Olympiad: Wikis

Advertisements
  
  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

An Olympiad is the actual player who plays in the olympics. There are many famous olympiads are known as their country's hero (sometimes). |0 = 1st |1 = 2nd |2 = 3rd |3 = 4th }} year of the 697th Olympiad begins in (Northern-Hemisphere) summer 2010.

Today, an Olympiad refers to a period beginning January 1 of a year in which the Summer Olympics are due to occur, and lasting four years. The first modern Olympiad began in 1896, the second began in 1900, and so on. The 29th began in 2008 (see the Olympic Charter).

Contents

Ancient Olympics

An Olympiad, especially in ancient literature, was a period of four years (Polybius, Example: OL 1 - Yr. 1 - 776/775, Yr. 2 - 775/774, Yr. 3 - 774/773, Yr. 4 - 773/772

Example for AUC: OL 6 - Yr. 1 - 756/755, Yr. 2 - 755/754, Yr. 3 - 754/753, Yr. 4 - 753/752

Advertisements

Historians

From 776 BC Olympic Games were presumably held without fail. Greek historians used the Olympiads as a way of reckoning time that did not depend on the time reckonings of one of the city-states. (See Attic calendar.) The first to do so consistently was Timaeus of Tauromenium. Nevertheless, since for events in the early history of the games the reckoning was used in retrospect, even though Greek historians gave them dates later, it is not clear which events occurred during which Olympiad. See Ancient Olympics.

Start of the Olympiad

An Olympiad started with the games, which were held at the beginning of the Olympic new year, which fell on the full moon closest to the summer solstice. (After the introduction of the Metonic cycle about 432 BC, the start of the Olympic year was determined slightly differently).

Era

The reckoning in Olympiads starts in 776 BC. In the third century AD the games had dwindled to the point where historians are not certain whether after 261 they were still held every four years. During the early years of the Olympiad, any physical benefit coming out of a sport was banned. Some winners were recorded though, until the last Olympiad in 393. In 394, Roman Emperor Theodosius I outlawed the games at Olympia as pagan. Though it would have been possible to continue the reckoning by just counting four-year periods, by the middle of the fifth century AD reckoning in Olympiads had fallen into disuse.

Examples

  • 776/775 (BC) First year of the First Olympiad.
  • 775/774 Second year of the First Olympiad.
  • 774/773 Third year of the First Olympiad.
  • 773/772 Fourth year of the First Olympiad.
  • 772/771 First year of the Second Olympiad.
  • 771/770 Second year of the Second Olympiad.

...

  • 2/1 (BC) Third year of the 194th Olympiad.
  • 1/1 (1 BC - 1 AD) Fourth year of the 194th Olympiad.
  • 1/2 (AD) 1st year of the 195th Olympiad.
  • 2/3 2nd year of the 195th Olympiad.

...

  • 393/394 1st year of the 293rd Olympiad.
  • 394/395 2nd year of the 293rd Olympiad.

By extrapolation:

  • 1893 1st year of the 668th Olympiad.
  • 1894 2nd year of the 668th Olympiad.
  • 1895 3rd year of the 668th Olympiad.
  • 1896 4th year of the 668th Olympiad / First year of the First Olympiad of the Modern Era.

Anolympiad

Though the games were held without interruption, on more than one occasion they were celebrated by others than the Eleiäns. The Eleiäns declared such games Anolympiads (non-Olympics), but it is assumed the winners nevertheless were recorded.

Modern Olympics

For the modern Olympics the term was long used to indicate the games themselves, but the IOC now uses it to indicate a period of four years.

Start and end

The modern Olympiad is a period of four consecutive calendar years, beginning on the first of January of the first year and ending on the thirty-first of December of the fourth year. The Olympiads are numbered consecutively from the first Games of the Olympiad celebrated in Athens in 1896. The XXIX Olympiad has begun on 1 January 2008.[1].

These are the Summer Olympics, more correctly indicated as the Games of the Olympiad. The first poster to announce the games using this term was the one for the 1932 Summer Olympics, in Los Angeles, using the phrase: Call to the games of the Xth Olympiad

Note, however, that the official numbering of the Winter Olympics does not count Olympiads—it counts only the Games themselves. For example:

  • The first Winter Games, in 1924, were not designated as Winter Games of the VIII Olympiad, but as the I Winter Olympic Games.
  • The 1936 Summer Games were the Games of the XI Olympiad. After the 1940 and 1944 Summer Games were canceled due to World War II, the Games resumed in 1948 as the Games of the XIV Olympiad.
  • On the other hand, the 1936 Winter Games were the IV Winter Olympic Games, and the resumption of the Winter Games in 1948 was designated the V Winter Olympic Games.

Quadrennium

The U.S. Olympic Committee often uses the term quadrennium, which it claims refers to the same four-year period. However, it indicates these quadrennia in calendar years, starting with the first year after the Summer Olympics end ending with the year the next Olympics are held. This would suggest a more precise period of four years, but the 2001–2004 Quadrennium would then not be the exact same period as the XXVIIth Olympiad.

Cultural Olympiad

A celebration known as the Cultural Olympiad was established to include all cultural events of the Olympic Movement. This Olympiad is a period most recently held in Athens from 2001–2004, where artists from around the world came and exhibited their art.

Other uses

Outside the IOC the term is still often used to indicate the games themselves, a usage that is strictly erroneous (as an Olympiad is the time period between games) but widely accepted nevertheless. It is also used to indicate international competitions in fields other than physical sports. This includes international science olympiads, such as the International Mathematical Olympiad and the International Olympiad in Informatics and their associated national qualifying exams (e.g., the United States of America Mathematical Olympiad or the North American Computational Linguistics Olympiad), and also events in mindsports, such as the Science Olympiad, Mindsport Olympiad, Chess Olympiad and Computer Olympiad. In these cases Olympiad is used to indicate a regular event of international competition; it does not necessarily indicate a four-year period.

The Olympiad (L'Olimpiade) is also the name of some 60 operas, of which the plot is set in Ancient Greece.

References

  1. ^ Olympic Charter - Bye-law to Rule 6

External links


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

OLYMPIAD, in Greek chronology, a period of four years, used as a method of dating for literary purposes, but never adopted in every-day life. The four years were reckoned from one celebration of the Olympian games to another, the first Olympiad beginning with 776 B.C., the year of Coroebus, the first victor in the games after their suspension for 86 years, the last with A.D. J94, when they were finally abolished during the reign of Theodosius the Great. The system was first regularly used by the Sicilian historian Timaeus (352-256 B.C.).


<< Olympia, Washington

Olympias >>


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010
(Redirected to olympiad article)

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Pronunciation

Noun

Singular
olympiad

Plural
olympiads

olympiad (plural olympiads)

  1. A period of four years, by which the ancient Greeks reckoned time, being the interval from one celebration of the Olympic games to another, beginning with the victory of Corbus in the foot race, which took place in the year 776 b.c.; as, the era of the olympiads.

Translations


Swedish

Noun

olympiad

  1. olympiad

Inflection

Inflection for olympiad Singular Plural
Common Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative olympiad olympiaden olympiader olympiaderna
Genitive olympiads olympiadens olympiaders olympiadernas

Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message