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Oocyte
Oocyte.jpg
"Stripped" human oocyte; granulosa cells that had surrounded this oocyte have been removed.
Gray's subject #3 38
MeSH Oocytes

An oocyte, ovocyte, or rarely ocyte, is a female gametocyte or germ cell involved in reproduction. In other words, it is an immature ovum, or egg cell. An oocyte is produced in the ovary during female gametogenesis. The female germ cells produce a primordial germ cell (PGC) which undergoes a mitotic division to form an oogonium. During oogenesis the oogonium becomes a primary oocyte (pronounced oh'a-site).

Contents

Formation

Diagram showing the reduction in number of the chromosomes in the process of maturation of the ovum.

The formation of an oocyte is called oocytogenesis, which is a part of oogenesis[1]. Oogenesis results in the formation of both primary oocytes before birth, and of secondary oocytes after it as part of ovulation.

Cell type ploidy/chromosomes chromatids Process Time of completion
Oogonium diploid/46 1N Oocytogenesis (mitosis) third trimester
primary Oocyte diploid/46 2N Ootidogenesis (meiosis 1) (Folliculogenesis) Dictyate in prophase I until ovulation
secondary Oocyte haploid/23 2N Ootidogenesis (meiosis 2) Halted in metaphase II until fertilization
Ootid haploid/23 1N  ? Minutes after fertilization
Ovum haploid/23 1N

Characteristics

Human oocyte with surrounding granulosa cells

Cytoplasm

Oocytes are rich in cytoplasm which contains yolk granules to nourish the cell early in development.

Nucleus

During the primary oocyte stage of oogenesis, the nucleus is called a germinal vesicle[2]

The only normal human type of secondary oocyte has the 23rd (sex) chromosome as 23,X (female-determining), whereas sperm can can have 23,X (female-determining) or 23,Y (male-determining).

Nest

The space wherein an ovum or immature ovum is located is the cell-nest[3].

Maternal Contributions to the Oocyte

Oocyte Poles

Because the fate of an oocyte is to become fertilized and ultimately grow into a fully-functioning organism, it must be ready to regulate multiple cellular and developmental processes. The oocyte, a large and complex cell, must be supplied with numerous molecules that will direct the growth of the embryo and control cellular activities. As the oocyte is a product of female gametogenesis, the maternal contribution to the oocyte and consequently the newly fertilized egg is enormous. There are many types of molecules that are maternally supplied to the oocyte which will direct various activities within the growing zygote.

Maternal mRNAs and Proteins

During the growth of the oocyte, a variety of maternally transcribed messenger RNAs , or mRNAs, are supplied by maternal cells. These mRNAs can be stored in mRNP (message ribonucleoprotein) complexes and be translated at specific time points, they can be localized within a specific region of the cytoplasm, or they can be homogeneously dispersed within the cytoplasm of the entire oocyte [4] . Maternally loaded proteins can also be localized or ubiquitous throughout the cytoplasm. The translated products of the mRNAs and the loaded proteins have multiple functions; from regulation of cellular “house-keeping” such as cell cycle progression and cellular metabolism, to regulation of developmental processes such as fertilization, activation of zygotic transcription, and formation of body axes [5]. Below are some examples of maternally inherited mRNAs and proteins found in "Xenopus laevis" oocytes.

Name Type of Maternal Molecule Localization Function
VegT [6] mRNA Vegetal Hemisphere Transcription Factor
Vg1 [7] mRNA Vegetal Hemisphere Transcription Factor
XXBP-1 [8] mRNA Not Known Transcription Factor
CREB [9] Protein Ubiquitous Transcription Factor
FoxH1 [10] mRNA Ubiquitous Transcription Factor
p53 [11] Protein Ubiquitous Transcription Factor
Lef/Tcf [12] mRNA Ubiquitous Transcription Factor
FGF2 [13] Protein Nucleus Not Known
FGF2, 4, 9 FGFR1 [14] mRNA Not Known FGF Signaling
Ectodermin [15] Protein Animal Hemisphere Ubiquitin Ligase
PACE4 [16] mRNA Vegetal Hemisphere Proprotein Convertase
Coco [17] Protein Not Known BMP inhibitor
Twisted Gastrulation [18] Protein Not Known BMP/Chordin Bindng Protein
fatvg [19] mRNA Vegetal Hemisphere Germ Cell Formation and Cortical Rotation
Maternal Determinants in "Xenopus laevis" Oocyte

Maternal Mitochondria

The oocyte receives mitochondria from maternal cells, which will go on to control embryonic metabolism and apoptotic events [20]. The partitioning of mitochondria is carried out by a system of microtubules which will localize mitochondria throughout the oocyte. In certain organisms, such as mammals, paternal mitochondria brought to the oocyte by the spermatozoon are degraded through the attachment of ubiquitinated proteins. The destruction of paternal mitochondria ensures the strictly maternal inheritance of mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA or mtDNA [21].

Maternal Nucleolus

In mammals, the nucleolus of the oocyte is derived solely from maternal cells [22] . The nucleolus, a structure found within the nucleus, is the location where rRNA is transcribed and assembled into ribosomes. While the nucleolus is dense and inactive in a mature oocyte, it is required for proper development of the embryo [23] .

Maternal Ribosomes

Maternal cells also synthesize and contribute a store of ribosomes that are required for the translation of proteins before the zygotic genome is activated. In mammalian oocytes, maternally derived ribosomes and some mRNAs are stored in a structure called cytoplasmic lattices. These cytoplasmic lattices, a network of fibrils, protein, and RNAs, have been observed to increase in density as the number of ribosomes decrease within a growing oocyte [24]

Paternal Contributions to the Oocyte

The spermatozoon which fertilizes an oocyte will contribute its pronucleus, the other half of the zygotic genome. In some species, the spermatozoon will also contribute a centriole which will help make up the zygotic centrosome required for the first division. However, in some species, such as in the mouse, the entire centrosome is acquired maternally [25]. Currently under investigation is the possibility of other cytoplasmic contributions made to the embryo by the spermatozoon

Abnormalities

References

  1. ^ answers.com
  2. ^ Biology-online
  3. ^ Grier HJ, Uribe MC, Parenti LR (April 2007). "Germinal epithelium, folliculogenesis, and postovulatory follicles in ovaries of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum, 1792) (Teleostei, protacanthopterygii, salmoniformes)". J. Morphol. 268 (4): 293–310. doi:10.1002/jmor.10518. PMID 17309079. 
  4. ^ Mtango N.R., Potireddy S., Latham K.E. (2008). Oocyte quality and maternal control of development. Int. Rev. Cell Mol. Biol. 268, 223-290.
  5. ^ Mtango N.R., Potireddy S., Latham K.E. (2008). Oocyte quality and maternal control of development. Int. Rev. Cell Mol. Biol. 268, 223-290.
  6. ^ Zhang J., King M.L. (1996). Xenopus VegT RNA is localized to the vegetal cortex during oogenesis and encodes a novel T-box transcription factor involved in mesodermal patterning. Development. 12, 4119–29.
  7. ^ Heasman J., Wessely O., Langland R., Craig E.J., Kessler D.S. (2001). Vegetal localization of maternal mRNAs is disrupted by VegT depletion. Dev Biol. 240, 377–386.
  8. ^ Zhao H., Cao Y., Grunz H. (2003). Xenopus X-box binding protein 1, a leucine zipper transcription factor, is involved in the BMP signaling pathway. Dev Biol. 257, 278–291.
  9. ^ Sundaram N., Tao Q., Wylie C., Heasman J. (2003). The role of maternal CREB in early embryogenesis of Xenopus laevis. Dev Biol. 261, 337–352.
  10. ^ Kofron M., Puck H., Standley H., Wylie C., Old R., Whitman M., et al. (2004). New roles for FoxH1 in patterning the early embryo. Development. 131, 5065–5078.
  11. ^ Takebayashi-Suzuki K., Funami J., Tokumori D., Saito A., Watabe T., Miyazono K., et al. (2003). Interplay between the tumor suppressor p53 and TGF beta signaling shapes embryonic body axes in Xenopus. Development. 130, 3929–3939.
  12. ^ Heasman, J. (2006). Maternal determinants of embryonic cell fate. Semin. Cell Dev. Biol. 17, 93-98.
  13. ^ Song J., Slack J.M. (1994). Spatial and temporal expression of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) mRNA and protein in early Xenopus development. Mech Dev. 48, 141–151.
  14. ^ Heasman, J. (2006). Maternal determinants of embryonic cell fate. Semin. Cell Dev. Biol. 17, 93-98.
  15. ^ Dupont S., Zacchigna L., Cordenonsi M., Soligo S., Adorno M., Rugge M., et al. (2005). Germ-layer specification and control of cell growth by Ectodermin, a Smad4 ubiquitin ligase. Cell. 121, 87–99.
  16. ^ Birsoy B., Berg L., Williams P.H., Smith J.C., Wylie C.C., Christian J.L., et al. (2005). XPACE4 is a localized pro-protein convertase required for mesoderm induction and the cleavage of specific TGFbeta proteins in Xenopus development. Development. 132, 591–602.
  17. ^ Bell E., Munoz-Sanjuan I., Altmann C.R., Vonica A., Brivanlou A.H. (2003). Cell fate specification and competence by Coco, a maternal BMP, TGFbeta and Wnt inhibitor. Development. 130, 1381–1389.
  18. ^ Heasman, J. (2006). Maternal determinants of embryonic cell fate. Semin. Cell Dev. Biol. 17, 93-98.
  19. ^ Chan A. P., Kloc M., Larabell C. A., LeGros M., Etkin L.D. (2007). The maternally localized RNA fatvg is required for cortical rotation and germ cell formation. Mech Dev. 124, 350-363.
  20. ^ Mtango N.R., Potireddy S., Latham K.E. (2008). Oocyte quality and maternal control of development. Int. Rev. Cell Mol. Biol. 268, 223-290.
  21. ^ Mtango N.R., Potireddy S., Latham K.E. (2008). Oocyte quality and maternal control of development. Int. Rev. Cell Mol. Biol. 268, 223-290.
  22. ^ Ogushi S., et al. (2008). The maternal nucleolus is essential for early embryonic development in mammals. Science. 319, 613-616
  23. ^ Ogushi S., et al. (2008). The maternal nucleolus is essential for early embryonic development in mammals. Science. 319, 613-616
  24. ^ Vitale A.M., Yurttas P., Fitzhenry R.J., Cohen-Gould, L., Wu W., Gossen J.A., Coonrod S.A. (2009). Role for PADI6 and the CPLs in ribosomal storage in oocytes and translation in the early embryo. Development. 135, 2627-2636.
  25. ^ Sutovsky P., Schatten G. (2000). Paternal contributions to the mammalian zygote: fertilization after sperm-egg fusion. Int. Rev. Cytol. 195, 1-65.

Resources

William K. Purves, Gordon H. Orians, David Sadava, H. Craig Heller, Craig Heller (2003). Life: The Science of Biology(7th ed.), pp. 823–824

See also

External links

Preceded by
Cum Stain
Stages of human development
Oocyte
Succeeded by
Zygote







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