridgeshire County Council
  102. ^ Morrill, John (1990). "Cromwell and his contemporaries", in Morrill, pp.263–4.
  103. ^ Morrill, pp.271–2.
  104. ^ Morrill, pp.279–281.
  105. ^ a b Gaunt, p.9.
  106. ^ Worden, Blair (2001). Roundhead Reputations: The English Civil Wars and the Passions of Posterity (Penguin), ISBN 0141006943, pp.53–59
  107. ^ Gardiner, p.315.
  108. ^ Worden, pp.256–260.
  109. ^ Gardiner, p.318.
  110. ^ Morrill, John (1990). "Textualising and Contextualising Cromwell", in Historical Journal, 33, 3, pp.629-639.
  111. ^ Woolrych, Austin (1990). "The Cromwellian Protectorate: a Military Dictatorship?" in History 1990 75(244): 207-231, ISSN 0018-2648.
  112. ^ Morrill (2004). "Cromwell, Oliver (1599–1658)", in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, (Oxford University Press) [7]; Worden, Blair (1985). "Oliver Cromwell and the sin of Achan". In Beales, D. and Best, G., History, Society and the Churches; Davis, J.C. (1990). "Cromwell’s religion", in Morrill, John (ed.), Oliver Cromwell and the English Revolution (Longman).
  113. ^ "Westminster Abbey site: Oliver Cromwell". http://www.westminster-abbey.org/our-history/people/oliver-cromwell. 
  114. ^ "Francis Frith Manchester: selected extracts". http://www.francisfrith.com/pageloader.asp?page=/shop/books/bookcontent.asp&isbn=1-85937-266-X&start=61. 
  115. ^ "Papillon Graphics' Virtual Encyclopaedia of Greater Manchester". http://www.manchester2002-uk.com/history/history2.html. 
  116. ^ "Extract from Hansard". http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1899/apr/25/statue-of-oliver-cromwell. 
  117. ^ "icons.org: The Cromwell Statue at Westminster". http://www.icons.org.uk/nom/nominations/cromwell. 
  118. ^ "Cromwell conservation work - www.parliament.uk". http://www.parliament.uk/about/visiting/exhibitions/cromwell_conservation.cfm. 
  119. ^ http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/60029
  120. ^ Kenneth Rose, King George V, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1984, p. 160f.
  121. ^ http://www.pogues.com/Releases/Lyrics/LPs/PeaceAndLove/YoungNed.html

References

  • Adamson, John (1990). ."Oliver Cromwell and the Long Parliament", in Morrill, John (ed.^ Let the intrigues of Parliament with the army and its leaders--notably Oliver Cromwell--to the peril of the Church and the King, stand to the world in justification.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Project Gutenberg EBook of Oliver Cromwell, by John Drinkwater This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 .
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ), .Oliver Cromwell and the English Revolution Longman, ISBN 0582016754
  • Adamson, John (1987).^ The Project Gutenberg EBook of Oliver Cromwell, by John Drinkwater This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 .
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Cromwell:_ This house is ready for any kind of revolution, John.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    "The English Nobility and the Projected Settlement of 1647", in Historical Journal, 30, 3.
  • BBC Radio 4 - This Sceptred Isle - The Execution of Charles I. "Sorrell accuses Murdoch of panic buying", BBC Radio 4. Accessed 4 November 2007.
  • Carlyle, Thomas (ed.) (1904 edition). Oliver Cromwell's letters and speeches, with elucidations [8]PDF (40.2 MB);
  • Coward, Barry (2003). The Stuart Age: England, 1603-1714, Longman, ISBN 0582772516
  • Durston, Christopher (1998). The Fall of Cromwell's Major-Generals, in English Historical Review 1998 113(450): pp. 18–37, ISSN 0013-8266
  • Gardiner, Samuel Rawson (1901). Oliver Cromwell, ISBN 1417949619
  • Gaunt, Peter (1996). Oliver Cromwell Blackwell, ISBN 0631183566
  • Hirst, Derek (1990). The Lord Protector, 1653-8, in Morrill, John (ed.), Oliver Cromwell and the English Revolution Longman, ISBN 0582016754
  • Kenyon, John & Ohlmeyer, Jane (eds.) (2000). The Civil Wars: A Military History of England, Scotland, and Ireland 1638-1660 Oxford University Press, ISBN 019280278X
  • Kishlansky, Mark (1990), "Saye What?" in Historical Journal 33, 4.
  • Lenihan, Padraig (2000). Confederate Catholics at War Cork University Press, ISBN 1859182445
  • Morrill, John (1990). '"Cromwell and his contemporaries", in Morrill, John (ed.), Oliver Cromwell and the English Revolution Longman, ISBN 0582016754
  • Morrill, John (1990). ."The Making of Oliver Cromwell", in Morrill, John (ed.^ Cromwell:_ Mr. Lawes makes beautiful music, Oliver.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Project Gutenberg EBook of Oliver Cromwell, by John Drinkwater This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 .
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ), Oliver Cromwell and the English Revolution Longman, ISBN 0582016754
  • O'Siochru, Micheal (2008). God's Executioner, Oliver Cromwell and the Conquest of Ireland, Faber and Faber, ISBN 9780571-241217
  • Roots, Ivan (1989). Speeches of Oliver Cromwell Everyman classics, ISBN 0460012541
  • Woolrych, Austin (1982). Commonwealth to Protectorate Clarendon Press, ISBN 0198226594
  • Woolrych, Austin (1990). "Cromwell as a soldier" in Morrill, John (ed.), Oliver Cromwell and the English Revolution Longman, ISBN 0582016754
  • Woolrych, Austin (1987). Soldiers and Statesmen: the General Council of the Army and its Debates (Clarendon Press), ISBN 0198227523
  • Worden, Blair (1985). "Oliver Cromwell and the sin of Achan", in Beales, D. and Best, G. (eds.) History, Society and the Churches, ISBN 0521021898
  • Worden, Blair (2001). Roundhead Reputations: the English Civil Wars and the passions of posterity Penguin, ISBN 0141006943
  • Worden, Blair (1977). The Rump Parliament Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521292131
  • Worden, Blair (2000). ."Thomas Carlyle and Oliver Cromwell", in Proceedings Of The British Academy 105: pp. 131–170. ISSN 0068-1202
  • Young, Peter and Holmes, Richard (2000).^ Cromwell:_ Now, young man, Oliver doesn't need any urging to it.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    The English Civil War Wordsworth, ISBN 1840222220
Biographies
  • Adamson, John (1990). ."Oliver Cromwell and the Long Parliament", in Morrill, John (ed.^ Let the intrigues of Parliament with the army and its leaders--notably Oliver Cromwell--to the peril of the Church and the King, stand to the world in justification.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Project Gutenberg EBook of Oliver Cromwell, by John Drinkwater This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 .
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ), Oliver Cromwell and the English Revolution Longman, ISBN 0582016754
  • Ashley, Maurice (1958). .The Greatness of Oliver Cromwell Macmillan
  • Bennett, Martyn.^ Cromwell:_ Oliver has just sent from Whitehall for his great coat.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    Oliver Cromwell (2006), ISBN 0415319226
  • Clifford, Alan (1999). Oliver Cromwell: the lessons and legacy of the Protectorate Charenton Reformed Publishing, ISBN 095267162X. Religious study.
  • Davis, J. C. (2001). Oliver Cromwell Hodder Arnold, ISBN 0340731184
  • Fraser, Antonia (1973). Cromwell, Our Chief of Men, and Cromwell: the Lord Protector Phoenix Press, ISBN 0753813319. Popular narrative.
  • Firth, C.H. (1900). Oliver Cromwell and the Rule of the Puritans ISBN 1402144741
  • Gardiner, Samuel Rawson (1901). Oliver Cromwell, ISBN 1417949619. Classic biography.
  • Gaunt, Peter (1996). Oliver Cromwell Blackwell, ISBN 0631183566. Short biography.
  • Hill, Christopher (1970). God's Englishman: Oliver Cromwell And The English Revolution Penguin, ISBN 0297000438.
  • Hirst, Derek (1990). "The Lord Protector, 1653-8", in Morrill, John (ed.), Oliver Cromwell and the English Revolution Longman, ISBN 0582016754
  • Mason, James and Angela Leonard (1998). Oliver Cromwell Longman, ISBN 0582297346
  • McKeiver, Philip (2007). "A New History of Cromwell's Irish Campaign", Advance Press, Manchester, ISBN 9780955466304
  • Morrill, John (2004). "Cromwell, Oliver (1599–1658)", in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press
  • Morrill, John (1990). ."The Making of Oliver Cromwell", in Morrill, John (ed.^ Cromwell:_ Mr. Lawes makes beautiful music, Oliver.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Project Gutenberg EBook of Oliver Cromwell, by John Drinkwater This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 .
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ), Oliver Cromwell and the English Revolution Longman, ISBN 0582016754.
  • Paul, Robert (1958). The Lord Protector: Religion And Politics In The Life Of Oliver Cromwell
  • Smith, David (ed.) (2003). Oliver Cromwell and the Interregnum Blackwell, ISBN 0631227253
  • Wedgwood, C.V. (1939). Oliver Cromwell Duckworth, ISBN 0715606565
  • Worden, Blair (1985). "Oliver Cromwell and the sin of Achan", in Beales, D. and Best, G. (eds.) History, Society and the Churches, ISBN 0521021898
Military studies
  • Durston, Christopher (2000). ."'Settling the Hearts and Quieting the Minds of All Good People': the Major-generals and the Puritan Minorities of Interregnum England", in History 2000 85(278): pp. 247–267, ISSN 0018-2648 .^ Outside in the night the Puritan troops are heard singing the One Hundred and Seventeenth Psalm: "O praise the Lord, all ye nations: praise him, all ye people.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ To which end I am now coming home, to call out all such men as have the love of England in their hearts, and fear God.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    Full text online at Ebsco.
  • Durston, Christopher (1998). "The Fall of Cromwell's Major-Generals", in English Historical Review 1998 113(450): pp. 18–37, ISSN 0013-8266
  • Firth, C.H. (1921). Cromwell's Army Greenhill Books, ISBN 1853671207
  • Gillingham, J. (1976). Portrait Of A Soldier: Cromwell Weidenfeld & Nicholson, ISBN 0297771485
  • Kenyon, John & Ohlmeyer, Jane (eds.) (2000). .The Civil Wars: A Military History of England, Scotland, and Ireland 1638-1660 Oxford University Press, ISBN 019280278X
  • Kitson, Frank (2004).^ Intrigues with Scotland--there are none, we are assured, but if there were it would almost inevitably bring civil war again.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    Old Ironsides: The Military Biography of Oliver Cromwell Weidenfeld Military, ISBN 0297846884
  • Marshall, Alan (2004). Oliver Cromwell: Soldier: The Military Life of a Revolutionary at War Brassey's, ISBN 1857533437
  • McKeiver, Philip (2007). "A New History of Cromwell's Irish Campaign", Advance Press, Manchester, ISBN 9780955466304
  • Woolrych, Austin (1990). "The Cromwellian Protectorate: a Military Dictatorship?" in History 1990 75(244): 207-231, ISSN 0018-2648 . Full text online at Ebsco.
  • Woolrych, Austin (1990). "Cromwell as a soldier", in Morrill, John (ed.), .Oliver Cromwell and the English Revolution Longman, ISBN 0582016754
  • Young, Peter and Holmes, Richard (2000).^ Cromwell:_ Now, young man, Oliver doesn't need any urging to it.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    The English Civil War, Wordsworth, ISBN 1840222220
Surveys of era
  • Coward, Barry (2002). The Cromwellian Protectorate Manchester University Press, ISBN 0719043174
  • Coward, Barry (2003). The Stuart Age: England, 1603-1714, Longman, ISBN 0-582-77251-6. Survey of political history of the era.
  • Davies, Godfrey (1959). The Early Stuarts, 1603-1660 Oxford University Press, ISBN 0198217048. Political, religious, and diplomatic overview of the era.
  • Korr, Charles P. (1975). Cromwell and the New Model Foreign Policy: England's Policy toward France, 1649-1658 University of California Press, ISBN 0520022815
  • Macinnes, Allan (2005). The British Revolution, 1629-1660 Palgrave Macmillan, ISBN 0333597508
  • Morrill, John (1990). "Cromwell and his contemporaries". In Morrill, John (ed.), Oliver Cromwell and the English Revolution Longman, ISBN 0582016754
  • Trevor-Roper, Hugh (1967). .Oliver Cromwell and his Parliaments, in his Religion, the Reformation and Social Change Macmillan.^ Let the intrigues of Parliament with the army and its leaders--notably Oliver Cromwell--to the peril of the Church and the King, stand to the world in justification.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    onlinePDF (256 KB)
  • Venning, Timothy (1995). Cromwellian Foreign Policy Palgrave Macmillan, ISBN 0333633881
  • Woolrych, Austin (1982). Commonwealth to Protectorate Clarendon Press, ISBN 0198226594
  • Woolrych, Austin (2002). Britain in Revolution 1625-1660 Oxford University Press, ISBN 0199272686
  • Worden, Blair (2001). Roundhead Reputations: the English Civil Wars and the passions of posterity Penguin, ISBN 0141006943
Primary sources
  • Abbott, W.C. (ed.) (1937-47). Writings and Speeches of Oliver Cromwell, 4 vols. The standard academic reference for Cromwell's own words. [9].
  • Carlyle, Thomas (ed.) (1904 edition), Oliver Cromwell's letters and speeches, with elucidations. [10]PDF (40.2 MB);
  • Haykin, Michael A. G. (ed.) (1999). .To Honour God: The Spirituality of Oliver Cromwell Joshua Press, ISBN 1894400038. Excerpts from Cromwell's religious writings.
  • Morrill, John (1990).^ The Project Gutenberg EBook of Oliver Cromwell, by John Drinkwater This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 .
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    "Textualizing and Contextualizing Cromwell", in Historical Journal 1990 33(3): pp. 629–639. ISSN 0018-246X . Full text online at Jstor. Examines the Carlyle and Abbott editions.
  • Roots, Ivan (1989). Speeches of Oliver Cromwell Everyman classics, ISBN 0460012541
  • Worden, Blair (2000). Thomas Carlyle and Oliver Cromwell, in Proceedings Of The British Academy 105: pp. 131–170, ISSN 0068-1202.

External links

Books about Oliver Cromwell available online

.

Other links

.
Political offices
Preceded by
Council of State
Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland
16 December 1653-3 September 1658
Succeeded by
Richard Cromwell
Academic offices
Preceded by
Earl of Pembroke
Chancellor of the University of Oxford
1650–1657
Succeeded by
Richard Cromwell

Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

I had rather have a plain, russet-coated Captain, that knows what he fights for, and loves what he knows, than that you call a Gentleman and is nothing else.
Oliver Cromwell (25 April 1599 - 3 September 1658) English statesman, soldier, and revolutionary; Lord High Protector of the Commonwealth of England

Contents

Sourced

.
  • If the remonstrance had been rejected I would have sold all I had the next morning and never have seen England more, and I know there are many other modest men of the same resolution.
  • I had rather have a plain, russet-coated Captain, that knows what he fights for, and loves what he knows, than that you call a Gentleman and is nothing else.
    • Letter to Sir William Spring (September 1643)
  • A few honest men are better than numbers.
    • Letter to Sir William Spring (September 1643)
  • The State, in choosing men to serve it, takes no notice of their opinions.^ Ireton:_ And you can say that it is no fear of earls or kings that spared you the whipping you would deserve if you were better than shadows.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ No king may be against us.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And I know there are many other honest men of this same resolution.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    .If they be willing faithfully to serve it, that satisfies.
  • God made them as stubble to our swords.^ If men be willing faithfully to serve it, that satisfies.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ During 1644 he contributed to the victory at Marston Moor, which helped secure the north for parliament, and also campaigned with mixed results in the south Midlands and Home Counties.
    • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

    ^ (They all rise, and, bareheaded, together they repeat, "God our strength."
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Letter to Colonel Valentine Walton (5 July 1644)
  • Truly England and the church of God hath had a great favour from the Lord, in this great victory given us.^ In his speech at the opening of the assembly on 4 July 1653, Cromwell thanked God’s providence that he believed had brought England to this point and set out their divine mission: "truly God hath called you to this work by, I think, as wonderful providences as ever passed upon the sons of men in so short a time."
    • Oliver Cromwell (Pepys' Diary) 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The fifth was the methods used by Presbyterians, Independents and Baptists to fill the great spiritual gap left by the disestablishment of the Church of England and the outlawing of her clergy.
    • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

    ^ For his merciful kindness is great toward us: and the truth of the Lord endureth for ever.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Letter to Colonel Valentine Walton (5 July 1644)
  • We study the glory of God, and the honour and liberty of parliament, for which we unanimously fight, without seeking our own interests...^ He that ventures his life for the liberty of his country, I wish he trust God for the liberty of his conscience, and you for the liberty he fights for.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    .I profess I could never satisfy myself on the justness of this war, but from the authority of the parliament to maintain itself in its rights; and in this cause I hope to prove myself an honest man and single-hearted.
    • Statement to Colonel Valentine Walton, 5 or 6 September 1644
  • I could not riding out alone about my business, but smile out to God in praises, in assurance of victory because God would, by things that are not, bring to naught things that are.
    • Before the Battle of Naseby (14 June 1645)
  • It's a blessed thing to die daily.^ I have been called to several employments in the nation-to serve in parliaments, and (because i would not be over tedious ) i did endeavour to discharge the duty of an honest man in those services, to god, and his people’s interest, and of the commonwealth; having, when time was, a competent acceptation in thehearts of men, and some evidence thereof."
    • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

    ^ THE SCENE CLOSES SCENE IV _After dawn on July 14, 1645, the day of Naseby._ _GENERAL FAIRFAX, with IRETON--now colonel--and two other officers, is holding a council of war in his tent.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ When I saw the enemy draw up and march in gallant order towards us, and we, a company of poor ignorant men to seek how to order our battle,--the General having commanded me to order all the horse,--I could not, riding along about my business, but smile out to God in my praises, in assurance of victory, (the Psalm is heard again) because God would, by things that are not, bring to naught the things that are.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    For what is there in this world to be accounted of! The best men according to the flesh, and things, are lighter than vanity. .I find this only good, to love the Lord and his poor despised people, to do for them and to be ready to suffer with them....and he that is found worthy of this hath obtained great favour from the Lord; and he that is established in this shall ( being conformed to Christ and the rest of the Body) participate in the glory of a resurrection which will answer all.^ Outside in the night the Puritan troops are heard singing the One Hundred and Seventeenth Psalm: "O praise the Lord, all ye nations: praise him, all ye people.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Lord cause His face to shine upon you, and comfort you in all your adversities, and enable you to do great things for the glory of your most high God, and to be a relief unto His people.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I recommend you to the Eternal Love of Jesus Christ -- I am helped of God, and hope I shall be helped to the end.
    • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • This is our comfort, God is in heaven, and He doth what pleaseth Him; His, and only His counsel shall stand, whatsoever the designs of men, and the fury of the people be.^ After a royalist uprising in March 1655, led by Sir John Penruddock , Cromwell (influenced by Lambert) divided England into military districts ruled by Army Major Generals who answered only to him.
    • Oliver Cromwell (Pepys' Diary) 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ We are called to stand for the charter of all men's faith, for the charter which is liberty, which is God.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Letter to Sir William Spring, September 1643, quoted in Carlyle, Thomas (ed.
    • Oliver Cromwell (Pepys' Diary) 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Letter to Sir Thomas Fairfax (21 December 1646)
  • We declared our intentions to preserve monarchy, and they still are so, unless necessity enforce an alteration. It’s granted the king has broken his trust, yet you are fearful to declare you will make no further addresses...^ And I have shown, sir, that I trust you.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ They can still steal from you.
    • Truthdig - President Jonah, Meet Oliver Cromwell! 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Truthdig - President Jonah, Meet Oliver Cromwell! 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Ireton:_ And you can say that it is no fear of earls or kings that spared you the whipping you would deserve if you were better than shadows.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    look on the people you represent, and break not your trust, and expose not the honest party of your kingdom, who have bled for you, and suffer not misery to fall upon them for want of courage and resolution in you, else the honest people may take such courses as nature dictates to them. .
    • Speech in the Commons during the debate which preceded the "Vote of No Addresses" (January 1648) as recorded in the diary of John Boys of Kent.
  • Since providence and necessity has cast them upon it, he should pray God to bless their counsels.^ I take God to record, upon my soul I would not exchange this scaffold with the palace or mitre of the greatest prelate in Britain.
    • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Scots designated Cromwell as "The Late Usurper," [6] yet in other circumstances they maintained that God's blessing was upon Cromwell.
    • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

    • On the trial of Charles I (December 1648)
Cruel necessity.
  • I tell you we will cut off his head with the crown upon it. .
    • To Algernon Sidney, one of the judges at the trial of Charles I (December 1648)
  • Cruel necessity.
    • On the execution of Charles I (January 1649)
  • If we do not depart from God, and disunite by that departure, and fall into disunion among ourselves, I am confident, we doing our duty and waiting upon the Lord, we shall find He will be as a wall of brass round about us till we have finished that work which he has for us to do.^ The execution was set for January 30, 1649.
    • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Charles:_ We are not before our judges.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Charles was crowned the king of Scotland on January 1, 1651, and proceeded to lead an army into England to claim his throne there.
    • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Speech to his army officers (23 March 1649)
  • This is a righteous judgement of God upon these barbarous wretches, who have imbrued their hands in so much innocent blood.^ These two ideas of God, the judgemental versus the merciful, turn up in other religions too.
    • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Teach those who look too much upon Thy instrument to depend more upon Thyself.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Furthermore, in mentioning these sufferers, I am not forgetting the ‘plundered ministers’ who fled from the King’s armies, many of whom were fine men of God but declared enemies of Episcopacy and the King.
    • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

    • After the Siege of Drogheda, where Cromwell had forbid his soldiers "to spare any that were in arms in the town". (1649)
.
Do not trust the cheering, for those persons would shout as much if you or I were going to be hanged.
  • These persons would shout as much if you and I were going to be hanged.
    • Said to John Lambert as they were cheered by a crowd, June 1650; quoted in God's Englishman by Christopher Hill (1970) [ISBN 0-14-055246-4], ch.^ I would guess that they would consider you and your family odd and they would avoid you, because you are different and have a lively interest in the world about you.
      • Truthdig - President Jonah, Meet Oliver Cromwell! 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]
      • Truthdig - President Jonah, Meet Oliver Cromwell! 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Seth:_ It seems they know you are going to stand out for the people to-morrow.
      • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

      ^ John Hanks wrote: “Americans learn enough stupid things by the age of 14 to be susceptible to every crook that comes down the pike.” Often they elect these crooks to the highest offices of government.
      • Truthdig - President Jonah, Meet Oliver Cromwell! 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]
      • Truthdig - President Jonah, Meet Oliver Cromwell! 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]

      vii (p. 188)
  • I need pity. I know what I feel. Great place and business in the world is not worth looking after. .
    • Letter to Richard Mayor (July 1650)
  • I beseech you, in the bowels of Christ, think it possible you may be mistaken.
  • Your pretended fear lest error should step in, is like the man that would keep all the wine out of the country lest men should be drunk.^ I respect not such ill reasoners as would keep all wine out of the country lest men should be drunk.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ If you should wed again, may you wed well.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I knew you would think so.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    It will be found an unjust and unwise jealousy, to deny a man the liberty he hath by nature upon a supposition that he may abuse it.
    • Letter to Walter Dundas (12 September 1650)
.
No one rises so high as he who knows not whither he is going.
  • No one rises so high as he who knows not whither he is going.
  • I am neither heir nor executor to Charles Stuart.^ I want to go to sleep, and you never know.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Hampden is my kinsman, as you know, one who has my best affection.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ But know this, Charles Stuart, that, when we draw the sword again, it is the sword of judgment.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    • Repudiating a royal debt (August 1651)
  • The dimensions of this mercy are above my thoughts. It is for aught I know, a crowning mercy. .
    • Letter to William Lenthall, Speaker of the House of Commons (4 September 1651)
  • Shall we seek for the root of our comforts within us; what God hath done, what he is to us in Christ, is the root of our comfort.^ The Speaker:_ Then the question now before the House is whether this Declaration shall pass.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ We folk of Ely will use our own commons, and let the Earl of Bedford keep within his own palings.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I recommend you to the Eternal Love of Jesus Christ -- I am helped of God, and hope I shall be helped to the end.
    • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

    In this is stability; in us is weakness. Acts of obedience are not perfect, and therefore yield not perfect peace. .Faith, as an act, yields it not, but as it carries us into him, who is our perfect rest and peace; in whom we are accounted of, and received by, the Father, even as Christ himself.^ I notice that he even puts atheists (like his father) into leaning one way or another.
    • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Those who advocated voting for Cromwell told us that it was he who made it possible for our freedoms and liberties to be preserved until the present day.
    • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

    ^ TV established martial law when it lured us into sticking our nose to the wall.
    • Truthdig - President Jonah, Meet Oliver Cromwell! 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Truthdig - President Jonah, Meet Oliver Cromwell! 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]

    This is our high calling. Rest we here, and here only. .
  • Take away that fool’s bauble, the mace.^ (CHARLES takes the letter, opens and reads it.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Take away that shining bauble there, and lock up the doors.
    • It's Lonely Being Pathetic (Wizbang) 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC wizbangblog.com [Source type: General]

    .
  • You have sat too long for any good you have been doing lately...^ You have sat here too long here for any good you have been doing lately.
    • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

    ^ You have sat here too long for the good you do.
    • It's Lonely Being Pathetic (Wizbang) 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC wizbangblog.com [Source type: General]

    ^ We the folks are not cruel even though we must now echo America’s spiritual ancestor Oliver Cromwell, in his order to the infamous Long Parliament: ‘You have sat too long here for any good you have been doing lately… Depart, I say; and let us have done with you.
    • Truthdig - President Jonah, Meet Oliver Cromwell! 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Depart, I say; and let us have done with you.^ Depart, I say; and let us have done with you.
    • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Ireton:_ Do but let us go to the army with that respect, and not a trooper but will renew your power for you.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I beseech you let us not commit ourselves thus.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    .In the name of God, go!
    • Address to the Rump Parliament (20 April 1653)
  • When I went there, I did not think to have done this.^ But we go to battle in the name of God.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In the name of God, go!
    • It's Lonely Being Pathetic (Wizbang) 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC wizbangblog.com [Source type: General]

    ^ There once was a pundit named Hannity Who possessed neither reason nor sanity Champion of slobs A disgrace to the Gods What he held to be truth was just vanity .
    • Truthdig - President Jonah, Meet Oliver Cromwell! 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Truthdig - President Jonah, Meet Oliver Cromwell! 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]

    .But perceiving the spirit of God so strong upon me, I would not consult flesh and blood.^ I take God to record, upon my soul I would not exchange this scaffold with the palace or mitre of the greatest prelate in Britain.
    • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • On his forcible dissolution of parliament (April 1653) quoted in Flagellum: or the Life and Death Birth and Burial of Oliver Cromwell the Late Usurper (1663) by James Heath
  • You are as like the forming of God as ever people were...^ We the folks are not cruel even though we must now echo America’s spiritual ancestor Oliver Cromwell, in his order to the infamous Long Parliament: ‘You have sat too long here for any good you have been doing lately… Depart, I say; and let us have done with you.
    • Truthdig - President Jonah, Meet Oliver Cromwell! 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Cromwell as Dictator The next event worthy of comment is Cromwell's dissolution of the Rump Parliament.
    • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Oliver Cromwell's 1653 speech, to the parliament he was dismissing, seems to fit the media perfectly..
    • It's Lonely Being Pathetic (Wizbang) 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC wizbangblog.com [Source type: General]

    you are at the edge of promises and prophecies. .
  • God has brought us where we are, to consider the work we may do in the world, as well as at home.^ But God may spare us.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Barebones parliament, in October 1653, fell when it was dissolved.
    • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

    ^ May God bless us, and teach us the true valiance, and may He spend us according to His will.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • Though peace be made, yet it's interest that keep peace.
    • Quoted in a statement to Parliament as as "a maxim not to be despised" (4 September 1654)
  • There are some things in this establishment that are fundamental...^ On himself, speech to the First Parliament of the Protectorate, Sept, 1654.
    • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

    ^ A Parliament was convened from September 1654 until January1655, but then dissolved again by Cromwell.
    • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Thou hast made me, though very unworthy, a mean instrument to do the people some good, and Thee service.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    about which I shall deal plainly with you... the government by a single person and a parliament is a fundamental... and... though .I may seem to plead for myself, yet I do not: no, nor can any reasonable man say it...^ Which is an honest and a thriving way; and yet as much for bravery may be given to him, in this action, as to a man.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    .I plead for this nation, and all the honest men therein.^ Say that you and your like are reviled by all honest men.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • In every government there must be somewhat fundamental, somewhat like a Magna Charta, that should be standing and unalterable...^ On himself, speech to the First Parliament of the Protectorate, Sept, 1654.
    • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Secondly, the Protectorate was the first and so far the last government in our history to be empowered and to operate according to the terms of a detailed written constitution.
    • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

    ^ A Parliament was convened from September 1654 until January1655, but then dissolved again by Cromwell.
    • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

    that parliaments should not make themselves perpetual is a fundamental. .
    • Speech to the First Protectorate Parliament (12 September 1654)
  • Necessity hath no law.^ On himself, speech to the First Parliament of the Protectorate, Sept, 1654.
    • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Cromwell to the first protectorate parliament, 22 January 1655.
    • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

    ^ A Parliament was convened from September 1654 until January1655, but then dissolved again by Cromwell.
    • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

    Feigned necessities, imagined necessities... are the greatest cozenage that men can put upon the .Providence of God, and make pretenses to break known rules by.
    • Speech to the First Protectorate Parliament (12 September 1654)
  • I was by birth a gentleman, living neither in any considerable height, nor yet in obscurity.^ "I was by birth a gentleman, living neither in any considerable height, nor yet in obscurity.
    • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

    ^ On himself, speech to the First Parliament of the Protectorate, Sept, 1654.
    • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

    ^ A Parliament was convened from September 1654 until January1655, but then dissolved again by Cromwell.
    • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

    .I have been called to several employments in the nation — to serve in parliaments, — and ( because I would not be over tedious ) I did endeavour to discharge the duty of an honest man in those services, to God, and his people’s interest, and of the commonwealth; having, when time was, a competent acceptation in the hearts of men, and some evidence thereof.^ I have been called to several employments in the nation-to serve in parliaments, and (because i would not be over tedious ) i did endeavour to discharge the duty of an honest man in those services, to god, and his people’s interest, and of the commonwealth; having, when time was, a competent acceptation in thehearts of men, and some evidence thereof."
    • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I would guess that they would consider you and your family odd and they would avoid you, because you are different and have a lively interest in the world about you.
    • Truthdig - President Jonah, Meet Oliver Cromwell! 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Truthdig - President Jonah, Meet Oliver Cromwell! 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Baxter did stop, but merely to tell the soldier that he should do his duty as a military man but he should also allow Baxter to do his duty as a minister.
    • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Speech to the First Protectorate Parliament (12 September 1654)
  • I desire not to keep my place in this government an hour longer than I may preserve England in its just rights, and may protect the people of God in such a just liberty of their consciences...
    • Speech dissolving the First Protectorate Parliament (22 January 1655)
  • Weeds and nettles, briars and thorns, have thriven under your shadow, dissettlement and division, discontentment and dissatisfaction, together with real dangers to the whole.^ Cromwell to the first protectorate parliament, 22 January 1655.
    • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And may the mercy of God be upon England.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ On himself, speech to the First Parliament of the Protectorate, Sept, 1654.
    • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Speech dissolving the First Protectorate Parliament (22 January 1655)
  • We are Englishmen; that is one good fact.^ Cromwell to the first protectorate parliament, 22 January 1655.
    • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

    ^ On himself, speech to the First Parliament of the Protectorate, Sept, 1654.
    • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Richard was not a strong leader and by the spring of 1659 'Tumbledown Dick' as he became known was forced to dissolve the Third Protectorate Parliament due to the discontent amongst the military.
    • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

    • Speech to Parliament (1655)
  • Truly, though kingship be not a title but a name of office that runs through the law, yet it is not so ratione nominis, but from what is signified. It is a name of office, plainly implying a Supreme Authority. Is it more, or can it be stretched to more? .I say, it is a name of office, plainly implying the Supreme Authority, and if it be so, why then I would suppose, (I am not peremptory in any thing that is matter of deduction or inference of my own,) why then I should suppose that whatsoever name hath been or shall be the name, in which the Supreme Authority shall act; why, (I say) if it had been those four or five letters, or whatsoever else it had been, that signification goes to the thing.^ They immediately passed the "Act of Classes,"[2] which excluded from public office all those who had in any way taken part in or failed to stand against the Engagement.
    • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

    ^ We will take care that the authority and acts of the General Assembly at St. Andrews and Dundee in the year 1651 be owned and stand in force until we shall call another General Assembly which we propose to do soon as our affairs will permit."
    • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

    ^ My blood, bondage or banishment will contribute more for the propagation of these things than my life in liberty would do, though I should live many years."
    • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

    Certainly it does, and not to the name. .Why then, there can be no more said, but this, why this hath been fixt, so it may have been unfixt.^ There are rumours of him from the eastern counties, of some activities with his men, but no more.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

.
Use all your skill to paint my picture truly like me, and not flatter me at all; but remark all these roughnesses, pimples, warts, and everything as you see me...
  • Men have been led in dark paths, through the providence and dispensation of God.^ They were remarkable Providences, and the like.
    • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I bear you this testimony as all the recompense I can now leave you with....Let not your wants and weakness discourage you.
    • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

    ^ There is power, riches, and abundance with God, both as to the things of the body and things of the soul; and He will supply all your wants, and carry you through.
    • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

    Why, surely it is not to be objected to a man, for who can love to walk in the dark? But providence doth often so dispose.
    • Answer to the Conference at the Committee at Whitehall, Second Protectorate Parliament (13 April 1657), quoted in The Diary of Thomas Burton, esq., volume 2: April 1657 - February 1658 (1828), p. 504
  • You have accounted yourselves happy on being environed with a great ditch from all the world beside.
    • Speech to Parliament (25 January 1658), quoted in The Diary of Thomas Burton, esq., volume 2: April 1657 - February 1658 (1828), p. 361
  • That which brought me into the capacity I now stand in, was the Petition and Advice given me by you, who, in reference to the ancient Constitution, did draw me here to accept the place of Protector. .There is not a man living can say I sought it, no not a man, nor woman, treading upon English ground.
    • Speech to Parliament (4 February 1658), quoted in The Diary of Thomas Burton, esq., volume 2: April 1657 - February 1658 (1828), p.^ Jesus says there will be no rapture this time.
      • Truthdig - President Jonah, Meet Oliver Cromwell! 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]
      • Truthdig - President Jonah, Meet Oliver Cromwell! 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]

      ^ We must betake ourselves to defence, or this will be but a rotten realm, fair for no man to live in henceforth.
      • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Cromwell:_ There could be no safety or hope while he lived.
      • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

      465-466
.
My work is done
  • I would have been glad to have lived under my wood side, to have kept a flock of sheep, rather than undertook such a Government as this is.^ I would have none fail or want under my government.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ My family was similarly deviant in that we had lively (limited mainly to liberal) conversations, read books, wrote (under pressure) and did a fair amount of thinking.
    • Truthdig - President Jonah, Meet Oliver Cromwell! 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I say to you that it is such a vote, and that I would pass it with all my heart.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    • Statement to Parliament (4 February 1658) quoted in The Diary of Thomas Burton, esq., volume 2: April 1657 - February 1658 (1828), p. .466
  • I would be willing to live and be farther serviceable to God and his people; but my work is done.^ I take God to record, upon my soul I would not exchange this scaffold with the palace or mitre of the greatest prelate in Britain.
    • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

    ^ My blood, bondage or banishment will contribute more for the propagation of these things than my life in liberty would do, though I should live many years."
    • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

    Yet God will be with his people.
    • As quoted from "Dying Sayings" of Oliver Cromwell's Letters and Speeches by Thomas Carlyle
  • It is not my design to drink or to sleep, but my design is to make what haste I can to be gone.
    • Words that Cromwell spoke as he was dying and was offered a drink (3 September 1658)
  • Mr. Lely, I desire you would use all your skill to paint my picture truly like me, and not flatter me at all; but remark all these roughnesses, pimples, warts, and everything as you see me, otherwise I will never pay a farthing for it.
    • As quoted in Anecdotes of Painting in England (1762-1771) by Horace Walpole often credited as being the origin of the phrase "warts and all".
      Variant: Paint me as I am. If you leave out the scars and wrinkles, I will not pay you a shilling.

Misattributed

  • Put your trust in God, but keep your powder dry.
    • Variant: Trust in God, and keep your powder dry.
    • Actual quotation: "Put your trust in God, my boys, and keep your powder dry!" This line from the poem "Oliver's Advice" by Valentine Blacker (1778 - 1823) was published in Ballads of Ireland, ed. Edward Hayes (1856). The poem is a dramatic representation of Cromwell addressing his army during the invasion of Ireland.
His fame seems as secure as human reputation is likely to be in a changing world...

Quotes about Cromwell

Arranged alphabetically by author
  • During a great part of the eighteenth century most Tories hated him because he overthrew the monarchy, most Whigs because he overthrew Parliament. .Since Carlyle wrote, all liberals have seen in him their champion, and all revolutionists have apotheosized the first great representatives of their school; while, on the other side, their opponents have hailed the dictator who put down anarchy. Unless the socialists or the anarchists finally prevail — and perhaps even then — his fame seems as secure as human reputation is likely to be in a changing world.^ There was an old man named George Bush Who put the whole country on its tush Lost in pursuit While ignoring the truth The country impeached him with a Whoosh!
    • Truthdig - President Jonah, Meet Oliver Cromwell! 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Truthdig - President Jonah, Meet Oliver Cromwell! 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Naturally, I don’t like all the human weakness and sadness involved either.
    • Truthdig - President Jonah, Meet Oliver Cromwell! 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Truthdig - President Jonah, Meet Oliver Cromwell! 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He has been candid, as well, in conceding that those who need it most are the least likely even to be aware of it, nevermind actually going so far as to down a dose.
    • Truthdig - President Jonah, Meet Oliver Cromwell! 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Truthdig - President Jonah, Meet Oliver Cromwell! 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]

    • W.C. Abbott in Writings and Speeches of Oliver Cromwell
  • The commonest charge against Cromwell is hypocrisy — and the commonest basis for that is defective chronology.
    • W.C Abbott in Writings and Speeches of Oliver Cromwell
.
He obtain’d a great victory; but the action was said to be contrary to human prudence...
  • Oliver Cromwell had certainly this afflatus.^ Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector of Great Britain and Ireland, 1932.
    • http://www.heritage-images.com/Preview/PreviewPage.aspx?id=2370220&licenseType=RM&from=search&back=2370220 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.heritage-images.com [Source type: Original source]

    One that I knew was at the battle of Dunbar, told me that Oliver was carried on with a Divine impulse; he did laugh so excessively as if he had been drunk; his eyes sparkled with spirits. .He obtain’d a great victory; but the action was said to be contrary to human prudence.
    The same fit of laughter seized Oliver Cromwell just before the battle of Naseby; as a kinsman of mine, and a great favourite of his, Colonel J. P. then present, testified.^ In 1645-6, as second in command of the newly formed main parliamentary army, the New Model Army, Cromwell played a major role in parliament's victory in the Midlands, sealed by the battle of Naseby in June 1645, and in the south and south-west.
    • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Cromwell's military standing gave him enhanced political power, just as his military victories gave him the confidence and motivation to intervene in and to shape political events.
    • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector of Great Britain and Ireland, 1932.
    • http://www.heritage-images.com/Preview/PreviewPage.aspx?id=2370220&licenseType=RM&from=search&back=2370220 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.heritage-images.com [Source type: Original source]

    Cardinal Mazerine said, that he was a lucky fool. .
  • A perfect master of all the arts of dissimulation: who, turning up the whites of his eyes, and seeking the Lord with pious gestures, will weep and pray, and cant most devoutly, till an opportunity offers of dealing his dupe a knock-down blow under the short ribs.
    • George Bate (1608-1669), Cromwell's physician.
  • To give the devil his due, he restored justice, as well distributive as commutative, almost to it’s ancient dignity and splendour; the judges without covetousness discharging their duties according to law and equity... His own court also was regulated according to a severe discipline; here no drunkard, nor whoremonger, nor any guilty of bribery, was to be found, without severe punishment.^ Then, a little late of course, one could have tried to ban political candidates who don’t oppose the war or support(ed) torture (almost all)...
    • Truthdig - President Jonah, Meet Oliver Cromwell! 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Truthdig - President Jonah, Meet Oliver Cromwell! 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Perhaps all that can be said here is that those who appeal to Caesar must be prepared to bow under Caesar’s authority and all Erastianism is an enemy of true liberty of thought.
    • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

    ^ According to this ruling, ministers were deemed ‘scandalous’ for protesting against church matters being governed by those who had no office in or calling to the church they sought to regulate.
    • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

    Trade began again to prosper; and in a word, gentle peace to flourish all over England.
    • George Bate
  • He thought secrecy a virtue, and dissimulation no vice, and simulation, that is in plain English, a lie, or perfideousness to be a tolerable fault in case of necessity.
  • He was of a sanguine complexion, naturally of such a vivacity, hilarity and alacrity as another man is when he hath drunken a cup too much.
    • Richard Baxter in Reliquiae Baxterianae
  • The next morning I sent Colonel Cook to Cromwell, to let him know that I had letters and instructions to him from the King. .He sent me word by the same messenger, that he dared not see me, it being very dangerous to us both, and bid me be assured that he would serve his Majesty as long as he could do it without his own ruin; but desired that I should not expect that he should perish for his sake.^ When the admirable Tiberius (he has had an undeserved bad press), upon becoming emperor, received a message from the Senate in which the conscript fathers assured him that whatever legislation he wanted would be automatically passed by them, he sent back word that this was outrageous.
    • Truthdig - President Jonah, Meet Oliver Cromwell! 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The office of the monarchy still had much popular support in the country and I think that not only could this have happened but also that it would have been a desirable outcome since it would have provided a much needed symbol of long-term stability to a new constitution.
    • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The titular bishops, although without ecclesiastical power, continued to sit in Parliament and, indeed, by 1600 new 'bishops' (called Commissioners) were being appointed to the vacant sees.
    • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • When he quitted the Parliament, his chief dependence was on the Army, which he endeavoured by all means to keep in unity, and if he could not bring it to his sense, he, rather than suffer any division in it, went over himself and carried his friends with him into that way which the army did choose, and that faster than any other person in it.^ Religious toleration challenged all the beliefs of Cromwell's day and found its best friend in the Lord Protector himself.
    • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Pride's Purge and the Execution of Charles I The army was preparing to bring the prisoner King back to London to be tried by Parliament.
    • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Neal also could have found far more ‘Puritan’ Anglicans amongst the dispossessed than those he chooses for comment.
    • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Sir John Berkeley in Memoirs of Sir John Berkeley
  • A devotee of law, he was forced to be often lawless; a civilian to the core, he had to maintain himself by the sword; with a passion to construct, his task was chiefly to destroy; the most scrupulous of men, he had to ride roughshod over his own scruples and those of others; the tenderest, he had continually to harden his heart; the most English of our greater figures, he spent his life in opposition to the majority of Englishmen; a realist, he was condemned to build that which could not last.
  • Cromwell was a man in whom ambition had not wholly suppressed, but only suspended, the sentiments of religion.^ A devotee of law, he was forced to be often lawless; a civilian to the core, he had to maintain himself by the sword; with a passion to construct, his task was chiefly to destroy; the most scrupulous of men, he had to ride roughshod over his own scruples and those of others; the tenderest, he had continually to harden his heart; the most English of our greater figures, he spent his life in opposition to the majority of Englishmen; a realist, he was condemned to build that which could not last.” John Buchan, Oliver Cromwell.
    • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Cromwell:_ Oliver will be the foremost man in England.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Colonel Thomas Rainsborough, a spokesperson for the military Levellers made the now, much quoted, statement: "For really I think that the poorest he that is in England hath a life to live, as the greatest he; and therefore truly, sir, I think it's clear that every man that is to live under a government ought first by his own consent to put himself under that government; and I do think that the poorest man in England is not bound in a strict sense to that government that he hath not had a voice to put himself under."4 Major-General Ireton (Cromwell's son-in-law) disagreed, taking the view that the vote should be limited to owners of property.
    • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

  • Sylla was the first of victors; but our own
    The sagest of usurpers, Cromwell; he
    Too swept off the senates while he hewed the throne
    Down to a block — immortal rebel! See
    What crimes it costs to be a moment free
    And famous through all ages.
    • Lord Byron in Child Harold's Pilgrimage Canto IV
  • I confess I have an interest in this Mr. Cromwell; and indeed, if truth must be said, in him alone. The rest are historical, dead to me; but he is epic, still living. Hail to thee, thou strong one; hail across the longdrawn funeral-aisle and night of time!... .
  • His grandeur he deriv’d from heaven alone,
    For he was great e’er fortune made him so
    And wars like mists that rise against the sun
    Made him but greater seem, not greater grow.^ He was a joyless religious bigot guilty of war crimes…which arguably makes him one of George’s people (I’m sure he and Cheney will get on great in Hell).
    • Truthdig - President Jonah, Meet Oliver Cromwell! 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Truthdig - President Jonah, Meet Oliver Cromwell! 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Moreover, it provided him with the power base which in a very tangible sense, made that pre-eminence almost irresistible."3 Cromwell's military greatness is rarely challenged.
    • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]


    .No borrow’d bays his temple did adorn,
    But to our Crown he did fresh jewels bring;
    Nor was his virtue poison’d soon as born,
    With the too early thoughts of being King.
    • John Dryden, Heroick Stanzas consecrated to his Highness Oliver
  • Things will shortly happen which have been unheard of, and above all would open the eyes of those who live under Kings and other Sovereigns, and lead to great changes.^ Do you believe, as did Kurt Vonnegut (another of my very few heroes) the greatest literature of all time is not that written by Shakespeare, but by his peers, the King James committee who wrote that version of the Bible?
    • Truthdig - President Jonah, Meet Oliver Cromwell! 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Truthdig - President Jonah, Meet Oliver Cromwell! 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The king began to reward the loyal royalists who had suffered under Cromwell.
    • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Charles was crowned the king of Scotland on January 1, 1651, and proceeded to lead an army into England to claim his throne there.
    • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

    .Cromwell alone holds the direction of political and military affairs in his hands.^ Cromwell's military standing gave him enhanced political power, just as his military victories gave him the confidence and motivation to intervene in and to shape political events.
    • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

    .He is one who is worth all the others put together, and, in effect, King.^ Then, a little late of course, one could have tried to ban political candidates who don’t oppose the war or support(ed) torture (almost all)...
    • Truthdig - President Jonah, Meet Oliver Cromwell! 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Truthdig - President Jonah, Meet Oliver Cromwell! 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Whilst all this was happening, sporadic civilian riots broke out in favour of the King in London and other parts of the country.
    • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • John Dury as reported by Hermann Mylius (27 September 1651)
  • Saw the superb funeral of the Protector:...but it was the joyfullest funeral that I ever saw, for there were none that cried, but dogs, which the souldiers hooted away with a barbarous noise; drinking and taking tobacco in the streets as they went.
  • This day (to the stupendous and inscrutable Judgements of God) were the Carcasses of that arch-rebell Cromwell and Bradshaw the judge who condemned his Majestie & Ireton, son-in-law to the Usurper, dragged out of their superbe tombs (in Westminster among the Kings), to Tyburn & hanged on the Gallows there from 9 in the morning til 6 at night, and then buried under that fatal and ignominious monument, in a deepe pitt: Thousands of people who (who had seen them in all their pride and pompous insults) being spectators: look back at November 22, 1658, & be astonish’d - And fear God & honour the King, but meddle not with those who are given to change.^ Who is an Earl of Bedford to take it away from them?
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He looks at his people, all with their backs to him.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Those who opposed the King were I believe defending the freedoms of the people.
    • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

    • John Evelyn in his Diary (30 January 1661)
  • He lived a hypocrite and died a traitor. .
    • John Foster
  • That slovenly fellow which you see before us, who hath no ornament in his speech; I say that sloven, if we should ever come to have a breech with the King (which God forbid) in such case will be one of the greatest men of England.^ No king may be against us.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Men should be proud to call you King, sir.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In any case, with one voice let us say, “We’ve had enough of you.
    • Truthdig - President Jonah, Meet Oliver Cromwell! 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • John Hampden, speaking to Lord Digby in the House of Commons, as reported by Sir Richard Bulstrode
  • Generally he respected, or at least pretended a love to, all ingenious persons in any arts, whom he arranged to be sent or brought to him.^ Has Lucien’s letter from Canyonville, and reports all well at Toll House.
    • Guide to the Oliver Cromwell Applegate Papers 1841-1938 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC nwda-db.wsulibs.wsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Guide to the Oliver Cromwell Applegate Papers 1841-1938 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC nwda-db.wsulibs.wsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ John Hampden sent me some copies from a friend who knows Mr. Herrick.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Upon his return to London, Cromwell purged the House of Commons of all Presbyterian members and kept it under guard by threat of arms.
    • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

    .But the niggardliness and incompetence of his reward shewed that this man was a personated act of greatness, and that Private Cromwell yet governed Prince Oliver.^ Cromwell:_ Oliver has just sent from Whitehall for his great coat.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector of Great Britain and Ireland, 1932.
    • http://www.heritage-images.com/Preview/PreviewPage.aspx?id=2370220&licenseType=RM&from=search&back=2370220 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.heritage-images.com [Source type: Original source]

    • James Heath
  • His character does not appear more extraordinary and unusual by the mixture of so much absurdity with so much penetration, than by his tempering such violent ambition, and such enraged fanaticism with so much regard to justice and humanity. .
  • In a word, as he was guilty of many crimes against which Damnation is denounced, and for which hell-fire is prepared, so he had some good qualities which have caused the memory of some men in all Ages to be celebrated; and he will be look’d upon by posterity as a brave bad man.
  • A complex character such as that of Cromwell, is incapable of creation, except in times of great civil and religious excitement, and one cannot judge of the man without at the same time considering the contending elements by which he was surrounded.^ As I mentioned last February, I have read many of these descriptions of our fallen estate, looking for one that best describes in plain English how we got to this now and where we appear to be headed once our good Earth has been consumed by fire and only Rapture is left to whisk aloft the Faithful.
    • Truthdig - President Jonah, Meet Oliver Cromwell! 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The first was that the king seemed to still be in good relations with some Presbyterian Scotsmen such as Lauderdale, who had first met with young Charles II when his father died.
    • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

    ^ A conversion experience some time before the civil war, strengthened by his belief that during the war he and his troops had been chosen by God to perform His will, gave a religious tinge to many of his political policies as Lord Protector in the 1650s.
    • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

    .It is possible to take his character to pieces, and, selecting one or other of his qualities as a corner-stone, to build around it a monument which will show him as a patriot or a plotter, a Christian man or a hypocrite, a demon or a demi-god as the sculptor may choose.
    • F.A Inderwick in The Interregnum, 1648-60
  • "I am," said he, "as much for a government by consent as any man; but where shall we find that consent?^ Which is an honest and a thriving way; and yet as much for bravery may be given to him, in this action, as to a man.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Whatever may be your infirmities and weakness, yet the grace of God shall be sufficient for you, and His strength shall be perfected in your weakness.
    • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Let a man think as he will, but he shall command no other man to think it.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Amongst the Prelatical, Presbyterian, Independent, Anabaptist, or Leveling Parties?"...^ There were Presbyterians, Independents, Ranters, Seekers, Quakers, Muggletonians, Socinians, Anabaptists, Brownists, and Fifth monarchists, Episcopalians, Levellers and Diggers.
    • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

    then he fell into the commendation of his own government, boasting of the protection and quiet which the people enjoyed under it, saying, that he was resolved to keep the nation from being imbrued in blood. I said that I was of the opinion too much blood had already been shed, unless there were a better account of it. ."You do well," said he, "to charge us with the guilt of blood; but we think there is a good return for what hath been shed."^ Do but give us our guarantees, and you will mount a securer throne, I think, than any king has yet held in England.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ But this old crazy body and mortal flesh I do submit, to do with it whatsoever Ye will, whether by death or banishment, or imprisonment, or anything else; only I beseech you to ponder well what profit there is in my blood.
    • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Out there many call you the man of blood.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

  • His body was wel compact and strong, his stature under 6 foote ( I beleeve about two inches) his head so shaped, as you might see it a storehouse and shop both of vast tresury of natural parts. .His temper exceeding fyery as I have known, but the flame of it kept downe, for the most part, or soon allayed with those moral endowments he had.^ He has been candid, as well, in conceding that those who need it most are the least likely even to be aware of it, nevermind actually going so far as to down a dose.
    • Truthdig - President Jonah, Meet Oliver Cromwell! 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Truthdig - President Jonah, Meet Oliver Cromwell! 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]

    .He was naturally compassionate towards objects in distresse, even to an effeminate measure; though God had made him a heart, wherein was left little roume for any feare, but what was due to himselfe, of which there was a large proportion, yet did he exceed in tenderness towards suffrerers.^ Yet he did not hesitate to commit himself to active service.
    • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

    .A larger soule, I thinke, hath seldom dwelt in a house of clay than his was.^ Already we have considered it more closely and longer, I think, than any that has ever been before this House.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • John Maidston in a letter to John Winthrop (24 March 1659)
  • Of late I have not given so free and full a power unto (Cromwell) as formerly I did, because I heard that he used his power so as in honour I could not avow him in it....for his expressions were sometimes against the nobility, that he hoped to live to see never a nobleman in England, and he loved such (and such) better than others because they did not love Lords.^ I would guess that they would consider you and your family odd and they would avoid you, because you are different and have a lively interest in the world about you.
    • Truthdig - President Jonah, Meet Oliver Cromwell! 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Truthdig - President Jonah, Meet Oliver Cromwell! 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ To defy Ungodly Vidal, The Republicans are smoking something better than i am if they think bush is being maligned!!!
    • Truthdig - President Jonah, Meet Oliver Cromwell! 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Truthdig - President Jonah, Meet Oliver Cromwell! 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Our government, our business leaders, as well as all other nations, have always known this and use their considerable powers to that advantage.
    • Truthdig - President Jonah, Meet Oliver Cromwell! 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Truthdig - President Jonah, Meet Oliver Cromwell! 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]

    .And he further expressed himself with contempt of the Assemberly of Divines...these he termed persecutors, and that they persecuted honester men than themselves.^ They too, have my sympathy.1 Yet these men, as far as could be organised in these turbulent times, were refunded of any loss and re-established in their livings by the Cromwellian Commonwealth.
    • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Also the excuse given by Coleman that the Dissenting persecutions are more excusable than those of the later Anglicans because they occurred in turbulent times cannot be accepted.
    • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

    ^ To add to their plight, Parliament demanded of these impoverished men that they supply horses, food, clothing and even arms for Cromwell’s ‘Model Army’.
    • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • So restless Cromwell could not cease
    In the inglorious Arts of Peace,
    But through adventrous war,
    Urged his active star...^ The Soldier From the outbreak of war in summer 1642, Cromwell was an active and committed officer in the parliamentary army.
    • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In 1649 Cromwell was appointed Chairman of a Council of State, the monarchy was abolished, the House of Lords was abolished and England was declared a Commonwealth.
    • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]


    .To ruine the great work of time,
    And cast the kingdom old
    Into another Mold...
    • Andrew Marvell in An Horation Ode upon Cromwell’s return from Ireland
  • Cromwell, our chief of men, who through a cloud,
    Not of war only, but detractions rude,
    Guided by faith and matchless fortitude,
    To peace and truth thy glorious way has ploughed
    And on the neck of crowned fortune proud
    Has reared God’s trophies, and his work pursued,
    While Darwen stream with blood of Scots imbrued,
    And Dunbar field resounds thy praises loud,
    And Worcester’s laureate wreath.^ Cromwell, our chief of men, who through a cloud, Not of war only, but detractions rude, Guided by faith and matchless fortitude, To peace and truth thy glorious way has ploughed And on the neck of crowned fortune proud Has reared God’s trophies, and his work pursued, While Darwen stream with blood of Scots imbrued, And Dunbar field resounds thy praises loud, And Worcester’s laureate wreath.
    • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Indeed, he compared Cromwell’s letting into the pulpits whoever felt the urge to the work of Wesley and saw proof of this in the way Cromwell encouraged Arch-Arminian, John Goodwin and Arch-thug Thomas Venner to propagate their debased gospel.
    • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

    ^ As to religious insanity: Bush with his unpredictable wars of aggression is an abomination before Jesus Christ who preached an unequivocal message of PEACE and ,LOVE; America is an insult to the early Christian communist communities and to all sincere religious followers of Jesus, Bush is an insult to the faith of the martyrs and revolutionaries that died for truth and godly motives.
    • Truthdig - President Jonah, Meet Oliver Cromwell! 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Truthdig - President Jonah, Meet Oliver Cromwell! 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Yet much remains
    To conquer still; peace hath her victories
    No less renowned than war:
    new foes arise,
    Threatening to bind our souls with secular chains:
    Help us to save free conscience from the paw
    Of hireling wolves whose gospel is their maw.
    • John Milton, Sonnet XVI, "To the Lord General Cromwell"
  • I've been dreaming of a time when the English are sick to death of Labour and Tories and spit upon the name Oliver Cromwell and denounce this royal line that still salutes him and will salute him forever.
    • Morrissey in the song "Irish Blood, English Heart".
  • He has arrogated to himself despotic authority and the actual sovereignty of these realms under the mask of humility and the public service....Obedience and submission were never so manifest in England as at present,...their spirits are so crushed..yet...they dare not rebel and only murmur under their breath, though all live in hope of the fulfilment one day of the prophecies foretelling a change of rule ere long.^ Cromwell:_ There could be no safety or hope while he lived.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Cromwell:_ Oliver will be the foremost man in England.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ But where these have been is no warrant for authority abused.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Lorenzo Paulucci, Venetian Secretary in England, to Giovanni Sagredo, Venetian Ambassador in France, (21 February 1654)
  • At dinner we talked much of Cromwell, all saying he was a brave fellow and did owe his crown he got to himself, as much as any man that ever got one.^ But Oliver is a brave fellow--and John, all of them.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Cromwell:_ Surely you are not well advised to turn off one so faithful to the cause, and so able to serve you as this man is.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Each one of you is here and now called to service in that name, that hereafter in England a man may call his hearth his own.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • He was a practical mystic, the most formidable and terrible of all combinations, uniting an aspiration derived from the celestial and supernatural with the energy of a mighty man of action; a great captain, but off the field seeming, like a thunderbolt, the agent of greater forces than himself ; no hypocrite, but a defender of the faith; the raiser and maintainer of the Empire of England.^ We are determined that henceforth in England no man shall suffer for his faith.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ No man is sure of himself, ever.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • The Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland and of the Dominions thereunto belonging, shall be and reside in one person, and the people assembled in parliament; the style of which person shall be "The Lord Protector of the Commonwealth"...^ Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector of Great Britain and Ireland, 1932.
    • http://www.heritage-images.com/Preview/PreviewPage.aspx?id=2370220&licenseType=RM&from=search&back=2370220 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.heritage-images.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Lord Protector of the Commonwealth .
    • http://www.heritage-images.com/Preview/PreviewPage.aspx?id=2370220&licenseType=RM&from=search&back=2370220 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.heritage-images.com [Source type: Original source]

    .That Oliver Cromwell, Captain General of the forces of England, Scotland and Ireland, shall be, and is hereby declared to be, Lord Protector...for his life.^ Cromwell:_ Oliver will be the foremost man in England.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The royal forces in England shall move when and as the Duke of Hamilton directs.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector of Great Britain and Ireland, 1932.
    • http://www.heritage-images.com/Preview/PreviewPage.aspx?id=2370220&licenseType=RM&from=search&back=2370220 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.heritage-images.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Decree by the Instrument of Government (16 December 1653)
  • Lieutenant-General Cromwell...a member of the House of Commons, long famous for godliness and zeal to his country, of great note for his service in the House, accepted of a commission at the very beginning of this war, wherein he served his country faithfully, and it was observed God was with him, and he began to be renowned.^ He was a subagent with the Indian Service at Yainax, and during the Modoc War he served as an interpreter and a scout.
    • Guide to the Oliver Cromwell Applegate Papers 1841-1938 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC nwda-db.wsulibs.wsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Guide to the Oliver Cromwell Applegate Papers 1841-1938 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC nwda-db.wsulibs.wsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Cromwell:_ Brethren in God, at the end of another day's labour we are met to praise Him from whom are the means to labour and its rewards.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The new regime generally held true to the path Cromwell set for it in December 1653 – “to act for God and the peace and good of the Nation, and particularly…to consider and relieve the distress of the poor and oppressed”.
    • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Joshua Sprigge in Anglia Rediviva (1647)
  • Whilst he was curious of his own words, (not putting forth too many lest they should betray his thoughts) he made others talk until he had, as it were, sifted them, and known their most intimate designs.^ It put forward its own ideas of a settlement with the King known as The Heads of Proposals.
    • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Many thousands of Scottish Presbyterians had settled in Ireland and had a mixed, mostly dreadful, time until a minority became Reformed Presbyterians in 1792 while the rest became known as the Presbyterian Church in Ireland.
    • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • As for that famous and magnanimous commander, Lieutenant-General Cromwell, whose prowess and prudence, as they have rendered him most renowned for many former successful deeds of chivalry, so in this fight they have crowned him with the never withering laurels of fame and honour, who with so lion-like courage and impregnable animosity, charged his proudest adversaries again and again, like a Roman Marcellus indeed....and at last came off, as with some wounds, so with honour and triumph inferior to none.^ General Cromwell and his chosen troops have that, and experience; none like them.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Mormonism, Zionism, Scientology and most of the rest are relatively recent, but they make sure that no criticism can be uttered in the general media.
    • Truthdig - President Jonah, Meet Oliver Cromwell! 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Truthdig - President Jonah, Meet Oliver Cromwell! 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ General discussions never come to an end, but they start chains of associations and ideas that lead to more and more chains of associations and ideas.
    • Truthdig - President Jonah, Meet Oliver Cromwell! 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Truthdig - President Jonah, Meet Oliver Cromwell! 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]

    • John Vicars, Magnalia Dei Anglicana Or England’s Parliamentary-Chronicle (1646)
  • I... had occasion to converse with .Mr Cromwell’s physician, Dr Simcott, who assured me that for many years his patient was a most splenetick man and had phansies about the cross in that town; and that he had been called up to him at midnight, and such unseasonable hours very many times, upon a strong phansy, which made him belive he was then dying; and there went a story of him, that in the day-time, lying melancholy in his bed, he belived the spirit appeared to him, and told him he should be the greatest man, (not mentioning the word King) in this Kingdom.^ Pemberton:_ Is there any word of him?
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Now a word about the man.
    • Truthdig - President Jonah, Meet Oliver Cromwell! 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Truthdig - President Jonah, Meet Oliver Cromwell! 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Do you believe, as did Kurt Vonnegut (another of my very few heroes) the greatest literature of all time is not that written by Shakespeare, but by his peers, the King James committee who wrote that version of the Bible?
    • Truthdig - President Jonah, Meet Oliver Cromwell! 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Truthdig - President Jonah, Meet Oliver Cromwell! 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Which his uncle, Sir Thomas Steward, who left him all the little estate Cromwell had, told him was traiterous to relate.^ I gleefully chuckled at Mr. Gore’s idea Bush is really just a jinx who inadvertently causes disasters for all those around him.
    • Truthdig - President Jonah, Meet Oliver Cromwell! 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Truthdig - President Jonah, Meet Oliver Cromwell! 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Then, a little late of course, one could have tried to ban political candidates who don’t oppose the war or support(ed) torture (almost all)...
    • Truthdig - President Jonah, Meet Oliver Cromwell! 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Truthdig - President Jonah, Meet Oliver Cromwell! 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It was they who told me about Obama and also a curious but amazing little novel, Scamming God.
    • Truthdig - President Jonah, Meet Oliver Cromwell! 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Truthdig - President Jonah, Meet Oliver Cromwell! 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • As to your own person the title of King would be of no advantage, because you have the full Kingly power in you already...^ He would be your servant, sir, in the wars.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I would guess that they would consider you and your family odd and they would avoid you, because you are different and have a lively interest in the world about you.
    • Truthdig - President Jonah, Meet Oliver Cromwell! 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Truthdig - President Jonah, Meet Oliver Cromwell! 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Not only is its intent free of blame towards the King's majesty and person, but it can, I hope, be read by no fair-minded man in the way that my friend fears.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    .I apprehend indeed, less envy and danger, and pomp, but not less power, and real opportunities of doing good in your being General than would be if you had assumed the title of King.^ I would guess that they would consider you and your family odd and they would avoid you, because you are different and have a lively interest in the world about you.
    • Truthdig - President Jonah, Meet Oliver Cromwell! 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Truthdig - President Jonah, Meet Oliver Cromwell! 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Ireton:_ And you can say that it is no fear of earls or kings that spared you the whipping you would deserve if you were better than shadows.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Cromwell:_ I can disabuse rumour about Scotland, I can persuade Parliament about the Presbytery, I can convince the army of your good faith as to tolerance, if you will but give me the word.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • He would sometimes be very cheerful with us, and laying aside his greatness he would be exceeding familiar with us, and by way of diversion would make verses with us, and everyone must try his fancy.^ Cromwell:_ You're very vexatious sometimes, Oliver.
    • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

    He commonly called for tobacco, pipes, and a candle, and would now and then take tobacco himself; then he would fall again to his serious and great business.
    • Bulstrode Whitelocke in Memorialls of English Affairs
  • In short, every beast hath some evil properties; but Cromwell hath the properties of all evil beasts.
    • Archbishop John Williams to King Charles at Oxford, as quoted in Life of Archbishop Williams by Hackett
  • The English monster, the center of mischief, a shame to the British Chronicle, a pattern for tyranny, murder and hypocrisie, whose bloody Caligula, Domitian, having at last attained the height of his ambition, for five years space, he wallowed in the blood of many gallant and heroick persons....

External links

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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

.OLIVER CROMWELL (1599-1658), lord protector of England, was the 5th and only surviving son of Robert Cromwell of Huntingdon and of Elizabeth Steward, widow of William Lynn.^ Oliver CROMWELL Lord Protector (1599-1658) m.

^ Portrait of Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658) with a Page .
  • Details of Portrait of Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658) with a Page by Studio of Robert Walker 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.historicalportraits.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Cromwell, Oliver 1599-1658 [WorldCat Identities] .
  • Cromwell, Oliver 1599-1658 [WorldCat Identities] 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC orlabs.oclc.org [Source type: Original source]

.His paternal grandfather was Sir Henry Cromwell of Hinchinbrook, a leading personage in Huntingdonshire, and grandson of Richard Williams, knighted by Henry VIII., nephew of Thomas Cromwell, earl of Essex, Henry VIII.'s minister, whose name he adopted.^ Thomas earl of Essex Cromwell .
  • Thomas earl of Essex Cromwell Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Thomas earl of Essex Cromwell 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His paternal grandfather was Sir Henry Cromwell of Hinchinbrook, a leading personage in Huntingdonshire , and grandson of Richard Williams, knighted by Henry VIII ., nephew of Thomas Cromwell , earl of Essex , Henry VIII.'s minister, whose name he adopted.

^ Thomas Cromwell, earl of Essex .
  • Thomas earl of Essex Cromwell Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Thomas earl of Essex Cromwell 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.His mother was descended from a family named Styward in Norfolk, which was not, however, connected in any way, as has been often asserted, with the royal house of Stuart.^ His mother was descended from a family named Styward in Norfolk , which was not, however, connected in any way, as has been often asserted, with the royal house of Stuart .

^ The events began when King Charles I (1600–1649), a member of the House of Stuart (English ruling family), ascended the throne in 1625.
  • Government and Politics - Why Was Oliver Cromwell Important To British History?: History Fact Finder 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.enotes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This would have been a superb example of irony had it been true; in fact Oliver's mother was descended from Stywards of Calais.
  • The Cromwell origins 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.colbirch.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

.Oliver was born on the 25th of April 1599, was educated under Dr Thomas Beard, a fervent puritan, at the free school at Huntingdon, and on the 23rd of April 1616 matriculated as a fellow-commoner at Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, then a hotbed of puritanism, subsequently studying law in London.^ Andy Brooks OLIVER CROMWELL, the leader of the English Revolution, was born in Huntingdon on 25th April 1599.
  • The New Communist Party of Britain | OLIVER CROMWELL - And the Good Old Cause 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.newworker.org [Source type: Original source]

^ OLIVER CROMWELL , Lord Protector of the British Commonwealth, was born at Huntingdon, 25th April 1599.
  • Oliver Cromwell, English soldier, statesman and Lord Protector of the Commonwealth (1599-1658) 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.1902encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is now supposedly buried at Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge.
  • BBC News | UK | Cromwell: Hero or villain? 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC news.bbc.co.uk [Source type: News]

.The royalist anecdotes relating to his youth, including charges of ill-conduct, do not deserve credit, the entries in the register of St John's, Huntingdon, noting Oliver's submission on two occasions to church censure being forgeries; but it is not improbable that his youth was wild and possibly dissolute.'^ The royalist anecdotes relating to his youth, including charges of ill-conduct, do not deserve credit, the entries in the register of St John's, Huntingdon, noting Oliver's submission on two occasions to church censure being forgeries; but it is not improbable that his youth was wild and possibly dissolute.'

^ O liver Cromwell was born into a family of minor Huntingdon gentry on 25 April 1599 and baptised at St John's Church in Huntingdon four days later.

^ After burying his first wife by which he had two sons who died in England and one daughter brought to New England, Mather says he married a daughter of Oliver St. John, a Bedfordshire man.
  • Pane-Joyce Genealogy 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC aleph0.clarku.edu [Source type: General]

According to Edmund Waller he was "very well read in the Greek and Roman story." Burnet declares he had little Latin, but he was able to converse with the Dutch ambassador in that language. According to James Heath in his Flagellum, " he was more famous for his exercises in the fields than in the schools, being one of the chief match-makers and players at football, cudgels, or any other boisterous game or sport." On the 22nd of August 1620 he married Elizabeth, daughter of Sir James Bourchier, a city merchant of Tower Hill, and of Felstead in Essex; and his father having died in 1617 he settled at Huntingdon and occupied himself in the management of his small estate. .In 1628 he was returned to parliament as member for the borough, and on the 11th of February 1629 he spoke in support of puritan doctrine, complaining of the attempt by the king to silence Dr Beard, who had raised his voice against the "flat popery" inculcated by Dr Alabaster at Paul's Cross.^ Cromwell was again returned to this Parliament as member for Cambridge.
  • 25 Most Evil People of the 17th Century CE | Oliver Cromwell 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC one-evil.org [Source type: Original source]
  • 20 Most Evil People of the 16th Century CE | Oliver Cromwell 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC one-evil.org [Source type: Original source]

^ English King Charles I attempted to arrest five members of the English parliament.
  • HistoryMole Timeline: The English Civil War (1642-1649) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.historymole.com [Source type: General]

^ He became member of parliament for Huntingdon in the parliament of 1628 - 1629.
  • BBC - History - Historic Figures: Oliver Cromwell (1599 - 1658) 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He was also one of the members who refused to adjourn at the king's command till Sir John Eliot's resolutions had been passed.^ He was also one of the members who refused to adjourn at the king's command till Sir John Eliot's resolutions had been passed.

^ At the decisive battle of Naseby (the 14th of June 1645) he commanded the parliamentary right wing and routed the cavalry of Sir Marmaduke Lang exclusion from pardon of all the king's leading adherents, besides the indefinite establishment of Presbyterianism and the refusal of toleration to the Roman Catholics and members of the Church of England.

^ It was dug up along with those of his son in law Henry Ireton and John Bradshaw, who had been the judge at the trial of King Charles.

.During the eleven years of government without parliament very little is recorded of Cromwell.^ During the eleven years of government without parliament very little is recorded of Cromwell.

^ After dissolving this Parliament, Charles I ruled without a Parliament for the next eleven years.
  • Oliver Cromwell Fans 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC olivercromwellfans.com [Source type: General]
  • Which country did oliver cromwell come from? - Yahoo! Answers 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]
  • 25 Most Evil People of the 17th Century CE | Oliver Cromwell 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC one-evil.org [Source type: Original source]
  • 20 Most Evil People of the 16th Century CE | Oliver Cromwell 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC one-evil.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Anyway, “Many things were happening in England during the eleven years of the King’s government without a Parliament”.
  • Investigations of a Dog » Oliver Cromwell: An Adventure From History 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.investigations.4-lom.com [Source type: Original source]

.His name is not connected with the resistance to the levy of ship-money or to the action of the ecclesiastical courts, but in 1630 he was one of those fined for refusing to take up knighthood.^ His name is not connected with the resistance to the levy of ship-money or to the action of the ecclesiastical courts, but in 1630 he was one of those fined for refusing to take up knighthood .

^ He demanded "ship money" from the towns, fined country gentlemen (including Cromwell) for refusing to accept knighthood, raised "forced loans," and increased customs duties.
  • Oliver Cromwell - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1636 he set the example of refusing to pay the ship-money, a tax devised by Attorney-general Noy, and arbitrarily imposed by the King.
  • GENUKI: Eminent men of England (A-M) 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.genuki.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

.The same year he was named one of the justices of the peace for his borough; and on the grant of a new charter showed great zeal in defending the rights of the commoners, and succeeded in procuring an alteration in the charter in their favour, exhibiting much warmth of temper during the dispute and being committed to custody by the privy council for angry words spoken against the mayor, for which he afterwards apologized.^ The same year he was named one of the justices of the peace for his borough; and on the grant of a new charter showed great zeal in defending the rights of the commoners, and succeeded in procuring an alteration in the charter in their favour, exhibiting much warmth of temper during the dispute and being committed to custody by the privy council for angry words spoken against the mayor , for which he afterwards apologized.

^ He's reported the "news" on "The Daily Show," and now Rob Corddry will be doing the same from behind a White House podium.
  • james cromwell » MTV Movies Blog 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC moviesblog.mtv.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He avoided being disgraced with Wolsey in 1529, and by 1531 was serving Henry VIII as a member of the privy council.
  • Thomas earl of Essex Cromwell Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Thomas earl of Essex Cromwell 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

He also defended the rights of the commoners of Ely threatened by the "adventurers" who had drained the Great Level, and he was nicknamed afterwards by a royalist newspaper "Lord of the Fens." He was again later the champion of the commoners of St Ives in the Long Parliament 1 Life of Sir H. Vane, by W. W. Ireland, 222.
against enclosures by the earl of .Manchester, obtaining a commission of the House of Commons to inquire into the case, and drawing upon himself the severe censure of the chairman, the future Lord Clarendon, by his "impetuous carriage" and "insolent behaviour," and by the passionate vehemence he imparted into the business.^ Manchester , obtaining a commission of the House of Commons to inquire into the case, and drawing upon himself the severe censure of the chairman, the future Lord Clarendon, by his "impetuous carriage " and "insolent behaviour," and by the passionate vehemence he imparted into the business.

^ According to BE1883 (supported by TCP), upon the dissolution of the monasteries "he obtained all the lands, in Huntingdonshire, belonging to any religious house in that county".
  • cromwell03 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.stirnet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A more republican House of Commons immediately shows an inclination to reject the Humble Petition proposed by their predecessors, and to insist that the revived House of Lords be again abolished.

.Bishop Williams, a kinsman of Cromwell's, relates at this time that he was "a common spokesman for sectaries, and maintained their part with great stubbornness"; and his earliest extant letter (in 1635) is an appeal for subscriptions for a puritan lecturer.^ Bishop Williams, a kinsman of Cromwell's, relates at this time that he was "a common spokesman for sectaries, and maintained their part with great stubbornness"; and his earliest extant letter (in 1635) is an appeal for subscriptions for a puritan lecturer.

^ The same fit of laughter seized Oliver Cromwell just before the battle of Naseby; as a kinsman of mine, and a great favourite of his, Colonel J. P. then present, testified.
  • Oliver Cromwell - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Oliver Cromwell - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Oliver Cromwell was born into a common family of English country Puritans having none of the advantages of upbringing that would prepare him to be leader of a nation.
  • Oliver Cromwell: Lord Protector of England (1599-1658) — The Champion 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.forerunner.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Models for Reformation: Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector (1599-1658) — The Forerunner 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC forerunner.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Oliver Cromwell - Factbites 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.factbites.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Short Biography of Oliver Cromwell, Reformed Baptists 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.reformedreader.org [Source type: Original source]

.There appears to be no foundation for the statement that he was stopped by an order of council when on the point of abandoning England for America, though there can be little doubt that the thoughts of emigration suggested themselves to his mind at this period.^ So there are no doubt many errors.
  • The Life and Entertaining Adventures of Mr. Cleveland, Natural Son of Oliver Cromwell 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: General]

^ There is no doubt about that."
  • EIPS - Oliver Cromwell 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.ianpaisley.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There appears to be no foundation for the statement that he was stopped by an order of council when on the point of abandoning England for America , though there can be little doubt that the thoughts of emigration suggested themselves to his mind at this period.

.He viewed the "innovations in religion" with abhorrence.^ He viewed the "innovations in religion" with abhorrence.

.According to Clarendon he told the latter in 1641 that if the Grand Remonstrance had not passed "he would have sold all he had the next morning and never have seen England more."^ If the remonstrance had been rejected I would have sold all I had the next morning and never have seen England more, and I know there are many other modest men of the same resolution.
  • Oliver Cromwell - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Oliver Cromwell - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ According to Clarendon he told the latter in 1641 that if the Grand Remonstrance had not passed "he would have sold all he had the next morning and never have seen England more."

^ The king was so angry that he ordered the arrest of the five members who had taken the lead in the passing of the Remonstrance; but [179] the House of Commons would not allow the arrests to be made.
  • The Baldwin Project: Famous Men of Modern Times by John H. Haaren 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

.In 1631 he converted his landed property into money, and John Hampden, his cousin, a patentee of Connecticut in 1632, was on the point of emigrating.^ In 1631 he converted his landed property into money, and John Hampden , his cousin, a patentee of Connecticut in 1632, was on the point of emigrating.

^ Your troopers,’ Cromwell told his cousin John Hampden, after the unhappy failure of the Parliamentary troopers at Edgehill, ‘are most of them decayed servingmen and tapsters and such kind of fellows ...
  • Reg Groves: Cromwell (November 1973) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www2.cddc.vt.edu [Source type: Original source]
  • Reg Groves: Cromwell (November 1973) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.marxists.org [Source type: Original source]

^ John Hampden was tried for refusal to pay ship-money.
  • Little Journeys Vol. 9: Great Reformers by Elbert Hubbard: Oliver Cromwell 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.online-literature.com [Source type: Original source]

.Cromwell was perhaps arrested in his project by his succession in 1636 to the estate of his uncle Sir Thomas Steward, and to his office of farmer of the cathedral tithes at Ely, whither he now removed.^ Cromwell was perhaps arrested in his project by his succession in 1636 to the estate of his uncle Sir Thomas Steward, and to his office of farmer of the cathedral tithes at Ely, whither he now removed.

^ In 1636 he removed to Ely, where he had succeeded to the property of his uncle, Sir Thomas Steward.
  • Oliver Cromwell, English soldier, statesman and Lord Protector of the Commonwealth (1599-1658) 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.1902encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1636 he inherited a large estate from his maternal uncle Sir Thomas Steward, in Ely.

.Meanwhile, like Bunyan and many other puritans, Cromwell had been passing through a trying period of mental and religious change and struggle, beginning with deep melancholy and religious doubt and depression, and ending with "seeing light" and with enthusiastic and convinced faith, which remained henceforth the chief characteristic and impulse in his career.^ Meanwhile, like Bunyan and many other puritans, Cromwell had been passing through a trying period of mental and religious change and struggle, beginning with deep melancholy and religious doubt and depression, and ending with "seeing light" and with enthusiastic and convinced faith, which remained henceforth the chief characteristic and impulse in his career.

^ Even though many wanted the war to end, Cromwell kept his men fighting battles that would strengthen Britain’s control over each region.
  • Biography of Oliver Cromwell - biography, autobiography & memoir resources 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.biographyshelf.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When he learnt also that England must either be ruled for a time through the soldiers or move into anarchy, he felt the light of the republican faith.

.He represented Cambridge in the Short and Long Parliaments of 1640, and at once showed extraordinary zeal and audacity in his opposition to the government, taking a large share in business and serving on numerous and important committees.^ However, in 1640 Cromwell was back in Parliament, this time representing Cambridge.

^ He entered Parliament in 1626 representing Cambridge.
  • Socialist Appeal - Oliver Cromwell and the English Revolution 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.socialist.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1640 Cromwell was elected to the Short and the Long Parliament.
  • Oliver Cromwell Biography - Biography.com 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.biography.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

As the cousin of Hampden and St. John he was intimately associated with the leaders of the parliamentary party. .His sphere of action, however, was not in parliament.^ His sphere of action, however, was not in parliament.

.He was not an orator, and though he could express himself forcibly on occasion, his speech was incoherent and devoid of any of the arts of rhetoric.^ He was not an orator, and though he could express himself forcibly on occasion, his speech was incoherent and devoid of any of the arts of rhetoric .

Clarendon notes on his first appearance in parliament that "he seemed to have a person in no degree gracious, no ornament of discourse, none of those talents which use to reconcile the affections of the standers by; yet as he grew into place and authority his parts seemed to be renewed." He supported stoutly the extreme party of opposition to the king, but did not take the lead except on a few less important occasions, and was apparently silent in the debates on the Petition of Right, the Grand Remonstrance and the Militia. .His first recorded intervention in debate in the Long Parliament was on the 9th of November 1640, a few days after the meeting of the House, when he delivered a petition from the imprisoned John Lilburne.^ Pages from the journal of the House of Commons recording the dismissal of the Long Parliament.
  • Cromwell’s Commonwealth and Protectorate 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.jackdaw.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ John Lilburne had a long record of principled opposition to the established church.
  • Oliver Cromwell, 1598-1658 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.lib.cam.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ His first recorded intervention in debate in the Long Parliament was on the 9th of November 1640, a few days after the meeting of the House, when he delivered a petition from the imprisoned John Lilburne .

.He was described by Sir Philip Warwick on this occasion: - "I came into the House one morning well clad and perceived a gentleman speaking whom I knew not, very ordinarily apparelled; for it was a plain cloth suit which seemed to have been made by an ill country tailor; his linen was plain and not very clean;.^ He was described by Sir Philip Warwick on this occasion: - "I came into the House one morning well clad and perceived a gentleman speaking whom I knew not, very ordinarily apparelled; for it was a plain cloth suit which seemed to have been made by an ill country tailor ; his linen was plain and not very clean;.

^ A gentleman who heard this first speech has thus described it: "I came into the House of Commons one morning and listened to a gentleman speaking whom I knew not.
  • The Baldwin Project: Famous Men of Modern Times by John H. Haaren 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The first time he spoke to Parliament he was observed by Sir Philip Warwick who had no idea who he was and described him as a very mean figure of a man in a plain cloth suit which seemed to have been made by an ill county tailor.

.. his stature was of a good size; his .sword stuck close to his side; his countenance swollen and reddish; his voice sharp and untunable and his eloquence full of fervour.^ Though His countenance was swollen and reddish, his voice sharp and untenable he was undeniably full of fervour.

^ His dress was a plain cloth suit which showed the cut of a country tailor; his linen was not very clean; his hat was without a hatband; his voice was sharp, and his eloquence full of fervor.
  • The Baldwin Project: Famous Men of Modern Times by John H. Haaren 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It brings before us a Monday morning, early in November 1640, when the writer, then a "a courtly young gentleman," came into the House, "well clad," and found a remarkable figure in possession of the House, "a gentleman whom I knew not, very ordinary appareled," his linen "plain and not very clean," his stature" of a good size, his sword stuck close to his side, his countenance swoln and reddish, his voice sharp and untunable, and his eloquence full of fervour."
  • Oliver Cromwell, English soldier, statesman and Lord Protector of the Commonwealth (1599-1658) 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.1902encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.. .I sincerely profess it much lessened my reverence as to that great council for he was very much hearkened unto."^ I sincerely profess it much lessened my reverence as to that great council for he was very much hearkened unto."

^ "I sincerely profess," he says, "it lessened much my reverence unto that great council, for this gentleman was very much hearkened unto."
  • Oliver Cromwell, English soldier, statesman and Lord Protector of the Commonwealth (1599-1658) 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.1902encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In which is Oliver again, "very much hearkened unto," despite "linen plain and not very clean, and voice sharp and untuneable."
  • Squashed Writers - The Letters and Speeches of Oliver Cromwell by Thomas Carlyle - condensed and abridged 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: Original source]

.On the 30th of December he moved to the second reading of Strode's bill for annual parliaments.^ On the 30th of December he moved to the second reading of Strode's bill for annual parliaments.

^ The Long Parliament moved swiftly against Laud, impeaching him in December 1640 and committing him to the Tower of London.
  • Oliver Cromwell, 1598-1658 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.lib.cam.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

.His chief interest from the first, however, lay in the religious question.^ His chief interest from the first, however, lay in the religious question.

^ Be the first person to mark this question as interesting!
  • Why was Oliver Cromwell a Villain? - Yahoo! Answers 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]
  • Which country did oliver cromwell come from? - Yahoo! Answers 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]
  • Oliver cromwell & the devil? - Yahoo! UK & Ireland Answers 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC uk.answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ An interesting contribution to that first question of who are the English comes from John Reid.

.He belonged to the Root and Branch party, and spoke in favour of the petition of the London citizens for the abolition of episcopacy on the 9th of February 1641, and pressed upon the House the Root and Branch Bill in May.^ He belonged to the Root and Branch party, and spoke in favour of the petition of the London citizens for the abolition of episcopacy on the 9th of February 1641, and pressed upon the House the Root and Branch Bill in May.

^ He has a double bill of plays opening at the Duchess Theatre in London in May: Taking Sides and Collaboration , which both won rave reviews at Chichester last year.
  • Milla Jovovich protects Oliver Cromwell - Telegraph 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ Upon his return to London, Cromwell purged the House of Commons of all Presbyterian members and kept it under guard by threat of arms.
  • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

.On the 6th of November he carried a motion entrusting the train-bands south of the Trent to the command of the earl of Essex.^ On the 6th of November he carried a motion entrusting the train -bands south of the Trent to the command of the earl of Essex.

^ On October 23, Cromwell made his first military appearance at the Battle of Edgehill under the command of the third Earl of Essex Robert Devereux.
  • Faith & Freedom 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.leaderu.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Cromwell was delighted with the way in which the war had gone since Fairfax had taken command of the new army and the lethargic earls of Essex and Manchester had been removed from their commands.
  • Oliver Cromwell: MILITARY AND POLITICAL LEADER 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.uv.es [Source type: Original source]

.On the 14th of January 1642, after the king's attempt to seize the five members, he moved for a committee to put the kingdom in a well's first parlia= mentary efforts. posture of defence.^ On the 14th of January 1642, after the king's attempt to seize the five members, he moved for a committee to put the kingdom in a well's first parlia= mentary efforts.

^ English King Charles I attempted to arrest five members of the English parliament.
  • HistoryMole Timeline: The English Civil War (1642-1649) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.historymole.com [Source type: General]

^ In January, the king rides over to St. Stephen's to arrest the "five members."
  • Squashed Writers - The Letters and Speeches of Oliver Cromwell by Thomas Carlyle - condensed and abridged 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: Original source]

.He contributed £600 to the proposed Irish campaign and £500 for raising forces in England - large sums from his small estate - and on his own initiative in July 1642 sent arms of the value of £ioo down to Cambridge, seized the magazine there in August, and prevented the king's commission of array from being executed in the county, taking these important steps on his own authority and receiving subsequently indemnity by vote of the House of Commons.^ He contributed £600 to the proposed Irish campaign and £500 for raising forces in England - large sums from his small estate - and on his own initiative in July 1642 sent arms of the value of £ioo down to Cambridge, seized the magazine there in August, and prevented the king's commission of array from being executed in the county, taking these important steps on his own authority and receiving subsequently indemnity by vote of the House of Commons.

^ On 1st August, 1648, the House of Commons voted for Lilburne's release.

^ Cromwell's Rule Cromwell's successful defeat of Royalist forces and the subsequent murder of the king paved the way for Cromwell to become the "Lord Protector" of England.
  • Oliver Cromwell 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.prca.org [Source type: Original source]

Shortly afterwards he joined Essex with sixty horse, and was present at Edgehill, where his troop was one of the few not routed by Rupert's charge, Cromwell himself being mentioned among those officers who "never stirred from their troops but fought till the last minute." During the earlier part of the year 164 3 the military position of Charles was greatly superior to that of the parliament. .Essex was inactive near Oxford; in the west Sir Ralph Hopton had won a series of victories, and in the north Newcastle defeated the Fairfaxes at Adwalton Moor, and all Yorkshire except Hull was in his hands.^ Essex was inactive near Oxford ; in the west Sir Ralph Hopton had won a series of victories, and in the north Newcastle defeated the Fairfaxes at Adwalton Moor , and all Yorkshire except Hull was in his hands.

^ In July was fought, in Yorkshire, the battle of Marston Moor, the bloodiest of the whole war, which gave the whole north to the Parliamentary party.
  • Squashed Writers - The Letters and Speeches of Oliver Cromwell by Thomas Carlyle - condensed and abridged 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The highly trained New Model Army was formed in 1645, commanded by Sir Thomas Fairfax, with Cromwell occupying the position of second in command and a decisive victory was won at Naseby in June 1645.

.It seemed likely that the whole of the north would be laid open and the royalists be able to march upon London and join Charles and Hopton there.^ Is there anything you would like??

^ It seemed likely that the whole of the north would be laid open and the royalists be able to march upon London and join Charles and Hopton there.

^ He chose an assault on Drogdeha, north of Dublin , as a useful lesson to all of Ireland that if they resist his assertion of English control of Ireland there would be an effusion of blood.
  • The Irish Cultural Society of the Garden City Area 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.irish-society.org [Source type: Original source]

.This stroke, which would most probably have given the victory to the king, was prevented by the "Eastern Association," a union of Norfolk, Suffolk, Essex, Cambridgeshire and Hertfordshire, constituted in December 1642 and augmented in 1643 by Huntingdonshire and Lincolnshire, of which Cromwell was the leading spirit.^ This stroke, which would most probably have given the victory to the king, was prevented by the "Eastern Association," a union of Norfolk, Suffolk , Essex, Cambridgeshire and Hertfordshire , constituted in December 1642 and augmented in 1643 by Huntingdonshire and Lincolnshire , of which Cromwell was the leading spirit.

^ Then Captain Cromwell, with his troop of horse, is with Essex at Edgehill, where he does his duty; and then back in Cambridgeshire, organising the Eastern Association.
  • Squashed Writers - The Letters and Speeches of Oliver Cromwell by Thomas Carlyle - condensed and abridged 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He asked for the Fens, an area of flat marshland encompassing parts of Cambridgeshire , Lincolnshire and Norfolk, to be drained and improved.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A45871040 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.His zeal and energy met everywhere with conspicuous success.^ His zeal and energy met everywhere with conspicuous success.

.In January 1643 he seized the royalist high sheriff of Hertfordshire in the act of proclaiming the king's commission of array at St Albans; in February he was at Cambridge taking measures for the defence of the town; in March suppressing royalist risings at Lowestoft and Lynn; in April those of Huntingdon, when he also recaptured Crowland from the king's party.^ On 9th January "a High Court of Justice" to try the King was proclaimed.
  • The Nameless War: Chapter 1 - The British Revolution 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.sweetliberty.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In January 1643 he seized the royalist high sheriff of Hertfordshire in the act of proclaiming the king's commission of array at St Albans; in February he was at Cambridge taking measures for the defence of the town; in March suppressing royalist risings at Lowestoft and Lynn; in April those of Huntingdon, when he also recaptured Crowland from the king's party.

^ Born in Huntingdon on 25th April 1599, Cromwell went to the local grammar school and then onto Sidney Sussex College in Cambridge.
  • Visit Ely & East Cambridgeshire Tourism & TIC- Oliver Cromwell 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.visitely.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In May he defeated a greatly superior royalist force at Grantham, proceeding afterwards to Nottingham in accordance with Essex's plan of penetrating into Yorkshire to relieve the Fairfaxes; where, however, difficulties, arising from jealousies between the officers, and the treachery of John Hotham, whose arrest Cromwell was instrumental in effecting, obliged him to retire again to the association, leaving the Fairfaxes to be defeated at Adwalton Moor.^ There is definitely an association between John Knox and Oliver Cromwell.
  • Oliver Cromwell: Lord Protector of England (1599-1658) — The Champion 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.forerunner.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Models for Reformation: Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector (1599-1658) — The Forerunner 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC forerunner.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In May he defeated a greatly superior royalist force at Grantham , proceeding afterwards to Nottingham in accordance with Essex's plan of penetrating into Yorkshire to relieve the Fairfaxes; where, however, difficulties, arising from jealousies between the officers, and the treachery of John Hotham , whose arrest Cromwell was instrumental in effecting, obliged him to retire again to the association, leaving the Fairfaxes to be defeated at Adwalton Moor.

^ Cromwell's Rule Cromwell's successful defeat of Royalist forces and the subsequent murder of the king paved the way for Cromwell to become the "Lord Protector" of England.
  • Oliver Cromwell 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.prca.org [Source type: Original source]

.He showed extraordinary energy, resource and military talent in stemming the advance of the royalists, who now followed up their victories by advancing into the association; he defeated them at Gainsborough on the 28th of July, and managed a masterly retreat before overwhelming numbers to Lincoln, while the victory on the 11th of October at Winceby finally secured the association, and maintained the wedge which prevented the junction of the royalists in the north with the king in the south.^ He showed extraordinary energy, resource and military talent in stemming the advance of the royalists, who now followed up their victories by advancing into the association; he defeated them at Gainsborough on the 28th of July, and managed a masterly retreat before overwhelming numbers to Lincoln , while the victory on the 11th of October at Winceby finally secured the association, and maintained the wedge which prevented the junction of the royalists in the north with the king in the south.

^ And the King fled up north to the Scots.
  • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

^ As a consequence, the New Model Army, under Cromwell, imposed defeat after defeat on the Royalists, who were finally routed at Naseby in 1645.
  • Socialist Appeal - Oliver Cromwell and the English Revolution 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.socialist.net [Source type: Original source]

.One great source of Cromwell's strength was the military reforms he had initiated.^ One great source of Cromwell's strength was the military reforms he had initiated.

^ Cromwell lives again here in all his rugged strength; and lives precisely because his was one of those natures into which Carlyle could, so to speak, project something of his own.
  • §12. "Oliver Cromwell". I. Carlyle. Vol. 13. The Victorian Age, Part One. The Cambridge History of English and American Literature: An Encyclopedia in Eighteen Volumes. 1907–21 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.aol.bartleby.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was from his mother, who is described as "a woman of rare vigor and great decision of [177] purpose," that Cromwell derived his remarkable strength of character.
  • The Baldwin Project: Famous Men of Modern Times by John H. Haaren 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

.At Edgehill he had observed the inferiority of the parliamentary to the royalist horse, could not rally afterwards, "whereas Cromwell's troops if they prevailed, or though they were beaten and routed, presently rallied again and stood in good order till they received new orders"; and the king's military successes dwindled in proportion to the gradual preponderance of Cromwell's troops in the parliamentary army.^ Cromwell's Irish campaign was a military success.

^ Oliver Cromwell's army routed the King's army at Naseby.
  • HistoryMole Timeline: The English Civil War (1642-1649) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.historymole.com [Source type: General]

^ Cromwell ordered the Army to Ireland.
  • The New Communist Party of Britain | OLIVER CROMWELL - And the Good Old Cause 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.newworker.org [Source type: Original source]

.At first these picked men only existed in Cromwell's own troop, which, however, by frequent additions became the nucleus of a regiment, and by the time of the New Model included about ii,000 men.^ These men were known as the New Model Army.
  • Investigations of a Dog » Oliver Cromwell: An Adventure From History 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.investigations.4-lom.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Cromwell's concluding Speech to these men is a .

^ At first these picked men only existed in Cromwell's own troop, which, however, by frequent additions became the nucleus of a regiment, and by the time of the New Model included about ii,000 men.

.In July 1643 Cromwell had been appointed governor of the Isle of Ely; on the 22nd of January 1644 he became second in command under the earl of Manchester as lieutenant-general of the Eastern Association, and on the 16th of February 1644 a member of the Committee of Both Kingdoms with greatly increased influence.^ Cromwell had not yet achieved his later prominence, he was well known for the quality of his cavalry, served as governor of the Isle of Ely, and was second-in-command to the earl of Manchester .
  • Oliver Cromwell - Factbites 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.factbites.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1644, Cromwell was given the rank of Lieutenant General and made a member of the war cabinet, called the Committee of Both Kingdoms.
  • Faith & Freedom 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.leaderu.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Oliver Cromwell is in a unique position as both a member of parliament and a general.

.In March he took Hillesden House in Buckinghamshire; in May was at the siege of Lincoln, when he repulsed Goring's attempt to relieve the town, and subsequently took part in Manchester's campaign in the north.^ In March he took Hillesden House in Buckinghamshire ; in May was at the siege of Lincoln, when he repulsed Goring's attempt to relieve the town, and subsequently took part in Manchester's campaign in the north.

^ Cashel , Cahir and several castles fell in February, and Kilkenny in March; Clonmel repulsing the assault with great loss, but surrendering on the 10th of May 1650.

^ Clonmel's town's walls are best preserved at its north-west corner, which encloses part of St. Mary's graveyard.
  • Cromwell in Tipperary 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC homepage.eircom.net [Source type: Original source]

.At Marston Moor on the 2nd of July he commanded all the horse of the Eastern Association, with some Scottish troops; and though for a time disabled by a wound in the neck, he charged and routed Rupert's troops opposed to him, and subsequently went to the support of the Scots, who were hard pressed by the enemy, and converted what appeared at one time a defeat into a decisive victory.^ At Marston Moor on the 2nd of July he commanded all the horse of the Eastern Association, with some Scottish troops; and though for a time disabled by a wound in the neck, he charged and routed Rupert's troops opposed to him, and subsequently went to the support of the Scots, who were hard pressed by the enemy, and converted what appeared at one time a defeat into a decisive victory.

^ Battle of Marston Moor, 2 July, 1644.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A45871040 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ We never charged but we routed the enemy.
  • Little Journeys Vol. 9: Great Reformers by Elbert Hubbard: Oliver Cromwell 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.online-literature.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Squashed Writers - The Letters and Speeches of Oliver Cromwell by Thomas Carlyle - condensed and abridged 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: Original source]

It was on this occasion that he earned the nickname of "Ironsides," applied to him now by Prince Rupert, and afterwards to his soldiers, "from the impenetrable strength of his troops which could by no means be broken or divided." The movements of Manchester of ter Marston Moor were marked by great apathy. .He was one of the moderate party who desired an accommodation with the king, and was opposed to Cromwell's sectaries.^ He was one of the moderate party who desired an accommodation with the king, and was opposed to Cromwell's sectaries.

^ In the early 18th century, Cromwell’s image began to be adopted and reshaped by the Whigs , an out-party opposing the Tories around the Hanoverian kings.
  • Oliver Cromwell - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After Cromwell’s death due to malarial fever at Whitehall on 3 September 1658, Charles heir, King Charles II had every man who signed that death warrant killed.
  • Oliver Cromwell | Socyberty 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC socyberty.com [Source type: Original source]

.He remained at Lincoln, did nothing to prevent the defeat of Essex's army in the west, and when he at last advanced south to join Essex's and Waller's troops his management of the army led to the failure of the attack upon the king at Newbury on the 27th of October 1644. He delayed supporting the infantry till too late, and was repulsed; he allowed the royal army to march past his outposts; and a fortnight afterwards, without any attempt to prevent it, and greatly to Cromwell's vexation, permitted the moving of the king's artillery and the relief of Donnington Castle by Prince Rupert.^ He delayed supporting the infantry till too late, and was repulsed; he allowed the royal army to march past his outposts; and a fortnight afterwards, without any attempt to prevent it, and greatly to Cromwell's vexation, permitted the moving of the king's artillery and the relief of Donnington Castle by Prince Rupert.

^ The army with Cromwell then advanced towards London.

^ In October 1642, Cromwell's troop joined the army of the Earl of Essex.

."If you beat the king ninety-nine times," Manchester urged at Newbury, "yet he is king still and so will his posterity be after him; but if the king beat us once we shall all be hanged and.^ At one meeting, after the Battle of Marston Moor, Manchester revealed his ambivalence: If we beat the King ninety-nine times, he would still be King, and his posterity, and we his subjects still , cried Manchester, but if he beat us but once, we shall be hanged and our posterity undone.
  • COMBAT Magazine: Oliver Cromwell, Warts and All 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.combat.ws [Source type: Original source]

^ Manchester complained, “If we beat the king 99 times, yet he is still the king...
  • Oliver Cromwell�s legacy|6Sep08|Socialist Worker 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.socialistworker.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "If you beat the king ninety-nine times," Manchester urged at Newbury, "yet he is king still and so will his posterity be after him; but if the king beat us once we shall all be hanged and.

our posterity be made slaves." ."My lord," answered Cromwell, "if this be so, why did we take up arms at first?^ Extremely irritated, Cromwell replied – My Lord if this be so, why did we take up arms at first?
  • COMBAT Magazine: Oliver Cromwell, Warts and All 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.combat.ws [Source type: Original source]

^ "My lord," answered Cromwell, "if this be so, why did we take up arms at first?

^ Cromwell replied, “If this be so why did we take up arms at first?
  • Oliver Cromwell�s legacy|6Sep08|Socialist Worker 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.socialistworker.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This is against fighting ever hereafter.^ This is against fighting ever hereafter.

^ This is against fighting hereafter.” .
  • Oliver Cromwell�s legacy|6Sep08|Socialist Worker 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.socialistworker.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If so let us make peace, be it ever so base."^ If so let us make peace, be it ever so base."

^ And so let us have peace and liberty."
  • Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector of England (1599-1658) - Familypedia 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Let us together make Charles Rex the noblest name of Christendom.
  • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

.The contention brought to a crisis the struggle between the moderate Presbyterians and the Scots on the one side, who decided to maintain the monarchy and fought for an accommodation and to establish Presbyterianism in England, and on the other the republicans who would be satisfied with nothing less than the complete overthrow of the king, and the Independents who regarded the establishment of Presbyterianism as an evil almost as great as that of the Church of England.^ The contention brought to a crisis the struggle between the moderate Presbyterians and the Scots on the one side, who decided to maintain the monarchy and fought for an accommodation and to establish Presbyterianism in England, and on the other the republicans who would be satisfied with nothing less than the complete overthrow of the king, and the Independents who regarded the establishment of Presbyterianism as an evil almost as great as that of the Church of England .

^ Who were the great African kings?
  • Government and Politics - Why Was Oliver Cromwell Important To British History?: History Fact Finder 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.enotes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Puritans and those who were on the side of the King and the Church.
  • Investigations of a Dog » Oliver Cromwell: An Adventure From History 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.investigations.4-lom.com [Source type: Original source]

.On the 25th of November Cromwell charged Manchester with "unwillingness to have the war prosecuted to a full victory"; which Manchester answered by accusing Cromwell of having used expressions against the nobility, the Scots and Presbyterianism; of desiring to fill the army of the Eastern Association with Independents to prevent any accommodation; and of having vowed if he met the king in battle he would as lief fire his pistol at him as at anybody else.^ Cromwel against the whole army of the Scots, under the conduct of Duke...
  • http://yufind.library.yale.edu/yufind/Author/Home?author=Cromwell,%20Oliver%201599-1658 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC yufind.library.yale.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The incident of the Second Civil War and the treaty with the Scots exasperated Cromwell against the king.

^ Did you not fear that the King would use these also against you?
  • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

The lords and the Scots vehemently took Manchester's part; but the Commons eventually sided with Cromwell, appointed Sir Thomas Fairfax general of the New Model Army, and passed two self-denying ordinances, the second of which, ordering all members of both houses to lay down their commissions within forty days, was accepted by the lords on the 3rd of April 1645.
.Meanwhile Cromwell had been ordered on the 3rd of March by the House to take his regiment to the assistance of Waller, under whom he served as an admirable subordinate.^ Meanwhile Cromwell had been ordered on the 3rd of March by the House to take his regiment to the assistance of Waller, under whom he served as an admirable subordinate.

^ Cromwell came under pressure from the radicals among his own officers to execute the King, whom they termed, " Charles Stuart, that man of blood."
  • Oliver Cromwell - Factbites 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.factbites.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Cromwell was a strong critic of Charles II and on the outbreak of the Civil War he joined the Parliamentary forces and served under Edward Montagu , Duke of Manchester.

."Although composed as it was of soldiers of fortune and the dregs of the populace."^ "Although composed as it was of soldiers of fortune and the dregs of the populace."

.Do you think,"he had said," that the spirits of such base, mean fellows will ever be able to encounter gentlemen that have honour and courage and resolution in them?^ Do you think that the spirits of such base and mean fellows will ever be able to encounter gentlemen that have honour, courage and resolution in them..

^ Do you think that the spirits of such base and mean fellows will ever be able to encounter gentlemen, that have honour and courage and resolution in them?"
  • The Baldwin Project: The Awakening of Europe by M. B. Synge 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Do you think,"he had said," that the spirits of such base, mean fellows will ever be able to encounter gentlemen that have honour and courage and resolution in them?

.You must get men of a spirit that is likely to go as far as gentlemen will go or you will be beaten still."The royalists were fighting for a great cause.^ You must get men of a spirit ..

^ You must get men of a spirit that is likely to go as far as gentlemen will go or you will be beaten still."The royalists were fighting for a great cause.

^ We must get men of a spirit that is likely to go on as far as gentlemen will go, or we shall be beaten still.
  • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

.To succeed the parliamentary soldiers must also be inspired by some great principle, and this was now found in religion.^ To succeed the parliamentary soldiers must also be inspired by some great principle, and this was now found in religion.

^ Before the King's execution, the army had appointed some of its officers to remonstrate between them and the Parliament; and now the common soldiers began to take that office upon themselves.
  • A Child's History of England by Charles Dickens: Ch. 33 - Oliver Cromwell 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.online-literature.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Another, related issue which should be mentioned is that Social Partnership has effectively sidelined the parliamentary process for some 20-odd years now.
  • Politics » Oliver Cromwell and the Fianna Fáil Ardfheis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.irishtimes.com [Source type: Original source]

.Cromwell chose his own troops, both officers and privates, from the" religious men,"who fought not for pay or for adventure, but for their faith.^ Cromwell chose his own troops, both officers and privates, from the" religious men,"who fought not for pay or for adventure , but for their faith.

^ "Tobacco Island" unambiguously reflects on the Irish men, women, and children who were plucked from their homeland by Cromwell's army.
  • JIVEMagazine.com - "Dancing on Oliver Cromwell's Ashes": An Interview with Matt Hensley of Flogging Molly 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.jivemagazine.com [Source type: General]

^ Indeed it was Charles himself, by attempting in secret to form alliances with Catholic Ireland and France in order to defeat Cromwell's army, who was the catalyst to his own demise.
  • Amazon.com: Cromwell: Richard Harris, Alec Guinness, Robert Morley, Dorothy Tutin, Frank Finlay, Timothy Dalton, Patrick Wymark, Patrick Magee, Nigel Stock, Charles Gray, Michael Jayston, Richard Cornish, Anna Cropper, Michael Goodliffe, Jack Gwillim, Basil Henson, Patrick Holt, Stratford Johns, Geoffrey Keen, Anthony May, Ken Hughes: Movies & TV 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He declared, when answering a complaint that a certain captain in his regiment was a better preacher than fighter, that he who prayed best would fight best, and that he knew nothing could" give the like courage and confidence as the knowledge of God in Christ will."The superiority of these men - more intelligent than the common soldiers, better disciplined, better trained, better armed, excellent horsemen and fighting for a great cause - not only over the other parliamentary troops but over the royalists, was soon observed in battle.^ The causes of His wrath are many, and would to God it were not one great cause, that causes of wrath are despised.
  • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

^ "Truly, I think he that prays best will fight best", he declared.
  • Socialist Appeal - Oliver Cromwell and the English Revolution 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.socialist.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Cromwell:_ I could do nothing more gladly.
  • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

.According to Clarendon the latter, though frequently victorious in a charge, dale, subsequently falling upon and defeating the royalist centre, and pursuing the fugitives as far as the outskirts of Leicester.^ According to Clarendon the latter, though frequently victorious in a charge, dale, subsequently falling upon and defeating the royalist centre, and pursuing the fugitives as far as the outskirts of Leicester .

^ Cromwell pursued from the north and decisively defeated the Scots and Royalists at the battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651, the anniversary of Dunbar and the last major battle of the civil wars.

^ The Royalist cavalry was disorganized by victory as often as by defeat, and illustrated on numerous fields the now discredited maxim that cavalry cannot charge twice in one day.

.At Langport again, on the 10th of July 1645, his management of the troops was largely instrumental in gaining the victory.^ At Langport again, on the 10th of July 1645, his management of the troops was largely instrumental in gaining the victory.

^ Battle of Langport, 10 July, 1645.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A45871040 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ England and penetrated to Worcester, Cromwell, with 30,000 English troops, gained a decisive victory over them.

.As the king had no longer a field army, the war after Naseby resolved itself into a series of sieges which Charles had no means of raising.^ At the opening of the war the army of Charles had the advantage.
  • The Baldwin Project: Famous Men of Modern Times by John H. Haaren 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Charles landed in Scotland, and an army was raised.

^ As the king had no longer a field army, the war after Naseby resolved itself into a series of sieges which Charles had no means of raising.

.Cromwell was present at the sieges of Bridgwater, Bath, Sherborne and Bristol; and later, in command of four regiments of foot and three of horse, he was employed in clearing Wiltshire and Hampshire of the royalist garrisons.^ Cromwell was present at the sieges of Bridgwater , Bath , Sherborne and Bristol ; and later, in command of four regiments of foot and three of horse, he was employed in clearing Wiltshire and Hampshire of the royalist garrisons.

^ O liver Cromwell was born into a family of minor Huntingdon gentry on 25 April 1599 and baptised at St John's Church in Huntingdon four days later.

^ Cromwell had not yet achieved his later prominence, he was well known for the quality of his cavalry, served as governor of the Isle of Ely, and was second-in-command to the earl of Manchester .
  • Oliver Cromwell - Factbites 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.factbites.com [Source type: Original source]

.He took Devizes and Laycock House, Winchester and Basing House, and rejoined Fairfax in October at Exeter, and accompanied him to Cornwall, where he assisted in the defeat of Hopton's forces and in the suppression of the royalists in the west.^ He took Devizes and Laycock House, Winchester and Basing House, and rejoined Fairfax in October at Exeter , and accompanied him to Cornwall , where he assisted in the defeat of Hopton's forces and in the suppression of the royalists in the west.

^ Cromwell had the New Model Army, which had helped him defeat the Royalists and overthrow the monarchy.
  • OT: Is there ANYthing good to say about Oliver Cromwell?? : Irish Translation Forum - Page 5 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.irishgaelictranslator.com [Source type: General]

^ Cromwell then embarked on a series of sieges which rapidly captured Devizes castle (23 September), Winchester (6 October), and Basing House (14 October) , before defeating some of the few remaining Royalist horse at Bovey Tracey (9 January 1646).

.On the 9th of January 1646 he surprised Lord Wentworth's brigade at Bovey Tracey, and was present with Fairfax at the fall of Exeter on the 9th of April.^ On the 9th of January 1646 he surprised Lord Wentworth's brigade at Bovey Tracey, and was present with Fairfax at the fall of Exeter on the 9th of April.

.He then went to London to give an account of proceedings to the parliament, was thanked for his services and rewarded with the estate of the marquess of Worcester.^ He then went to London to give an account of proceedings to the parliament, was thanked for his services and rewarded with the estate of the marquess of Worcester .

^ On 6th December, the day of "Pride’s Purge," having left Lambert to conduct the siege, Cromwell arrived in London, and on the morrow received the thanks of the House for his services.
  • Oliver Cromwell, English soldier, statesman and Lord Protector of the Commonwealth (1599-1658) 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.1902encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the proceedings of Parliament at this time we read: "The Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland this day did come to the House, to whom our Speaker did, by order of the House, give the hearty thanks of this House for his great and faithful services unto the Parliament and Commonwealth."

.He was present again with Fairfax at the capitulation of Oxford on the 24th of June, which practically terminated the Civil War, when he used his influence in favour of granting lenient terms.^ He was present again with Fairfax at the capitulation of Oxford on the 24th of June, which practically terminated the Civil War, when he used his influence in favour of granting lenient terms.

^ He met the task of holding together the gains of the civil wars and the discordant groups in the Puritan party in what seemed the only practical way.
  • Oliver Cromwell Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Oliver Cromwell 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When Thomas Fairfax conducted a successful siege at Colchester, the Royalist garrison surrendered and the Second Civil War ended in victory for the Parliamentarian army.
  • COMBAT Magazine: Oliver Cromwell, Warts and All 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.combat.ws [Source type: Original source]

.He then removed with his family from Ely to Drury Lane, London, and about a year later to King Street, Westminster.^ He then removed with his family from Ely to Drury Lane, London, and about a year later to King Street, Westminster .

^ His father died when he was eighteen, and three years later he met Elizabeth Bourchier while studying at Lincoln Inn's Court in London.
  • Who was Oliver Cromwell? 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.essortment.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1631 after a humiliating political defeat in Huntingdon, and near bankrupt, he moved to St. Ives, and four years later to Ely.
  • Oliver Cromwell - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]

.The war being now over, the great question of the establishment of Presbyterianism or Independency had to be decided.^ The disposal of the king was now the great question to be decided.

^ The war being now over, the great question of the establishment of Presbyterianism or Independency had to be decided.

^ The Independents favored religious toleration for all except the Catholics and Anglicans and opposed Presbyterianism as the established church.
  • Oliver Cromwell 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC mars.wnec.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Cromwell, without naming himself an adherent of any denomination, fought vigorously for Independency as a policy.^ Cromwell, without naming himself an adherent of any denomination , fought vigorously for Independency as a policy.

^ Historical Notes: Oliver Cromwell , king without a crown Newspaper article from: The Independent - London; 4/30/1999; ; 700+ words ; ...figures in British history, Oliver Cromwell .
  • Oliver Cromwell Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Oliver Cromwell 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But as in Ireland so Cromwell's policy in Scotland was unpopular and was only upheld by the maintenance of a large army, necessitating heavy taxation and implying the loss of the national independence.

.In 1644 he had remonstrated at the removal by Crawford of an anabaptist lieutenant-colonel."^ In 1644 he had remonstrated at the removal by Crawford of an anabaptist lieutenant-colonel."

^ He was a good soldier and in May 1644 was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel.

.The state,"he said," in choosing men to serve it, takes no notice of their opinions.^ Letter to Sir William Spring (September 1643) The State, in choosing men to serve it, takes no notice of their opinions.
  • Oliver Cromwell - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Oliver Cromwell - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Cromwell defended the Baptist: Sir, the state in choosing men to serve them, takes no notice of their opinions if they be willing to faithfully serve them, that satisfies.
  • COMBAT Magazine: Oliver Cromwell, Warts and All 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.combat.ws [Source type: Original source]

^ The state,"he said," in choosing men to serve it, takes no notice of their opinions.

.If they be willing faithfully to serve it, that satisfies.^ If they be willing faithfully to serve it, that satisfies.
  • Oliver Cromwell - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Oliver Cromwell - LoveToKnow 1911 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Oliver Cromwell - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Oliver Cromwell Quotations 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.memorablequotations.com [Source type: Academic]

^ If men be willing faithfully to serve it, that satisfies.
  • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Cromwell defended the Baptist: Sir, the state in choosing men to serve them, takes no notice of their opinions if they be willing to faithfully serve them, that satisfies.
  • COMBAT Magazine: Oliver Cromwell, Warts and All 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.combat.ws [Source type: Original source]

.Take heed of being sharp.^ Take heed of being sharp.

^ Take heed of being too sharp against those to whom you can object little but that they square not with you in every opinion concerning matters of religion."
  • Squashed Writers - The Letters and Speeches of Oliver Cromwell by Thomas Carlyle - condensed and abridged 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: Original source]

.. against those to whom you can object little but that they square not with you in every opinion concerning matters of religion."He had patronized .Lilburne and welcomed all into his regiment, and the Independents had spread from his troops throughout the whole army.^ "He had patronized Lilburne and welcomed all into his regiment, and the Independents had spread from his troops throughout the whole army.

^ He welcomed followers of many radical sects into the ranks of his New Model Army , including Anabaptists and Fifth Monarchists and gave them toleration during his Protectorate.
  • Oliver Cromwell 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After this battle, Cromwell's troop was posted to the Earl of Manchester's newly formed Eastern Association and was expanded into a full regiment.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A45871040 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.But while the sectarians were in a vast majority in the army, the parliament was equally strong in Presbyterianism and opposed to toleration.^ But while the sectarians were in a vast majority in the army, the parliament was equally strong in Presbyterianism and opposed to toleration .

^ The Levellers, who had a strong base of support in the army, were opposed to the power of the landed nobility and favored more equal political representation.
  • SparkNotes: Oliver Cromwell: Important Terms, People, and Events 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.sparknotes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When fruitless negotiations with the king divided the victors, Cromwell sided with the army faction, which favored religious toleration, against the intransigent Presbyterians in Parliament.
  • CROMWELL, Oliver 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.history.com [Source type: General]
  • CROMWELL, Oliver 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.history.com [Source type: General]

.The proposed disbandment of the army in February 1647 would have placed the soldiers entirely in the power of the parliament; while the negotiations of the king, first with the Scots and then with the parliament, appeared to hazard, all the fruits of victory.^ The King was kidnapped by the army on 4 June 1647.
  • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

^ In June, 1647, the king was seized by one of Cromwell's soldiers and placed in custody of the army.
  • The Baldwin Project: Famous Men of Modern Times by John H. Haaren 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Parliament army of foot soldiers.
  • Investigations of a Dog » Oliver Cromwell: An Adventure From History 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.investigations.4-lom.com [Source type: Original source]

.The petition from the army to the parliament for arrears of pay was suppressed and the petitioners declared enemies of the state.^ The petition from the army to the parliament for arrears of pay was suppressed and the petitioners declared enemies of the state.

^ A petition stating the army's objections was sent to Parliament and was rejected as illegal.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A45871040 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ It strove to disband its various armies - all owed substantial arrears of pay - and relations with the military commanders deteriorated.
  • Oliver Cromwell, 1598-1658 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.lib.cam.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

.In consequence the army organized a systematic opposition, and elected representatives styled Agitators or Agents to urge their claims.^ In consequence the army organized a systematic opposition, and elected representatives styled Agitators or Agents to urge their claims.

^ Eventually, they elected soldiers’ representatives - "Agents" and "Agitators" - to raise complaints with their officers and even with Parliament itself.
  • The New Communist Party of Britain | OLIVER CROMWELL - And the Good Old Cause 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.newworker.org [Source type: Original source]

^ (For the Levellers see The English Civil War and the Levellers ) The Agitators were elected representatives of the rank and file in the Army.
  • Socialist Appeal - Oliver Cromwell and the English Revolution 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.socialist.net [Source type: Original source]

.Cromwell, though greatly disliking the policy of the Presbyterians, yet gave little support at first to the army in resisting parliament.^ Cromwell, though greatly disliking the policy of the Presbyterians, yet gave little support at first to the army in resisting parliament.

^ Cromwell and the Army alleged that the House intended not to hold elections for a wholly new Parliament, but simply to make up their numbers - i.e.
  • Commonwealth & Protectorate 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC history.wisc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Cromwell, now virtual dictator of the Commonwealth, dissolved the Rump Parliament in 1653 after it had failed to effect reforms demanded by the army and had sought to perpetuate its power.
  • Oliver Cromwell Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Oliver Cromwell 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In May 1647 in company with Skippon, Ireton and Fleetwood, he visited the army, inquired into and reported on the grievances, and endeavoured to persuade them to submit to the parliament." If that authority falls to nothing,"he said," nothing can follow but confusion."The Presbyterians, however, now engaged in a plan for restoring the king under their own control, and by the means of a Scottish army, forced on their policy, and on the 27th of May ordered the immediate disbandment of the army, without any guarantee for the payment of arrears. A mutiny was the consequence. .The soldiers refused to disband, and on the 3rd of June Cromwell, whom, it was believed, the parliament intended to arrest, joined the army."^ The soldiers refused to disband, and on the 3rd of June Cromwell, whom, it was believed, the parliament intended to arrest, joined the army."

^ Parliament army had been joined by some Scottish soldiers”.
  • Investigations of a Dog » Oliver Cromwell: An Adventure From History 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.investigations.4-lom.com [Source type: Original source]

^ While Cromwell’s army quickly defeated the Irish and Scotch, parliament, controlled by the Puritans, felt bound to apply justice without favoritism, even to the King.
  • Old Ironsides: Oliver Cromwell and the Puritan Revolution 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC enrichmentjournal.ag.org [Source type: Original source]

.If he would not forthwith come and lead them,"they had told him," they would go their own way without him."The supremacy of the army without a guiding hand meant anarchy, that of the Presbyterians the outbreak of another civil war.^ He said it was a woman that told him so, and that if they would come again he would tell them the woman's name.
  • A Visit to Oliver Cromwell - The Autobiography of George Fox 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC bible.christiansunite.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Outbreak of civil war .
  • Visit Ely & East Cambridgeshire Tourism & TIC- Oliver Cromwell 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.visitely.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They WANT a civil war in Iraq.
  • Truthdig - President Jonah, Meet Oliver Cromwell! 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Truthdig - President Jonah, Meet Oliver Cromwell! 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]

.Possession of the king's person now became an important consideration.^ Possession of the king's person now became an important consideration.

^ This country was now quite openly the focus for all disaffected persons; and considerable comings and goings took place during these years.
  • The Nameless War: Chapter 1 - The British Revolution 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.sweetliberty.org [Source type: Original source]

.On the 31st of May 1647 Cromwell had ordered Cornet Joyce to prevent the king's removal by the parliament or the Scots from Holmby, and Joyce by his own authority and with the king's consent brought him to Newmarket to the headquarters of the army.^ The army, with Oliver Cromwell on its side, kidnapped the king from Parliament.
  • Visit Ely & East Cambridgeshire Tourism & TIC- Oliver Cromwell 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.visitely.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In January 1647 the Scots handed the King over to Parliament.
  • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

^ On the 31st of May 1647 Cromwell had ordered Cornet Joyce to prevent the king's removal by the parliament or the Scots from Holmby, and Joyce by his own authority and with the king's consent brought him to Newmarket to the headquarters of the army.

.Cromwell soon restored order, and the representative council, including privates as well as officers chosen to negotiate with the parliament, was subordinated to the council of war.^ Cromwell soon restored order, and the representative council, including privates as well as officers chosen to negotiate with the parliament, was subordinated to the council of war.

^ In this Parliament, which included not a few notable men, Cromwell made the first speech extant, justifying his dismissal of the Rump, and the summoning of this assembly, chosen as being godly men that have principles.
  • Squashed Writers - The Letters and Speeches of Oliver Cromwell by Thomas Carlyle - condensed and abridged 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: Original source]

^ With this for consequence, that Cromwell himself, "with the advice of my Council of Officers," nominates divers persons to form the new Parliament, which shall be hereafter known as "Bare-bones."
  • Squashed Writers - The Letters and Speeches of Oliver Cromwell by Thomas Carlyle - condensed and abridged 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: Original source]

.The army with Cromwell then advanced towards London.^ The army with Cromwell then advanced towards London.

^ But when in 1642 the King left London to raise an army, and events drifted toward civil war , Cromwell began to distinguish himself not merely as an outspoken Puritan but also as a practical man capable of organization and leadership.
  • Oliver Cromwell (English statesman) :: Cromwell in Parliament -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cromwell and his associates spend most of the summer attempting to block the advance of the earl of Newcastle's northern army in their attempts to march south as part of Charles I's strategy for 1643.
  • Oliver Cromwell - Factbites 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.factbites.com [Source type: Original source]

.In a letter to the city, possibly written by Cromwell himself, the officers repudiated any wish to alter the civil government or upset the establishment of Presbyterianism, but demanded religious toleration.^ In a letter to the city, possibly written by Cromwell himself, the officers repudiated any wish to alter the civil government or upset the establishment of Presbyterianism, but demanded religious toleration.

^ With this for consequence, that Cromwell himself, "with the advice of my Council of Officers," nominates divers persons to form the new Parliament, which shall be hereafter known as "Bare-bones."
  • Squashed Writers - The Letters and Speeches of Oliver Cromwell by Thomas Carlyle - condensed and abridged 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Cromwell's Protectorate (1653-58), which was characterized by religious toleration, profitable commercial treaties with several foreign powers, and several sucesful wars.
  • Oliver Cromwell - Factbites 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.factbites.com [Source type: Original source]

.Subsequently, in the declaration of the 14th of June, arbitrary power either in the parliament or in the king was denounced, and demand was made for a representative parliament, the speedy termination of the actual assembly, and the recognition of the right to petition.^ Subsequently, in the declaration of the 14th of June, arbitrary power either in the parliament or in the king was denounced, and demand was made for a representative parliament, the speedy termination of the actual assembly, and the recognition of the right to petition.

^ (May) "The Petition of Right" is presented to the King which sought to forbid arrests of subjects without trial and remove arbitrary taxation.
  • Britain Unlimited: British History Online - Oliver Cromwell 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC britainunlimited.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The House of Commons declared before the trial that: "The people are, under God, the original of all just power, that the Commons of England, in Parliament assembled, being chosen by and representing the People, are the supreme power in this nation; that whatsoever is enacted or declared for law by the Commons in Parliament assembled hath force of law and all the people of the nation are concluded thereby; although the consent of the King or House of Peers be not had thereunto".
  • The New Communist Party of Britain | OLIVER CROMWELL - And the Good Old Cause 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.newworker.org [Source type: Original source]

.Cromwell used his influence in restraining the more eager who wished to march on London immediately, and in avoiding the use of force by which nothing permanent could be effected, urging that" whatsoever we get by treaty will be firm and durable.^ Cromwell used his influence in restraining the more eager who wished to march on London immediately, and in avoiding the use of force by which nothing permanent could be effected, urging that" whatsoever we get by treaty will be firm and durable.

^ Cromwell:_ I could do nothing more gladly.
  • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Cromwell saw that the forces of the Parliament would soon be beaten unless they could get soldiers who were interested in the cause for which they were fighting; and such men he at once began to gather about him.
  • The Baldwin Project: Famous Men of Modern Times by John H. Haaren 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

.It will be conveyed over to posterity."The army faction gradually gathered strength in the parliament.^ It will be conveyed over to posterity."The army faction gradually gathered strength in the parliament.

^ The Rump Parliament was regarded as an interim government and was expected to prepare for a permanent representative but divisions arose between factions in Parliament and in the Army over what form the new government should take.

^ When fruitless negotiations with the king divided the victors, Cromwell sided with the army faction, which favored religious toleration, against the intransigent Presbyterians in Parliament.
  • CROMWELL, Oliver 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.history.com [Source type: General]

.Eleven Presbyterian leaders impeached by the army withdrew of their own accord on the 26th of June, and the parliament finally yielded.^ Eleven Presbyterian leaders impeached by the army withdrew of their own accord on the 26th of June, and the parliament finally yielded.

^ Finally, the author looks at Cromwell's performance as a soldier and leader in the Scotch and Irish campaigns, particularly how he dealt with religious differences in his army.
  • Amazon.com: Oliver Cromwell (9780548116241): Theodore Roosevelt: Books 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ His inability to control the army and raise the money he needed to put down a rebellion in Scotland finally led Charles 1st to restore parliament in 1640.
  • Visit Ely & East Cambridgeshire Tourism & TIC- Oliver Cromwell 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.visitely.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Fairfax was appointed sole commander-in-chief on the 19th of July, the soldiers levied to oppose the army were dismissed, and the command of the city militia was again restored to the committee approved by the army.^ Fairfax was appointed sole commander-in-chief on the 19th of July, the soldiers levied to oppose the army were dismissed, and the command of the city militia was again restored to the committee approved by the army.

^ In 1644 he pressed for a thorough reorganization of the parliamentary forces and was appointed (1645) second in command to Sir Thomas Fairfax (later Baron Fairfax of Cameron ) in the resulting New Model Army, which defeated the king at Naseby in 1645.
  • Oliver Cromwell Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Oliver Cromwell 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was the first time he went to the city, and he was shocked to see very young soldiers from the British army walking around with machine guns.
  • Oliver's Army by Elvis Costello Songfacts 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.songfacts.com [Source type: General]

.These votes, however, were cancelled later, on the 26th of July, under the pressure of the royalist city mob which invaded the two Houses; but the two speakers, with eight peers and fifty-seven members of the Commons, themselves joined the army, which now advanced to London, overawing all resistance, escorting the fugitive members in triumph to Westminster on the 6th of August, and obliging the parliament on the 10th to cancel the last votes, with the threat of a regiment of cavalry drawn up by Cromwell in Hyde Park.^ A majority of the members of parliament are Presbyterians (after the royalist members have left London to join the king).

^ Cromwell proceded to deal with the pockets of Royalist resistance located in the cities.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A45871040 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Two-thirds of its members were Levelers from the Army.
  • The Nameless War: Chapter 1 - The British Revolution 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.sweetliberty.org [Source type: Original source]

.Cromwell and the army now turned with hopes of a settlement to Charles.^ Cromwell now turned his attention to a settlement of affairs.
  • The Baldwin Project: The Awakening of Europe by M. B. Synge 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Cromwell and the army now turned with hopes of a settlement to Charles.

^ Oliver Cromwell was now the most powerful man in England; and the army, over which he still presided, offered to make him king.
  • The Baldwin Project: Famous Men of Modern Times by John H. Haaren 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

.On the 4th of July Cromwell had had an interview with the king at Caversham.^ On the 4th of July Cromwell had had an interview with the king at Caversham.

.He was not insensible to Charles's good qualities, was touched by the paternal affection he showed for his children, and is said to have declared that Charles" was the uprightest and most conscientious man of his three kingdoms."The Heads of the Proposals, which, on Charles raising objections, had been modified by the influence of Cromwell and Ireton, demanded the control of the militia and the choice of ministers by parliament for ten years, a religious toleration, and a council of state to which much of the royal control over the army and foreign policy would be delegated.^ Religious toleration, added Ireton, would have to be universal, even for papists.
  • Faith & Freedom 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.leaderu.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Cromwell's foreign policy .
  • Commonwealth & Protectorate 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC history.wisc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ He was not insensible to Charles's good qualities, was touched by the paternal affection he showed for his children, and is said to have declared that Charles" was the uprightest and most conscientious man of his three kingdoms."The Heads of the Proposals, which, on Charles raising objections, had been modified by the influence of Cromwell and Ireton, demanded the control of the militia and the choice of ministers by parliament for ten years, a religious toleration, and a council of state to which much of the royal control over the army and foreign policy would be delegated.

.These proposals without doubt largely diminished the royal power, and were rejected by Charles with the hope of maintaining his sovereign rights by" playing a game,"to use his own words, i.e. by negotiating simultaneously with army and parliament, by inflaming their jealousies and differences, and finally by these means securing his restoration with his full prerogatives unimpaired.^ These proposals without doubt largely diminished the royal power, and were rejected by Charles with the hope of maintaining his sovereign rights by" playing a game,"to use his own words, i.e.

^ While Cromwell’s army quickly defeated the Irish and Scotch, parliament, controlled by the Puritans, felt bound to apply justice without favoritism, even to the King.
  • Old Ironsides: Oliver Cromwell and the Puritan Revolution 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC enrichmentjournal.ag.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Parliament, it is proposed, shall control the army and the church and shall have the right of approval of new privy councillors and peers, as also of the education and marriage of royal children.

.On the 9th of September Charles refused once mere the Newcastle Propositions offered him by the parliament, and Cromwell, together with Ireton and Vane, obtained the passing of a motion for a new application; but the terms asked by the parliament were higher than before and included a harsh condition - the he was blunt," says Waller, "he did not bear himself with pride or disdain.^ Cromwell:_ Ask him to sing to me.
  • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When did Oliver Cromwell enter Parliament?
  • Oliver Cromwell Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Oliver Cromwell 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Parliament offered him the crown in 1657, but he refused.
  • Old Ironsides: Oliver Cromwell and the Puritan Revolution 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC enrichmentjournal.ag.org [Source type: Original source]

.As an officer he was obedient and did never dispute my orders or argue upon them."^ As an officer he was obedient and did never dispute my orders or argue upon them."

^ My witnesses are the officers, the soldiery, the City of London, the counties, the judges; yea, you yourselves, who have come hither upon my writ.
  • Squashed Writers - The Letters and Speeches of Oliver Cromwell by Thomas Carlyle - condensed and abridged 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: Original source]

.He returned on the 19th of April, and on the 23rd was sent to Oxfordshire to prevent a junction between Charles and Prince Rupert, in which he succeeded after some small engagements and the storming of Blechingdon House.^ He returned on the 19th of April, and on the 23rd was sent to Oxfordshire to prevent a junction between Charles and Prince Rupert, in which he succeeded after some small engagements and the storming of Blechingdon House.

^ He succeeded on several occasions in outmanouevring Prince Rupert, who was a veteran of European warfare.
  • Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector of England (1599-1658) - Familypedia 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Previous to this he was under Manchester in the Eastern Association, where he raised a double troop of cavalry who were nicknamed "Ironsides" by Prince Rupert, Charles' nephew.
  • Oliver Cromwell — An Outline for Term Papers — Free Download! 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.cromwell-intl.com [Source type: Original source]

.His services were felt to be too valuable to be lost, and on the 10th of May his command was prolonged for forty days.^ His services were felt to be too valuable to be lost, and on the 10th of May his command was prolonged for forty days.

^ His command was extended by a series of forty day commissions.
  • Oliver Cromwell 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: Original source]

.On the 28th he was sent to Ely for the defence of the eastern counties against the king's advance; and on the 10th of June, upon Fairfax's petition, he was named by the Commons lieutenant-general, joining Fairfax on the 13th with six hundred horse.^ Lieutenant-General of Horse (bef.
  • Oliver Cromwell (Pepys' Diary) 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On the 28th he was sent to Ely for the defence of the eastern counties against the king's advance; and on the 10th of June, upon Fairfax's petition, he was named by the Commons lieutenant-general, joining Fairfax on the 13th with six hundred horse.

^ From which ordinance Cromwell is virtually dispensed, being appointed for repeated periods of forty days, and doing good work in Oxfordshire and elsewhere; clearly indispensable, till the Lord General Fairfax gets him appointed Lieutenant-general; and on his joining Fairfax, and commanding the cavalry, the king's army is shattered at Naseby.
  • Squashed Writers - The Letters and Speeches of Oliver Cromwell by Thomas Carlyle - condensed and abridged 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: Original source]

.At the decisive battle of Naseby (the 14th of June 1645) he commanded the parliamentary right wing and routed the cavalry of Sir Marmaduke Lang exclusion from pardon of all the king's leading adherents, besides the indefinite establishment of Presbyterianism and the refusal of toleration to the Roman Catholics and members of the Church of England.^ The Independents favored religious toleration for all except the Catholics and Anglicans and opposed Presbyterianism as the established church.
  • Oliver Cromwell 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC mars.wnec.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ At the decisive battle of Naseby (the 14th of June 1645) he commanded the parliamentary right wing and routed the cavalry of Sir Marmaduke Lang exclusion from pardon of all the king's leading adherents, besides the indefinite establishment of Presbyterianism and the refusal of toleration to the Roman Catholics and members of the Church of England.

^ He established religious liberty, and tolerated all sects but Catholics and Quakers.

.Meanwhile the failure to come to terms with Charles and provide a settlement appeared to threaten a general anarchy.^ Meanwhile the failure to come to terms with Charles and provide a settlement appeared to threaten a general anarchy.

^ From these tantrums it would appear that my failure to write other people's term papers is threatening the very future of western civilization.
  • Oliver Cromwell — An Outline for Term Papers — Free Download! 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.cromwell-intl.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The English republic was also threatened with trouble in Scotland, where the Presbyterian Covenanters had come to terms with Charles I's eldest son, Charles II .
  • Oliver Cromwell - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]

.Cromwell's moderate counsels created distrust in his good faith amongst the soldiers, who accused him of "prostituting the liberties and persons of all the people at the foot of the king's interest."^ Cromwell's moderate counsels created distrust in his good faith amongst the soldiers, who accused him of "prostituting the liberties and persons of all the people at the foot of the king's interest."

^ Indeed, though Cromwell shared the grievances of his fellow members over taxes, monopolies, and other burdens imposed on the people, it was his religion that first brought him into opposition to the King’s government.
  • Oliver Cromwell (English statesman) :: Cromwell in Parliament -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That it was, as the Royalists of Cromwell’s day claimed, a "great rebellion" - a period "between kings" an "Interregnum" or a military dictatorship, which is what some of the radical leaders who emerged during the fighting accused Cromwell and his generals of setting up.
  • The New Communist Party of Britain | OLIVER CROMWELL - And the Good Old Cause 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.newworker.org [Source type: Original source]

.The agitators demanded immediate settlement by force by the army.^ The agitators demanded immediate settlement by force by the army.

The extreme republicans, anticipating Rousseau, put forward the Agreement of the People. This was strongly opposed by Cromwell, who declared the very consideration of it had dangers, that it would bring upon the country "utter confusion" and "make England like Switzerland." Universal suffrage he rejected as tending "very much to anarchy," spoke against the hasty abolition of either the monarchy or the Lords, and refused entirely to consider the abstract principles brought into the debate. .Political problems were not to be so resolved, but practically.^ Political problems were not to be so resolved, but practically.

.With Cromwell as with Burke the question was "whether the spirit of the people of this nation is prepared to go along with it."^ With Cromwell as with Burke the question was "whether the spirit of the people of this nation is prepared to go along with it."

^ Oliver Cromwell was born into a common family of English country Puritans having none of the advantages of upbringing that would prepare him to be leader of a nation.
  • Oliver Cromwell: Lord Protector of England (1599-1658) — The Champion 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.forerunner.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Models for Reformation: Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector (1599-1658) — The Forerunner 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC forerunner.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Over 10,000 people signed a petition calling for Lilburne's release but Cromwell refused to let him go.

.The special form of government was not the important point, but its possibility and its acceptability.^ The special form of government was not the important point, but its possibility and its acceptability.

.The great problem was to found a stable government, an authority to keep order.^ The great problem was to found a stable government, an authority to keep order.

.If every man should fight for the best form of government the state would come to desolation.^ If every man should fight for the best form of government the state would come to desolation.

^ The Rump Parliament was regarded as an interim government and was expected to prepare for a permanent representative but divisions arose between factions in Parliament and in the Army over what form the new government should take.

^ Your pretended fear lest error should step in, is like the man that would keep all the wine out of the country lest men should be drunk.
  • Oliver Cromwell 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.albatrus.org [Source type: Original source]

.He reproached the soldiers for their insubordination against their officers, and the army for its rebellion against the parliament.^ He reproached the soldiers for their insubordination against their officers, and the army for its rebellion against the parliament.

^ Parliament army of foot soldiers.
  • Investigations of a Dog » Oliver Cromwell: An Adventure From History 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.investigations.4-lom.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Restoration of the King Disbanding the Scottish Army Disbanding a large part of the New Model Army A Presbyterian settlement of the Church The soldiers of the New Model Army were on the verge of mutiny due to the failure of Parliament to pay them, and were against the proposals.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A45871040 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.He would lay hold of anything "if it had but the force of authority," rather than have none.^ He would lay hold of anything "if it had but the force of authority," rather than have none.

^ Pedant rather than anything worse.

^ As the members of Parliament departed, the general shouted: "It's you that have forced me to do this, for I have sought the Lord night and ay that he would slay me rather than put me upon the doing of this work."
  • Oliver Cromwell 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC mars.wnec.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Cromwell's influence prevailed and these extreme proposals were laid aside.^ Cromwell's influence prevailed and these extreme proposals were laid aside.

^ On these principles Ireland was laid out and resettled by Cromwell's officers.

.Meanwhile all hopes of an accommodation with Charles were dispelled by his flight on the 11th of November from Hampton Court to Carisbroke Castle in the Isle of Wight, his Flight object being to negotiate independently with the Scots, the parliament and the army.^ Meanwhile all hopes of an accommodation with Charles were dispelled by his flight on the 11th of November from Hampton Court to Carisbroke Castle in the Isle of Wight , his Flight object being to negotiate independently with the Scots, the parliament and the army.

^ The unhappy Charles, in those final Hampton-Court negotiations, shows .

^ Charles was seized by the Scots and sold to Parliament.
  • Socialist Appeal - Oliver Cromwell and the English Revolution 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.socialist.net [Source type: Original source]

.His action, however, in the event, diminished rather than increased his chances of success, owing to the distrust of his intentions which it inspired.^ His action, however, in the event, diminished rather than increased his chances of success, owing to the distrust of his intentions which it inspired.

^ As part of their criticism that the Protectorate had diminished rather than amplified the monarchical sphere of representative publicity, royalists took to referring to Elizabeth as "Protectorate Joan."
  • Genders OnLine Journal - Elizabeth Cromwell's Kitchen Court: Republicanism and the Consort 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.genders.org [Source type: Original source]

.Both the army and the parliament gave cold replies to his offers to negotiate; and Charles, on the 27th of December 1647, entered into the Engagement with the Scots by which he promised the establishment of Presbyterianism for three years, the suppression of the Independents and their sects, together with privileges for the Scottish nobles, while the Scots undertook to invade England and restore him to his throne.^ Charles concluded an agreement with the Scots, who promised to restore him to power in return for the establishment of their Presbyterian religion.
  • Faith & Freedom 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.leaderu.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Both the army and the parliament gave cold replies to his offers to negotiate; and Charles, on the 27th of December 1647, entered into the Engagement with the Scots by which he promised the establishment of Presbyterianism for three years, the suppression of the Independents and their sects, together with privileges for the Scottish nobles, while the Scots undertook to invade England and restore him to his throne.

^ If the Act of Union a few years later had allowed a papist to assume the throne of England I would argue that the results were comparable.
  • Why I'm reading Antonia Fraser's biography of Oliver Cromwell - By Tom Ricks | The Best Defense 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC ricks.foreignpolicy.com [Source type: General]

.This alliance, though the exact terms were not known to Cromwell - "the attempt to vassalize us to a foreign nation," to use his own words - convinced him of the uselessness of any plan for maintaining Charles on the throne; though he still appears to have clung to monarchy, proposing in January 1648 the transference of the crown to the prince of Wales.^ This alliance , though the exact terms were not known to Cromwell - "the attempt to vassalize us to a foreign nation," to use his own words - convinced him of the uselessness of any plan for maintaining Charles on the throne; though he still appears to have clung to monarchy, proposing in January 1648 the transference of the crown to the prince of Wales .

^ When Charles came to the throne he ordered that Cromwell's body should be exhumed and symbolically hung on a gibbet at Tyburn.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A45871040 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Indeed it was Charles himself, by attempting in secret to form alliances with Catholic Ireland and France in order to defeat Cromwell's army, who was the catalyst to his own demise.
  • Amazon.com: Cromwell: Richard Harris, Alec Guinness, Robert Morley, Dorothy Tutin, Frank Finlay, Timothy Dalton, Patrick Wymark, Patrick Magee, Nigel Stock, Charles Gray, Michael Jayston, Richard Cornish, Anna Cropper, Michael Goodliffe, Jack Gwillim, Basil Henson, Patrick Holt, Stratford Johns, Geoffrey Keen, Anthony May, Ken Hughes: Movies & TV 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A week after the signing of the treaty he supported a proposal for the king's deposition, and the vote of No Addresses was carried.^ A week after the signing of the treaty he supported a proposal for the king's deposition, and the vote of No Addresses was carried.

^ Speech in the Commons during the debate which preceded the "Vote of No Addresses" (January 1648) as recorded in the diary of John Boys of Kent.
  • Oliver Cromwell - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Oliver Cromwell - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ To pass this Remonstrance can be no other than to pass a vote of no confidence in that King.
  • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

.Meanwhile the position of Charles's opponents had been considerably strengthened by the suppression of a dangerous rebellion in November 1647 by Cromwell's intervention, and by the return of troops to obedience.^ Meanwhile the position of Charles's opponents had been considerably strengthened by the suppression of a dangerous rebellion in November 1647 by Cromwell's intervention, and by the return of troops to obedience.

^ Cromwell's troops were commanded by Charles Worsley , later one of his Major Generals and one of his most trusted advisors, to whom he entrusted the mace.
  • Oliver Cromwell (Pepys' Diary) 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Charles was imprisoned in Hampton Court, but in November 1647 he escaped and managed to raise another army.

.Cromwell's difficulties, however, were immense.^ Cromwell's difficulties, however, were immense.

.His moderate and trimming attitude was understood neither by the extreme Independents nor by the Presbyterians.^ His moderate and trimming attitude was understood neither by the extreme Independents nor by the Presbyterians.

^ This news alarmed Independents in the New Model Army, who wanted neither an Anglican nor a Presbyterian national church.
  • Faith & Freedom 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.leaderu.com [Source type: Original source]

.He made one attempt to reconcile the disputes between the army and the politicians by a conference, but ended the barren discussion on the relative merits of aristocracies, monarchies and democracies, interspersed with Bible texts, by throwing a cushion at the speaker's head and running downstairs.^ He made one attempt to reconcile the disputes between the army and the politicians by a conference, but ended the barren discussion on the relative merits of aristocracies, monarchies and democracies, interspersed with Bible texts, by throwing a cushion at the speaker's head and running downstairs.

^ As a result he is well placed to be the intermediary in a dispute which develops between the army and parliament.

^ Distrust between the Army leaders and civilian politicians became strikingly clear, however.

.On the 19th of January 1648 Cromwell was accused of high treason by Lilburne.^ On the 19th of January 1648 Cromwell was accused of high treason by Lilburne.

^ Cromwell's Suppression of the Levellers After the regicide in January, John Lilburne wrote a pamphlet entitled England's New Chains Discovered, which was published in February 1649.
  • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

^ Hesitant until the last moment, Cromwell in the end gave in to the arguments of his son-in-law Ireton: there was no choice but to try Charles for high treason.
  • Faith & Freedom 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.leaderu.com [Source type: Original source]

.Plots were formed for his assassination.^ Plots were formed for his assassination.

.He was overtaken by a dangerous illness, and on the 2nd of March civil war in support of the king broke out.^ Parliamentary supporters in the English Civil War .
  • Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector of England (1599-1658) - Familypedia 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He was overtaken by a dangerous illness, and on the 2nd of March civil war in support of the king broke out.

^ Civil Wars broke out.
  • Oliver Cromwell — An Outline for Term Papers — Free Download! 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.cromwell-intl.com [Source type: Original source]

.Cromwell left London in May to suppress the royalists in Wales, and took Pembroke Castle on the 11th of July.^ Cromwell crushed a royalist revolt in Wales.
  • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

^ On 11th May he took the town of Chepstew, and after a protracted siege Pembroke Castle was surrendered to him on 11th July.
  • Oliver Cromwell, English soldier, statesman and Lord Protector of the Commonwealth (1599-1658) 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.1902encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Cromwell left London in May to suppress the royalists in Wales, and took Pembroke Castle on the 11th of July.

.Meanwhile behind his back the royalists had risen all over England, the fleet in the Downs had declared for Charles, and the Scottish army under Hamilton had invaded the north.^ Cromwell led an army to put down rebellion in South Wales, then intercepted and crushed the Scottish army at the battle of Preston and harried the remnant back into central Scotland.
  • Oliver Cromwell, 1598-1658 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.lib.cam.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1650 he invaded Scotland and routed the Scottish royalists at Dunbar; later he defeated the Scots and Charles II himself at Worcester (1651) and left the rest of the conquest of Scotland to Gen.
  • Oliver Cromwell Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Oliver Cromwell 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After Ireland, Cromwell was appointed commander in chief of all forces of the English Commonwealth and was sent to fight the Scots who had declared for King Charles II. The Scottish campaign was not characterized by the same brutality of the Irish campaign.
  • Doyle Clan - Cromwell Devastates Ireland 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.doyle.com.au [Source type: Original source]

.Immediately on the fall of Pembroke Cromwell set out to relieve Lambert, who was slowly retreating before Hamilton's superior forces; he joined him near Knaresborough on the 12th of August, and started next day in pursuit of Hamilton in Lancashire, placing himself at Stonyhurst near Preston, cutting off Hamilton from the north and his allies, and defeating him in detail on the 17th, 18th and 19th at Preston and at Warrington.^ In the early 18th century, Cromwell’s image began to be adopted and reshaped by the Whigs , an out-party opposing the Tories around the Hanoverian kings.
  • Oliver Cromwell - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After a royalist uprising in March 1655, led by Sir John Penruddock , Cromwell (influenced by Lambert) divided England into military districts ruled by Army Major Generals who answered only to him.
  • Oliver Cromwell (Pepys' Diary) 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Cromwell was still ill, so he sent Jones and Ireton to the county of Kilkenny to secure the garrisons there, cut the Duke of Ormonde off from Waterford and draw him into an open engagement.
  • Doyle Clan - Cromwell Devastates Ireland 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.doyle.com.au [Source type: Original source]

.He then marched north into Scotland, following the forces of Monro, and established a new government of the Argyle faction at Edinburgh; replying to the Independents who disapp-oved of his mild treatment of the Presbyterians, that he desired "union and right understanding between the godly people, Scots, English, Jews, Gentiles, Presbyterians, Anabaptists and all; ...^ I had waited he wrote in 1648 for the day to see union and right understanding between the godly people (Scots, English, Jews, Gentiles, Presbyterians, Independents, Anabaptisms and all.

^ He then marched north into Scotland , following the forces of Monro, and established a new government of the Argyle faction at Edinburgh ; replying to the Independents who disapp-oved of his mild treatment of the Presbyterians, that he desired "union and right understanding between the godly people, Scots, English, Jews , Gentiles, Presbyterians, Anabaptists and all; ...

^ The upper crust of the confederacy - guys like Bobby Lee - were not from that background so there was a class/culture divide in the confederacy, as there was between the Scots Presbyterians who settled Ulster during the plantation, and the high church English who ran the show.
  • Why I'm reading Antonia Fraser's biography of Oliver Cromwell - By Tom Ricks | The Best Defense 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC ricks.foreignpolicy.com [Source type: General]

a more glorious work in our eyes than if we had gotten the sacking and plunder of Edinburgh. .. and made a conquest from the Tweed to the Orcades." The incident of the Second Civil War and the treaty with the Scots exasperated Cromwell against the king. .On his return to London he found the parliament again negotiating Cromwell with Charles, and on the eve of making a treaty which Charles himself had no intention of keeping and the regarded merely as a means of regaining his power, and which would have thrown away in one moment all the advantages gained during years of bloodshed and struggle.^ On his return to London he found the parliament again negotiating Cromwell with Charles, and on the eve of making a treaty which Charles himself had no intention of keeping and the regarded merely as a means of regaining his power, and which would have thrown away in one moment all the advantages gained during years of bloodshed and struggle.

^ During the next eleven years, Charles governed without Parliament.
  • Oliver Cromwell 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC mars.wnec.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ His goal was to regain the power that the Parliament of England had lost to Cromwell and his army.
  • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

.Cromwell therefore did not hesitate to join the army in its opposition to the parliament, and supported the Remonstrance of the troops (loth of November 1648), which included the demand for the king's punishment as "the grand author of all our troubles," and justified the use of force by the army if other means failed.^ When did Oliver Cromwell enter Parliament?
  • Oliver Cromwell Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Oliver Cromwell 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cromwell, the army and parliament: AD 1645-1648 .

^ In October 1642, Cromwell's troop joined the army of the Earl of Essex.

.The parliament, however, continued to negotiate, and accordingly Charles was removed by the army to Hurst Castle on the 1st of December, the troops occupied London on the 2nd; while on the 6th and 7th Colonel Pride "purged" the House of Commons of the Presbyterians.^ Houses Parliament a Parliament he intimidated, purged and dismissed by use of the Army!

^ The parliament, however, continued to negotiate, and accordingly Charles was removed by the army to Hurst Castle on the 1st of December, the troops occupied London on the 2nd; while on the 6th and 7th Colonel Pride "purged" the House of Commons of the Presbyterians.

^ In 1629, however, Charles I dissolved the Parliament.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A45871040 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.Cromwell was not the originator of this act, but showed his approval of it by taking his seat among the fifty or sixty Independent members who remained.^ Cromwell was not the originator of this act, but showed his approval of it by taking his seat among the fifty or sixty Independent members who remained.

^ Cromwell, who had himself been elected three times as a member of the House of Commons, and was twice to reject proposals that he take the throne as king rather than rule as "Lord Protector," was never happy ruling without a legislature.

^ Cromwell was an overly ambitious hypocrite who betrayed the cause of liberty, imposed puritanical values and showed scant respect for the nation's traditions.
  • Oliver's Army by Elvis Costello Songfacts 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.songfacts.com [Source type: General]

.The disposal of the king was now the great question to be decided.^ The disposal of the king was now the great question to be decided.

^ The war being now over, the great question of the establishment of Presbyterianism or Independency had to be decided.

.During the next few weeks Cromwell appears to have made once more attempts to come to terms with Charles; but the king was inflexible in his refusal to part with the essential powers of the monarchy, or with the Church; and at the end of December it was resolved to bring him to trial.^ After a few moments MRS. CROMWELL comes in.
  • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ During the next few weeks Cromwell appears to have made once more attempts to come to terms with Charles; but the king was inflexible in his refusal to part with the essential powers of the monarchy, or with the Church; and at the end of December it was resolved to bring him to trial.

^ Charles:_ Is Cromwell coming to-night?
  • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

.The exact share which Cromwell had in this decision and its sequel is obscure, and the later accounts of the regicides when on their trial at the Restoration, ascribing the whole transaction to his initiation and agency, cannot be altogether accepted.^ The exact share which Cromwell had in this decision and its sequel is obscure, and the later accounts of the regicides when on their trial at the Restoration, ascribing the whole transaction to his initiation and agency, cannot be altogether accepted.

^ Though Cromwell did not order that the whole garrison be put to the sword, his soldiers got out of hand and did so on their own initiative.
  • Term-Papers.us - Oliver Cromwell In The Media 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.term-papers.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Cromwell initially tried to work with Lilburne on constitutional reform, but then turned decisively against the Levellers.
  • Oliver Cromwell, 1598-1658 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.lib.cam.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

.But it is plain that, once convinced of the necessity for the king's execution, he was the chief instrument in overcoming all scruples among his judges, and in resisting the protests and appeals of the Scots.^ But it is plain that, once convinced of the necessity for the king's execution, he was the chief instrument in overcoming all scruples among his judges, and in resisting the protests and appeals of the Scots.

^ After Ireland, Cromwell was appointed commander in chief of all forces of the English Commonwealth and was sent to fight the Scots who had declared for King Charles II. The Scottish campaign was not characterized by the same brutality of the Irish campaign.
  • Doyle Clan - Cromwell Devastates Ireland 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.doyle.com.au [Source type: Original source]

^ The bodies of Oliver, his son-in-law Henry Ireton, and John Bradshaw (the judge at the trial of King Charles), were dragged to Tyburn and hung from the gallows all day.
  • Oliver Cromwell — An Outline for Term Papers — Free Download! 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.cromwell-intl.com [Source type: Original source]

To Algernon Sidney, who refused to take part in proceedings on the plea that neither the king nor any man could be tried by such a court, Cromwell replied, "I tell you, v e will cut off his head with the crown upon it." The execution of the king took place on the 30th of January 1649. This event, the turning-point in Cromwell's career, casts a shadow, from one point of view, over the whole of his future statesmanship. .He himself never repented of the act, regarding it, on the contrary, as "one which °f Christians in after times will mention with honour and 'h' I. all tyrants in the world look at with fear," and as one directly ordained by God.^ He himself never repented of the act, regarding it, on the contrary, as "one which °f Christians in after times will mention with honour and ' h' I. all tyrants in the world look at with fear," and as one directly ordained by God.

^ He appoints a body of 140 nominees, chosen as 'God-fearing men' (often called the Barebones Parliament, from the name of one of its members - Praise-God Barbon).

^ His regiment was nicknamed “Ironsides” and was never beaten once, although they fought greatly outnumbered – at times three to one.
  • Oliver Cromwell: Lord Protector of England (1599-1658) — The Champion 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.forerunner.com [Source type: Original source]

.Opinions, no doubt, will always differ as to the wisdom or authority of the policy which brought Charles to the scaffold.^ Opinions, no doubt, will always differ as to the wisdom or authority of the policy which brought Charles to the scaffold .

^ The spirit which overthrew Charles I. also overturned the throne of James II.; but the wisdom gained by experience sent him into exile, instead of executing him on the scaffold.

^ Anyhow, had it not been for the yeomanry and for the plebeian element in the towns, the bourgeoisie alone would never have fought the matter out to the bitter end, and would never have brought Charles I to the scaffold.
  • Oliver Cromwell and the English Revolution 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.icl-fi.org [Source type: Original source]

.On the one hand, there was no law except that of force by which an offence could be attributed to the sovereign, the anointed king, the source of justice.^ On the one hand, there was no law except that of force by which an offence could be attributed to the sovereign, the anointed king, the source of justice.

^ There is no one to follow me.
  • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The major problem is that there are really no characters- with the sole exception of King Charles- that are interesting.
  • Cromwell (1970) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.imdb.com [Source type: General]

.The ordinance establishing the special tribunal for the trial was passed by a remnant of the House of Commons alone, from which all dissentients were excluded by the army.^ The ordinance establishing the special tribunal for the trial was passed by a remnant of the House of Commons alone, from which all dissentients were excluded by the army.

^ They immediately passed the "Act of Classes,"[2] which excluded from public office all those who had in any way taken part in or failed to stand against the Engagement.
  • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

^ Afraid of their power, Presbyterian members of the House of Commons tried to disband the army.

.The tribunal was composed, not of judges - for all unanimously refused to sit on it - but of fifty-two men drawn from among the king's enemies.^ God be judge between me and all men!
  • Squashed Writers - The Letters and Speeches of Oliver Cromwell by Thomas Carlyle - condensed and abridged 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The tribunal was composed, not of judges - for all unanimously refused to sit on it - but of fifty-two men drawn from among the king's enemies.

^ His army demanded the surrender of the garrisons at Drogheda and Wexford and when this was refused he took no prisoners but put to death all men at arms, including Catholic clergy.
  • Oliver Cromwell and the English Revolution 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.icl-fi.org [Source type: Original source]

.The execution was a military and not a national act, and at the last scene on the scaffold the triumphant shouts of the soldiery could not overwhelm the groans and sobs raised by the populace.^ The execution was a military and not a national act, and at the last scene on the scaffold the triumphant shouts of the soldiery could not overwhelm the groans and sobs raised by the populace.

^ By that daring act he became the sole head of power in the nation, and nothing was left him but to use it as wisely and firmly as he could.
  • Oliver Cromwell, English soldier, statesman and Lord Protector of the Commonwealth (1599-1658) 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.1902encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.Whatever crimes might be charged against Charles, his past conduct might appear to be condoned by the act of negotiating with him.^ Whatever crimes might be charged against Charles, his past conduct might appear to be condoned by the act of negotiating with him.

^ In his reverses Charles would have made any concessions; and the Presbyterians, who first took up arms against him, would perhaps have accepted them.

^ But the boyhood bond of family affection between King and Duke, and whatever more intimate relationship might have been there at one time in the past, was finally broken.
  • George Villiers -- Outsports.com 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC outsports.com [Source type: Original source]

.On the other hand, the execution seemed to Cromwell the only alternative to anarchy, or to a return to despotism and the abandonment of all they had fought for.^ On the other hand, the execution seemed to Cromwell the only alternative to anarchy, or to a return to despotism and the abandonment of all they had fought for.

^ A German ambassador heard a counsellor of state say, as they watched Cromwell's return in triumph from Worcester, that the Lord General was " unus instar omnium et in effectu rex " : he is a man set above all others, and to all intents and purposes our king.
  • Oliver Cromwell, 1598-1658 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.lib.cam.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ On the other hand, it is also clear that on entering Ireland, Cromwell demanded that no supplies were to be seized from the inhabitants, and that everything should be fairly purchased.
  • Oliver Cromwell 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: Original source]

.Cromwell had exhausted every expedient for arriving at an arrangement with the king by which the royal authority might be preserved, and the repeated perfidy and inexhaustible shiftiness of Charles had proved the hopelessness of such attempts.^ Cromwell had exhausted every expedient for arriving at an arrangement with the king by which the royal authority might be preserved, and the repeated perfidy and inexhaustible shiftiness of Charles had proved the hopelessness of such attempts.

^ The first was that the king seemed to still be in good relations with some Presbyterian Scotsmen such as Lauderdale, who had first met with young Charles II when his father died.
  • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

^ The King,--not the head of the state, mark you, expressing the people's will in one authority,--but this man Charles Rex, may use all these as he will.
  • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

.The results produced by the king's execution were far-reaching and permanent.^ The results produced by the king's execution were far-reaching and permanent.

.It is true that Puritan austerity and the lack of any strong central authority after Oliver's death produced a reaction which temporarily restored Charles's dynasty to the throne; but it is not less true that the execution of the king, at a later time when all over Europe absolute monarchies "by divine right" were being established on the ruins of the ancient popular constitutions, was an object lesson to all the world; and it produced a profound effect, not only in establishing constitutional monarchy in Great Britain after James II., with the dread of his father's fate before him, had abdicated by flight, but in giving the impulse to that revolt against the idea of "the divinity that doth hedge a king" which culminated in the Revolution of 1789, and of which the mighty effects are still evident in Europe and beyond.^ It is true that Puritan austerity and the lack of any strong central authority after Oliver's death produced a reaction which temporarily restored Charles's dynasty to the throne; but it is not less true that the execution of the king, at a later time when all over Europe absolute monarchies "by divine right" were being established on the ruins of the ancient popular constitutions, was an object lesson to all the world; and it produced a profound effect, not only in establishing constitutional monarchy in Great Britain after James II ., with the dread of his father's fate before him, had abdicated by flight, but in giving the impulse to that revolt against the idea of "the divinity that doth hedge a king" which culminated in the Revolution of 1789, and of which the mighty effects are still evident in Europe and beyond.

^ Charles I. was detested by the Puritans even more than his father James.

^ A year later Parliament restored Charles II as king.
  • Oliver Cromwell 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: Original source]

.The king and the monarchy being now destroyed in England, Cromwell had next to turn his attention to the suppression of Cromwell royalism in Ireland and in Scotland.^ The king and the monarchy being now destroyed in England, Cromwell had next to turn his attention to the suppression of Cromwell royalism in Ireland and in Scotland.

^ England, Scotland, Ireland, all lying now subdued at the feet of the .

^ The greatest feat of Turenne was the rescue of one province in 1674-1675; Cromwell, in 1648 and again in 1651, had two-thirds of England and half of Scotland for his theatre of war.

.In Ireland In Ormonde had succeeded in uniting the English and the Ireland. Irish in a league against the supporters of the parliament, and only a few scattered forts held out for the Commonwealth, while the young king was every day expected to land and complete the conquest of the island.^ Irish in a league against the supporters of the parliament, and only a few scattered forts held out for the Commonwealth , while the young king was every day expected to land and complete the conquest of the island.

^ In the wake of the Cromwellian conquest, the public practice of Catholicism was banned, priests were executed when captured and all Catholic-owned land was confiscated in the Act for the Settlement of Ireland 1652 and given to English settlers, the Parliament's financial creditors and Parliamentary soldiers (see Plantations of Ireland ).
  • Oliver Cromwell 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Cromwell landed in Ireland determined both to pacify the kingdom and to exact revenge for atrocities committed by Catholics against Protestants eight years before.
  • Oliver Cromwell, 1598-1658 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.lib.cam.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

.Accordingly in March 1649 Cromwell was appointed lord-lieutenant and commander-in-chief for its reduction.^ Accordingly in March 1649 Cromwell was appointed lord-lieutenant and commander-in-chief for its reduction.

^ On 15th March 1649 Cromwell was nominated lord-lieutenant for Ireland.
  • Oliver Cromwell, English soldier, statesman and Lord Protector of the Commonwealth (1599-1658) 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.1902encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Lord Lieutenant of Ireland 1649–1650 .
  • Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector of England (1599-1658) - Familypedia 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

.But before starting he was called upon to suppress disorder at home.^ But before starting he was called upon to suppress disorder at home.

.He treated the Levellers with some severity and showed his instinctive dislike to revolutionary proposals.^ He treated the Levellers with some severity and showed his instinctive dislike to revolutionary proposals.

."Did not that levelling principle," he said, "tend to the reducing of all to an equality?^ I beseech you, for the orders of men and ranks of men, did not that leveling principle tend to the reducing of all to an equality?
  • Cromwell, At the Opening of Parliament Under the Protectorate (1654) 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.strecorsoc.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "Did not that levelling principle," he said, "tend to the reducing of all to an equality?

^ I beseech you, For the orders of men and ranks of men, did not that Level-ling principle tend to the reducing of all to an equality?

What was the purport of it but to make the tenant as liberal a fortune as the landlord, which I think if obtained would not have lasted long." Equally characteristic was his treatment of the mutinous army, in which he suppressed a rebellion in May. .He landed at Dublin on the 13th of August.^ He landed at Dublin on the 13th of August.

^ On 13th August, he set sail for Dublin in the John , with a fleet of transports carrying 4,000 horse, and 8,000 foot.

^ Second, Colonel Michael Jones landed with 2,000 troops, expelled the Duke of Ormonde from Dublin and defeated him at Rathmines in August 1649.
  • Doyle Clan - Cromwell Devastates Ireland 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.doyle.com.au [Source type: Original source]

.Before his arrival the Dublin garrison had defeated Ormonde with a loss of 5000 men, and Cromwell's work was limited to the capture of detached fortresses.^ Before his arrival the Dublin garrison had defeated Ormonde with a loss of 5000 men, and Cromwell's work was limited to the capture of detached fortresses.

^ About 500 men from the Ross garrison, mostly the (Protestant) Baron of Inchiquin's men, defected to Cromwell.
  • Doyle Clan - Cromwell Devastates Ireland 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.doyle.com.au [Source type: Original source]

^ September 1649, Cromwell's army stormed Drogheda Castle and massacred the garrison of 2,000 men.
  • Commonwealth & Protectorate 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC history.wisc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.On the 10th of September he stormed Drogheda, and by his order the whole of its 2800 defenders were put to the sword without quarter.^ Put the whole garrison without mercy to the sword.
  • Oliver Cromwell, English soldier, statesman and Lord Protector of the Commonwealth (1599-1658) 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.1902encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On the 10th of September he stormed Drogheda , and by his order the whole of its 2800 defenders were put to the sword without quarter.

^ In conquering Ireland, Cromwell had stormed Drogheda and Wexford and denied quarter to the garrisons of both, killing many civilians in the process.
  • Oliver Cromwell, 1598-1658 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.lib.cam.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

.Cromwell, who was as a rule especially scrupulous in protecting non-combatants from violence, justified his severity in this case by the cruelties perpetrated by the Irish in the rebellion of 1641, and as being necessary on military and political grounds in that it "would tend to prevent the effusion of blood for the future, which were the satisfactory grounds of such actions which otherwise cannot but work remorse and regret."^ "I am persuaded that this is a righteous judgment of God upon these barbarous wretches who have imbued their hands in so much innocent blood, and that it will tend to prevent the effusion of blood for the future, which are the satisfactory grounds to such actions, which otherwise cannot but work remorse and regret."
  • Commonwealth & Protectorate 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC history.wisc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ I am persuaded that this is a righteous judgement of God upon these barbarous wretches, who have imbued their hands in so much innocent blood, and it will tend to prevent the effusion of blood for the future, which are satisfactory grounds to such actions, which otherwise cannot but work remourse and regret...."
  • Doyle Clan - Cromwell Devastates Ireland 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.doyle.com.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Which are the satisfactory grounds to such actions, which otherwise cannot but work regret and remorse."
  • Oliver Cromwell, English soldier, statesman and Lord Protector of the Commonwealth (1599-1658) 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.1902encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.After the fall of Drogheda Cromwell sent a few troops to relieve Londonderry, and marched himself to Wexford, which he took on the 11th of October, and where similar scenes of cruelty were repeated; every captured priest, to use Cromwell's own words, being immediately "knocked on the head," though the story of the three hundred women slaughtered in the market-place has no foundation.^ After the fall of Drogheda Cromwell sent a few troops to relieve Londonderry , and marched himself to Wexford , which he took on the 11th of October, and where similar scenes of cruelty were repeated; every captured priest , to use Cromwell's own words, being immediately "knocked on the head," though the story of the three hundred women slaughtered in the market-place has no foundation.

^ Oliver Cromwell then marched on Edinburgh, and soon took the city, although Sir Walter Dundas held out in Edinburgh Castle until 24 December 1650.
  • Commonwealth & Protectorate 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC history.wisc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Wexford, the base for royalist naval operations, did not instantly capitulate, and its fate ranks with Drogheda's in the popular catalogue of Cromwell's crimes.
  • God's Executioner: Oliver Cromwell and the Conquest of Ireland by Micheal O Siochru - Times Online 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC entertainment.timesonline.co.uk [Source type: News]

.The surrender of Trim, Dundalk and Ross followed, but at Waterford Cromwell met with a stubborn resistance and the advent of winter obliged him to raise the siege.^ The surrender of Trim , Dundalk and Ross followed, but at Waterford Cromwell met with a stubborn resistance and the advent of winter obliged him to raise the siege.

^ When forces on one side of the river surrendered, it is alleged that Cromwell, still meeting resistance on the other side, ordered the annihilation of the entire population.
  • Doyle Clan - Cromwell Devastates Ireland 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.doyle.com.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Cromwell:_ Brethren in God, at the end of another day's labour we are met to praise Him from whom are the means to labour and its rewards.
  • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

.Next year Cromwell penetrated into Munster.^ Next year Cromwell penetrated into Munster .

^ Charles I ruled without a Parliament for the next eleven years (having dissolved Parliament, of which Cromwell was a member, in 1629).
  • Oliver Cromwell 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Cromwell was born into the ranks of the middle gentry , and remained relatively obscure for the first 40 years of his life.
  • Oliver Cromwell (Pepys' Diary) 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: Original source]

.Cashel, Cahir and several castles fell in February, and Kilkenny in March; Clonmel repulsing the assault with great loss, but surrendering on the 10th of May 1650. Cromwell himself sailed a fortnight later, leaving the reduction of the island, which was completed in 1652, to his generals.^ Cashel , Cahir and several castles fell in February, and Kilkenny in March; Clonmel repulsing the assault with great loss, but surrendering on the 10th of May 1650.

^ He summoned Kilkenny on March 22, 1650: .
  • Doyle Clan - Cromwell Devastates Ireland 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.doyle.com.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Cromwell himself sailed a fortnight later, leaving the reduction of the island, which was completed in 1652, to his generals.

.The re-settlement of the conquered and devastated country was now organized on the Tudor and Straffordian basis of colonization from England, conversion to Protestantism, and establishment of law and order.^ The re-settlement of the conquered and devastated country was now organized on the Tudor and Straffordian basis of colonization from England, conversion to Protestantism, and establishment of law and order.

^ He was determined, instead, to bring order out of the chaos and place England under the rule of law.
  • Faith & Freedom 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.leaderu.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Now men formerly totally opposed to an established church order were invited to come forward.
  • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

.Cromwell thoroughly approved of the enormous scheme of confiscation and colonization, causing great privations and sufferings, which was carried out.^ Cromwell thoroughly approved of the enormous scheme of confiscation and colonization, causing great privations and sufferings, which was carried out.

^ But the niggardliness and incompetence of his reward shewed that this man was a personated act of greatness, and that Private Cromwell yet governed Prince Oliver.
  • Oliver Cromwell - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Oliver Cromwell - Wikiquote 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "Faced with the prospect of an Irish alliance with Charles II, Cromwell carried out a series of massacres to subdue the Irish.
  • Oliver Cromwell (Pepys' Diary) 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Roman Catholic landowners lost their estates, all or part according to their degree of guilt, and these were distributed among Cromwell's soldiers and the creditors of the government; Cromwell also invited new settlers from home and from New England, two-thirds of the whole land of Ireland being thus transferred to new proprietors.^ Cromwell’s army conquered Ireland, crushed the resistance and seized two-thirds of the land.
  • Oliver Cromwell and the English Revolution 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.icl-fi.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Roman Catholic landowners lost their estates, all or part according to their degree of guilt , and these were distributed among Cromwell's soldiers and the creditors of the government; Cromwell also invited new settlers from home and from New England , two-thirds of the whole land of Ireland being thus transferred to new proprietors.

^ Cromwell:_ These are all my friends.
  • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

.The suppression of Roman Catholicism was zealously pursued by Cromwell; the priests were hunted down and imprisoned or exiled to Spain or Barbados, the mass was everywhere forbidden, and the only liberty allowed was that of conscience, the Romanist not being obliged to attend Protestant services.^ The suppression of Roman Catholicism was zealously pursued by Cromwell; the priests were hunted down and imprisoned or exiled to Spain or Barbados , the mass was everywhere forbidden, and the only liberty allowed was that of conscience , the Romanist not being obliged to attend Protestant services.

^ An example is The Perfect Politician , which described how Cromwell "loved men more than books" and gave a nuanced assessment of him as an energetic campaigner for liberty of conscience brought down by pride and ambition.
  • Oliver Cromwell (Pepys' Diary) 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Although Cromwell seemed to be everywhere during the Civil Wars, his list of engagements was relatively modest and he was only active in the field during the years 1643 until 1646.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A45871040 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.These methods, together with education, "assiduous preaching ...^ These methods, together with education, "assiduous preaching ...

humanity, good life, equal and honest dealing with men of different opinion," .Cromwell thought, would convert the whole island to Protestantism.^ Cromwell thought, would convert the whole island to Protestantism.

^ Knox, in his book The Reformation of Scotland, outlined the whole process without which the British model of government under Oliver Cromwell never would have been possible.
  • Oliver Cromwell: Lord Protector of England (1599-1658) — The Champion 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.forerunner.com [Source type: Original source]

.The law was ably and justly administered, and Irish trade was admitted to the same privileges as English, enjoying the same rights in foreign and colonial trade; and no attempt was made to subordinate the interests of the former to the latter, which was the policy adopted both before and after Cromwell's time, while the union of Irish and English interests was further recognized by the Irish representation at Westminster in the parliaments of 1654, 1656 and 16J9. These advantages, however, scarcely benefited at all the Irish Roman Catholics, who were excluded from political life and from the corporate towns; and Cromwell's union meant little more than the union of the English colony in Ireland with England.^ In his Parliament of 1656 both Ireland and Scotland were represented.

^ The law was ably and justly administered, and Irish trade was admitted to the same privileges as English, enjoying the same rights in foreign and colonial trade; and no attempt was made to subordinate the interests of the former to the latter, which was the policy adopted both before and after Cromwell's time, while the union of Irish and English interests was further recognized by the Irish representation at Westminster in the parliaments of 1654, 1656 and 16J9.

^ These advantages, however, scarcely benefited at all the Irish Roman Catholics, who were excluded from political life and from the corporate towns; and Cromwell's union meant little more than the union of the English colony in Ireland with England.

.A just administration, too, did not compensate for unjust laws or produce contentment; the policy of conversion and colonization was unsuccessful, the descendants of many of Cromwell's soldiers becoming merged in the Roman Catholic Irish, and the union with England, political and commercial, being extinguished at the Restoration.^ A just administration, too, did not compensate for unjust laws or produce contentment; the policy of conversion and colonization was unsuccessful, the descendants of many of Cromwell's soldiers becoming merged in the Roman Catholic Irish, and the union with England, political and commercial, being extinguished at the Restoration.

^ He did have many conversations with Catholics, which had been unheard of in Anglican England.
  • COMBAT Magazine: Oliver Cromwell, Warts and All 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.combat.ws [Source type: Original source]

^ Lady Antonia is at her best in the detailed analyses of particular, critical episodes, especially Cromwell's massacre of the Irish Catholics at Drogheda and Wexford in 1649.
  • Oliver Cromwell Life, a Summary 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.albatrus.org [Source type: Original source]
  • EIPS - Oliver Cromwell 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.ianpaisley.org [Source type: Original source]

.Cromwell's land settlement - modified by the restoration under Charles II.^ Cromwell's land settlement - modified by the restoration under Charles II .

^ The public rejoicings, the universal enthusiasm, the brilliant spectacles and ftes, the flattering receptions and speeches which hailed the restoration of Charles II., showed unmistakably that the rgime of Cromwell, though needed for a time, was unpopular, and was not in accordance with the national aspirations.

^ The Parliamentarians, including Cromwell, hoped to reach a compromise settlement with Charles I. However, Charles would not accept a solution at odds with his own concept of " Divine right " kingship.
  • Oliver Cromwell 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: Original source]

of about one-third of the estates to the royalists - survived, and added to the difficulties with which the .English government was afterwards confronted in Ireland.^ English government was afterwards confronted in Ireland.

.Meanwhile Cromwell had hurried home to deal with the royalists in Scotland.^ Meanwhile Cromwell had hurried home to deal with the royalists in Scotland.

^ Throughout 1648 Cromwell’s army inflicted defeats on the Royalists in England and Wales; they also defeated a pro-Royalist army from Scotland that threatened to invade.
  • Oliver Cromwell and the English Revolution 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.icl-fi.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Cromwell proceded to deal with the pockets of Royalist resistance located in the cities.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A45871040 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.He urged Fairfax to attack the Scots at once in their own country and to forestall their The invasion; but Fairfax refused and resigned, and battles of Cromwell was appointed by parliament, on the 26th Dunbar of June 1650, commander-in-chief of all the forces and of the Commonwealth.^ He urged Fairfax to attack the Scots at once in their own country and to forestall their The invasion; but Fairfax refused and resigned, and battles of Cromwell was appointed by parliament, on the 26th Dunbar of June 1650, commander-in-chief of all the forces and of the Commonwealth.

^ On the resignation of Sir Thomas Fairfax in 1650 Cromwell was appointed as commander-in-chief of the New Model Army.
  • Oliver Cromwell 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In summer 1650, before embarking for Scotland, Cromwell had been appointed lord general - that is, commander in chief - of all the parliamentary forces.
  • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

.He entered Scotland in July, Wo rcester.^ He entered Scotland in July, Wo rcester.

and after a campaign in the neighbourhood of .Edinburgh which proved unsuccessful in drawing out the Scots from their fortresses, he retreated to Dunbar to await reinforcements from Berwick.^ Edinburgh which proved unsuccessful in drawing out the Scots from their fortresses, he retreated to Dunbar to await reinforcements from Berwick .

^ The Scots under Leslie followed him, occupied Doon Hill commanding the town, and seized the passes between Dunbar and Berwick which Cromwell had omitted to secure.

.The Scots under Leslie followed him, occupied Doon Hill commanding the town, and seized the passes between Dunbar and Berwick which Cromwell had omitted to secure.^ The Scots under Leslie followed him, occupied Doon Hill commanding the town, and seized the passes between Dunbar and Berwick which Cromwell had omitted to secure.

^ The surrender of Trim , Dundalk and Ross followed, but at Waterford Cromwell met with a stubborn resistance and the advent of winter obliged him to raise the siege.

^ By heading south they could cut Cromwell's supply lines, and force him to head back to England with a hungry and under supplied army.
  • COMBAT Magazine: Oliver Cromwell, Warts and All 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.combat.ws [Source type: Original source]

.Cromwell was outmanoeuvred and in a perilous situation, completely cut off from England and from his supplies except from the sea.^ Cromwell was outmanoeuvred and in a perilous situation, completely cut off from England and from his supplies except from the sea.

^ Cromwell’s foreign policy also provided an attractive forerunner of Victorian imperial expansion , with Gardiner stressing his “constancy of effort to make England great by land and sea”.
  • Oliver Cromwell (Pepys' Diary) 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ School students are taught that Oliver Cromwell’s Roundheads fought King Charles I and his Cavaliers in the 1640s, and that the King’s head was cut off.
  • Oliver Cromwell and the English Revolution 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.icl-fi.org [Source type: Original source]

.But Leslie descended the hill to complete his triumph, and Cromwell immediately observed the disadvantages of his antagonist's new position, cramped by the hill behind and separated from his left wing.^ Cromwell determined to turn his antagonist's position.

^ But Leslie descended the hill to complete his triumph, and Cromwell immediately observed the disadvantages of his antagonist's new position, cramped by the hill behind and separated from his left wing.

^ Christopher Hill aptly describes Cromwell’s conquest of Ireland as “the first big triumph of English imperialism and the first big defeat of English democracy” ( The English Revolution of 1640 ).
  • Oliver Cromwell and the English Revolution 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.icl-fi.org [Source type: Original source]

.A stubborn struggle on the next day, the 3rd of September, gave Cromwell a decisive victory.^ A stubborn struggle on the next day, the 3rd of September, gave Cromwell a decisive victory.

^ On 29th September his fleet appeared off Wexford, and on 1st October Cromwell with his army encamped before the walls, and on the 3rd he summoned the town to surrender.

^ In 1658 Colonel Edward Doyley, the governor, gained a decisive victory over thirty companies of Spanish foot, and sent ten of their flags to Cromwell.

.Advancing, he occupied Edinburgh and Leith.^ Advancing, he occupied Edinburgh and Leith .

.At first it seemed likely that his victories and subsequent remonstrances would effect a peace with the Scots; but by 1651 Charles II. had succeeded in forming a new union of royalists and presbyterians, and another campaign became inevitable.^ At first it seemed likely that his victories and subsequent remonstrances would effect a peace with the Scots; but by 1651 Charles II. had succeeded in forming a new union of royalists and presbyterians, and another campaign became inevitable.

^ After Ireland, Cromwell was appointed commander in chief of all forces of the English Commonwealth and was sent to fight the Scots who had declared for King Charles II. The Scottish campaign was not characterized by the same brutality of the Irish campaign.
  • Doyle Clan - Cromwell Devastates Ireland 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.doyle.com.au [Source type: Original source]

^ The third and final war lasted from 1650 until 1651, during which time Charles II was crowned in Edinburgh and the Scottish Royalists attempted to invade England.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A45871040 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.Some delay was caused in beginning operations by Cromwell's dangerous illness, during which his life was despaired of; but in June he was confronting Leslie entrenched in the hills near Stirling, impregnable to attack and refusing an engagement.^ Some delay was caused in beginning operations by Cromwell's dangerous illness, during which his life was despaired of; but in June he was confronting Leslie entrenched in the hills near Stirling , impregnable to attack and refusing an engagement.

^ Although Cromwell seemed to be everywhere during the Civil Wars, his list of engagements was relatively modest and he was only active in the field during the years 1643 until 1646.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A45871040 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ During his lifetime, some tracts painted him as a hypocrite motivated by power — for example, The Machiavilian Cromwell and The Juglers Discovered , both part of an attack on Cromwell by the Levellers after 1647, present him as a Machiavellian figure.
  • Oliver Cromwell - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]

.Cromwell determined to turn his antagonist's position.^ Cromwell determined to turn his antagonist's position.

^ But Leslie descended the hill to complete his triumph, and Cromwell immediately observed the disadvantages of his antagonist's new position, cramped by the hill behind and separated from his left wing.

.He sent 14,000 men into Fifeshire and marched to Perth, which he captured on the 2nd of August, thus cutting off Leslie from the north and his supplies.^ He sent 14,000 men into Fifeshire and marched to Perth , which he captured on the 2nd of August, thus cutting off Leslie from the north and his supplies.

^ Cromwell was still ill, so he sent Jones and Ireton to the county of Kilkenny to secure the garrisons there, cut the Duke of Ormonde off from Waterford and draw him into an open engagement.
  • Doyle Clan - Cromwell Devastates Ireland 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.doyle.com.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Cromwell, marching westward at the head of 8600 men, attacked them at Preston on 17th August.
  • Oliver Cromwell, English soldier, statesman and Lord Protector of the Commonwealth (1599-1658) 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.1902encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.This movement, however, left open the way to England, and Charles immediately marched south, in reality thus giving Cromwell the wished-for opportunity of crushing the royalists finally and decisively.^ This movement, however, left open the way to England, and Charles immediately marched south, in reality thus giving Cromwell the wished-for opportunity of crushing the royalists finally and decisively.

^ Cromwell crushed a royalist revolt in Wales.
  • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

^ After a royalist uprising in March 1655, led by Sir John Penruddock , Cromwell (influenced by Lambert) divided England into military districts ruled by Army Major Generals who answered only to him.
  • Oliver Cromwell (Pepys' Diary) 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: Original source]

.Cromwell followed through Yorkshire, and uniting with Lambert and Harrison at Evesham proceeded to attack the royalists at Worcester; where on the 3rd of September after a fierce struggle the great victory, "the crowning mercy" which terminated the Civil War, was obtained over Charles.^ A stubborn struggle on the next day, the 3rd of September, gave Cromwell a decisive victory.

^ Cromwell followed through Yorkshire, and uniting with Lambert and Harrison at Evesham proceeded to attack the royalists at Worcester; where on the 3rd of September after a fierce struggle the great victory, "the crowning mercy " which terminated the Civil War, was obtained over Charles.

^ Cromwell and the Civil War, 1642-46 3.
  • Pearson - Oliver Cromwell - Barry Coward 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.pearsonhighered.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Monk completed the subjugation of Scotland by 1654. The settlement here was made on more moderate lines than in Ireland.^ The settlement here was made on more moderate lines than in Ireland.

^ Monk completed the subjugation of Scotland by 1654.

^ After the battle of Worcester, the management of Scotland, where his deputy Monk had been completely successful in crushing royalism, naturally fell under the chief direction of Cromwell.
  • Oliver Cromwell, English soldier, statesman and Lord Protector of the Commonwealth (1599-1658) 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.1902encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.The estates of only twenty-four leaders of the defeated cause were forfeited by Cromwell, and the national church was left untouched though deprived of all powers of interference with the civil government, the general assembly being dissolved in 1653. Large steps were made towards the union of the two kingdoms by the representation of Scotland in the parliament at Westminster; free trade between the two countries was established, the administration of justice greatly improved, vassalage and heritable jurisdictions abolished, and security and good order maintained by the council of nine appointed by the Protector.^ Little Parliament of his wish "to divest the sword of all power in the Civil administration."

^ Cromwell made a personal appeal to the General Assembly of the Church Of Scotland, but despite this, he decided that war was unavoidable.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A45871040 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ In December 1653 Cromwell was appointed Lord Protector, with powers akin to those of a monarch.
  • Oliver Cromwell 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: Original source]

.In 1658 the improved condition of Scotland was the subject of Cromwell's special congratulation in addressing parliament.^ In 1658 the improved condition of Scotland was the subject of Cromwell's special congratulation in addressing parliament.

^ Cromwell:_ I can disabuse rumour about Scotland, I can persuade Parliament about the Presbytery, I can convince the army of your good faith as to tolerance, if you will but give me the word.
  • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Presbyterians, at least of Scotland, it would seem, preferred now the restoration of the King to the ascendency of Cromwell with the army to back him, for it was the army and not the Parliament which had given him supreme command.

.But as in Ireland so Cromwell's policy in Scotland was unpopular and was only upheld by the maintenance of a large army, necessitating heavy taxation and implying the loss of the national independence.^ But as in Ireland so Cromwell's policy in Scotland was unpopular and was only upheld by the maintenance of a large army, necessitating heavy taxation and implying the loss of the national independence.

^ Indeed it was Charles himself, by attempting in secret to form alliances with Catholic Ireland and France in order to defeat Cromwell's army, who was the catalyst to his own demise.
  • Amazon.com: Cromwell: Richard Harris, Alec Guinness, Robert Morley, Dorothy Tutin, Frank Finlay, Timothy Dalton, Patrick Wymark, Patrick Magee, Nigel Stock, Charles Gray, Michael Jayston, Richard Cornish, Anna Cropper, Michael Goodliffe, Jack Gwillim, Basil Henson, Patrick Holt, Stratford Johns, Geoffrey Keen, Anthony May, Ken Hughes: Movies & TV 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Meanwhile, with Parliament in abeyance, the creative period in Cromwell's government had been begun, but the duration of his policy, foreign as well as domestic, depended on its acceptance by the nation as represented in the new Parliament.
  • Cromwell, At the Opening of Parliament Under the Protectorate (1654) 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.strecorsoc.org [Source type: Original source]

It also vanished at the Restoration.
.On the 12th of September 1651 Cromwell made his triumphal entry into London at the conclusion of his victorious campaigns; and parliament granted him Hampton Court as a residence with £4000 a year.^ On the 12th of September 1651 Cromwell made his triumphal entry into London at the conclusion of his victorious campaigns; and parliament granted him Hampton Court as a residence with £4000 a year.

^ Although the idol of his victorious army, and in a position enabling him to exercise autocratic power, he laboured unostentatiously for more than a year and a half as a member of the parliament, whose authority he supported to the best of his ability.

^ Fought and won on 3 September 1651, the anniversary of Dunbar, it amounted to one further, conclusive manifestation of God's favour.
  • Oliver Cromwell, 1598-1658 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.lib.cam.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

.These triumphs, however, had all been obtained by force of arms; the more difficult task now awaited Cromwell of governing England by parliament and by law.^ These were not all his foreign triumphs.
  • A Child's History of England by Charles Dickens: Ch. 33 - Oliver Cromwell 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.online-literature.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These triumphs, however, had all been obtained by force of arms; the more difficult task now awaited Cromwell of governing England by parliament and by law.

^ The other thing is that these coaches and technical personnel are all great experts with many more in the wings waiting to step in at the first sign of weakness.
  • Giorgio Scarso "agrees" with Oliver Cromwell - Fencing Discussion 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.fencing.net [Source type: General]

.As Milton wrote: "Cromwell!^ As Milton wrote: "Cromwell!

^ I believe, however, he did not; neither did John Milton, who wrote a pamphlet on the subject; neither did Oliver Cromwell.
  • Little Journeys Vol. 9: Great Reformers by Elbert Hubbard: Oliver Cromwell 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.online-literature.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was in one such instance that Milton wrote his great eulogy to Cromwell: .
  • Oliver Cromwell Life, a Summary 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.albatrus.org [Source type: Original source]
  • EIPS - Oliver Cromwell 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.ianpaisley.org [Source type: Original source]

our chief of men, who through a .cloud Not of war only, but detractions rude, Guided by faith and matchless fortitude, To peace and truth thy glorious way hast ploughed,.^ Cromwell, our chief of men, who through a cloud Not of war only, but distractions rude, Guided by faith and matchless fortitude, To peace and truth thy glorious way hast plough'd, And on the neck of crowned fortune proud Hast rear'd God's trophies, and his work pursued.
  • Oliver Cromwell Life, a Summary 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.albatrus.org [Source type: Original source]
  • EIPS - Oliver Cromwell 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.ianpaisley.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Not of war only, but detractions rude, Guided by faith and matchless fortitude, To peace and truth thy glorious way hast ploughed,.

^ OLIVER CROMWELL BY THEODORE ROOSEVELT ILLUSTRATED CHARLES SCRIBNER S SONS NEW YORK 1906 OLIVER CROMWELL. From the portrait by Robert Walker at Hinchingbroolw, By permission of the Earl of Sandwich, Probably painted soon after the beginning of the Civil War, when Cromwell was ft amp gt rty amp lt th oe or - tour yw e Ckarks Smt amp gt wf amp gt Sm TROW oinecTorir AND BOOKniNDINQ C Cromwell, our chief of men, who through a cloud Not of war only, but detractions rude, Guided by faith, and matchless fortitude, To peace and truth, thy glorious way hast ploughed, And on the neck of crownSd fortune proud Hast reared God s trophies, and his work pursued, While Darwen stream, with blood of Scots quot imbrued, And Dunbar field, resounds thy praises loud, And Worcester s laureate wreath.
  • Amazon.com: Oliver Cromwell (9780548116241): Theodore Roosevelt: Books 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

.. .Peace hath her victories No less renowned than war."^ Peace hath her victories No less renowned than war."

^ Yet much remains To conquer still; peace hath her victories No less renowned than war: new foes arise, Threatening to bind our souls with secular chains: Help us to save free conscience from the paw Of hireling wolves whose gospel is their maw.
  • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

^ Yet much remains To conquer still Peace hath her victories No less renowned than War new foes arise, Threatening to bind our souls with secular chains.
  • Amazon.com: Oliver Cromwell (9780548116241): Theodore Roosevelt: Books 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

.Cromwell's moderation and freedom from imperiousness were acknowledged even by those least friendly to his principles.^ Those who advocated voting for Cromwell told us that it was he who made it possible for our freedoms and liberties to be preserved until the present day.
  • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

^ He has been candid, as well, in conceding that those who need it most are the least likely even to be aware of it, nevermind actually going so far as to down a dose.
  • Truthdig - President Jonah, Meet Oliver Cromwell! 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Truthdig - President Jonah, Meet Oliver Cromwell! 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.truthdig.com [Source type: Original source]

.Although the idol of his victorious army, and in a position enabling him to exercise autocratic power, he laboured unostentatiously for more than a year and a half as a member of the parliament, whose authority he supported to the best of his ability.^ This gave him extensive powers and enabled him to rule without Parliament.
  • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

^ Although the idol of his victorious army, and in a position enabling him to exercise autocratic power, he laboured unostentatiously for more than a year and a half as a member of the parliament, whose authority he supported to the best of his ability.

^ And this result he achieved with men of less than two years' service, men, too, more heavily equipped and worse mounted than the veterans of the Grande Armee.

.While occupied with work on committees and in administration he pressed forward several schemes of reform, including a large measure of law reform prepared by a commission presided over by Matthew Hale, and the settlement of the church; but very little was accomplished by the parliament, which seemed to be almost exclusively taken up with the maintenance and increase of its own powers; and Cromwell's dissatisfaction, and that of the army which increased every day, was intensified by the knowledge that the parliament, instead of dissolving for a new election, was seeking to perpetuate its tenure of power.^ In January 1655, Cromwell dissolved this parliament.
  • Oliver Cromwell - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]

^ While occupied with work on committees and in administration he pressed forward several schemes of reform, including a large measure of law reform prepared by a commission presided over by Matthew Hale , and the settlement of the church; but very little was accomplished by the parliament, which seemed to be almost exclusively taken up with the maintenance and increase of its own powers; and Cromwell's dissatisfaction, and that of the army which increased every day, was intensified by the knowledge that the parliament, instead of dissolving for a new election, was seeking to perpetuate its tenure of power.

^ His goal was to regain the power that the Parliament of England had lost to Cromwell and his army.
  • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

.At length, in April 1653, a "bill for a new representation" was discussed, which provided for the retention of their seats by the existing members without re-election, so that they would also be the sole judges of the eligibility of the rest.^ At length, in April 1653, a "bill for a new representation" was discussed, which provided for the retention of their seats by the existing members without re-election, so that they would also be the sole judges of the eligibility of the rest.

^ In frustration, in April 1653 Cromwell demanded that the Rump establish a caretaker government of 40 members (drawn both from the Rump and the army) and then abdicate.
  • Oliver Cromwell (Pepys' Diary) 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The "self-denying ordinance,’ discharging members of Parliament from military offices, and permitting enlistment without the signing of the Covenants, was finally passed on 3d April 1645.
  • Oliver Cromwell, English soldier, statesman and Lord Protector of the Commonwealth (1599-1658) 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.1902encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.This measure, which placed the whole powers of the state - executive, legislative, military and judicial - in the hands of one irresponsible and permanent chamber, "the horridest arbitrariness that ever was exercised in the world," Cromwell and the army determined to resist at all costs.^ This measure, which placed the whole powers of the state - executive, legislative, military and judicial - in the hands of one irresponsible and permanent chamber, "the horridest arbitrariness that ever was exercised in the world," Cromwell and the army determined to resist at all costs .

^ To keep down the more violent members, he required them to sign a recognition of what they were forbidden by 'the Instrument' to do; which was, chiefly, to take the power from one single person at the head of the state or to command the army.
  • A Child's History of England by Charles Dickens: Ch. 33 - Oliver Cromwell 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.online-literature.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When forces on one side of the river surrendered, it is alleged that Cromwell, still meeting resistance on the other side, ordered the annihilation of the entire population.
  • Doyle Clan - Cromwell Devastates Ireland 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.doyle.com.au [Source type: Original source]

.On the 15th of April they proposed that the parliament should appoint a provisional government and dissolve itself.^ On the 15th of April they proposed that the parliament should appoint a provisional government and dissolve itself.

^ Things were no sooner quiet again, than the army began to complain to the Parliament that they were not governing the nation properly, and to hint that they thought they could do it better themselves.
  • A Child's History of England by Charles Dickens: Ch. 33 - Oliver Cromwell 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.online-literature.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Cromwell became impatient and ordered that the members establish a stewardship of 40 members taken from the parliament and the army, and that the Parliament should then be dissolved.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A45871040 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

This compromise was refused by the parliament, which proceeded on the 10th to press through its last stages the "bill for a new representation." Cromwell hastened to the House, and at the last moment, on the bill being put to the vote, whispering to Harrison, "This is the time; Y must do it," he rose, and after alluding to the former good services of the parliament, proceeded to overwhelm the members with reproaches. Striding up and down the House in a passion, he made no attempt to control himself, and turning towards individuals as he hurled significant epithets at each, he called some "whoremasters," others "drunkards, corrupt, unjust, scandalous to the profession of the Gospel." "Perhaps you think," he exclaimed, "that this is not parliamentary language; I confess it is not, neither are you to expect any such from me." .In reply to a complaint of his violence he cried, "Come, come, I will put an end to your prating.^ In reply to a complaint of his violence he cried, "Come, come, I will put an end to your prating.

^ I will put an end to your sitting."

^ From: "Dennis O'Donnell" dodonnell@seanet.com Subject: why not how come you haven't put my pathetic email on your site yet...
  • Oliver Cromwell — An Outline for Term Papers — Free Download! 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.cromwell-intl.com [Source type: Original source]

.You are no parliament, I say you are no parliament.^ You are no parliament, I say you are no parliament.

^ The instructions were ignored and in a fury on 20 April, 1653, Cromwell arrived at Parliament with 40 musketeers and forcibly evicted the members with the words 'you are no Parliament, I say you are no Parliament; I will put an end to your sitting'.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A45871040 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ "You call yourselves a Parliament," continues my Lord General in clear blaze of conflagration: "You are no Parliament; I say you are no Parliament!"… "Corrupt unjust persons; scandalous to the profession of the Gospel: how can you be a Parliament for God's People?
  • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

.I will put an end to your sitting."^ I will put an end to your sitting."

^ The instructions were ignored and in a fury on 20 April, 1653, Cromwell arrived at Parliament with 40 musketeers and forcibly evicted the members with the words 'you are no Parliament, I say you are no Parliament; I will put an end to your sitting'.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A45871040 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ In reply to a complaint of his violence he cried, "Come, come, I will put an end to your prating.

.By his directions Harrison then fetched in a small band of Cromwell's musketeers and compelled the speaker Lenthall to vacate the chair.^ By his directions Harrison then fetched in a small band of Cromwell's musketeers and compelled the speaker Lenthall to vacate the chair.

^ After the massacre, Cromwell sought to explain his actions in a letter to William Lenthall, speaker of the English Parliament: .
  • Doyle Clan - Cromwell Devastates Ireland 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.doyle.com.au [Source type: Original source]

Looking at the mace he said, "What shall we do with this bauble?" and ordered a soldier to take it away. The members then trooped out, Cromwell crying after them, "It is you that have forced me to this; for I have sought the Lord night and day that He would rather slay me than put me upon the doing this work." .He then snatched the obnoxious bill from the clerk, put it under his cloak, and commanding the doors to be locked went back to Whitehall.^ He then snatched the obnoxious bill from the clerk, put it under his cloak, and commanding the doors to be locked went back to Whitehall .

^ Being obeyed in all these orders, he quietly locked the door, put the key in his pocket, walked back to Whitehall again, and told his friends, who were still assembled there, what he had done.
  • A Child's History of England by Charles Dickens: Ch. 33 - Oliver Cromwell 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.online-literature.com [Source type: Original source]

In the afternoon he dissolved the council in spite of John Bradshaw's remonstrances, who said, "Sir, we have heard what you did at the House this morning ...; but you are mistaken to think that the parliament is dissolved, for no power under heaven can dissolve them but themselves; therefore take you notice of that." Cromwell had no patience with formal pedantry of this sort; and in point of strict legality "The Rump" of the Long Parliament had little better title to authority than the officers who expelled it from the House. .After this Cromwell had nothing left but the army with which to govern, and "henceforth his life was a vain attempt to clothe that force in constitutional forms, and make it seem something else so that it might become something else."^ After this Cromwell had nothing left but the army with which to govern, and "henceforth his life was a vain attempt to clothe that force in constitutional forms, and make it seem something else so that it might become something else."

^ Indeed it was Charles himself, by attempting in secret to form alliances with Catholic Ireland and France in order to defeat Cromwell's army, who was the catalyst to his own demise.
  • Amazon.com: Cromwell: Richard Harris, Alec Guinness, Robert Morley, Dorothy Tutin, Frank Finlay, Timothy Dalton, Patrick Wymark, Patrick Magee, Nigel Stock, Charles Gray, Michael Jayston, Richard Cornish, Anna Cropper, Michael Goodliffe, Jack Gwillim, Basil Henson, Patrick Holt, Stratford Johns, Geoffrey Keen, Anthony May, Ken Hughes: Movies & TV 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By heading south they could cut Cromwell's supply lines, and force him to head back to England with a hungry and under supplied army.
  • COMBAT Magazine: Oliver Cromwell, Warts and All 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.combat.ws [Source type: Original source]

.1 By the dissolution of the Long Parliament Cromwell as commander-in-chief was left the sole authority in the state.^ By the dissolution of the Long Parliament Cromwell as commander-in-chief was left the sole authority in the state.

^ Cromwell (1599-1658) commanded the forces of Parliament during the English Civil War.

^ The forcible dissolution of the Long Parliament (the Rump) in April 1653 by Cromwell and the army, and the establishment of a nominated (Barebones) parliament was seen by many religious extremists as a step towards a new age.
  • Term-Papers.us - Oliver Cromwell In The Media 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.term-papers.us [Source type: Original source]

.He determined immediately to summon another parliament.^ He determined immediately to summon another parliament.

^ Another was summoned for the 3d November, which became ever memorable in history as the "Long Parliament."
  • Oliver Cromwell, English soldier, statesman and Lord Protector of the Commonwealth (1599-1658) 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.1902encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.This was the "Little" or "Barebones Parliament," consisting of one hundred and forty persons selected by the council of officers from among those nominated by the congregations in each county, which met on the 4th of July 1653. This assembly, however, soon showed itself impracticable and incapable, and on the 12th of December the speaker, followed by the more moderate members, marched to Whitehall and returned their powers to Cromwell, while the rest were expelled by the army.^ The establishment of Barebone's Parliament: 1653 .
  • Oliver Cromwell (Pepys' Diary) 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Cromwell:_ Is the army well rested, sir?
  • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Cromwell:_ Parliament and the army are at one in asking for constitutional safeguards.
  • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

.Cromwell, who had no desire to exercise arbitrary power and whose main object therefore was to devise some constitutional limit to the authority which circumstances had placed in his hands, now accepted the written constitution drawn up by some of the officers, called the Instrument of Government, the earliest example of a "fixed government" based on "fundamentals," or constitutional guarantees, and the only example of it in English history.^ Cromwell, who had no desire to exercise arbitrary power and whose main object therefore was to devise some constitutional limit to the authority which circumstances had placed in his hands, now accepted the written constitution drawn up by some of the officers, called the Instrument of Government , the earliest example of a "fixed government" based on "fundamentals," or constitutional guarantees, and the only example of it in English history .

^ The swift , unhesitating charge was more than unusual in the wars of the time, and was possible only because of the peculiar earnestness of the men who fought the English war.

^ One of the most complex figures in English history, Oliver Cromwell is still either strongly loved or hated.
  • Doyle Clan - Cromwell Devastates Ireland 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.doyle.com.au [Source type: Original source]

.Its authors had wished Oliver to assume the title of king, but this he repeatedly refused; and in the instrument he was named Protector, a parliament was established, limited in powers but whose measures were not restricted by the Protector's veto unless they contravened the constitution, the Protector's executive power being also limited by the council.^ Its authors had wished Oliver to assume the title of king, but this he repeatedly refused; and in the instrument he was named Protector, a parliament was established, limited in powers but whose measures were not restricted by the Protector's veto unless they contravened the constitution, the Protector's executive power being also limited by the council.

^ After months of discussion and delay, they had completed their measure for electing a new Parliament, professedly with the view of laying down their power into the hands of their successor, when it was found that by this act the members of the exiting Parliament were to be de jure members of the new, and to constitute a committee for deciding on the admission of their successors!
  • Oliver Cromwell, English soldier, statesman and Lord Protector of the Commonwealth (1599-1658) 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.1902encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Nevertheless a new constitution was promulgated, providing for a revived House of Lords; a Lower House, to which all except known royalists were to be admitted; a Privy Council, replacing the Council of State; and certain restrictions on the powers of the lord protector and on freedom of religion.
  • Oliver Cromwell - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Protector and the council together were given a life tenure of office, with a large army and a settled revenue sufficient for public needs in time of peace; while the clauses relating to religion "are remarkable as laying down for the first time with authority a principle of toleration," 2 though this toleration did not apply to Roman Catholics and Anglicans.^ The Protector and the council together were given a life tenure of office, with a large army and a settled revenue sufficient for public needs in time of peace; while the clauses relating to religion "are remarkable as laying down for the first time with authority a principle of toleration," 2 though this toleration did not apply to Roman Catholics and Anglicans.

^ He was passionately opposed to the Roman Catholic Church, which he saw as denying the primacy of the Bible in favour of Papal and Clerical authority, and which he blamed for tyranny and persecution of Protestants in Europe.
  • Oliver Cromwell 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He welcomed followers of many radical sects into the ranks of his New Model Army , including Anabaptists and Fifth Monarchists and gave them toleration during his Protectorate.
  • Oliver Cromwell 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: Original source]

.On the 16th of December 1653 Cromwell was installed in his new Office, dressed as a civilian in a plain black coat instead of in scarlet as a general, in order 1 C. H. Firth, Cromwell, p.^ On the 16th of December 1653 Cromwell was installed in his new Office, dressed as a civilian in a plain black coat instead of in scarlet as a general, in order 1 C. H. Firth, Cromwell, p.

^ Four days after the resignation of the "Little Parliament," it was openly proclaimed that Oliver Cromwel had been invested with the office of supreme governor of the British Commonwealth under the title of "Lord Protector;" and on 16th December 1653 he was solemnly installed in Westminster Hall.
  • Oliver Cromwell, English soldier, statesman and Lord Protector of the Commonwealth (1599-1658) 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.1902encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When the conservative wing gained control in December 1653 after a tussle, the majority resigned their powers into Cromwell's hands.
  • Oliver Cromwell - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]

.324.2 John Morley, Oliver Cromwell, p.^ March (1) The 18th century slave trade ► 2006 (21) ► December (21) John Reid's English wife The Christmas present list of Oliver Cromwell's da...

^ I believe, however, he did not; neither did John Milton, who wrote a pamphlet on the subject; neither did Oliver Cromwell.
  • Little Journeys Vol. 9: Great Reformers by Elbert Hubbard: Oliver Cromwell 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.online-literature.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Oliver Cromwell and the English Revolution Longman, ISBN 0582016754 Kenyon, John & Ohlmeyer, Jane (eds.
  • Oliver Cromwell (Pepys' Diary) 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: Original source]

393.
of .Ireland and Scotland and the union of the three kingdoms, the relief of poor prisoners, and the maintenance of the highways.^ Ireland and Scotland and the union of the three kingdoms, the relief of poor prisoners, and the maintenance of the highways.

^ But as in Ireland so Cromwell's policy in Scotland was unpopular and was only upheld by the maintenance of a large army, necessitating heavy taxation and implying the loss of the national independence.

^ I do bear my witness to the National Covenant of Scotland and Solemn League and Covenant betwixt the three kingdoms.
  • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

.These ordinances in many instances showed the hand of the true statesman.^ These ordinances in many instances showed the hand of the true statesman.

^ I pray that the Lord will allow you to get these materials into the hands of as many ministers as possible."
  • Oliver Cromwell (Summaries by Reg Barrow) 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.swrb.com [Source type: General]

.Cromwell was essentially a conservative reformer; in his attempts to purge the court of chancery of its most flagrant abuses, and to settle the ecclesiastical affairs of the nation, he showed himself anxious to retain as much of the existing system as could be left untouched without doing positive evil.^ God has not left Himself without a witness.
  • Oliver Cromwell Life, a Summary 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.albatrus.org [Source type: Original source]
  • EIPS - Oliver Cromwell 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.ianpaisley.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Cromwell was essentially a conservative reformer; in his attempts to purge the court of chancery of its most flagrant abuses, and to settle the ecclesiastical affairs of the nation, he showed himself anxious to retain as much of the existing system as could be left untouched without doing positive evil.

^ Of these it is sufficient to mention the partial reform of the Court of Chancery, and the settlement of ecclesiastical affairs by the commission of "Triers," a body of able and pious men who, by the impartial testimony of Baxter, "did abundance of good to the Church."
  • Oliver Cromwell, English soldier, statesman and Lord Protector of the Commonwealth (1599-1658) 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.1902encyclopedia.com [Source type: Original source]

.He was out-voted by his council on the question of commutation of tithes, and his enlightened zeal for reforming the "wicked and abominable" sentences of the criminal law met with complete failure.^ He was out-voted by his council on the question of commutation of tithes, and his enlightened zeal for reforming the "wicked and abominable" sentences of the criminal law met with complete failure.

^ A judge may have troubled dreams the night after he has passed the death sentence on a criminal, but he does not question that he has done his duty and this is just the spirit which breathes in all the despatches from Ireland.
  • Oliver Cromwell Life, a Summary 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.albatrus.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In an earlier post evaluating the House Health Care Reform Bill, I raised the question of the morality of voting for the bill, and argued that voting for it was an immoral act.

.Most of these ordinances were subsequently confirmed by parliament, and, "on the whole, this body of dictatorial legislation, abnormal in form as it is, in substance was a real, wise and moderate set of reforms."'^ Most of these ordinances were subsequently confirmed by parliament, and, "on the whole, this body of dictatorial legislation, abnormal in form as it is, in substance was a real, wise and moderate set of reforms."'

^ This really comes to roost in the most practical way regarding the Covenanters and their battle with all forms of malignancy.
  • Oliver Cromwell by Reg Barrow 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.swrb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These letters also set forth some of the biblical basics of the Covenanted Reformation of the seventeenth century which gave us the Westminster standards and the Solemn League and Covenant .
  • Oliver Cromwell (Summaries by Reg Barrow) 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.swrb.com [Source type: General]

.His ordinances for the "Reformation of Manners," the product of the puritan spirit, had but a transitory effect.^ His ordinances for the "Reformation of Manners," the product of the puritan spirit, had but a transitory effect.

^ Cromwell's policy of 'the reformation of manners' was adopted and this entailed the enforcement of puritanical laws.
  • Oliver Cromwell and his supporters 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

The Long Parliament had ordered a strict observance of Sunday, punished swearing severely, and made adultery a capital crime; Cromwell issued further ordinances against duelling, swearing, racemeetings and cock-fights - the last as tending to the disturbance of the public peace and the encouragement of "dissolute practices to the dishonour of God." Cromwell himself was no ascetic and saw no harm in honest sport. .He was exceedingly fond of horses and hunting, leaping ditches prudently avoided by the foreign ambassadors.^ He was exceedingly fond of horses and hunting , leaping ditches prudently avoided by the foreign ambassadors.

Baxter describes him as full of animal spirits, "naturally of such a vivacity, hilarity and alacrity as another man is when he bath drunken a cup of wine too much," and notes his "familiar rustic carriage with his soldiers in sporting." He was fond of music and of art, and kept statues in Hampton Court Gardens which scandalized good puritans. .He preferred that Englishmen should be free rather than sober by compulsion.^ He preferred that Englishmen should be free rather than sober by compulsion.

^ "I had rather that Mahommedanism were permitted amongst us," His he avowed, "than that one of God's children should be persecuted."

.Writing to the Scottish clergy, and rejecting their claim to suppress dissent in order to extirpate error, he said, "Your pretended fear lest error should step in is like the man who would keep all wine out of the country lest men should be drunk.^ Writing to the Scottish clergy, and rejecting their claim to suppress dissent in order to extirpate error, he said, "Your pretended fear lest error should step in is like the man who would keep all wine out of the country lest men should be drunk.

^ I respect not such ill reasoners as would keep all wine out of the country lest men should be drunk.
  • Oliver Cromwell / Drinkwater, John, 1882-1937 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I should have my liberty, he said, if I would not go to, nor keep meetings.
  • A Visit to Oliver Cromwell - The Autobiography of George Fox 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC bible.christiansunite.com [Source type: Original source]

.It will be found an unjust and unwise jealousy to deprive a man of his natural liberty upon a supposition he may abuse it.^ It will be found an unjust and unwise jealousy to deprive a man of his natural liberty upon a supposition he may abuse it.

When he doth abuse it, judge." It is probable that very little of this moral legislation was enforced in practice, though special efforts were made under the government of the major-generals. .Cromwell expected more results from the effects of education and culture.^ Cromwell expected more results from the effects of education and culture.

.A part of the revenue of confiscated church lands was allotted to the maintenance of schools, and the question of national education was seriously taken in hand by the Commonwealth.^ A part of the revenue of confiscated church lands was allotted to the maintenance of schools, and the question of national education was seriously taken in hand by the Commonwealth.

^ If, on the other hand, it was a common front on an agreed programme that was fair, equitable and balanced, that would have to be taken seriously.
  • Politics » Oliver Cromwell and the Fianna Fáil Ardfheis 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.irishtimes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Cromwell's religious policy included the maintenance of a national church, a policy acceptable to the army but much disliked by the Scots, who wanted the church to control the state, not the state the church.

.Cromwell was especially interested in the universities.^ Cromwell was especially interested in the universities.

.In 1649 he had been elected D.C.L. at Oxford, and in 1651 chancellor of the University, an office which he held till 1657, when he was succeeded by his son Richard.^ He was succeeded as Lord Protector by his son Richard.
  • Oliver Cromwell (Pepys' Diary) 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1649 he had been elected D.C.L. at Oxford, and in 1651 chancellor of the University, an office which he held till 1657, when he was succeeded by his son Richard.

^ Chancellor of the University of Oxford 1650–1657 .
  • Oliver Cromwell (Pepys' Diary) 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.pepysdiary.com [Source type: Original source]

.He founded a new readership in Divinity, and presented Greek MSS. to the Bodleian.^ He founded a new readership in Divinity, and presented Greek MSS. to the Bodleian.

He appointed visitors for the universities and great public schools, and defended the universities from the attacks of the extreme sectaries who clamoured for their abolition, even Clarendon allowing that Oxford "yielded a harvest of extraordinary good and sound knowledge in all parts of learning." In 1657 he founded a new university at Durham, which was suppressed at the Restoration. He patronized learning. .Milton and Marvell were his secretaries.^ Milton and Marvell were his secretaries.

.He allowed the royalists Hobbes and Cowley to return to England, and lived in friendship with the poet Waller.^ He allowed the royalists Hobbes and Cowley to return to England, and lived in friendship with the poet Waller.

^ It was the Protectorate, however, that allowed Jews to live legally in England for the first time since 1290, an act of tolerance that was almost unprecedented in Western Europe at the time.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A45871040 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.1 Frederic Harrison, Oliver Cromwell, p.^ Frederic Harrison , Oliver Cromwell, p.

^ Harrison (1903); Letters and Speeches of Oliver Cromwell, by T. Carlyle, ed.

214.
.Cromwell's religious policy included the maintenance of a national church, a policy acceptable to the army but much disliked by the Scots, who wanted the church to control the state, not the state the ch