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Opelousas is also a common name of the flathead catfish.
City of Opelousas
City
Country United States
State Louisiana
Parish St. Landry
Elevation 69 ft (21 m)
Coordinates 30°31′41″N 92°05′04″W / 30.52806°N 92.08444°W / 30.52806; -92.08444
Area 7.1 sq mi (18.4 km2)
 - land 7.1 sq mi (18 km2)
 - water 0.0 sq mi (0 km2), 0%
Population 22,860 (2000)
Density 3,240.0 /sq mi (1,251 /km2)
Incorporated 1821
Mayor Don Cravins
Timezone CST (UTC-6)
 - summer (DST) CDT (UTC-5)
ZIP code 70570
Area code 337
Location of Opelousas in Louisiana
Location of Louisiana in the United States
Website: http://www.cityofopelousas.com

Opelousas is a small city in and the parish seat of St. Landry Parish, Louisiana, United States.[1] It lies at the juncture of Interstate 49 and U.S. Route 190. The population was 22,860 at the 2000 census. Although the 2006 population estimate was 23,222, a 2004 annexation should put the city's population above 25,000. Opelousas is the principal city for the Opelousas-Eunice Micropolitan Statistical Area, which had an estimated population of 92,178 in 2008. Opelousas is also the 3rd largest city in the Lafayette-Acadiana Combined Statistical Area, which has a population of 537,947.

Founded in 1720, Opelousas is Louisiana's 3rd oldest city. The city served as a major trading post between New Orleans and Natchitoches in the 18th and 19th centuries.

Traditionally an area of settlement by French Creoles and Acadians, Opelousas is the center of zydeco music. It celebrates its heritage at the Creole Heritage Folklife Center, one of the destinations on the new Louisiana African American Heritage Trail. It is also the location of the Evangeline Downs Racetrack and Casino.

The city is known as the spice capital of the world, with production and sale of seasonings such as Tony Chachere's products, Targil Seasonings, Savoie's cajun meats and products, and LouAna Cooking Oil. Opelousas was also home to one of the nation's two Yoohoo Factories until their closing.

Contents

Geography

Opelousas is located at 30°31′41″N 92°5′4″W / 30.52806°N 92.08444°W / 30.52806; -92.08444 (30.528183, -92.084406)[2] and has an elevation of 69 feet (21.0 m)[3].

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 7.1 square miles (18.3 km²), of which, 7.1 square miles (18.3 km²) of it is land and 0.14% is water.

Demographics

As of the census[4] of 2000, there were 22,860 people, 8,699 households, and 5,663 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,240.0 people per square mile (1,250.2/km²). There were 9,783 housing units at an average density of 1,386.6/sq mi (535.0/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 29.30% White, 69.12% African American, 0.10% Native American, 0.32% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.30% from other races, and 0.84% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.88% of the population.

There were 8,699 households out of which 32.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 33.7% were married couples living together, 26.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 34.9% were non-families. 32.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 3.24.

In the city the population was spread out with 30.3% under the age of 18, 9.4% from 18 to 24, 24.9% from 25 to 44, 19.6% from 45 to 64, and 15.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 84.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 77.4 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $14,717, and the median income for a family was $19,966. Males had a median income of $24,588 versus $17,104 for females. The per capita income for the city was $9,957. About 37.7% of families and 43.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 57.2% of those under age 18 and 32.0% of those age 65 or over.

History

Opelousas takes its name from the Native American tribe Appalousa who had occupied the area before European contact.

The first recorded European arrived in the Appalousa Territory in 1690. He was a French coureur de bois (trapper and hunter). French traders arrived later to trade with the Appalousa Indians. In 1719, the French sent the first military to the Territory, when Ensign Nicolas Chauvin de la Frénière and two others were sent to patrol the area and in 1720, the French established Opelousas Post as a major trading organization for the developing area.

The French encouraged immigration to Opelousas Post before they ceded Louisiana to Spain in 1762. By 1769 about 100 families, mostly French, were living in the Post. In 1774 the Saint Landry Catholic Church was built.

Don Alejandro O'Reilly, Spanish governor of Louisiana, issued a land ordinance to allow settlers in the frontier of the Opelousas Territory to acquire land grants. The first official land grant was made in 1782. Numerous settlers: French, Creoles and Acadians, mainly from the Attakapas Territory, came to the Opelousas Territory and acquired land grants.

After the Louisiana Purchase of 1803, settlers continued to arrive from St. Martinville. Prejean, Thibodaux, Nezat, Hebert, Babineaux, Mouton, and Provost were some of the early Creole families. (This was Creole as French born in Louisiana, see French Creole.) Other early French Creole families were Roy, Barre, Guenard, Decuir, and Bail. In 1820, Alex Charles Barre, also a French Creole, founded Port Barre. His ancestors came from the French West Indies, probably after Haiti (St. Domingue) became independent. Jim Bowie and his family were said to have settled in the area circa 1813.

In 1805, Opelousas became the seat of the newly formed St. Landry Parish, also known as the Imperial Parish of Louisiana. The year 1806 marked the beginning of significant construction in Opelousas. The first courthouse was constructed in the middle of the town. Later in the year, the Louisiana Memorial United Methodist Church was founded, becoming the first Methodist, as well as Protestant, church in Louisiana. Five years later, the first St. Landry Parish Police Jury met in Opelousas, keeping minutes in the two official languages of English and French.

European and American settlement was based on plantation agriculture, and both groups brought or purchased numerous enslaved Africans and African Americans to work as laborers in cotton cultivation. African Americans influenced all cultures as the people created a creolized cuisine and music. The long decline of cotton prices throughout the 19th century caused problems for all relying on agriculture alone for livelihood.

The city was officially incorporated in 1821 to the United States. After Baton Rouge fell to the Union troops during the Civil War in 1862, Opelousas was designated the state capitol for nine months; the governor's mansion in Opelousas stands to this day. The capitol was moved again in 1863, this time to Shreveport when Union troops occupied Opelousas. During Reconstruction, the state government operated from New Orleans.

After the defeat of the South and emancipation of slaves, many whites had difficulty accepting the changed conditions, especially as economic problems and dependence on agriculture slowed the South's recovery. Social tensions were high during Reconstruction. In 1868, a white mob rioted and killed 25-50 freedmen in Opelousas. Some reports put the number killed even higher, ranging from 200-300, and it was one of the single worst instances of Reconstruction violence in south Louisiana.

Opelousas enacted ordinances following the abolition of slavery that served to greatly restrict the freedoms of black Americans. These codes required "Negroes" to have a written pass from their employer to enter the town and to state the duration of their visit. Negroes were not allowed on the streets after 10 p.m. They could neither own a house nor reside in the town, unless the employee of a white person. They were also not allowed in the town after 3 p.m. on Sundays.[5]

In 1880, the railroad reached Opelousas, giving the city an opportunity to grow and be better connected for trade. After getting the railroad, Opelousas also served as a stop for at least three of the Orphan Trains arranged by New York social services agencies to provide for resettlement of orphans until 1929. Opelousas is the heart of a traditional Catholic region of French, Spanish, Canadian and French West Indian heritage. Families in Louisiana took in more than 2,000 mostly Catholic orphans to live in their rural farming communities.[6]

Opelousas later accepted thousands of refugees in May 1927 following the Great Mississippi Flood of 1927. Heavy rains in northern and midwestern areas caused intense flooding in areas of Mississippi, Arkansas, and Louisiana downstream, especially after levées near Moreauville, Cecilia and Melville collapsed. Over 81% of St. Landry Parish suffered some flooding, with 77% of the inhabitants affected. People in more southern areas of Louisiana, especially those communities along Bayou Teche, were forced to flee their homes for areas which suffered less damage. By May 20, over 5,700 refugees were registered in Opelousas, which itself had a population of only 6,000 people. Many of the refugees were later able to return to their homes and begin the rebuilding process.[7]

The city of Opelousas is constructing an Orphan Train Museum (second in the nation) in an old train depot located in Le Vieux Village. The first museum dedicated to the Orphan Train children is located in Kansas. [8]

Festivals

The Yambilee Festival began in 1946 and is the oldest festival held each year in Opelousas. It starts on the Wednesday before the last full weekend of October and continues throughout the weekend with events including concerts, cooking competitions, a parade and beauty pageants.

Since 1982, Opelousas has hosted the Original Southwest Louisiana Zydeco Festival. Usually held the Saturday before Labor Day at Zydeco Park in Plaisance, LA , the festival features a day of performances by Zydeco musicians, with the goal of keeping the genre alive.[9] The exposure helped the city to be named the Zydeco Capital of the World on May 27, 2000, reflecting its significance in the history and continuing evolution of zydeco. Opelousas is also the home of Clifton Chenier, the king of Zydeco.

Additional events include:

  • Frank's Downtown Gumbo Cook-off-January
  • International Joke Telling Contest- April
  • Zydeco Extravaganza- May
  • Juneteenth Festival- 3rd Sat. in June
  • Holy Ghost Creole Festival- 1st weekend of November
  • Christmas Lighting of Le Vieux Village- 1st Friday of December
  • Here's the Beef Cook-off
  • Frank's Mardi Gras Parade- Mardi Gras Day
  • Opelousas Mardi Gras Celebration/Street Dance on Court St.- Mardi Gras Day

A complete list of festivals in the Opelousas area can be found at the St. Landry Parish Tourist Commission's website.

Education

Opelousas is home to several public and private schools.

The private schools include Opelousas Catholic School,Westminster Christian Academy, Acadiana Preparatory School, Apostolic Christian Academy, and New Hope Christian Academy.

Opelousas has 3 public high schools, which are Opelousas Senior High, Northwest High, and MACA - Magnet Academy for the Cultural Arts. Opelousas Junior High serves as the area middle school. Opelousas is also home to 8 public elementary schools which are North Elementary, Northeast Elementary, Grolee Elementary, South Street Elementary, Southwest Elementary, Creswell Elementary, Plaisance Elementary, and Park Vista Elementary.

Media

Opelousas is home to KOCZ-LP, a low power community radio station owned and operated by the Southern Development Foundation. The station was built by numerous volunteers from Opelousas and around the country at the third Prometheus Radio Project barnraising. KOCZ broadcasts music, news, and public affairs to listeners at 103.7FM. Opelousas is also home to The Mix KOGM 107.1FM which is owned by KSLO Broadcasting, Inc. There is 1 TV station based in Opelousas, KDCG TV Channel 22, and the city also uses the ABC, NBC, and CBS affiliates of nearby Lafayette.

Economy

The primary industries in Opelousas are agriculture, oil, manufacturing, wholesale, and retail.

In September 1999, Wal-Mart opened a large distribution center just north of the city. It is currently generating an $89 million dollar impact per year to the area, employing over 1300 full time workers.

Horse racing track Evangeline Downs relocated to Opelousas from its former home in Carencro, Louisiana in 2003 and employs over 750 workers.

Notable people

  • Brigadier General J.J. Alfred Mouton, CSA. Born in Opelousas February 29, 1829. Confederate General who served under General Richard Taylor, CSA and was killed during the Battle of Mansfield, Louisiana
  • Clifton Chenier, legendary zydeco musician
  • Jim Bowie, legendary adventurer and hero of the Alamo, lived in Opelousas for a time. His first marriage is recorded in the archives of the St. Landry Catholic Church.
  • W.W. Dumas, Mayor-President of East Baton Rouge Parish from 1965-1980, was born in Opelousas in 1916.
  • Sue Eakin (1918-2009), based in Bunkie, was a columnist for the Opelousas Daily World and several other newspapers
  • Richard Eastham (1916-2005), an American actor, was born in Opelousas. He played Harris Claibourne, a newspaper editor in the 1957-1960 ABC and later syndicated western series, Tombstone Territory.
  • Rodney Milburn, 1972 Olympic champion
  • John Ed Bradley, author
  • Paul Prudhomme, chef
  • Lloyd Mumphord, standout NFL cornerback and special teams captain of the legendary perfect season Miami Dolphins (1972-73) and two-time Super Bowl champion
  • Chef Tony Chachere was born in Opelousas, where the Chachere family still owns and operates Tony Chachere's Creole Foods.
  • Judge Benjamin Pavy, father-in-law of Carl Weiss, the young doctor who allegedly killed U.S. Senator Huey Pierce Long, Jr., was from Opelousas.
  • Another famous judge from Opelousas was Louisiana Chief Justice Albert Tate, Jr., who later served on the United States Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals, based in New Orleans.
  • Devery Henderson, New Orleans Saints wide receiver
  • Thomas T. Wartelle, professional golfer and renowned golf instructor
  • Tex Brashear, voice-over and cartoon voice actor
  • Marvin White from Port Barre plays for the Cincinnati Bengals-safety
  • Janice Chenier-Tayler, former United States Trustee for Region 5, appointed by Attorney Janet Reno.
  • Ivan L. R. Lemelle, Federal Judge, U.S. District Court, Eastern District of Louisiana, nominated by President Willam J. Clinton, and former U.S. Majistrate Judge, Eastern District of Louisiana.

References

Notes

Mentioned in a song in Keroac's "On the Road" book.

  1. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. http://www.naco.org/Template.cfm?Section=Find_a_County&Template=/cffiles/counties/usamap.cfm. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  2. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2000 and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2005-05-03. http://www.census.gov/geo/www/gazetteer/gazette.html. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  3. ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. http://geonames.usgs.gov. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  4. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  5. ^ [Black Reconstruction (NY: Harcourt Brace, 1935). W.E.B. Du Bois]
  6. ^ St. Landry Parish - About - Did You Know?, accessed 27 Apr 2008
  7. ^ Speyrer, John A.. "1927 High Water in St. Landry Parish". Speyrer Family Association Newsletter. http://www.geocities.com/Vienna/6980/flood.htm. Retrieved 2007-03-21. 
  8. ^ St. Landry Parish - Did You Know?, accessed 27 Apr 2008
  9. ^ "Opelousas Festivals". City of Opelousas. http://www.cityofopelousas.com/TOURISM_festival.htm. Retrieved 2007-03-19. 

80's synth-pop musician Thomas Dolby speaks of Opelousas in the first person within his song, "I Love You Goodbye" from his Astronauts and heretics album of 1992.

Resources

  • Jack Claude Nezat The Nezat And Allied Families 1630-2007 Lulu 2007 ISBN 978-2-9528339-2-9, ISBN 978-0-6151-5001-7

External links


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