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Olivier Messiaen in about 1980

Olivier Messiaen (French pronunciation: [ɔlivje mɛsjɛ̃]; December 10, 1908 – April 27, 1992) was a French composer, organist, and ornithologist. He entered the Paris Conservatoire at the age of 11 and numbered Paul Dukas, Maurice Emmanuel, Charles-Marie Widor and Marcel Dupré among his teachers. He was appointed organist at the church of La Trinité in Paris in 1931, a post he held until his death. On the fall of France in 1940 Messiaen was made a prisoner of war, and while incarcerated he composed his Quatuor pour la fin du temps ("Quartet for the end of time") for the four available instruments, piano, violin, cello, and clarinet. The piece was first performed by Messiaen and fellow prisoners for an audience of inmates and prison guards. Messiaen was appointed professor of harmony soon after his release in 1941, and professor of composition in 1966 at the Paris Conservatoire, positions he held until his retirement in 1978. His many distinguished pupils included Pierre Boulez and Yvonne Loriod (who later became Messiaen's second wife).

Messiaen's music is rhythmically complex (he was interested in rhythms from ancient Greek and from Hindu sources), and is harmonically and melodically based on modes of limited transposition, which were Messiaen's own innovation. Many of his compositions depict what he termed "the marvellous aspects of the faith", drawing on his unshakeable Roman Catholicism. He travelled widely, and he wrote works inspired by such diverse influences as Japanese music, the landscape of Bryce Canyon in Utah, and the life of St. Francis of Assisi. Messiaen experienced a mild form of synaesthesia manifested as a perception of colours when he heard certain harmonies, particularly harmonies built from his modes, and he used combinations of these colours in his compositions. For a short period Messiaen experimented with the parametrization associated with "total serialism", in which field he is often cited as an innovator. His style absorbed many exotic musical influences such as Indonesian gamelan (tuned percussion often features prominently in his orchestral works), and he also championed the ondes Martenot.

Messiaen found birdsong fascinating; he believed birds to be the greatest musicians and considered himself as much an ornithologist as a composer. He notated birdsongs worldwide, and he incorporated birdsong transcriptions into a majority of his music. His innovative use of colour, his personal conception of the relationship between time and music, his use of birdsong, and his intent to express religious ideas all combine to make Messiaen's musical style notably distinctive.

Contents

Life and career

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Youth and studies

Messiaen with his mother and father in 1910

Olivier Eugène Prosper Charles Messiaen was born in Avignon, France into a literary family. He was the elder of two sons of Cécile Sauvage, a poet, and Pierre Messiaen, a teacher of English who translated the plays of William Shakespeare into French. Messiaen's mother published a sequence of poems, L'âme en bourgeon ("The Budding Soul"), the last chapter of Tandis que la terre tourne ("As the Earth Turns"), which address her unborn son. Messiaen later said this sequence of poems influenced him deeply, and he cited it as prophetic of his future artistic career.[1]

On the outbreak of World War I in 1914 Pierre Messiaen became a soldier, and their mother took the two boys to live with her brother in Grenoble. Here Messiaen became fascinated with drama, reciting Shakespeare to his brother with the help of a home-made toy theatre with translucent backdrops made from old Cellophane wrappers.[2] At this time he also adopted the Roman Catholic faith. Later, Messiaen felt most at home in the Alps of the Dauphiné, where he had a house built south of Grenoble, and he composed most of his music there.[3]

He commenced piano lessons after having already taught himself to play. His interest embraced the recent music of French composers Claude Debussy and Maurice Ravel, and he asked for opera vocal scores for Christmas presents.[4] During this period he started to compose. In 1918 his father returned from the war, and the family moved to Nantes. He continued music lessons; one of his teachers, Jehan de Gibon, gave him a score of Debussy's opera Pelléas et Mélisande, which Messiaen described as "a thunderbolt" and "probably the most decisive influence on me".[5] The following year Pierre Messiaen gained a teaching post in Paris, and the family moved there. Messiaen entered the Paris Conservatoire in 1919, aged 11.

Paul Dukas's composition class at the Paris Conservatoire, 1929. Messiaen sits at the far right; Dukas stands at the center.

At the Conservatoire Messiaen made excellent academic progress, many times finding himself top of the class. In 1924, aged 15, he was awarded second prize in harmony, in 1926 he gained first prize in counterpoint and fugue, and in 1927 he won first prize in piano accompaniment. In 1928, after studying with Maurice Emmanuel, he was awarded first prize for the history of music. Emmanuel's example engendered in Messiaen an interest in ancient Greek rhythms and exotic modes. After showing improvisation skills on the piano Messiaen began to study the organ with Marcel Dupré, and from him he inherited the tradition of great French organists (Dupré had studied with Charles-Marie Widor and Louis Vierne; Vierne in turn was a pupil of César Franck). Messiaen gained first prize in organ playing and improvisation in 1929. After a year studying composition with Charles-Marie Widor,[6] in the autumn of 1927 he entered the class of the newly appointed Paul Dukas who instilled in Messiaen mastery of orchestration, and in 1930 Messiaen won first prize in composition.

While he was a student he composed his first published compositions, his eight Préludes for piano (the earlier Le banquet céleste was published subsequently). These already exhibit Messiaen's use of his preferred modes of limited transposition and palindromic rhythms (Messiaen called these non-retrogradable rhythms). His public debut came in 1931 with his orchestral suite Les offrandes oubliées. In that year, he heard a gamelan group for the first time, which sparked his interest in the use of tuned percussion.

La Trinité, La Jeune France, and Messiaen's war

Église de la Sainte-Trinité, Paris. Messiaen was the titular organist there for 61 years.

Messiaen's special relationship with the organ began in autumn 1927, when he joined Dupré's organ course. Dupré later reminisced that Messiaen, having never seen an organ console before, sat quietly for an hour while Dupré explained and demonstrated the instrument, and then came back a week later to play Johann Sebastian Bach's Fantasia in C minor to an impressive standard.[7] From 1929 Messiaen regularly deputised at the Église de la Sainte-Trinité, Paris for the organist, Charles Quef, who was ill. When Quef died in 1931 and the post became vacant, Dupré, Charles Tournemire and Widor among others supported Messiaen's candidacy to succeed him. With his formal application Messiaen enclosed a letter of recommendation from Widor, and the appointment was confirmed in 1931.[8] Messiaen remained the organist at la Sainte-Trinité for more than sixty years.

In 1932, Messiaen married the violinist and fellow composer Claire Delbos. Their marriage inspired him to compose works for her to play (Thème et variations for violin and piano in the year they were married), and pieces to celebrate their domestic happiness (including the song cycle Poèmes pour Mi in 1936, which Messiaen orchestrated in 1937). Mi was Messiaen's affectionate nickname for his wife. In 1937 their son Pascal was born. Messiaen's marriage turned to tragedy when his wife lost her memory after an operation, and she spent the rest of her life in mental institutions.[9]

In 1936, Messiaen, André Jolivet, Daniel-Lesur and Yves Baudrier formed the group La Jeune France ("Young France"). Their manifesto implicitly attacked the frivolity predominant in contemporary Parisian music, rejecting Jean Cocteau's manifesto Le coq et l'arlequin of 1918 in favour of a "living music, having the impetus of sincerity, generosity and artistic conscientiousness".[10] Messiaen's career soon departed from this public phase, however, as the music he was composing at this time was not for public commissions or conventional concerts.

In 1937, in response to a commission for a piece to accompany light- and water-shows on the Seine during the Paris Exposition, Messiaen demonstrated his interest in using the ondes Martenot, an electronic instrument, by composing the unpublished Fêtes des belles eaux for an ensemble of six.[11] He included a part for the instrument in several of his subsequent compositions.

During this period Messiaen composed several multi-movement organ works. He arranged his orchestral suite L'Ascension ("The Ascension") for organ, replacing the orchestral version's third movement with an entirely new movement, Transports de joie d'une âme devant la gloire du Christ qui est la sienne ("Ecstasies of a soul before the glory of Christ, which is its own glory"). (About this sound listen ) This movement became one of Messiaen's most popular pieces. He also wrote the extensive cycles La Nativité du Seigneur ("The Nativity of the Lord") and Les corps glorieux ("The glorious bodies"). The final toccata of La Nativité, Dieu parmi nous ("God among us"), has become another favourite recital piece.

At the outbreak of World War II Messiaen was called up to be in the French army, as a medical auxiliary rather than an active combatant due to his poor eyesight.[12 ] In May 1940 he was captured at Verdun, and was taken to Görlitz where he was imprisoned at prison camp Stalag VIII-A. He soon encountered a violinist, a cellist, and a clarinettist among his fellow prisoners. Initially he wrote a trio for them, but gradually incorporated this trio into his Quatuor pour la fin du temps ("Quartet for the End of Time"). This was first performed in the camp to an audience of prisoners and prison guards, the composer playing a poorly maintained upright piano, in freezing conditions in January 1941. Thus the enforced introspection and reflection of camp life bore fruit in one of 20th-century European classical music's acknowledged masterpieces. The "end of time" of the title is not purely an allusion to the Apocalypse, the work's ostensible subject, but also refers to the way in which Messiaen, through rhythm and harmony, used time in a way completely different from the music of his predecessors or contemporaries.[13]

Tristan and serialism

Shortly after his release from Görlitz in May 1941, Messiaen was appointed a professor of harmony at the Paris Conservatoire, where he taught until his retirement in 1978. He also compiled his Technique de mon langage musical ("Technique of my musical language") published in 1944, in which he quotes many examples from his music, particularly the Quartet.

Among Messiaen's early students at the Conservatoire were the composers Pierre Boulez and Karel Goeyvaerts, and the pianist Yvonne Loriod. Other pupils later included Karlheinz Stockhausen in 1952, Alexander Goehr in 1956–57, György Kurtág in 1957, Tristan Murail in 1967–72, and George Benjamin in the second half of the 1970s. The Greek Iannis Xenakis was briefly referred to him in 1951; Messiaen provided encouragement and exhorted Xenakis to take advantage of his background in mathematics and architecture, and use them in his music. Although Messiaen was only in his mid-thirties his students of the period later reported that he was already an outstanding teacher,[14] encouraging each of them to find their own voice rather than imposing his own ideas.

In 1943, Messiaen wrote Visions de l'Amen ("Visions of the Amen") for two pianos for Loriod and himself to perform, and shortly afterwards composed the enormous solo piano cycle Vingt regards sur l'enfant-Jésus ("Twenty gazes on the child Jesus") for her. He also wrote Trois petites Liturgies de la Présence Divine ("Three small liturgies of the Divine Presence") for female chorus and orchestra which includes a difficult solo piano part, again for Loriod. Messiaen thus continued to bring liturgical subjects into the piano recital and the concert hall.

Olivier Messiaen pictured in 1946

Two years after Visions de l'Amen, in 1945, Messiaen composed the first of three works on the theme of human (as opposed to divine) love, particularly inspired by the legend of Tristan and Isolde. This was the song cycle Harawi. The second of the Tristan works was the result of a commission from Serge Koussevitsky for a piece (Messiaen stated that the commission did not specify the length of the work or the size of the orchestra); this was the ten-movement Turangalîla-Symphonie. This is not a conventional symphony, but rather an extended meditation on the joy of human love and union. It lacks the sexual guilt inherent in Richard Wagner's Tristan und Isolde because Messiaen's attitude was that sexual love is a divine gift.[12 ] (About this sound listen ) The third piece inspired by the Tristan myth was Cinq rechants for twelve unaccompanied singers, which Messiaen said was influenced by the alba of the troubadours.[15]

Messiaen visited the United States in 1947, his music being conducted there by Koussevitsky and Leopold Stokowski, and his Turangalîla-Symphonie was first performed there in 1949 conducted by Leonard Bernstein. During this period, as well as giving an analysis class at the Paris Conservatoire, he also taught in Budapest in 1947 and Tanglewood in 1949; in the summers of 1949 and 1950 he taught in the new music summer school classes at Darmstadt. Though he never employed twelve-tone technique himself, after three years teaching analysis of scores using it, such as works by Arnold Schoenberg, he did experiment with ways of making scales of other elements (including duration, articulation, and dynamics) analogous to the chromatic pitch scale. The results of these innovations was the piece "Mode de valeurs et d'intensités" for piano (from the Quatre Études de Rhythme) which has been incorrectly described as the first work of total serialism, though it had a large influence on the earliest European serial composers, including Pierre Boulez, Karel Goeyvaerts, and Karlheinz Stockhausen. During this period he also experimented with musique concrète, music for recorded sounds.

Birdsong and the 1960s

In 1952, Messiaen was asked to provide a test piece for flautists wishing to enter the Paris Conservatoire, and for this he composed the piece Le merle noir for flute and piano. While Messiaen had long been fascinated by birdsong, and birds had made appearances in several of his earlier works (for example La Nativité, Quatuor and Vingt regards), the flute piece is based entirely on the song of the blackbird.

The Garden Warbler provided the title and much of the material for Messiaen's La fauvette des jardins.

He took this development to a new level with his 1953 orchestral work Réveil des oiseaux—the work is composed almost entirely of birdsong, taking as its material the birds one might hear between midnight and noon in the Jura. From this period onwards Messiaen incorporated birdsong into all of his compositions, and indeed he composed several works for which birds provide the title and subject matter (for example the collection of thirteen pieces for piano Catalogue d'oiseaux completed in 1958, and La fauvette des jardins of 1971). Far from being simple transcriptions of birdsong, these works are sophisticated tone poems evoking the place and its atmosphere. Paul Griffiths comments that Messiaen was a more conscientious ornithologist than any previous composer, and a more musical observer of birdsong than any previous ornithologist.[16]

Messiaen's first wife died in 1959 following her long illness, and in 1961 he married Yvonne Loriod. He began to travel widely, both to attend musical events and to seek out and transcribe the songs of more exotic birds. Loriod frequently assisted her husband's detailed studies of birdsongs, which he notated in the wild, by walking with him and making a tape recording for checking later. In 1962 his travels took him to Japan, where Gagaku music and Noh theatre inspired him to compose the orchestral "Japanese sketches", Sept haïkaï, which contain stylised imitations of traditional Japanese instruments.

Messiaen's music was at this time championed by, among others, Pierre Boulez, who programmed first performances at his Domaine musical concerts and the Donaueschingen festival. Works performed here included Réveil des oiseaux, Chronochromie (commissioned for the 1960 festival) and Couleurs de la cité céleste. The latter piece was the result of a commission for a composition for three trombones and three xylophones; Messiaen added to this more brass, wind, percussion and piano, and specified a xylophone, xylorimba and marimba rather than three xylophones. Another work of this period, Et exspecto resurrectionem mortuorem, was commissioned as a commemoration of the dead of the two World Wars, and was performed first semi-privately in the Sainte-Chapelle, then publicly in Chartres Cathedral with Charles de Gaulle in the audience.

His reputation as a composer continued to grow. In 1959 Messiaen was nominated as an Officier of the Légion d'honneur,[17] and in 1966 he was officially appointed professor of composition at the Paris Conservatoire (although he had in effect been teaching composition for years). Further honours bestowed on Messiaen later included election to the Institut de France in 1967, the Erasmus Prize in 1971, the award of the Royal Philharmonic Society Gold Medal in 1975, the Sonning Award (Denmark's highest musical honour) in 1977, and the presentation of the Croix de Commander of the Belgian Order of the Crown in 1980.[18]

Transfiguration, Canyons, St. Francis, and the Beyond

Messiaen's next work was the enormous La Transfiguration de Notre Seigneur Jésus-Christ. This composition occupied Messiaen from 1965 to 1969 and the forces employed include a 100-voice ten-part choir, seven solo instruments and a large orchestra. Its fourteen movements are a meditation on the story of Christ's Transfiguration. Shortly afterwards Messiaen received a commission from the American Alice Tully for a work to celebrate the U.S. bicentennial. He arranged a visit to the USA in spring 1972, and was inspired by Bryce Canyon in Utah, where he noted the canyon's distinctive colours and birdsongs.[19] The twelve-movement orchestral piece Des canyons aux étoiles… was the result, which was first performed in 1974 in New York.

Messiaen had been asked as early as 1971 for a piece for the Paris Opéra. Initially reluctant to undertake such a major project, in 1975 Messiaen was finally persuaded to accept the commission and began work on his Saint-François d'Assise. Composition of this work was an intensive task (he also wrote his own libretto), occupying him during the period 1975–79, and then the orchestration was carried out from 1979 until 1983.[20] The work (which Messiaen preferred to call a "spectacle" rather than an opera) was first performed in 1983. Some commentators at the time of its first production thought that Messiaen's opera would be his valediction (indeed, at times Messiaen himself believed so[21]), but he continued composing, bringing out a major collection of organ pieces, Livre du Saint Sacrement, in 1984, as well as further bird pieces for solo piano and pieces for piano with orchestra.

Messiaen had retired from teaching at the Conservatoire in the summer of 1978. In 1987 he was promoted to the highest rank, Grand-Croix, of the Légion d'honneur.[22] An operation prevented his participating in events to celebrate his 70th birthday, but in 1988 tributes for Messiaen's 80th birthday around the globe included a complete performance in London's Royal Festival Hall of St. François, which the composer attended, and Erato's publication of a seventeen-CD collection of Messiaen's music including recordings by Loriod and a disc of the composer in conversation with Claude Samuel.

Messiaen's last composition resulted from a commission from the New York Philharmonic Orchestra; although he was in considerable pain near the end of his life (requiring repeated surgery on his back[23]) he was able to complete Éclairs sur l'au-delà…, which premiered six months after the composer's death. Messiaen had also been composing a concerto for four musicians he felt particularly grateful to, namely Loriod, the cellist Mstislav Rostropovich, the oboist Heinz Holliger and the flautist Catherine Cantin. This was substantially complete when Messiaen died, and Yvonne Loriod undertook the final movement's orchestration with advice from George Benjamin.

Music

Example 1. A page from Oiseaux exotiques. It illustrates Messiaen's use of ancient and exotic rhythms (in the percussion near the bottom of the score "Asclepiad" and "Sapphic" are ancient Greek rhythms, and Nibçankalîla is a decî-tâla from Śārṅgadeva). It also illustrates Messiaen's precision in notating birdsong: the birds identified here are the white-crested laughing thrush (garralaxe à huppe blanche) in the brass and wind instruments, and the orchard oriole (troupiale des vergers) played on the xylophone.

Messiaen's music has been described as outside the western musical tradition, although growing out of that tradition and influenced by it.[24] Much of his output denies the western conventions of forward motion, development and diatonic harmonic resolution. This is partly due to the symmetries of his technique—for instance the modes of limited transposition do not admit the conventional cadences found in western classical music.

Messiaen's youthful love for the fairy-tale element in Shakespeare prefigured his later expressions of what he called "the marvellous aspects of the [Roman Catholic] Faith"—among which may be numbered Christ's Nativity, Crucifixion, Resurrection, Ascension, Transfiguration, the Apocalypse and the hereafter. Messiaen was not interested in depicting aspects of theology such as sin;[25] rather he concentrated on the theology of joy, divine love, and human redemption.

Although Messiaen continually evolved new composition techniques, he integrated them into his musical style; so, for instance, his final work still retains the use of modes of limited transposition. For many commentators this continual development of Messiaen's musical language made every major work from the Quatuor onwards a conscious summation of all that Messiaen had composed up to that time. However, very few of these major works contain no new technical ideas—simple examples being the introduction of communicable language in Meditations, the invention of a new percussion instrument (the geophone) for Des canyons aux etoiles…, and the freedom from any synchronisation with the main pulse of individual parts in certain birdsong episodes of St. François d'Assise.

As well as discovering new techniques for himself, Messiaen found and absorbed exotic music into his compositional style, including Ancient Greek rhythms, Hindu rhythms (he encountered Śārṅgadeva's list of 120 rhythmic units, the deçî-tâlas[26]), Balinese and Javanese Gamelan, birdsong, and Japanese music (see Example 1 for an instance of his use of ancient Greek and Hindu rhythms).

While he was instrumental in the academic exploration of his techniques (he published two treatises, the later one in five volumes which was substantially complete when he died), and was himself a master of music analysis, he considered the development and study of techniques to be a means to intellectual, aesthetic and emotional ends. In this connection, Messiaen maintained that a musical composition must be measured against three separate criteria: to be successful it must be interesting, beautiful to listen to, and it must touch the listener.[27 ]

Messiaen wrote a large body of music for the piano. Although a considerable pianist himself, he was undoubtedly assisted by Yvonne Loriod's formidable piano technique and ability to convey complex rhythms and rhythmic combinations; in his piano writing from Visions de l'Amen onwards he had her in mind. Messiaen said, "I am able to allow myself the greatest eccentricities because to her anything is possible." [28]

Western artistic influences

Developments in modern French music were a major influence on Messiaen, particularly the music of Claude Debussy and his use of the whole tone scale (which Messiaen called Mode 1 in his modes of limited transposition). Although Messiaen very rarely used the whole tone scale in his compositions (because, he said, after Debussy and Dukas there was "nothing to add"[29 ]) he did use similarly symmetric modes.

Messiaen also had a great admiration for the music of Igor Stravinsky, particularly his use of rhythm in earlier works such as The Rite of Spring, and also his use of colour. He was also influenced by the orchestral brilliance of Heitor Villa-Lobos, who lived in Paris in the 1920s and gave acclaimed concerts there. Among composers for the keyboard Messiaen singled out Jean-Philippe Rameau, Domenico Scarlatti, Frédéric Chopin, Debussy and Isaac Albéniz. [28] He also loved the music of Modest Mussorgsky, and Messiaen incorporated varied modifications of what he called the "M-shaped" melodic motif from Mussorgsky's Boris Godunov into his music,[29 ] although Messiaen characteristically modified the final interval in this motif from a perfect fourth to a tritone (Example 3).

Messiaen was also influenced by Surrealism, as may be seen from the titles of some of the piano Préludes (Un reflet dans le vent…, "A reflection in the wind") and in some of the imagery of his poetry (he published poems as prefaces to certain works, for example Les offrandes oubliées).

Colour

Colour lies at the heart of Messiaen's music. Messiaen said that the terms "tonal", "modal" and "serial" (and other such terms) are misleading analytical conveniences,[30] and that for him there were no modal, tonal or serial compositions, only music with colour and music without colour.[31] For Messiaen the composers Claudio Monteverdi, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Chopin, Richard Wagner, Mussorgsky and Stravinsky all wrote strongly coloured music.[32]

In certain of Messiaen's scores, he notated the colours in the music (notably in Couleurs de la Cité Céleste and Des canyons aux étoiles…)—Messiaen's purpose being to aid the conductor in interpretation rather than to specify which colours the listener should experience. The importance of colour is bound up with Messiaen's synaesthesia, which he said caused him to experience colours when he heard or imagined music (he said that he did not perceive the colours visually). In his multi-volume music theory treatise Traité de rythme, de couleur, et d'ornithologie ("Treatise of Rhythm, Colour and Birdsong"), Messiaen wrote descriptions of the colours he experienced when he heard certain chords, ranging from the simple ("gold and brown") to the highly detailed ("blue-violet rocks, speckled with little grey cubes, cobalt blue, deep Prussian blue, highlighted by a bit of violet-purple, gold, red, ruby, and stars of mauve, black and white. Blue-violet is dominant").[33]

George Benjamin said, when asked what Messiaen's main influence had been on composers, "I think the sheer [...] colour has been so influential, [...] rather than being a decorative element, [Messiaen showed that colour] could be a structural, a fundamental element, [...] the fundamental material of the music itself."[34]

Symmetry

Many of Messiaen's composition techniques made use of symmetries of time and pitch.

Time

Example 2. The first bar of the piano Prélude, Instants défunts. An early example of Messiaen's use of palindromic rhythms (which he called non-retrogradable rhythms).

From his earliest works Messiaen often used non-retrogradable (palindromic) rhythms (Example 2).

Messiaen sometimes combined rhythms with harmonic sequences in such a way that if the process were allowed to proceed indefinitely the music would eventually run through all the possible permutations and return to its starting point. For Messiaen, this represented what he termed the "charm of impossibilities" of these processes. In practice, of course, Messiaen only ever presented a portion of any such process, as if allowing the informed listener a glimpse of something eternal. In the first movement of Quatuor pour la fin du temps the piano and cello together provide an early example.

Pitch

Messiaen used modes which he referred to as his modes of limited transposition, which are distinguished as groups of notes which can only be transposed by a semitone a limited number of times. For example the whole tone scale (Messiaen's Mode 1) only exists in two transpositions: namely C–D–E–F♯–G♯–A♯ and D♭–E♭–F–G–A–B. Messiaen abstracted these modes from the harmony of his improvisations and early works.[35] Music written using the modes avoids conventional diatonic harmonic progressions, since for example Messiaen's Mode 2 (identical to the octatonic scale used also by other composers) permits precisely the dominant seventh chords whose tonic the mode does not contain.[36] For Messiaen the modes also possessed colours.

Time and rhythm

Example 3. An excerpt from Danse de la fureur, pour les sept trompettes from the Quatuor pour la fin du temps. It illustrates Messiaen's use of additive rhythms - in this example the addition of unpaired semiquavers (sixteenth notes) to an underlying quaver (eighth note) pulse, and the lengthening of the final quaver by addition of a dot. It also illustrates the use of what Messiaen called the Boris M-shaped motif (the last five notes of the excerpt).

Messiaen considered his rhythmic contribution to music to be his distinguishing mark among modern composers. As well as making use of non-retrogradable rhythms, and the Hindu decî-tâlas, Messiaen also made use of "additive" rhythms. This involves lengthening individual notes slightly or interpolating a short note into an otherwise regular rhythm (see Example 3 or About this sound listen to Danse de fureur from the Quatuor), or shortening or lengthening every note of a rhythm by the same duration (adding a semiquaver to every note in a rhythm on its repeat, for example). This led Messiaen to use rhythmic cells alternating between two and three units, a process which also occurs in Stravinsky's The Rite of Spring which Messiaen admired.

A factor that contributes to Messiaen's suspension of the conventional perception of time in his music is the extremely slow tempos he often specifies (the fifth movement Louange à l'Eternité de Jésus of Quatuor is actually given the tempo marking infiniment lent); and even in his quick music he often uses repeated phrases and harmonies to make the speed seem static.

Messiaen also used the concept of "chromatic durations", for example in his Soixante-quatre durées from Livre d'orgue, (About this sound listen ) which assigns a distinct duration to 64 pitches ranging from long to short and low to high, respectively.

Harmony

Example 4. The song of the golden oriole from Le loriot, part of Catalogue d'oiseaux. The birdsong played by the pianist's left hand (notated on the lower staff) provides the fundamental notes, and the quieter harmonies played by the right hand (on the upper staff) alter their timbre.

Messiaen, in addition to making harmonic use of the modes of limited transposition, also cited the harmonic series as a physical phenomenon which provides chords with a context which he felt to be missing in purely serial music.[37] An example of Messiaen's harmonic use of this phenomenon, which he called "resonance", is the last two bars of Messiaen's first piano Prélude, La colombe ("The dove"); the chord is built from harmonics of the fundamental base note E.[38]

Related to this use of resonance, Messiaen also composed music where the lowest, or fundamental, note is combined with higher notes or chords played much more quietly. These higher notes, far from being perceived as conventional harmony, function as harmonics that alter the timbre of the fundamental note like mixture stops on a pipe organ. An example is the song of the golden oriole in Le loriot of the Catalogue d'oiseaux for solo piano (Example 4).

In his use of conventional diatonic chords, Messiaen often transcended their historically banal connotations (for example, his frequent use of the added sixth chord as a resolution).

Birdsong

Birdsong fascinated Messiaen from an early age, and in this he found encouragement from his teacher Dukas who reportedly urged his pupils to "listen to the birds". Messiaen included stylised birdsong in some of his early compositions (for example L'abîme d'oiseaux from the Quatuor pour la fin du temps), integrating it into his sound-world by techniques like the modes of limited transposition and chord colouration. The birdsong episodes in his work became increasingly sophisticated, and with Le réveil des oiseaux this process reached maturity, the whole piece being built from birdsong: in effect it is a dawn chorus for orchestra. The same can be said for "Epode", the five-minute sixth movement of "Chronochromie", which is scored for eighteen violins each playing a different birdsong. Messiaen even notated the bird species with the music in the score (Examples 1 and 4). The pieces are not simple transcriptions, however: even the works with purely bird-inspired titles, such as Catalogue d'oiseaux and Fauvette des jardins, are tone poems evoking the landscape, its colours and its atmosphere. (About this sound listen )

Serialism

For some of his compositions, Messiaen created scales for duration, attack, and timbre which are analogous to the chromatic pitch scale. He expressed annoyance at the historical importance given to one of these works, Mode de valeurs et d'intensités, by musicologists intent on crediting him with the invention of "total serialism".[27 ]

In a related development, Messiaen introduced what he called a "communicable language", in which he used a "musical alphabet" to encode sentences. This technique was first introduced in his Méditations sur le mystère de la Sainte Trinité for organ; in this work the "alphabet" also includes motifs for the concepts to have, to be, and God, and the sentences encoded include sections from the writings of St. Thomas Aquinas.

Works

Compositions

Published

  • Le banquet céleste, organ (1928, a recomposition of a section from his unpublished orchestral piece Le banquet eucharistique[39])
  • Préludes, piano (1928–29)
  • Diptyque, organ (1930)
  • La mort du nombre ("The death of numbers"), soprano, tenor, violin and piano (1930)
  • Les offrandes oubliées ("The forgotten offerings"), orchestra (1930)
  • Trois mélodies, song cycle (1930)
  • Apparition de l'église éternelle ("Apparition of the eternal church"), organ (1932)
  • Fantaisie burlesque, piano (1932)
  • Hymne au Saint Sacrement ("Hymn to the Holy Sacrament"), orchestra (1932, lost 1943, reconstructed from memory 1946[40])
  • Thème et variations, (Theme and Variations) violin and piano (1932)
  • L'Ascension ("The Ascension"), orchestra (1932–33; organ version including replacement movement, 1933–34)
  • La Nativité du Seigneur ("The Lord's nativity"), organ (1935)
  • Pièce pour le tombeau de Paul Dukas, piano, (1935)
  • Vocalise, voice and piano (1935)
  • Poèmes pour Mi, song cycle (1936, orchestral version 1937)
  • O sacrum convivium!, choral motet (1937)
  • Chants de terre et de ciel ("Songs of earth and heaven"), song cycle (1938)
  • Les corps glorieux ("Glorious bodies"), organ (1939)
  • Quatuor pour la fin du temps ("Quartet for the end of time"), violin, cello, clarinet, piano (1940–41)
  • Rondeau, piano (1943)
  • Visions de l'Amen ("Visions of the Amen"), two pianos (1943)
  • Trois petites Liturgies de la Présence Divine ("Three small liturgies of the Divine Presence"), women's voices, piano solo, ondes Martenot solo, orchestra (1943–44)
  • Vingt regards sur l'enfant-Jésus ("Twenty gazes on the Christ-child"), piano (1944)
  • Harawi: Chants d'amour et de mort, ("Harawi: Songs of love and death") song cycle (1944)
  • Turangalîla-Symphonie, piano solo, ondes Martenot solo, orchestra (1946–48)
  • Cinq rechants, 12 singers (1948)
  • Cantéyodjayâ, piano (1949)
  • Messe de la Pentecôte ("Pentecost mass"), organ (1949–50)
  • Quatre études de rythme ("Four studies in rhythm"), piano (1949–50)
    1. Île de feu 1
    2. Mode de valeurs et d'intensités
    3. Neumes rhythmiques
    4. Île de feu 2
  • Le merle noir ("Blackbird"), flute and piano (1952[41])
  • Livre d'orgue, organ (1951–2)
  • Réveil des oiseaux ("Dawn chorus"), solo piano and orchestra (1953)
  • Oiseaux exotiques ("Exotic birds"), solo piano and orchestra (1955–56)
  • Catalogue d'oiseaux ("Bird catalogue"), piano (1956–58)
  • Chronochromie ("Time-colour"), orchestra (1959–60)
  • Verset pour la fête de la dédicace, organ (1960)
  • Sept haïkaï ("Seven haikus"), solo piano and orchestra (1962)
  • Couleurs de la cité céleste ("Colours of the Celestial City"), solo piano and ensemble (1963)
  • Et exspecto resurrectionem mortuorum ("And I look forward to the resurrection of the dead"), wind, brass and percussion (1964)
  • La Transfiguration de Notre Seigneur Jésus-Christ ("The Transfiguration of Our Lord Jesus Christ"), large 10-part chorus, piano solo, cello solo, flute solo, clarinet solo, xylorimba solo, vibraphone solo, large orchestra (1965–69)
  • Méditations sur le mystère de la Sainte Trinité ("Meditations on the mystery of the Holy Trinity"), organ (1969)
  • La fauvette des jardins ("Garden warbler"), piano (1970)
  • Des canyons aux étoiles… ("From the canyons to the stars…"), solo piano, solo horn, solo glockenspiel, solo xylorimba, small orchestra with 13 string players (1971–74)
  • Saint-François d'Assise ("St Francis of Assisi"), opera (1975–1983)
  • Livre du Saint Sacrement ("Book of the Holy Sacrament"), organ (1984)
  • Petites esquisses d'oiseaux ("Small sketches of birds"), piano (1985)
  • Un vitrail et des oiseaux ("Stained-glass window and birds"), piano solo, brass, wind and percussion (1986)
  • La ville d'En-haut ("The city on high"), piano solo, brass, wind and percussion (1987)
  • Un sourire ("A smile"), orchestra (1989)
  • Pièce pour piano et quatuor à cordes ("Piece for piano and string quartet") (1991)
  • Éclairs sur l'au-delà… ("Illuminations on the beyond..."), orchestra (1988–92)

Unpublished, posthumously published, or lost

A number of Messiaen's compositions were not sanctioned by the composer for publication. They include the following, some of which have been published posthumously, and some of which are lost.

  • La dame de Shallott, for piano (1917)
  • La banquet eucharistique, for orchestra (1928)
  • Variations écossaises, for organ (1928)
  • Mass, 8 sopranos and 4 violins (1933)
  • Fantaisie, for violin and piano (1933; published 2007)
  • Fêtes des belles eaux, for six ondes Martenots (1937)
  • Musique de scène pour un Œdipe, electronic (1942)
  • Chant des déportés, chorus and orchestra (1945, then lost, rediscovered 1991)
  • Timbres-durées, musique concrète (1952), realised by Pierre Henry in the radiophonic workshop of French radio, an experiment which Messiaen later deemed a failure[42]
  • Feuillets inedits for piano and ondes martenot (published 2001)
  • Concert à quatre ("Quadruple concerto"), piano, flute, oboe, cello and orchestra (1990–91, almost finished at the time of his death, completed by Loriod and Benjamin)

Treatises

  • Technique de mon langage musical ("The technique of my musical language"). Paris: Leduc, 1944.
  • Vingt leçons d'harmonie ("20 harmony lessons"). Paris: Leduc, 1944.
  • Traité de rythme, de couleur, et d’ornithologie (1949–1992) ("Treatise on rhythm, colour and ornithology"), completed by Yvonne Loriod. 7 parts bound in 8 volumes. Paris: Leduc, 1994–2002.
  • Analyses of the Piano Works of Maurice Ravel, edited by Yvonne Loriod, translated by Paul Griffiths. [Paris]: Durand, 2005.

References and further reading

General references

  • Benitez, Vincent P. (2008). Olivier Messiaen: A Research and Information Guide. Routledge, New York and London. ISBN 0-415-97372-4.  
  • Dingle, Christopher (2007). The Life of Messiaen. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge & New York. ISBN 0-521-63547-0 (paperback), ISBN 0-521-63220-X (hardback).  
  • Dingle, Christopher & Simeone, Nigel (eds) (2007). Olivier Messiaen: Music, Art and Literature. Ashgate, Aldershot. ISBN 0-7546-5297-1.  
  • Hill, Peter and Simeone, Nigel (2005). Messiaen. Yale University Press, New Haven and London. ISBN 0-300-10907-5.  
  • Hill, Peter (ed.) (1995). The Messiaen Companion. Faber and Faber, London. ISBN 0-571-17033-1.  
  • Griffiths, Paul (1985). Olivier Messiaen and the Music of Time. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York. ISBN 0-8014-1813-5.  
  • Sherlaw Johnson, Robert (1975). Messiaen. University of California Press, Berkeley. ISBN 0-520-02812-0.  
  • Shenton, Andrew (2008). Olivier Messiaen's System of Signs: Notes towards Understanding his Music. Ashgate, Aldershot. ISBN 978-0-7546-6168-9.   Winner of the 2009 Max B Miller Award from the American Guild of Organists.
  • Shenton, Andrew (2010). Messiaen the Theologian. Ashgate, Aldershot. ISBN 978-0-7546-6640-0.  
  • Sholl, Robert (2008). Messiaen Studies. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge & New York. ISBN 978-0521839815.  

Conversations with the composer

  • Samuel, Claude (tr. E. Thomas Glasow) (1994). Olivier Messiaen: Music and Color: Conversations with Claude Samuel. Amadeus Press, Portland, Oregon. ISBN 0-931340-67-5.  
  • Goléa, Antoine (1960). Rencontres avec Olivier Messiaen. Julliard, Paris. No ISBN.  

Films

  • Apparition of the Eternal Church - Paul Festa's 2006 film about responses of 31 artists to Messiaen's music.
  • Messiaen at 80 (1988). Directed by Sue Knussen. BFI database entry.
  • Olivier Messiaen - The Crystal Liturgy (2007 [DVD release date]). Directed by Olivier Mille.
  • Olivier Messiaen: Works (1991). DVD on which Messiaen performs "Improvisations" on the organ at the Paris Trinity Church.
  • The South Bank Show: Olivier Messiaen: The Music of Faith (1985). Directed by Alan Benson. BFI database entry.

Other references

  • Benitez, Vincent P. (2004). "Aspects of Harmony in Messiaen's Later Music: An Examination of the Chords of Transposed Inversions on the Same Bass Note." Journal of Musicological Research 23/2:187-226.
  • Bernard, Jonathan W. (1986). "Messiaen's Synaesthesia: The Correspondence between Color and Sound Structure in His Music." Music Perception 4:41–68.
  • Bruhn, Siglind (1997). Images and Ideas in Modern French Piano Music: The Extra-Musical Subtext in Piano Works by Ravel, Debussy, and Messiaen. Stuyvesant, N.Y.: Pendragon Press. ISBN 0-945193-95-5.  
  • Burns, Jeffrey Phillips (1995). "Messiaen's Modes of Limited Transposition Reconsidered". M.M. thesis, Madison: University of Wisconsin-Madison.
  • Festa, Paul (2008). Oh My God: Messiaen in the Ear of the Unbeliever. San Francisco: Bar Nothing Books.  
  • Gillock, Jon (2009). Performing Messiaen's Organ Music: 66 Masterclasses. Indiana University Press, Bloomington, Indiana. ISBN 978-0-253-35373-3
  • Kraft, David (2000). "Birdsong in the Music of Olivier Messiaen". PhD diss., University of Middlesex.
  • Reverdy, Michèle (1988). L'Œuvre pour orchestre d'Olivier Messiaen. Paris: Alphonse Leduc. ISBN 2-85689-038-5.  
  • Rischin, Rebecca (2003). For the End of Time: The Story of the Messiaen Quartet. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-4136-6.  
  • Toop, Richard (1974). “Messiaen / Goeyvaerts, Fano / Stockhausen, Boulez.” Perspectives of New Music 13, no. 1 (Fall-Winter): 141–69.
  • Waumsley, Stuart (1975). The Organ Music of Olivier Messiaen (New ed.). Paris: Alphonse Leduc. OCLC 2911308; LCCN 77-457244.  

Notes

  1. ^ Messiaen & Samuel (1994), p. 15
  2. ^ Messiaen & Samuel (1994), p. 41
  3. ^ Hill (1995), pp. 300–1
  4. ^ Messiaen & Samuel (1994), p. 109
  5. ^ Messiaen & Samuel (1994), p. 110
  6. ^ Hill & Simeone (2005), p. 20
  7. ^ Hill & Simeone (2005), p. 22
  8. ^ Hill & Simeone (2005), pp. 34ff
  9. ^ Yvonne Loriod, in Hill (1995), p. 294
  10. ^ from the programme for the opening concert of La Jeune France, quoted in Griffiths (1985), p. 72
  11. ^ Hill & Simeone (2005), pp. 73f
  12. ^ a b Griffiths (1985), p. 139
  13. ^ See extended discussion in Griffiths (1985), Chapter 6: A Technique for the End of Time, particularly pp. 104–106
  14. ^ Pierre Boulez in Hill (1995), pp. 266ff
  15. ^ Griffiths (1985), p. 142
  16. ^ Griffiths (1985), p. 168; see also Kraft (2000)
  17. ^ Hill & Simeone (2005), p. 245
  18. ^ Hill & Simeone (2005), p. 333
  19. ^ Griffiths (1985), p. 225
  20. ^ programme for Opéra de la Bastille production of St. François d'Assise, p. 18
  21. ^ The composer in conversation with Jean-Cristophe Marti in 1992, see p. 29 of booklet accompanying the recording of Saint-François d'Assise conducted by Kent Nagano on Deutsche Grammophon/PolyGram 445 176; see also Hill & Simeone (2005), pp. 340 and 342
  22. ^ Hill & Simeone (2005), p. 357
  23. ^ Yvonne Loriod, in Hill (1995), p. 302
  24. ^ Griffiths (1985) p. 15
  25. ^ Messiaen & Samuel (1994), p. 213
  26. ^ Messiaen & Samuel (1994), p. 77
  27. ^ a b Messiaen & Samuel (1994), p. 47
  28. ^ a b Messiaen & Samuel (1994), p. 114
  29. ^ a b Messiaen, Technique de mon langage musical
  30. ^ Messiaen & Samuel (1994), pp. 49–50
  31. ^ Messiaen & Samuel (1994), p. 63
  32. ^ Messiaen & Samuel (1994), p. 62
  33. ^ See Messiaen, Olivier Traité de rythme, de couleur, et d'ornithologie.. See also Bernard (1986).
  34. ^ George Benjamin, speaking in interview with Tommy Pearson, broadcast on BBC4 in the interval of Prom concert in 2004 at which Benjamin conducted a performance of Des canyons aux étoiles... Asked what made Messiaen so influential he said, "I think the sheer—the word he loved—colour has been so influential. People, composers, have found that colour, rather than being a decorative element, could be a structural, a fundamental element. And not colour just in a surface way, not just in the way you orchestrate it—no—the fundamental material of the music itself. More than that I can't say except that for my own small world he was incredibly important, and an exceptionally special and indeed wonderful person. I met him when I was very young (I was 16) and stayed closely in touch with him until he died in 1992, and was immensely fond of him…"
  35. ^ Hill (1995), p. 17
  36. ^ Griffiths (1985) p. 32
  37. ^ Messiaen & Samuel (1994), pp. 241–2
  38. ^ Griffiths (1985) p. 34
  39. ^ Hill & Simeone (2005), p. 25
  40. ^ Hill & Simeone (2005), p. 120
  41. ^ Hill & Simeone (2005), pp. 199ff, outlines the chronology of Messiaen's compositions of 1951–52 Le merle noir and Livre d'orgue
  42. ^ Messiaen & Samuel (1994), p. 198

External links

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Simple English

File:Olivier Messiaen
Oliver Messiaen

Olivier Messiaen (born Avignon, 10 December 1908; died Clichy, near Paris, 27 April, 1992) was a French composer and organist. He is the most famous French composer of the mid-20th century and one of the most important and original composers of his time. He was a brilliant organist and played the organ at the church of La Trinité in Paris for over 60 years. He wrote music for orchestra, piano and organ, most of which is very difficult to play. He was also a great music teacher who taught several young students who became well-known composers e.g. Pierre Boulez, Yvonne Loriod (who became his second wife), Karlheinz Stockhausen, George Benjamin and Iannis Xenakis.

Messiaen started to compose when he was seven years old. When he was given the score of Debussy’s opera Pelléas et Mélisande he could imagine the music in his head and he knew he wanted to be a composer. He went to the Paris Conservatoire when he was 11. His teachers included some famous composers such as Paul Dukas, Maurice Emmanuel, Charles-Marie Widor and Marcel Dupré. He was appointed organist at the church of La Trinité in Paris in 1930, a post he held until his death.

When World War II broke out Messiaen was made a prisoner of war in 1940. While he was held in a Silesian camp he composed a work which was to become a very famous piece of chamber music: the Quatuor pour la fin du temps ("Quartet for the end of time") for piano, violin, cello, and clarinet. He composed for these instruments because they were the instruments available. The piece was first performed by Messiaen and fellow prisoners to an audience of 5000 inmates and prison guards.

When he was free again in 1941 Messiaen became professor of harmony at the Paris Conservatoire. He composed 20 pieces for piano which are called Vingt regards sur l’enfant Jésus (Twenty visions of the child Jesus). He wrote a book about the way he composed, called Technique de mon langage musical (The Technique of my musical language).

Messiaen soon became famous for his teaching and was invited to teach in other countries such as Germany, Hungary and the United States. He became interested in the rhythms of Greek and Hindu music.

His first wife died in 1959 and he remarried in 1961. He also became very interested in birdsong and spent a lot of time with his wife in the country with a tape recorder recording birdsong. He imitated the birdsong in his music, especially in piano pieces called Oiseaux exotiques (Exotic birds) and the Catalogue d’oiseaux (Catalogue of birds).

Messiaen wrote a lot of organ music which he performed himself. One very popular work is called Transports de joie (Outburst of joy). It is one of four pieces called L'Ascension (The Ascension). A much longer work, consisting of nine movements, is the La Nativité du Seigneur (The Birth of our Lord). The last movement of this piece is a toccata called Dieu parmi nous (God among us). It has become a favourite piece for organists to play at recitals or after Christmas carol services.

Messiaen wrote a long piece for orchestra called the Turangalîla Symphony. It was first performed in Boston in 1949 with Bernstein conducting. The French government commissioned a piece called Et exspecto resurrectionem mortuorum (And we expect the rising of the dead) which was dedicated to people who had died in the two world wars. It was performed in the Sainte-Chapelle in Paris and then in Chartres Cathedral in 1965 in the presence of General Charles de Gaulle. In 1966 Messiaen became professor of composition at the Paris Conservatoire.

His visit to the Grand Canyon inspired him to write a ten-movement orchestral piece called Des Canyons aux étoiles (From the canyons to the stars), which was first performed in 1974 in New York.

Messiaen had been asked in 1971 to write an opera for the Paris Opéra. At first he did not want to start such a large work, but in 1975 he was persuaded to accept the commission and began work on his Saint-François d'Assise. It took him several years to compose. It was performed in 1983. Messiaen said that he preferred to call it a “spectacle” instead of an “opera”.

Messiaen retired from teaching at the Conservatoire in 1978. In 1987 he was given the highest rank: the Grand-Croix of the Légion d'honneur.

Messiaen was in a lot of pain near the end of his life. He needed operations on his back. He still managed to finish a piece called Éclairs sur l'au delà, which was first performed by the New York Philharmonic Orchestra six months after the composer's death. Messiaen had also been composing a concerto for four musicians he felt particularly grateful to: his wife Loriod, the cellist Mstislav Rostropovich, the oboist Heinz Holliger and the flautist Catherine Cantin. This was nearly finished when Messiaen died, and Yvonne Loriod orchestrated the last movement with advice from George Benjamin.

The style of his music

Messiaen said of himself that he was a “composer and rhythmician”. He meant by this that rhythm was very important in his music. He taught himself all about Greek metres although he did not speak the Greek language. He liked rhythms which use odd numbers. Very often a bar of his music may have one extra semiquaver so that there might be 17 semiquavers in a bar. He studied Hindu rhythms and found ways of changing the rhythms during the music. He was very influenced by the rhythms in Stravinsky’s famous piece The Rite of Spring.

Messiaen’s harmonies are very individual. He was fascinated by scales which can only be transposed in two or three different ways. He called these scales “modes of limited transposition”.

Messiaen’s music is full of different sounds. He wrote extremely well for large orchestras and for the organ, using different instruments or organ sounds in very original ways, e.g. in Chronochromie (1960) for large orchestra and Méditations sur le mystère de la Sainte Trinité.(1969), a work which uses styles from his earlier period together with birdsong. Messiaen had synesthesia which meant that music often made him think of particular colours. In his orchestra Messiaen often used an instrument called the ondes Martenot which was a kind of electronic keyboard instrument. His sister-in-law Jeanne Loriod was a famous player of the ondes Martenot. Messiaen was also influenced by Indonesian gamelan music. For a short time he experimented with total serialism.

In some of his later works such as the La Transfiguration de notre Seigneur Jésus-Christ, for choir of 100 voices, seven instrumental soloists and large orchestra, composed in the late 1960s, he used a simpler musical language which has helped it to become very popular.

Messiaen was a devout Roman Catholic all his life. His religion was a very important influence on his life and music.

References

The New Grove Dictionary of Music & Musicians; edited by Stanley Sadie ISBN 1-56159-174-2


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