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the Gemma Augustea, a Roman cameo engraved gem, 9-12 AD, in two layered onyx; 19 × 23 cm.
Sardonyx (banded agate). The specimen is 2.5 cm (1 inch) wide.

Onyx is a cryptocrystalline form of quartz. The colors of its bands range from white to almost every color (save some shades, such as purple or blue). Commonly, specimens of onyx available contain bands of colors of white, tan, and brown. Sardonyx is a variant in which the colored bands are sard (shades of red) rather than black. Pure black onyx is common, and perhaps the most famous variety, but not as common as onyx with banded colors.

It has a long history of use for hardstone carving and jewellery, where it is usually cut as a cabochon, or into beads, and is also used for intaglio or cameo engraved gems, where the bands make the image contrast with the ground. Some onyx is natural but much is produced by the staining of agate.

The name has sometimes been used, incorrectly, to label other banded lapidary materials, such as banded calcite found in Mexico, Pakistan, and other places, and often carved, polished and sold. This material is much softer than true onyx, and much more readily available. The majority of carved items sold as 'onyx' today are this carbonate material.[1]

Technical details
Chemical composition and name SiO2 - Silicon dioxide
Hardness (Mohs scale) 7
Specific gravity 2.65 - 2.667
Refractive index (R.I.) 1.543 - 1.552 to 1.545 - 1.554
Birefringence 0.009
Optic sign Positive
Optical character Uniaxial

Contents

Etymology

Onyx comes through Latin from the Greek onyx meaning 'claw' or 'fingernail'. With its fleshtone color, onyx can be said to resemble a fingernail. The English word 'nail' is cognate with the Greek word.[2]

Historical usage

Onyx from Australia.
Onyx from Brazil.

Onyx was known to the ancient Greeks and Romans.[3] Use of sardonyx appears in the art of Minoan Crete, notably from the archaeological recoveries at Knossos.[4] Onyx was used in Egypt as early as the Second Dynasty to make bowls and other pottery items.[5]

Black onyx with bands of colors.

Onyx is also mentioned in the Bible at various points, such as the priests' garments and the foundation of the city of Heaven in Revelation. [6]

References

See also


1911 encyclopedia

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From LoveToKnow 1911

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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010
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Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

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Contents

English

Onyx

Etymology

Before 1300 as onix, in about 1250 as oneche, from Old French oniche or onix, or from Latin onyx, from Greek ὄνυξ (onyx).[1]

Noun

Singular
onyx

Plural
countable and uncountable; plural onyxes

onyx (countable and uncountable; plural onyxes)

  1. (mineralogy) A banded variety of chalcedony, a cryptocrystalline form of quartz.

Translations

Adjective

onyx (not comparable)

Positive
onyx

Comparative
not comparable

Superlative
none (absolute)

  1. jet-black

Quotations

See also

References

  • Notes:
  1. ^ Chambers Dictionary of Etymology, Robert K. Barnhart (ed.), Chambers, 1988

Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From BibleWiki


a hail; claw; hoof, (Heb. shoham), a precious stone adorning the breast-plate of the high priest and the shoulders of the ephod (Ex 28:9-12, 20; 35:27; Job 28:16; Ezek 28:13). It was found in the land of Havilah (Gen 2:12). The LXX. translates the Hebrew word by smaragdos, an emerald. Some think that the sardonyx is meant. But the onyx differs from the sardonyx in this, that while the latter has two layers (black and white) the former has three (black, white, and red).

This entry includes text from Easton's Bible Dictionary, 1897.

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Simple English

An onyx is a type of rock mineral.

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