One Day International (ODI) is a form of cricket, in which 50 overs are played per side between two national cricket teams. The Cricket World Cup is played in this format. One Day International matches are also called "Limited Overs Internationals (LOI)", because they are limited overs cricket matches between national sides, and if the weather interferes they are not always completed in one day. Important one-day matches, international and domestic, often have two days set aside, the second day being a "reserve" day to allow more chance of the game being completed if a result is not possible on the first day (for instance if play is prevented or interrupted by rain).
The international one-day game is a late twentieth-century development. The first ODI was played on 5 January 1971 between Australia and England at the Melbourne Cricket Ground. When the first three days of the third Test were washed out officials decided to abandon the match and, instead, play a one-off one day game consisting of 40 eight-ball overs per side. Australia won the game by 5 wickets.
In the late 1970s, Kerry Packer established the rival World Series Cricket (WSC) competition, and it introduced many of the features of One Day International cricket that are now commonplace, including coloured uniforms, matches played at night under floodlights with a white ball and dark sight screens, and, for television broadcasts, multiple camera angles, effects microphones to capture sounds from the players on the pitch, and on-screen graphics. The first of the matches with coloured uniforms was the WSC Australians in wattle gold versus WSC West Indians in coral pink, played at VFL Park in Melbourne on 17 January 1979. It was credited with making cricket a more professional sport.
In the main the Laws of cricket apply. However, in ODIs, each team gets to bat only a fixed number of overs. In the early days of ODI cricket, the number of overs was generally 60 overs per side but now it has been uniformly fixed at 50 overs.
Simply stated the game works as follows:
Where a number of overs are lost, for example, due to inclement weather conditions, then the number of overs may be reduced. Where the number of overs available for the team batting second is perforce different from the number of overs faced by the team that batted first, the result may be determined by the Duckworth-Lewis method.
The floodlights would be positioned in such a way that it would not interfere with fielding teams and captains would be allowed a cloth on field should the ball become moist.
The bowling team is subject to fielding restrictions stipulating that nine fielders, including two fielders in catching positions, must be inside the fielding circle for a set number of overs. Traditionally, the fielding restrictions applied for the first 15 overs of each innings.
In a 10 month trial period starting 30 July 2005, the ICC introduced the Powerplays rule as part of a series of new ODI regulations. Under the Powerplays rule, fielding restrictions apply for the first 10 overs, plus two blocks of five overs (called Powerplay Fives). From October 2008 the batting side decides when one of the remaining two blocks occur, the fielding side decides when to begin the other Powerplay. In the first Powerplay, no more than two fielders can be positioned outside 30 yard circle (this is increased to three for the second and third Powerplay blocks). In the first 10 overs, it is also required that at least two fielders are in close catching positions.
The ICC have announced, as of 1 October 2007, with regard to Powerplays, that the captain of the fielding side may elect to position 3 fielders outside the 30 yard circle in one of the two 5-over Powerplays. The rule was first invoked in a match between Sri Lanka and England at Dambulla Stadium on 1 October 2007. Sri Lanka won the match by 119 runs. Currently both 2nd and 3rd powerplay will have 3 fielders outside 30 yard circle, and one powerplay is chosen by batting team.
The trial regulations also introduced a substitution rule that allowed the introduction of a replacement player at any stage in the match. Teams nominated their replacement player, called a Supersub, before the toss. The Supersub could bat, bowl, field or keep wicket; the replaced player took no further part in the game. Over the six months it was in operation, it became very clear that the Supersub was of far more benefit to the side that won the toss, unbalancing the game. Several international captains reached "gentleman's agreements" to discontinue this rule late in 2005. They continued to name supersubs, as required, but simply did not field them. On 15 February 2006, the ICC announced their intention to discontinue the Supersub rule on 21 March 2006.
The International Cricket Council (ICC) determines which teams have ODI status (meaning that any match played between two such teams under standard one-day rules is classified as an ODI).
The ten Test-playing nations (which are also the ten full members of the ICC) have permanent ODI status. The nations are listed below with the date of each nation's ODI dates shown in brackets:
The ICC temporarily grants ODI status to other teams; at present these are:
Canada, Ireland, the Netherlands and Scotland earned this status as a result of their performance at the 2005 ICC Trophy. The ICC followed this precedent in 2009 and used the results of the 2009 ICC World Cup Qualifier (the new name of the ICC Trophy) to award ODI status for the following four years. During the tournament Afghanistan capped a remarkable year by finishing 5th and qualifying for ODI status.
At one point, the ICC occasionally granted associate members permanent ODI status without granting them full membership and Test status. This was originally introduced to allow the best associate members to gain regular experience in internationals before making the step up to full membership. First Bangladesh and then Kenya received this status. Bangladesh have since made the step up to Test status and full membership; but as a result of Kenya's poor performance the ICC have since decided to end their permanent ODI status.
In addition, the ICC reserves the right to grant special ODI status to all matches within certain high profile tournaments, with the result being that the following countries have also participated in full ODIs:
In 2005 the ICC controversially gave ODI status, for the first time, to several matches involving teams composed of players from more than one country. These were the Asia XI vs ICC World XI game played in January 2005 as part of the World Cricket Tsunami Appeal in aid of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami relief effort and three commercially sponsored "Australia vs ICC World XI" ICC Super Series games which took place in Melbourne in October 2005. The latter matches were poorly attended, heavily one-sided and generated little interest in the cricketing world. It was an experiment which many feel should not be repeated and many cricket statisticians (e.g. Bill Frindall) agree that the matches should not be incorporated into the official ODI records.
Generally ODI series between 2 teams or tri-series are played. Most popular tournaments of ODI are:
Sachin Tendulkar of India holds record of the most 100s and 50s in One Day International. He also has the most runs in One Day International and is the only male player to score a double century in a One Day International, which he achieved on 24th February, 2010.
The record for the highest innings total in any List A limited overs match is 443 for nine by Sri Lanka against Netherlands in their One Day International 50-overs match at Amstelveen on July 4, 2006. The lowest team total is 35 all out by Zimbabwe against Sri Lanka in Harare, 2004.
The most runs scored by both sides in any List A limited overs match is 872: Australia, batting first, scored 434 for four in 50 overs, and yet were beaten by South Africa who scored 438 for nine with a ball to spare during their One Day International at Johannesburg in 2006.
The best bowling figures are 8-19 by Chaminda Vaas for Sri Lanka v Zimbabwe in Colombo, 2001-02 - he is the only player to take eight wickets in a One Day international.
As there are residency and/or nationality requirements that need to be met to represent a team at international level, usually a player will only represent one team in ODIs in his career. Several have, however, played for more than one team. These include:
Additionally, John Traicos played Tests for South Africa and Zimbabwe, but ODIs just for Zimbabwe, and Gavin Hamilton has only played ODIs for Scotland and represented England in one Test match. Dirk Nannes has represented Netherlands in T20s for the 2009 ICC World Twenty20 held in England but played for Australia in an ODI vs Scotland. He has since played more T20s for Australia.