Open-source: Wikis

  

Did you know ...


More interesting facts on Open-source

Include this on your site/blog:

Encyclopedia

(Redirected to Open source article)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

.Open source describes practices in production and development that promote access to the end product's source materials—typically, their source code.^ At its core, open source refers to open access to the source code of a program.
  • AITopics / Software 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.aaai.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It’s a good post for open source developers competing with commercial products.
  • How to Compete Against Open Source Competition | Software by Rob 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarebyrob.com [Source type: General]

^ Open Source developers can hardly be .
  • Xtreme Programming and Open Source Software Development | freshmeat.net 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC freshmeat.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1] .Some consider open source a philosophy, others consider it a pragmatic methodology.^ Open source software as a philosophy and a process .
  • Open source software in libraries / Eric Lease Morgan 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Facebook today confirmed that it is preparing to further open its platform so that third-party developers will be able to create applications using its source code that will run on other environments.
  • Facebook Confirms Open Source Plans - InternetNews.com 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.internetnews.com [Source type: General]

^ This exact strategy is used by many people who want to make a program Open Source and still make some money from it.
  • Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC oreilly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Open Source Definition 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC perens.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Before the term open source became widely adopted, developers and producers used a variety of phrases to describe the concept; open source gained hold with the rise of the Internet, and the attendant need for massive retooling of the computing source code.^ Open-source components (used as is or modified).

^ Open source software is software for which the source code is available.
  • Open Source Software and Applications 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.eadon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Eclipse : An open source development environment.
  • Using open source software to design, develop, and deploy a collaborative Web site, Part 1: Introduction and overview 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.ibm.com [Source type: General]

.Opening the source code enabled a self-enhancing diversity of production models, communication paths, and interactive communities.^ Most commercial open source products, however, are self-sufficient.
  • Open Source Software in Education (EDUCAUSE Quarterly) | EDUCAUSE 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.educause.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Open source is ultimately about communication.
  • tim.oreilly.com -- Open Source Software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC tim.oreilly.com [Source type: General]

^ Confusion in the open source community.

.[2] Subsequently, a new, three-word phrase "open source software" was born to describe the environment that the new copyright, licensing, domain, and consumer issues created.^ And thus it is with the majority of open source software: .
  • How to Compete Against Open Source Competition | Software by Rob 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarebyrob.com [Source type: General]

^ This isn't permissible for Open Source licenses.
  • Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC oreilly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Open Source Definition 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC perens.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Open source software is fundamentally grounded in copyright law[1] .
  • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

.The open source model includes the concept of concurrent yet different agendas and differing approaches in production, in contrast with more centralized models of development such as those typically used in commercial software companies.^ And thus it is with the majority of open source software: .
  • How to Compete Against Open Source Competition | Software by Rob 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarebyrob.com [Source type: General]

^ Most commercial open source products, however, are self-sufficient.
  • Open Source Software in Education (EDUCAUSE Quarterly) | EDUCAUSE 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.educause.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Q: What components of the JDK software have been open sourced?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.[3] A main principle and practice of open source software development is peer production by bartering and collaboration, with the end-product (and source-material) available at no cost to the public.^ And thus it is with the majority of open source software: .
  • How to Compete Against Open Source Competition | Software by Rob 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarebyrob.com [Source type: General]

^ Q: What components of the JDK software have been open sourced?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It’s a good post for open source developers competing with commercial products.
  • How to Compete Against Open Source Competition | Software by Rob 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarebyrob.com [Source type: General]

This is increasingly being applied in other fields of endeavor, such as biotechnology.[4]

Contents

History

.The concept of open source and free sharing of technological information has existed long before computers existed.^ Open source planetarium Stellarium is a free open source planetarium for your computer.
  • Make: Online : The Open Source Gift Guide: Open source hardware, software, and more for the holidays! 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC blog.makezine.com [Source type: General]

^ Pencil is free and open source.
  • List of Open Source Video Software - Open Video Alliance 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC openvideoalliance.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Open source, commercial open source, real free open source, ...
  • The Failure of Commercial Open Source Software - BusinessWeek 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.businessweek.com [Source type: General]

.There is open source pertaining to businesses and there is open source pertaining to computers, software, and technology.^ Q: What components of the JDK software have been open sourced?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Expression Engine is open source software.
  • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

^ Open source software companies are selling their "software".
  • The Failure of Commercial Open Source Software - BusinessWeek 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.businessweek.com [Source type: General]

.In the early years of automobile development, a group of capital monopolists owned the rights to a 2 cycle gasoline engine patent originally filed by George B. Selden.^ WinDisp was originally developed for the FAO Global Information and Early Warning System.

^ The controlling power coalition then exercises power in the pursuit of its own agenda, often to the detriment of the larger group, e.g., the Religious Right’s rise to power in the US. .
  • Open Source Truth Process | Yoism 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.yoism.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Zebra - Zebra is a workflow engine - originally developed to fill in the gaps in some commercial and open source workflow engines.
  • Manageability - Open Source Workflow Engines Written in Java 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.manageability.org [Source type: General]

[5] By controlling this patent, they were able to monopolize the industry and force car manufacturers to adhere to their demands, or risk a lawsuit. In 1911, independent automaker Henry Ford won a challenge to the Selden patent. .The result was that the Selden patent became virtually worthless and a new association (which would eventually become the Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association) was formed.^ Eventually it became the new GCC. .
  • 10 interesting open source software forks and why they happened | Royal Pingdom 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC royal.pingdom.com [Source type: General]

^ It was with the World Wide Web that the Internet broke into national consciousness and where Netscape Communications would become the central Bay Area firm around which a slew of new Silicon Valley companies would form.
  • The Origins and Future of Open Source Software 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.netaction.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rather, we are simply observing that patents, as recognized by the applicable legal system, possess characteristics associated generally with forms of personal property.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5] .The new association instituted a cross-licensing agreement among all US auto manufacturers: although each company would develop technology and file patents, these patents were shared openly and without the exchange of money between all the manufacturers.^ That's good news for all of us.

^ The Globus Alliance is a community of organizations and individuals developing fundamental technologies behind the " Grid ," which lets people share computing power, databases, instruments, and other on-line tools securely across corporate, institutional, and geographic boundaries without sacrificing local autonomy.

^ These provisions are a response to the Microsoft-Novell deal regarding patent licenses and software distribution.
  • Managing Rights Management: Open Source 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.managingrights.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5] .Up to the point where the US entered World War II, 92 Ford patents were being used freely by other manufacturers and were in turn making use of 515 patents from other companies, all without lawsuits or the exchange of any money.^ A big issue for sales is that companies want indemnification against lawsuits, mainly for patent infringement.
  • The Failure of Commercial Open Source Software - BusinessWeek 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.businessweek.com [Source type: General]

^ In the Technology At Work blog, Rachael King and occasional guest bloggers explore how companies are using innovative software, hardware and other tools to revolutionize work spaces, cut costs of getting the job done, and make us better, faster and smarter at earning a living.
  • The Failure of Commercial Open Source Software - BusinessWeek 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.businessweek.com [Source type: General]

^ This exact strategy is used by many people who want to make a program Open Source and still make some money from it.
  • Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC oreilly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Open Source Definition 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC perens.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5]
.Very similar to open standards, researchers with access to the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) used a process called Request for Comments to develop telecommunication network protocols.^ Licklider in 1960 has written a manifesto for using computers to enhance research and research collaboration called "Man-Computer Symbiosis" and would define the IPTO's office's mandate in research funding.
  • The Origins and Future of Open Source Software 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.netaction.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Apache XML Project The goal of the Apache XML Project is to provide "commercial-quality standards-based XML solutions that are developed in an open and cooperative fashion, to provide feedback to standards bodies (such ...
  • Open Source 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.xml.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Using models from ARPA's project around radio packet switching, Metcalfe created a system called Ethernet to exchange information between computers in what would come to be called Local Area Networks (LANs).
  • The Origins and Future of Open Source Software 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.netaction.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Characterized by contemporary open source work, this 1960s' collaborative process led to the birth of the Internet in 1969. There are earlier instances of open source and free software such as IBM's source releases of its operating systems and other programs in the 1950s, 60s, and the SHARE user group that formed to facilitate the exchange of software.^ And thus it is with the majority of open source software: .
  • How to Compete Against Open Source Competition | Software by Rob 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarebyrob.com [Source type: General]

^ There are also elements incorporated from other free software projects.

^ An earlier software movement similar to Open Source is the Free Software Movement (embodied in the Free Software Foundation).
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6][7] .Open source on the internet began when the internet was just a message board and progressed to more advanced presentation and sharing forms like a website.^ It's not just an open-source problem.
  • open source posts - The Open Road - CNET News 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: General]

^ More about: open source .
  • The 5 Best Open-Source Social Networking Software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.makeuseof.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Free software, just like open source software, has weakened our ability to share our outlook with others—both now and in the future—by reducing the number of people who are going to really listen to us!

.There are now many websites, organizations, and businesses who promote open source sharing of everything from computer code to mechanics of improving a product, technique, or medical advancement.^ Are there exceptions in the open source world?
  • How to Compete Against Open Source Competition | Software by Rob 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarebyrob.com [Source type: General]

^ Are you open sourcing the latest code?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Open source software is software for which the source code is available.
  • Open Source Software and Applications 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.eadon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The decision by some people in the free software movement to use the label “open source” came out of a strategy session[8] held at Palo Alto, California, in reaction to Netscape's January 1998 announcement of a source code release for Navigator.^ And thus it is with the majority of open source software: .
  • How to Compete Against Open Source Competition | Software by Rob 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarebyrob.com [Source type: General]

^ As a whole the movement is often called "Free and Open-Source software" (FOSS).
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An earlier software movement similar to Open Source is the Free Software Movement (embodied in the Free Software Foundation).
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The group of individuals at the session included Christine Peterson who suggested “open source”, Todd Anderson, Larry Augustin, Jon Hall, Sam Ockman, Michael Tiemann and Eric S. Raymond.^ Larry Augustin of VA Research and Sam Ockman (who later left VA to form Penguin Computing) were involved, as well as others who aren't known to me.
  • Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC oreilly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It’s all explained in a blogalicious post from co-founder Eric Woodward, who said that by September 15 Nambu will become an open source project offering its software under the GPL-compatible MIT license .
  • Open Source | ZDNet.com 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC blogs.zdnet.com [Source type: General]

^ Five years ago a brainstorming session in Palo Alto led to the coining of the term " open source ."
  • ECHO Science & Technology Memory Bank - History of Free and Open Source Software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC echo.gmu.edu [Source type: General]

.They used the opportunity before the release of Navigator's source code to free themselves of the ideological and confrontational connotations of the term free software.^ Open source software is software for which the source code is available.
  • Open Source Software and Applications 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.eadon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The user is free to use the software for any purpose.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Expect many minor releases from Free and Open Source software.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Netscape licensed and released its code as open source under the Netscape Public License and subsequently under the Mozilla Public License.^ This isn't permissible for Open Source licenses.
  • Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC oreilly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Open Source Definition 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC perens.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A MORE interesting open source fork is Netscape -> Mozilla.
  • 10 interesting open source software forks and why they happened | Royal Pingdom 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC royal.pingdom.com [Source type: General]

^ Q: Is GPL v2 an open-source license?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[9]
.The term was given a big boost at an event organized in April 1998 by technology publisher Tim O'Reilly.^ Why O'Reilly books aren't open source  --  An Ask Tim piece from December 1998.
  • tim.oreilly.com -- Open Source Software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC tim.oreilly.com [Source type: General]

^ Tim O'Reilly Sends an "Open Letter to Microsoft"  -- This was written in November 1998, just after the release of the Halloween Documents.
  • tim.oreilly.com -- Open Source Software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC tim.oreilly.com [Source type: General]

.Originally titled the “Freeware Summit” and later known as the “Open Source Summit”,[10] the event brought together the leaders of many of the most important free and open source projects, including Linus Torvalds, Larry Wall, Brian Behlendorf, Eric Allman, Guido van Rossum, Michael Tiemann, Paul Vixie, Jamie Zawinski of Netscape, and Eric Raymond.^ This is an open source project.
  • AITopics / Software 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.aaai.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mono-culture tends to arise in most open source projects.
  • 10 interesting open source software forks and why they happened | Royal Pingdom 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC royal.pingdom.com [Source type: General]

^ Open source, commercial open source, real free open source, ...
  • The Failure of Commercial Open Source Software - BusinessWeek 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.businessweek.com [Source type: General]

.At that meeting, the confusion caused by the name free software was brought up.^ That would bring us up to about today--but the free software movement would be far far ahead of where it is now.
  • Without Free Software, Open Source Would Lose its Meaning | Linux Journal 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.linuxjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ Determined to circumvent the confusion and the combativeness that was perceived to emanate from the free software camp, in 1998 a group of hackers met in Palo Alto, California and brainstormed a new name for nonproprietary software, to Stallman's dismay.
  • Dr. Dobb's | Is Open Source for You? | May 1, 2001 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.ddj.com [Source type: General]

^ These new models incorporated, evolved from or grew up in parallel with the "Free Software" model developed by the Free Software Foundation in the mid-eighties.
  • eXtropia | a case study in open source software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC extropia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Tiemann argued for “sourceware” as a new term, while Raymond argued for “open source.” The assembled developers took a vote, and the winner was announced at a press conference that evening.^ For any Open source development : Contact Us .
  • Open Source Development | Open Source Application | Open Source Ecommerce | Web Development India 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.perceptionsystem.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Eclipse : An open source development environment.
  • Using open source software to design, develop, and deploy a collaborative Web site, Part 1: Introduction and overview 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.ibm.com [Source type: General]

^ O’Reilly’s OSCON is perhaps best conference for open source developers.

.Five days later, Raymond made the first public call to the free software community to adopt the new term.^ Debian's guidelines were lauded in the free software community, especially among Linux developers, who were working their own free software revolution at the time in developing the first practical free operating system.
  • Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC oreilly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Open Source Definition 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC perens.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Raymond is the Margaret Meade of free software: he has written several anthropological articles explaining the free software phenomenon and the culture that has grown around it, works that are the first of their kind and have shown a spotlight on this formerly little-known phenomenon.
  • The Open Source Definition 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC perens.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I find the free software is really good for building small online communities or using it to determine feasibility.
  • The 5 Best Open-Source Social Networking Software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.makeuseof.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[11] .The Open Source Initiative was formed shortly thereafter.^ The Open Source Initiative has this for a definition of open-source software: .
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A few open source licenses have other restrictions requiring some form of attribution.
  • Collaboration and Content Strategies Blog: open source 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC ccsblog.burtongroup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some of those risks may relate specifically to Open Source software, but most often they relate to all software, regardless of the form of license.
  • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

[8]
.Starting in the early 2000's, a number of companies began to publish a portion of their source code to claim they were open source, while keeping key parts closed.^ They didn't mean to include the open-source code fragments.

^ Are you open sourcing the latest code?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Open source software is software for which the source code is available.
  • Open Source Software and Applications 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.eadon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This led to the development of the now widely used terms Free open source software and Commercial Open Source Software to distinguish between truly open and hybrid forms of open source.^ And thus it is with the majority of open source software: .
  • How to Compete Against Open Source Competition | Software by Rob 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarebyrob.com [Source type: General]

^ Can download free for non commercial use.
  • The 5 Best Open-Source Social Networking Software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.makeuseof.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Q: What components of the JDK software have been open sourced?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Markets

.Software is not the only field affected by open source; many fields of study and social and political views have been affected by the growth of the concept of open source.^ View all Open Source Interviews .
  • Closed and Open Source for Unix | Free Linux Downloads 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.developers.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And thus it is with the majority of open source software: .
  • How to Compete Against Open Source Competition | Software by Rob 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarebyrob.com [Source type: General]

^ View all Open Source Solutions .
  • Closed and Open Source for Unix | Free Linux Downloads 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.developers.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Advocates in one field will often support the expansion of open source in other fields, including Linus Torvalds who is quoted as saying, "the future is open source everything."
.Eric Raymond and other founders of the open source movement have sometimes publicly tried to put the brakes on speculation about applications outside of software, arguing that strong arguments for software openness should not be weakened by overreaching into areas where the story is less compelling.^ And thus it is with the majority of open source software: .
  • How to Compete Against Open Source Competition | Software by Rob 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarebyrob.com [Source type: General]

^ Q: What components of the JDK software have been open sourced?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But what about open source?
  • open source posts - The Open Road - CNET News 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: General]

.The broader impacts of the open source movement, and the extent of its role in the development of new information sharing procedures, remains to be seen.^ Eclipse : An open source development environment.
  • Using open source software to design, develop, and deploy a collaborative Web site, Part 1: Introduction and overview 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.ibm.com [Source type: General]

^ For any Open source development : Contact Us .
  • Open Source Development | Open Source Application | Open Source Ecommerce | Web Development India 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.perceptionsystem.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Is this what the founding open source developers envisioned?
  • Open Source | ZDNet.com 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC blogs.zdnet.com [Source type: General]

.The open source movement has been the inspiration for increased transparency and liberty in other fields, including the release of biotechnology research by CAMBIA, Wikipedia, and other projects.^ This is an open source project.
  • AITopics / Software 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.aaai.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What has the open source movement done for the industry?

^ Joining the existing Open Source Project .
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The open-source concept has also been applied to media other than computer programs, e.g., by Creative Commons.^ This License applies to any program or other work which Apple Computer, Inc.
  • Pogoplug - Open Source Credits 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.pogoplug.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In this case, Open Office, Java, and other Open Source products created and managed by SUN have a zero dollar value in and of themselves because of licensing.
  • How many billions is open-source software worth? - Computerworld Blogs 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC blogs.computerworld.com [Source type: General]

^ It lacks, for example, the collaborative improvement process promoted by the open source Open Source definition sponsored by SearchEnterpriseLinux.com, powered by WhatIs.com an online computer dictionary .
  • Open Source - White Papers, Webcasts and IT downloads - Bitpipe.com 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC www.bitpipe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It also constitutes an example of user innovation (see for example the book Democratizing Innovation). .Often, open source is an expression where it simply means that a system is available to all who wish to work on it.^ View all Open Source Interviews .
  • Closed and Open Source for Unix | Free Linux Downloads 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.developers.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It's not precisely open source, but it's all open.
  • Make: Online : The Open Source Gift Guide: Open source hardware, software, and more for the holidays! 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC blog.makezine.com [Source type: General]

^ View all Open Source Solutions .
  • Closed and Open Source for Unix | Free Linux Downloads 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.developers.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The difference between crowdsourcing and open source is that open source production is a cooperative activity initiated and voluntarily undertaken by members of the public
.Most economists would agree that open source candidates have a public goods aspect to them.^ So, why would any one open source.
  • The Failure of Commercial Open Source Software - BusinessWeek 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.businessweek.com [Source type: General]

^ (Most notably, the Apple Public Source License before version 2.0 is OSI-certified, but is not considered "Free" by the FSF.) Though many of the principles are the same, Open Source has a pragmatic and economic emphasis, while Free Software emphasizes philosophy and ethics.
  • Meatball Wiki: OpenSource 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC meatballwiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While everyone was speculating if Android is going to be an open source platform, they have come out with Android Open Source Project, which will give public at large the opportunity to make contributions.
  • 10 Best Open Source ERP Software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC blog.taragana.com [Source type: General]

.In general, this suggests that the original work involves a great deal of time, money, and effort.^ But in general you’re right, it comes down to trading time for money and realizing what you provide.
  • How to Compete Against Open Source Competition | Software by Rob 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarebyrob.com [Source type: General]

^ Yes it does cost some money, but you get great support, large friendly community and something that works straight out of the box.
  • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

^ However, though only a short time has passed, we have learned a great deal.
  • eXtropia | a case study in open source software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC extropia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, the cost of reproducing the work is very low so that additional users may be added at zero or near zero cost - this is referred to as the marginal cost of a product.^ However, licenses do impact those who modify the program, and the license can even impact users who don't modify their programs in the sense that the licenses impact what they (and those they work with) can do later.
  • How to Evaluate Open Source Software / Free Software (OSS/FS) Programs 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.dwheeler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The search and advertising markets are already highly competitive with very low switching costs, so users and advertisers already have plenty of choice and are not locked in.
  • open source posts - The Open Road - CNET News 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: General]

^ You may not refer to your product or implementation as a JDK, even if it is based on code you downloaded from the OpenJDK Project.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

At this point, it is necessary to consider a copyright. .The idea of copyright for works of authorship is to protect the incentive of making these original works.^ Act provides: "In no case does copyright protection for an original work of authorship extend to any idea, procedure, process, system, method of operation, concept, principle, or discovery, regardless of the form in which it is described, explained, illustrated, or embodied in such work."
  • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Now one way you can "protect" your free software/works from being submissive to this "hole" in Copyright Law is to assign all rights to the Free Software Foundation.
  • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ By choosing the same license as their peers in related projects, these developers make it easier to share code and create copyright policies that are standard throughout a development community.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Copyright restriction then creates access costs on consumers who value the original more than making an additional copy but value the original less than its price.^ Seems to me that $179 more than covers distribution cost, also, warranty protection is not being offered, it is being required.
  • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ And not many people understand this better than Gary Hardy, IT consultant and contributor to the original initiative that created CobiT. .

^ Try to be flexible in comparing needs to products, though; a product that meets 80% of your needs may have other advantages that make it better than a product that meets 100% of your originally-posited needs.
  • How to Evaluate Open Source Software / Free Software (OSS/FS) Programs 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.dwheeler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Thus, they will pay an access cost of this difference.^ Each of these business models has a different set of factors to pay attention to in terms of how they use open source and what they must do to succeed.
  • Collaboration and Content Strategies Blog: open source 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC ccsblog.burtongroup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Access costs also pose problems for authors who wish to create something based on another work yet are not willing to pay the copyright holder for the rights to the copyrighted work.^ In US copyright law, this is an implicit exclusive right of the creator of a work.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Who owns the copyright to a derivative work?
  • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Right to create modifications and derivative works.
  • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

.The second type of cost incurred with a copyright system is the cost of administration and enforcement of the copyright.^ Learn the business benefits gained through increased productivity, reduced system life cycle costs, greater administration consistency, and enhanced security.
  • Open Source - White Papers, Webcasts and IT downloads - Bitpipe.com 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC www.bitpipe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Open Source Definition 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC www.bitpipe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The idea of open source is then to eliminate the access costs of the consumer and the creator by reducing the restrictions of copyright.^ Can open source be consumer friendly?
  • open source posts - The Open Road - CNET News 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: General]

^ Open source has complex legal restrictions that can create copyright and patent compliance issues and corporate transaction challenges for companies that rely heavily on customized software or that distribute software to partners or customers.
  • How Open-Source Software Can Affect A Company's Value 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.computerworld.com [Source type: General]

^ At its core, open source refers to open access to the source code of a program.
  • AITopics / Software 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.aaai.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This will lead to creation of additional works, which build upon previous work and add to greater social benefit.^ The purpose of this plug-in is to add additional Errors and Warnings to the Eclipse Framework, assisting Java programmers to create bug free, high quality code.
  • Open Source Software in Java 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC java-source.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Our participation in GSoC has strengthened our project by encouraging us to create additional technical and social infrastructure.

^ Without expectation of financially capturing the social benefits of their creation, they are free to innovate without restriction.
  • The Origins and Future of Open Source Software 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.netaction.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Additionally, some proponents argue that open source also relieves society of the administration and enforcement costs of copyright.^ With publicly available source code generally offered without charge, it is tempting to look to open source for potentially significant cost savings in this time of need.
  • How Open-Source Software Can Affect A Company's Value 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.computerworld.com [Source type: General]
  • Computerworld - Knowledge Centers - Learn about Open Source 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.computerworld.com [Source type: General]

^ Users will similarly discover that some of these new-style “blurred” open source applications fail to deliver the promised benefits of control, customisation and cost-savings.
  • Without Free Software, Open Source Would Lose its Meaning | Linux Journal 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.linuxjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ This exact strategy is used by many people who want to make a program Open Source and still make some money from it.
  • Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC oreilly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Open Source Definition 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC perens.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Organizations such as Creative Commons have websites where individuals can file for alternative "licenses", or levels of restriction, for their works.^ A: Each source file is individually licensed.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An OSD-conformant license may warn licensees of applicable restrictions and remind them that they are obliged to obey the law; however, it may not incorporate such restrictions itself.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Open source isn't just for software: "Elephants Dream is the world's first open movie, made entirely with open source graphics software such as Blender, and with all production files freely available to use however you please, under a Creative Commons license."
  • Open Source Software and Applications 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.eadon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These self-made protections free the general society of the costs of policing copyright infringement.^ While copyright is intended to most protect written works from unauthorized use, and most commercial copyright licenses do so by prohibiting changes or distribution, copyleft licenses encourage free and widespread use.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So their costs are comparable to proprietary software companies that offer free trial versions for lead generation.
  • The Failure of Commercial Open Source Software - BusinessWeek 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.businessweek.com [Source type: General]

^ If you notice that someone is using the mark generically, you can point them to these guidelines and politely request that they help you protect your mark by using it properly.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Thus, on several fronts, there is an efficiency argument to be made on behalf of open sourced goods.^ And thus it is with the majority of open source software: .
  • How to Compete Against Open Source Competition | Software by Rob 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarebyrob.com [Source type: General]

^ Are there exceptions in the open source world?
  • How to Compete Against Open Source Competition | Software by Rob 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarebyrob.com [Source type: General]

^ There's no open-source app for that.
  • open source posts - The Open Road - CNET News 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: General]

.Others argue that society loses through open sourced goods.^ And if you missed Scott Ambler's column on internal open source (" Reuse Through Internal Open Source ," Thinking Objectively, Dec.
  • Dr. Dobb's | Is Open Source for You? | May 1, 2001 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.ddj.com [Source type: General]

^ In this case, Open Office, Java, and other Open Source products created and managed by SUN have a zero dollar value in and of themselves because of licensing.
  • How many billions is open-source software worth? - Computerworld Blogs 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC blogs.computerworld.com [Source type: General]

^ LinuxWorld is a more business-oriented event, and a good place for to catch up with latest developments in the world of infrastructure, Linux and Open Source software.

.Because there is a loss in monetary incentive to the creation of new goods, some argue that new products will not be created.^ The quality of the markup is quite good to start with but there are some modules (like CKK and Views) that tend to generate some really bloated markup.
  • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

^ Second, they are creating a whole new integrated product based off of the amalgamation of several open source products, which sounds like a big integration challenge.
  • Collaboration and Content Strategies Blog: open source 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC ccsblog.burtongroup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Open source is so successful because it’s creating new markets.

.This argument seems to apply particularly to the business model where extensive research and development is done, e.g.^ One of the keys to effectively applying open source solutions is to understand a vendor’s business model and the role the software plays in their market plans.
  • Collaboration and Content Strategies Blog: open source 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC ccsblog.burtongroup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While the Bluenog ICE product itself looks interesting, it is the business model the company uses to develop it that is causing a controversy and, in my opinion, raises some flags.
  • Collaboration and Content Strategies Blog: open source 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC ccsblog.burtongroup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So the two began researching business models oriented around free software.
  • eXtropia | a case study in open source software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC extropia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

pharmaceuticals. .However, others argue that visual art and other works of authorship should be free.^ However, this argument considers the license in the body of contract law, while some argue that it should be considered as copyright law, where there is more precedent for no-signature licenses.
  • Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC oreilly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, this argument considers the license in the body of contract law , while some argue that it should be considered as copyright law , where there is more precedent for no-signature licenses.
  • The Open Source Definition 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC perens.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A work consisting of editorial revisions, annotations, elaborations, or other modifications, which, as a whole, represent an original work of authorship, is a "derivative work"."
  • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

.These proponents of extensive open source ideals argue that there should be no monetary incentive for artists.^ Isn't that no longer "open source"?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Are there exceptions in the open source world?
  • How to Compete Against Open Source Competition | Software by Rob 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarebyrob.com [Source type: General]

^ Are there any open source solutions that meet these needs?
  • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

Agriculture

.
  • Beverages
    • OpenCola — An idea inspired by the open source movement.^ What has the open source movement done for the industry?

      ^ Some months before Open Source, I had concieved of the idea of Open Hardware, a similar concept but for hardware devices and their interfaces rather than software programs.
      • The Open Source Definition 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC perens.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ As a whole the movement is often called "Free and Open-Source software" (FOSS).
      • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      Soft drink giants like Coke and Pepsi hold their formulas as closely guarded secrets. Now volunteers have posted the recipe for a similar cola drink on the Internet. The taste is said to be comparable to that of the standard beverages.
    • Beer — A beer recipe called Vores Øl. .The beer was created by students at the IT-University in Copenhagen together with Superflex, a Copenhagen-based artist collective, to illustrate how open source concepts might be applied outside the digital world.^ Are there exceptions in the open source world?
      • How to Compete Against Open Source Competition | Software by Rob 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarebyrob.com [Source type: General]

      ^ This is the best open source software in the world.
      • Best Open Source Software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC lifehacker.biz [Source type: General]

      ^ If all open source was this good , it might take over the world.
      • Obama wants to know: Why open source? | The Open Road - CNET News 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: General]

      .The concept expands upon a statement found in the Free Software Definition: "Free software is a matter of liberty, not price.^ The concept of Free Software was created for the individual.
      • Without Free Software, Open Source Would Lose its Meaning | Linux Journal 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.linuxjournal.com [Source type: General]

      ^ The concept of free software is an old one.
      • Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC oreilly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
      • The Open Source Definition 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC perens.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Free software is a matter of liberty, not price.
      • eXtropia | a case study in open source software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC extropia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      .To understand the concept, you should think of 'free' as in 'free speech' not as in 'free beer.'"^ Post in the comments on what you think should be in the Open Source Gift Guide and we'll add it!
      • Make: Online : The Open Source Gift Guide: Open source hardware, software, and more for the holidays! 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC blog.makezine.com [Source type: General]

      ^ Often Free Software is referred to as "free as in speech, not as in beer", stressing the idea that the Free-software movement is concerned with freedom , not with price .
      • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ You should truly and completely understand the obligations imposed by the license before you can explain to a violator how to comply.
      • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      [12] .Following its release, an article in Wired magazine commented that "as open source spreads beyond software to online encyclopedias like Wikipedia and biological research, it was only a matter of time before somebody created an open-source beer".[13]
    • But before that In 2002 a beer company in Australia, Brewtopia, started an open source brewery which invited the general population to be involved in the development and ownership of the brewery, but asking them to vote on the development of every aspect of their beer, Blowfly, and its road to market.^ Open Source or open-source software is different from proprietary software.
      • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Open source is so successful because it’s creating new markets.

      ^ And thus it is with the majority of open source software: .
      • How to Compete Against Open Source Competition | Software by Rob 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarebyrob.com [Source type: General]

      .In return for their feedback and input, they received shares in the company, which is now publicly traded on one of the Stock Exchanges in Australia.^ Now I need a function like this in my company's software (a trade secret one, with commercial distributions).
      • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Small wonder, then, that the company elected to repurchase 1.9 million shares of common stock for $52.3 million.
      • open source posts - The Open Road - CNET News 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: General]

      ^ Now, JBoss is a part of a public company, MySQL is VC-backed, and they both have external shareholders.

      The company has always adhered to its Open Source roots and is the only beer company in the world that allows the public to design, customise and develop their own beers online.
    • Coffee - It has been pointed out[14] that capsule-based beverage systems such as Nestle's Nespresso or Krups' Tassimo turn home-brewed coffee from an inherently "open-source" beverage into a product limited by the specific range of capsules made available by the system manufacturers.

Content

.
  • Open-content projects organized by the Wikimedia Foundation — Sites such as Wikipedia and Wiktionary have embraced the open-content GFDL and Creative Commons content licenses.^ I run the Science Commons project at Creative Commons.
    • Distributed Science, Part 2 : Common Knowledge 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Open source isn't just for software: "Elephants Dream is the world's first open movie, made entirely with open source graphics software such as Blender, and with all production files freely available to use however you please, under a Creative Commons license."
    • Open Source Software and Applications 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.eadon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ While freedom to use and revise the content is ONE aspect of open source works, what makes a software project like Linux, Apache, or a text compilation product like Wikipedia "open source" is a system for collective modification and revision of a single product.
    • Open Source Truth Process | Yoism 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.yoism.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .These licenses were designed to adhere to principles similar to various open-source software development licenses.^ And thus it is with the majority of open source software: .
    • How to Compete Against Open Source Competition | Software by Rob 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarebyrob.com [Source type: General]

    ^ This includes modification of Open Source software.
    • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ This isn't permissible for Open Source licenses.
    • Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC oreilly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • The Open Source Definition 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC perens.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Many of these licenses ensure that content remains free for re-use, that source documents are made readily available to interested parties, and that changes to content are accepted easily back into the system.^ In this way, "unofficial" changes can be made available but readily distinguished from the base source.
    • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The availability of the LOGOS system as open source can change this situation...."
    • AITopics / Software 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.aaai.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ License: free for noncommercial use ] .

    .An important site embracing open source-like ideals is Project Gutenberg, which posts many books on which the copyright has expired and are thus in the Public Domain, ensuring that anyone can use that content for any purpose whatsoever.
  • There are few examples of business information (methodologies, advice, guidance, practices) using the open source model, although this is another case where the potential is enormous.^ And thus it is with the majority of open source software: .
    • How to Compete Against Open Source Competition | Software by Rob 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarebyrob.com [Source type: General]

    ^ There are a few loopholes in the GPL that allow it to be used in programs that are not entirely Open Source.
    • Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC oreilly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ This is an open source project.
    • AITopics / Software 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.aaai.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .ITIL is close to open source.^ The bad guys will find the holes whether source is open or closed.
    • eXtropia | a case study in open source software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC extropia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The license must not restrict other software, thus permitting the distribution of open source and closed source software together.
    • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ All what you sell with closed software, is valid with open source software, only that you don’t sell an empty box.
    • How to Compete Against Open Source Competition | Software by Rob 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarebyrob.com [Source type: General]

    .It uses the Cathedral model (no mechanism exists for user contribution) and the content must be bought for a fee that is small by business consulting standards (hundreds of British pounds).^ Our business model would not change if we used free software.
    • Meatball Wiki: OpenSource 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC meatballwiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ No matter if you're a Linux fan, Mac user or you use Windows regularly, I think everyone will enjoy this video.

    ^ GeoVRML "GeoVRML is an effort to provide support for representing and visualizing geographic data using standard VRML97 (Virtual Reality Modeling Language)."

    .Various checklists are published by government, banks or accounting firms.^ It supports multiple accounts in different currencies, double entry banking, income/expense categories, various reports and Quicken file (QIF) exchange.
    • Open Source Software in Java 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC java-source.net [Source type: Reference]

    Possibly the only example of free, bazaar-model open source business information is Core Practice.

Health and science

.
  • Medicine
  • Science
    • Research — The Science Commons was created as an alternative to the expensive legal costs of sharing and reusing scientific works in journals etc.
    • ResearchThe Open Source Science Project was created to increase the ability for students to participate in the research process by providing them access to microfunding - which, in turn, offers non-researchers the opportunity to directly invest, and follow, cutting-edge scientific research.^ So, why would any one open source.
      • The Failure of Commercial Open Source Software - BusinessWeek 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.businessweek.com [Source type: General]

      ^ This is an open source project.
      • AITopics / Software 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.aaai.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Discussions in an open source truth process .
      • Open Source Truth Process | Yoism 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.yoism.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      All data and methodology is subsequently published in an openly-accessible manner under a Creative Commons fair use license.

Technology

.
MediaWiki logo
  • Computer software
    • Open source software — software whose source code is published and made available to the public, enabling anyone to copy, modify and redistribute the source code without paying royalties or fees.^ And thus it is with the majority of open source software: .
      • How to Compete Against Open Source Competition | Software by Rob 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarebyrob.com [Source type: General]

      ^ Q: What components of the JDK software have been open sourced?
      • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Does anyone reading this have experience from open source portal software?
      • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

      .Open source code evolves through community cooperation.^ Confusion in the open source community.

      ^ Are you open sourcing the latest code?
      • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Open source software is software for which the source code is available.
      • Open Source Software and Applications 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.eadon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      .These communities are composed of individual programmers as well as very large companies.^ However, we got the impression the framework was well written, robust, very extensible, and seemed to have a thriving development community that was generating a lot of adoption and support.
      • Using open source software to design, develop, and deploy a collaborative Web site, Part 1: Introduction and overview 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.ibm.com [Source type: General]

      ^ We are part of a very smart and very well connected community of people, especially when it comes to scientific matters.

      ^ But these fine programs are the tip of a very large iceberg, based in academia, that is slowly transforming education and the education process.
      • Open Source | ZDNet.com 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC blogs.zdnet.com [Source type: General]

      .Examples of open-source software products are:
  • Computer hardware
    • Open source hardware — hardware whose initial specification, usually in a software format, are published and made available to the public, enabling anyone to copy, modify and redistribute the hardware and source code without paying royalties or fees.^ Bricolage cmsInfo Bricolage is a full-featured, open-source content-management and publishing system.
      • Property Viewer 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.cmsreview.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ And thus it is with the majority of open source software: .
      • How to Compete Against Open Source Competition | Software by Rob 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarebyrob.com [Source type: General]

      ^ At its core, open source refers to open access to the source code of a program.
      • AITopics / Software 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.aaai.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      .Open source hardware evolves through community cooperation.^ Confusion in the open source community.

      ^ Sun Open Sources Java (April Fool) April 1st, 2006 In a significant (read earth shattering for Java community worldwide) move Sun has announced their decision to open source Java technologies.
      • OrangeHRM Free Open Source HRM Software: Review 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC blog.taragana.com [Source type: General]

      ^ The Open Source Truth Process aims to ensure that the Yoan Community's core writings and beliefs will evolve over time, as everyone—based on each person's own direct experience of Reality—is invited to provide input and improvements.
      • Open Source Truth Process | Yoism 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.yoism.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      .These communities are composed of individual hardware/software developers, hobbyists, as well as very large companies.^ Debian's guidelines were lauded in the free software community, especially among Linux developers, who were working their own free software revolution at the time in developing the first practical free operating system.
      • The Open Source Definition 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC perens.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ If you’ve been involved in open source or follow the communities that develop around open source projects, the one thing you learn very quickly is that more than just the software has to be open.

      ^ Most universities annually pay large sums to software companies to use their products, but open source licenses are free.
      • Open Source Software in Education (EDUCAUSE Quarterly) | EDUCAUSE 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.educause.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      .Examples of open source hardware initiatives are:
      • Sun Microsystems's OpenSPARC T1 Multicore processor.^ The Open Source Initiative has this for a definition of open-source software: .
        • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

        ^ It lacks, for example, the collaborative improvement process promoted by the open source Open Source definition sponsored by SearchEnterpriseLinux.com, powered by WhatIs.com an online computer dictionary .
        • Open Source - White Papers, Webcasts and IT downloads - Bitpipe.com 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC www.bitpipe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

        ^ Microsoft originated the shared source approach, which has since been adopted by other major industry players, including Hewlett-Packard and Sun Microsystems.The shared source model offers fewer benefits than the open source model.
        • Open Source - White Papers, Webcasts and IT downloads - Bitpipe.com 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC www.bitpipe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

        .Sun has released it under GPL.
      • Arduino, a microcontroller platform for hobbyists, artists and designers.
  • Open design — which involves applying open source methodologies to the design of artifacts and systems in the physical world.^ Sun Microsystems released and Open Office as open source, and support it.
    • Open Source Software and Applications 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.eadon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Q: Is GPL v2 an open-source license?
    • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Every open-source project should have a UI designer involved.
    • open source posts - The Open Road - CNET News 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: General]

    .Very nascent but has huge potential.
  • Teaching - which involves applying the concepts of open source to instruction using a shared web space as a platform to improve upon learning, organizational, and management challenges.^ Contenido (in German) Contenido is an open source Web Content Management System.
    • Property Viewer 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.cmsreview.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Apache : An open source Web server.
    • Using open source software to design, develop, and deploy a collaborative Web site, Part 1: Introduction and overview 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.ibm.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Very nice review of open source and its potentials.
    • Open Source Software in Education (EDUCAUSE Quarterly) | EDUCAUSE 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.educause.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    An example of an Open Source Courseware is the Java Education & Development Initiative (JEDI).
.Open source principles can also be applied to technical areas other than computer software, such as digital communication protocols and data storage formats (for instance the Indian development simputer).^ And thus it is with the majority of open source software: .
  • How to Compete Against Open Source Competition | Software by Rob 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarebyrob.com [Source type: General]

^ Q: What components of the JDK software have been open sourced?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Open source software is software for which the source code is available.
  • Open Source Software and Applications 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.eadon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Example
.An investigation of open source industrial symbiosis is performed by Doyle and Pearce [1] using Google Earth (GE).^ Use open source.
  • How to Compete Against Open Source Competition | Software by Rob 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarebyrob.com [Source type: General]

^ What has the open source movement done for the industry?

^ Sun Open Sources Java (April Fool) April 1st, 2006 In a significant (read earth shattering for Java community worldwide) move Sun has announced their decision to open source Java technologies.
  • OrangeHRM Free Open Source HRM Software: Review 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC blog.taragana.com [Source type: General]

This paper found that virtual globes coupled with open source waste information can be used to:
  1. reduce embodied transport energy by reducing distances to recycling facilities,
  2. choose end of life at recycling facilities rather than landfills, and
  3. establish industrial symbiosis and eco-industrial parks on known by-product synergies.
.Ultimately, open source sharing of information in virtual globes provide a means to identify economically and environmentally beneficial opportunities for waste management if the data have been made available.^ Open source software is software for which the source code is available.
  • Open Source Software and Applications 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.eadon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An open source content management solution .
  • Using open source software to design, develop, and deploy a collaborative Web site, Part 1: Introduction and overview 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.ibm.com [Source type: General]

^ Talend - Talend is a provider of open source data integration software.
  • Open Source Software in Java 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC java-source.net [Source type: Reference]

Society and culture

Conceptual map of FOSS (Free and Open Source Software)
.Open source culture is the creative practice of appropriation and free sharing of found and created content.^ Several Free and open-source communities also follow this practice.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Free Software vs. Open Source software .
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Free software is open-source software, but not all open-source software is free.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Examples include collage, found footage film, music, and appropriation art. .Open source culture is one in which fixations, works entitled to copyright protection, are made generally available.^ Open source software is software for which the source code is available.
  • Open Source Software and Applications 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.eadon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While freedom to use and revise the content is ONE aspect of open source works, what makes a software project like Linux, Apache, or a text compilation product like Wikipedia "open source" is a system for collective modification and revision of a single product.
  • Open Source Truth Process | Yoism 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.yoism.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With the JDK nearly completely available under the GPL, and working implementations based on OpenJDK code on the horizon, both the promise and peril to compatibility of an open-source Java platform are upon us.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Participants in the culture can modify those products and redistribute them back into the community or other organizations.^ Any enhancements or security patches from the originating open source community would have to be manually integrated into Bluenog because they are now separate products.
  • Collaboration and Content Strategies Blog: open source 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC ccsblog.burtongroup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, an OSS/FS program that is not copylefted is often modified and incorporated into a proprietary product.
  • How to Evaluate Open Source Software / Free Software (OSS/FS) Programs 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.dwheeler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A desire to tap into innovative solutions, particularly those driven by active open source communities.
  • Collaboration and Content Strategies Blog: open source 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC ccsblog.burtongroup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The rise of open-source culture in the 20th century resulted from a growing tension between creative practices that involve appropriation, and therefore require access to content that is often copyrighted, and increasingly restrictive intellectual property laws and policies governing access to copyrighted content.^ An open source content management solution .
  • Using open source software to design, develop, and deploy a collaborative Web site, Part 1: Introduction and overview 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.ibm.com [Source type: General]

^ AM ET, Jul 15, 2009 Analysis of open source from a legal perspective has typically been the domain of websites like Groklaw, or the occasional column in a law journal.

^ Best practice policies and procedures for taking large code bases open source, balancing concerns and monetizing adoption and ubiquity, all while respecting intellectual property rights.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The two main ways in which intellectual property laws became more restrictive in the 20th century were extensions to the term of copyright (particularly in the United States) and penalties, such as those articulated in the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA), placed on attempts to circumvent anti-piracy technologies.^ An OSD-conformant license may warn licensees of applicable restrictions and remind them that they are obliged to obey the law; however, it may not incorporate such restrictions itself.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Section 6 states terms for distribution of such executables.
  • Pogoplug - Open Source Credits 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.pogoplug.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Myth 2 - Open Source software is more prone to claims of intellectual property infringement.
  • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

.Although artistic appropriation is often permitted under fair use doctrines, the complexity and ambiguity of these doctrines creates an atmosphere of uncertainty among cultural practitioners.^ You could only use the trademarked term "OpenJDK" under "fair use" guidelines, as described in this section of the FAQ, and also as part of Sun's trademark policy.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A: A developer can use these frameworks to drive testing of compatibility tests for new mobile JSRs, and create tests to improve the quality of implementations.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The open source community provides various tools that, when plugged together, begin to create a useful development and production environment for complex Web applications.
  • Using open source software to design, develop, and deploy a collaborative Web site, Part 1: Introduction and overview 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.ibm.com [Source type: General]

.Also, the protective actions of copyright owners create what some call a "chilling effect" among cultural practitioners.^ CFR 201.26 defines public domain computer software as software which has been publicly distributed with an explicit disclaimer of copyright protection by the copyright owner.
  • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

.In the late 20th century, cultural practitioners began to adopt the intellectual property licensing techniques of free software and open-source software to make their work more freely available to others, including the Creative Commons.^ And thus it is with the majority of open source software: .
  • How to Compete Against Open Source Competition | Software by Rob 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarebyrob.com [Source type: General]

^ This includes modification of Open Source software.
  • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ This isn't permissible for Open Source licenses.
  • Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC oreilly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Open Source Definition 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC perens.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The idea of an "open source" culture runs parallel to "Free Culture," but is substantively different.^ Free Software vs. Open Source software .
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Free software is open-source software, but not all open-source software is free.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Free/Open source papers .
  • Open Source Software and Applications 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.eadon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Free culture is a term derived from the free software movement, and in contrast to that vision of culture, proponents of Open Source Culture (OSC) maintain that some intellectual property law needs to exist to protect cultural producers.^ And thus it is with the majority of open source software: .
  • How to Compete Against Open Source Competition | Software by Rob 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarebyrob.com [Source type: General]

^ As a whole the movement is often called "Free and Open-Source software" (FOSS).
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Myth 2 - Open Source software is more prone to claims of intellectual property infringement.
  • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

.Yet they propose a more nuanced position than corporations have traditionally sought.^ Section 5 of the Artistic License prohibits sale of the software, yet allows an aggregate software distribution of more than one program to be sold.
  • Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC oreilly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The programs, however, are clearly copyrighted and covered by a license, just a license that gives people more rights than they are used to.
  • Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC oreilly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Open Source Definition 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC perens.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They may be more likely to shout their questions across the cube farm than try Bing.
  • Open Source | ZDNet.com 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC blogs.zdnet.com [Source type: General]

.Instead of seeing intellectual property law as an expression of instrumental rules intended to uphold either natural rights or desirable outcomes, an argument for OSC takes into account diverse goods (as in "the Good life") and ends.^ Yet good will for good will's sake was not right either.
  • eXtropia | a case study in open source software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC extropia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you read the intellectual property notice, you will see that they may also freely be resold.
  • eXtropia | a case study in open source software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC extropia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Intellectual property rights can make it difficult to ascertain whether a particular software solution has been patented.
  • Open Source Software in Education (EDUCAUSE Quarterly) | EDUCAUSE 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.educause.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One way of achieving the goal of making the fixations of cultural work generally available is to maximally utilize technology and digital media.^ Now one way you can "protect" your free software/works from being submissive to this "hole" in Copyright Law is to assign all rights to the Free Software Foundation.
  • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ To achieve that, we would like to make profiling easy-to-use and as unobtrusive as possible - and the JFluid technology that we use, with dynamic bytecode instrumentation at its heart, suits this goal perfectly.
  • Open Source Software in Java 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC java-source.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Tim has a suggestion for the for the friend who already has everything: make a donation in their name to one of the many great organizations that work tirelessly to support the ideals of open source and free culture - complete list here.
  • Make: Online : The Open Source Gift Guide: Open source hardware, software, and more for the holidays! 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC blog.makezine.com [Source type: General]

In keeping with Moore's law's prediction about processors, the cost of digital media and storage plummeted in the late 20th Century. .Consequently, the marginal cost of digitally duplicating anything capable of being transmitted via digital media dropped to near zero.^ At the heart of the economics of FOSS is the zero marginal cost of goods in a digital environment.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Zero Marginal Cost .
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Combined with an explosive growth in personal computer and technology ownership, the result is an increase in general population's access to digital media.^ Podcasting technologies have encouraged an increase in learner-generated content, enhancing learner participation in digital education.
  • Open Source Software in Education (EDUCAUSE Quarterly) | EDUCAUSE 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.educause.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Computer Science Open Source Software Digital Media Open Source/Open Access and Libraries Technical Communication .
  • Academia.edu | People | People who have Open Source Software as a research interest (194) 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.academia.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ CDSA ContentGuard Coral Consortium Digital Media Project InterTrust Technologies Marlin Microsoft RMS Open Media Commons - Sun Trusted Computing Group Wave Systems .
  • Managing Rights Management: Open Source 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.managingrights.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This phenomenon facilitated growth in open source culture because it allowed for rapid and inexpensive duplication and distribution of culture.^ Any enhancements or security patches from the originating open source community would have to be manually integrated into Bluenog because they are now separate products.
  • Collaboration and Content Strategies Blog: open source 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC ccsblog.burtongroup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Probably the most important lesson that we learned was that in a distributed network, like an open source community, or a decentralized network or developers, trust is central to all else.
  • eXtropia | a case study in open source software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC extropia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Enterprises and organizations that have selected OS distributions based on GNU/Linux, OpenSolaris, and other open source OSs as preferred for deployment.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Where the access to the majority of culture produced prior to the advent of digital media was limited by other constraints of proprietary and potentially "open" mediums, digital media is the latest technology with the potential to increase access to cultural products.^ BusinessWeek has an article on open source and restrictive and/or proprietary technologies such as DRM .
  • Managing Rights Management: Open Source 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.managingrights.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, the license must not insist that all other programs distributed on the same medium must be open-source software.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC oreilly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Open Source Definition 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC perens.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In essence, major parts of Bluenog are built from forks of open source products that are folded into their proprietary framework.
  • Collaboration and Content Strategies Blog: open source 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC ccsblog.burtongroup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Artists and users who choose to distribute their work digitally face none of the physical limitations that traditional cultural producers have been typically faced with.^ However, licenses do impact those who modify the program, and the license can even impact users who don't modify their programs in the sense that the licenses impact what they (and those they work with) can do later.
  • How to Evaluate Open Source Software / Free Software (OSS/FS) Programs 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.dwheeler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This means that users who choose use GNOME can develop proprietary programs (or have them developed) using the "native" library without paying an additional fee, while users who choose KDE and use proprietary programs using the "native" library will pay additional fees.
  • How to Evaluate Open Source Software / Free Software (OSS/FS) Programs 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.dwheeler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sun will continue to work with licensees who want to distribute derivatives of Sun's implementations without the requirement in the GPL to contribute modifications back to the community.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Accordingly, the audience of an open source culture faces little physical cost in acquiring digital media.^ Lets face it open source is a label.
  • Without Free Software, Open Source Would Lose its Meaning | Linux Journal 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.linuxjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ Both open source and digital education projects are taking their first tentative steps into the consumer world.
  • Open Source Software in Education (EDUCAUSE Quarterly) | EDUCAUSE 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.educause.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To summarise this little call for input: any suggestions, hints, and recommendations on open source content management and portal software are welcome.
  • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

.Open source culture precedes Richard Stallman's codification of the concept with the creation of the Free Software Foundation.^ And thus it is with the majority of open source software: .
  • How to Compete Against Open Source Competition | Software by Rob 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarebyrob.com [Source type: General]

^ This includes modification of Open Source software.
  • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Free Software and Open Source are two names for the same thing.
  • Without Free Software, Open Source Would Lose its Meaning | Linux Journal 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.linuxjournal.com [Source type: General]

.As the public began to communicate through Bulletin Board Systems (BBS) like FidoNet, places like Sourcery Systems BBS were dedicated to providing source code to Public Domain, Shareware and Freeware programs.^ The source code must be the preferred form in which a programmer would modify the program.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC oreilly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Open Source Definition 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC perens.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Freeware , at least in the corner of the WinDOS world occupied by shareware, typically does NOT mean public-domain .
  • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ At its core, open source refers to open access to the source code of a program.
  • AITopics / Software 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.aaai.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Essentially born out of a desire for increased general access to digital media, the Internet is open source culture's most valuable asset.^ Mono-culture tends to arise in most open source projects.
  • 10 interesting open source software forks and why they happened | Royal Pingdom 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC royal.pingdom.com [Source type: General]

^ While everyone was speculating if Android is going to be an open source platform, they have come out with Android Open Source Project, which will give public at large the opportunity to make contributions.
  • 10 Best Open Source ERP Software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC blog.taragana.com [Source type: General]

^ And if you took ms and apple out of the picture, contrary to what you suggest, you would suddenly have a MASSIVE INCREASE in the resources devoted to the advancement of open source software.
  • Obama wants to know: Why open source? | The Open Road - CNET News 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: General]

.It is questionable whether the goals of an open source culture could be achieved without the Internet.^ With publicly available source code generally offered without charge, it is tempting to look to open source for potentially significant cost savings in this time of need.
  • How Open-Source Software Can Affect A Company's Value 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.computerworld.com [Source type: General]
  • Computerworld - Knowledge Centers - Learn about Open Source 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.computerworld.com [Source type: General]

^ Bolinos is based on a data structure compatible with Sqeleton, Internet / Web operating system, and uses standard open-source software: PHP, Apache, mySQL .
  • Property Viewer 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.cmsreview.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Over the past year or so we’ve seen a definite increase in the number of questions we get about open source content management and portal software at NetRelations .
  • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

.The global network not only fosters an environment where culture can be generally accessible, but also allows for easy and inexpensive redistribution of culture back into various communities.^ You read Stendhal, you understand something not only about mid-19th century French culture, but the adventuring human spirit and freedom versus community.

^ Probably only a few large communities with considerable commercial backing will survive after a few years.
  • Open Source Software in Education (EDUCAUSE Quarterly) | EDUCAUSE 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.educause.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is only when network members are forced into a prisoner's dilemma that emergence of the network is threatened.
  • eXtropia | a case study in open source software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC extropia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Some reasons for this are as follows.
.First, the Internet allows even greater access to inexpensive digital media and storage.^ Even before Mosaic, the NCSA had back in 1985 created software "clients" for PCS and Macs, called Telnet, to allow people to access and use computers connected to the Internet as if the user were locally based.
  • The Origins and Future of Open Source Software 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.netaction.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Computer Science Open Source Software Digital Media Open Source/Open Access and Libraries Technical Communication .
  • Academia.edu | People | People who have Open Source Software as a research interest (194) 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.academia.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Instead of users being limited to their own facilities and resources, they are granted access to a vast network of facilities and resources, some free.^ Developers can assign content development rights to limited users, and some have done so as Web 2.0 tools slowly gain the sophistication needed to provide much-needed security features.
  • Open Source Software in Education (EDUCAUSE Quarterly) | EDUCAUSE 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.educause.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unlike Drupal developers, Joomla developers don’t work together to create one calendar module that works; instead they each create their own incomplete modules.
  • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

^ It's conceivable that they could kill off development of some categories of Open Source software by releasing a "good enough," "almost-free-enough" solution.
  • Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC oreilly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Sites such as Archive.org offer up free web space for anyone willing to license their work under a Creative Commons license.^ PJ's articles are licensed under a Creative Commons License .
  • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ While there does need to be the creative spark and driving force that starts a project, people also need to be willing to give up some ownership to further the overall common good.
  • Open Source Changes the Software Acquisition Process | ITworld 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.itworld.com [Source type: General]

^ Open source isn't just for software: "Elephants Dream is the world's first open movie, made entirely with open source graphics software such as Blender, and with all production files freely available to use however you please, under a Creative Commons license."
  • Open Source Software and Applications 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.eadon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The resulting cultural product is then available to download free (generally accessible) to anyone with an Internet connection.^ Few of these people, whether from an academic tradition of freely distributed software or not, were willing to make their products available without fee.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Copyrighted by the University of Illinois, Mosaic could be downloaded for free by individuals and by companies wishing to use the Internet for internal communications.
  • The Origins and Future of Open Source Software 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.netaction.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Our applications are still free for anyone to download and install.
  • eXtropia | a case study in open source software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC extropia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Second, users are granted unprecedented access to each other.^ Every resource in OpenCms has an owner, an associated user group and specific access rights (divided into read, write and visible) that can be assigned to the owner, the group and all others.
  • Property Viewer 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.cmsreview.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Older analog technologies such as the telephone or television have limitations on the kind of interaction users can have. .In the case of television there is little, if any interaction between users participating on the network.^ In this case, there is little to gain by limiting the free library to free software only, so we use the Lesser General Public License.
  • Pogoplug - Open Source Credits 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.pogoplug.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In this case, there were contracts promising that the source code would be held in escrow, but users have been unable to acquire the source code, and now they can't even reinstall the software.
  • How to Evaluate Open Source Software / Free Software (OSS/FS) Programs 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.dwheeler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The AGPL requires that you offer corresponding source code to users who interact with your modified version of AGPL-licensed software over a network.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.And in the case of the telephone, users rarely interact with any more than a couple of their known peers.^ Linux users are more like to go to Ask.Com than Bing.
  • Open Source | ZDNet.com 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC blogs.zdnet.com [Source type: General]

^ The Affero GPL creates code distribution requirements for a class of people the FOSS world has traditionally treated more as end-users than developers.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The experience of e-learning for many has been no more than a hand-out published online, coupled with a simple multiple-choice quiz.
  • Open Source Software in Education (EDUCAUSE Quarterly) | EDUCAUSE 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.educause.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

On the Internet, however, users have the potential to access and meet millions of their peers. .This aspect of the Internet facilitates the modification of culture as users are able to collaborate and communicate with each other across international and cultural boundaries.^ Q: If the JCK is confidential and I agree to keep it confidential when I agree to the OpenJDK Community TCK License Agreement, then how can I collaborate with others on community support?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the JCK is confidential and I agree to keep it confidential when I agree to the OpenJDK Community TCK License Agreement, then how can I collaborate with others on community support?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The speed in which digital media travels on the Internet in turn facilitates the redistribution of culture.
.Through various technologies such as peer-to-peer networks and blogs, cultural producers can take advantage of vast social networks in order to distribute their products.^ Among the most important Web 2.0 features are social-networking sites, video- and photo-sharing sites, blogs, RSS feeds, tags, podcasts, wikis, and discussion forums.
  • Open Source Software in Education (EDUCAUSE Quarterly) | EDUCAUSE 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.educause.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Media-sharing and other social-networking sites such as Elgg, Slashdot, and AROUNDMe can serve as important interactive learning tools.
  • Open Source Software in Education (EDUCAUSE Quarterly) | EDUCAUSE 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.educause.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Further, random job assignment did not take advantage of the natural strengths within the network.
  • eXtropia | a case study in open source software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC extropia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

As opposed to traditional media distribution, redistributing digital media on the Internet can be virtually costless. .Technologies such as BitTorrent and Gnutella take advantage of various characteristics of the Internet protocol (TCP/IP) in an attempt to totally decentralize file distribution.^ TCP/IP packet switched networks were evolution and birth of digital freedom and ultimately the Internet.
  • Obama wants to know: Why open source? | The Open Road - CNET News 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: General]

^ Several application examples are provided, including an embedded Webserver, a simple RS232 to TCP/IP gateway and an Internet Radio playing MP3 streams.
  • Make: Online : The Open Source Gift Guide: Open source hardware, software, and more for the holidays! 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC blog.makezine.com [Source type: General]

^ Troll Tech's new license is notable in that it takes advantage of a loophole in the Open Source Definition that allows patch files to be treated differently from other software.
  • Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC oreilly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Government

.
  • Open politics (sometimes known as Open source politics) — is a term used to describe a political process that uses Internet technologies such as blogs, email and polling to provide for a rapid feedback mechanism between political organizations and their supporters.^ Examples of such free and open source software organizations are: .
    • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ SourceLabs , provider of technology to support open source software, toda...

    ^ Many pointed to the existing use of the term " Open Source" in the political intelligence industry.
    • Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC oreilly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    There is also an alternative conception of the term Open source politics which relates to the development of public policy under a set of rules and processes similar to the Open Source Software movement.
  • Open source governance — is similar to open source politics, but it applies more to the democratic process and promotes the freedom of information.

Ethics

Open Source ethics is split into two strands:
.
  • Open Source Ethics as an Ethical School - Charles Ess and David Berry are researching whether ethics can learn anything from an open source approach.^ The bad guys will find the holes whether source is open or closed.
    • eXtropia | a case study in open source software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC extropia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Programmers may still be learning, and provide their projects in an open-source venue as a means of quicker development by opening the project to others.
    • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ FUSE WEBCAST: Download this webcast learn first-hand, how easy it is to develop advanced SOA applications using open source tools.
    • Open Source - White Papers, Webcasts and IT downloads - Bitpipe.com 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC www.bitpipe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Open Source Definition 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC www.bitpipe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Ess famously even defined the AoIR Research Guidelines as an example of open source ethics.^ It lacks, for example, the collaborative improvement process promoted by the open source Open Source definition sponsored by SearchEnterpriseLinux.com, powered by WhatIs.com an online computer dictionary .
    • Open Source - White Papers, Webcasts and IT downloads - Bitpipe.com 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC www.bitpipe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ As Mitch Stoltz notes in " The Case for Government Promotion of Open Source Software ," the federal government already spends billions of dollars on software research, purchases and implementation.
    • The Origins and Future of Open Source Software 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.netaction.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ They do not have to even write an inserted bytecode sequence; Javassist instead can compile a fragment of source text on line (for example, just a single statement).
    • Open Source Software in Java 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC java-source.net [Source type: Reference]

    [17]
  • .
  • Open Source Ethics as a Professional Body of Rules - This is based principally on the computer ethics school, studying the questions of ethics and professionalism in the computer industry in general and software development in particular.^ And thus it is with the majority of open source software: .
    • How to Compete Against Open Source Competition | Software by Rob 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarebyrob.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Expression Engine is open source software.
    • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Open source storage software .
    • Open source software takes the storage stage 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.computerworld.com [Source type: News]

    [18]

Media

.Open source journalism — referred to the standard journalistic techniques of news gathering and fact checking, and reflected a similar term that was in use from 1992 in military intelligence circles, open source intelligence.^ Many pointed to the existing use of the term " Open Source" in the political intelligence industry.
  • Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC oreilly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In their annual reports, many public companies note their use of open source as a risk factor to their businesses, while others go as far as to highlight their lack of open source as a positive factor.
  • How Open-Source Software Can Affect A Company's Value 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.computerworld.com [Source type: General]

^ At the same time, the use of open-source software is expanding rapidly, and even commercial software companies often provide open-source licensing options and opportunities.
  • How Open-Source Software Can Affect A Company's Value 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.computerworld.com [Source type: General]

.It is now commonly used to describe forms of innovative publishing of online journalism, rather than the sourcing of news stories by a professional journalist.^ This article was originally published in the March 2003 Journal of the New South Wales Society for Computers and the Law, and we republish with Mr. Webbink's kind permission.
  • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met: .
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, linking a "work that uses the Library" with the Library creates an executable that is a derivative of the Library (because it contains portions of the Library), rather than a "work that uses the library".
  • Pogoplug - Open Source Credits 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.pogoplug.com [Source type: Reference]

.In the December 25, 2006 issue of TIME magazine this is referred to as user created content and listed alongside more traditional open source projects such as OpenSolaris and Linux.^ This is an open source project.
  • AITopics / Software 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.aaai.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A fresh issue of the Linux Format magazine.

^ Linux is an open source operating system.
  • Open Source Software and Applications 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.eadon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Weblogs, or blogs, are another significant platform for open source culture.^ This blog covers open source.
  • Open Source | ZDNet.com 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC blogs.zdnet.com [Source type: General]

^ It is a complete open source platform.
  • 10 Best Open Source ERP Software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC blog.taragana.com [Source type: General]

^ While everyone was speculating if Android is going to be an open source platform, they have come out with Android Open Source Project, which will give public at large the opportunity to make contributions.
  • 10 Best Open Source ERP Software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC blog.taragana.com [Source type: General]

.Blogs consist of periodic, reverse chronologically ordered posts, using a technology that makes webpages easily updatable with no understanding of design, code, or file transfer required.^ No code changes required.
  • Open Source Software in Java 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC java-source.net [Source type: Reference]

^ A: As well as fulfilling its original purpose of promoting Free software, the GPL v2 is designed to help advance projects and code commons by requiring innovation sharing with the commons.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To achieve that, we would like to make profiling easy-to-use and as unobtrusive as possible - and the JFluid technology that we use, with dynamic bytecode instrumentation at its heart, suits this goal perfectly.
  • Open Source Software in Java 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC java-source.net [Source type: Reference]

.While corporations, political campaigns and other formal institutions have begun using these tools to distribute information, many blogs are used by individuals for personal expression, political organizing, and socializing.^ In their annual reports, many public companies note their use of open source as a risk factor to their businesses, while others go as far as to highlight their lack of open source as a positive factor.
  • How Open-Source Software Can Affect A Company's Value 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.computerworld.com [Source type: General]

^ Since then the Linux kernel has been used in multiple Linux system distributions that are currently supported by organizations like IBM , Novell , HP, many universities (eg, ETH-Zurich), Bell Labs, and Borland.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These social-networking tools were not created exclusively for educational purposes, however, and might contain objectionable materials, raising ethical concerns regarding students' exposure to and use of the sites.
  • Open Source Software in Education (EDUCAUSE Quarterly) | EDUCAUSE 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.educause.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some, such as LiveJournal or WordPress, utilize open source software that is open to the public and can be modified by users to fit their own tastes.^ Q: What components of the JDK software have been open sourced?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Open source software is software for which the source code is available.
  • Open Source Software and Applications 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.eadon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Expression Engine is open source software.
  • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

.Whether the code is open or not, this format represents a nimble tool for people to borrow and re-present culture; whereas traditional websites made the illegal reproduction of culture difficult to regulate, the mutability of blogs makes "open sourcing" even more uncontrollable since it allows a larger portion of the population to replicate material more quickly in the public sphere.^ Are you open sourcing the latest code?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He makes the following case for the robustness of open source code...
  • eXtropia | a case study in open source software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC extropia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This blog covers open source.
  • Open Source | ZDNet.com 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC blogs.zdnet.com [Source type: General]

.Messageboards are another platform for open source culture.^ Open source platforms, like Linux, are there to give the USER the FREEDOM to do what THEY WANT to do.
  • Obama wants to know: Why open source? | The Open Road - CNET News 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: General]

^ What impact do you see open sourcing the JDK will have on bringing Java to platforms that Sun may not be directly interested in supporting?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ WHITE PAPER: Today, many sites are using open source solutions and platforms as a way to ensure applications can scale as needed.
  • Open Source - White Papers, Webcasts and IT downloads - Bitpipe.com 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC www.bitpipe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Messageboards (also known as discussion boards or forums), are places online where people with similar interests can congregate and post messages for the community to read and respond to.^ These may be interesting to read but it may be better just to search for a project you like, regardless if it posts invitations or not.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Packed with rich features, like news and file management, discussion forum, survey, calendar and more, SmartSite is a Swiss-army knife for people who want to use the web as a communication and collaboration medium.
  • Property Viewer 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.cmsreview.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As we said, aside from the job referral program, developers had the opportunity to participate in three members-only online discussion forums.
  • eXtropia | a case study in open source software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC extropia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Messageboards sometimes have moderators who enforce community standards of etiquette such as banning users who are spammers.^ Open source podcasting software such as Audacity and Juice is widely employed by the user community.
  • Open Source Software in Education (EDUCAUSE Quarterly) | EDUCAUSE 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.educause.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other common board features are private messages (where users can send messages to one another) as well as chat (a way to have a real time conversation online) and image uploading.^ Converts image data from one format to another correctly transferring Geo information between GeoTiff and GeoJp2 (GeoJpeg2000).

^ Its own WYSIWYG web page publishing tool (no HTML needed) Support for existing web pages (load other HTML pages) Image upload and positioning File attachments and document management A web form builder Timed publishing.
  • Property Viewer 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.cmsreview.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Another way of looking at this is that copylefting licenses ensure that all later users and developers have more freedoms, at a cost of giving fewer freedoms to the immediate recipients.
  • How to Evaluate Open Source Software / Free Software (OSS/FS) Programs 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.dwheeler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some messageboards use phpBB, which is a free open source package.^ Free Software vs. Open Source software .
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Free software is open-source software, but not all open-source software is free.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In their annual reports, many public companies note their use of open source as a risk factor to their businesses, while others go as far as to highlight their lack of open source as a positive factor.
  • How Open-Source Software Can Affect A Company's Value 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.computerworld.com [Source type: General]

.Where blogs are more about individual expression and tend to revolve around their authors, messageboards are about creating a conversation amongst its users where information can be shared freely and quickly.^ Most of my experience (about 2 years) has been with Wordpress as a CMS. Overall it has been a good experience, however the primary downside is that it is more built out of the box as a blogging platform.
  • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

^ For more information, see Why Open Source Software / Free Software (OSS/FS)?
  • How to Evaluate Open Source Software / Free Software (OSS/FS) Programs 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.dwheeler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The project includes a forum area where participants can share information about the test harness and participate in its development.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Messageboards are a way to remove intermediaries from everyday life - for instance, instead of relying on commercials and other forms of advertising, one can ask other users for frank reviews of a product, movie or CD. By removing the cultural middlemen, messageboards help speed the flow of information and exchange of ideas.^ It has a lot of information that will help you understand the GPL and explain it to others.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Any user of one can instantly use the other with no retraining necessary.
  • Obama wants to know: Why open source? | The Open Road - CNET News 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: General]

^ The Genetic Algorithms Archive is a repository for information related to research in genetic algorithms and other forms of evolutionary computation.
  • AITopics / Software 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.aaai.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.OpenDocument is an open document file format for saving and exchanging editable office documents such as text documents (including memos, reports, and books), spreadsheets, charts, and presentations.^ MP2KML MP2KML converts .mp files (alternative open format for Garmin's IMG map files) to .kml files (Google Earth's open format).

^ Sony chose an open source format , EPUB, for its e-book reader .
  • Open Source | ZDNet.com 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC blogs.zdnet.com [Source type: General]

^ Publish the same content in multiple file formats (xml, pure text, css, word, excel, pdf..
  • Property Viewer 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.cmsreview.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Organizations and individuals that store their data in an open format such as OpenDocument avoid being locked in to a single software vendor, leaving them free to switch software if their current vendor goes out of business, raises their prices, changes their software, or changes their licensing terms to something less favorable.^ The software is free and open source (under a BSD-style license).
  • Property Viewer 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.cmsreview.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Examples of such free and open source software organizations are: .
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Free software is a matter of liberty, not price.
  • eXtropia | a case study in open source software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC extropia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Open source movie production is either an open call system in which a changing crew and cast collaborate in movie production, a system in which the end result is made available for re-use by others or in which exclusively open source products are used in the production.^ The availability of the LOGOS system as open source can change this situation...."
  • AITopics / Software 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.aaai.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Is this the future of open source business collaboration?
  • Open Source | ZDNet.com 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC blogs.zdnet.com [Source type: General]

^ The end result, though, is an open source project that isn’t open.
  • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

.The 2006 movie Elephants Dream is said to be the "world's first open movie",[19] created entirely using open source technology.^ Are there exceptions in the open source world?
  • How to Compete Against Open Source Competition | Software by Rob 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarebyrob.com [Source type: General]

^ Use open source.
  • How to Compete Against Open Source Competition | Software by Rob 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarebyrob.com [Source type: General]

^ In their annual reports, many public companies note their use of open source as a risk factor to their businesses, while others go as far as to highlight their lack of open source as a positive factor.
  • How Open-Source Software Can Affect A Company's Value 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.computerworld.com [Source type: General]

.An open source documentary film has a production process allowing the open contributions of archival material, footage, and other filmic elements, both in unedited and edited form.^ Open Source Tutorials & Training products .
  • Open Source Tutorials & Training 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.lynda.com [Source type: General]

^ In their annual reports, many public companies note their use of open source as a risk factor to their businesses, while others go as far as to highlight their lack of open source as a positive factor.
  • How Open-Source Software Can Affect A Company's Value 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.computerworld.com [Source type: General]

^ While everyone was speculating if Android is going to be an open source platform, they have come out with Android Open Source Project, which will give public at large the opportunity to make contributions.
  • 10 Best Open Source ERP Software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC blog.taragana.com [Source type: General]

.By doing so, on-line contributors become part of the process of creating the film, helping to influence the editorial and visual material to be used in the documentary, as well as its thematic development.^ Sometimes these parts are even divided into separate projects: The "engine" creators may provide a simple command line interface, but most users are supposed to use one of the available GUIs available from another project.
  • How to Evaluate Open Source Software / Free Software (OSS/FS) Programs 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.dwheeler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Both application developers and operators benefit from the accelerated innovation, enabling developers to continue to create compelling applications and services, which in turn help drive revenue.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They'll also have all of the responsibilities, including code-review duties and the obligation to adhere to, as well as to assist, the various development practices and processes that help to maintain a high-quality OpenJDK code base.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The first open source documentary film to go into production "The American Revolution" [20]," which will examine the role that WBCN-FM in Boston played in the cultural, social and political changes locally and nationally from 1968 to 1974, is being produced by Lichtenstein Creative Media and the non-profit The Fund for Independent Media.^ Open source revolution at Sony .
  • Open Source | ZDNet.com 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC blogs.zdnet.com [Source type: General]

^ In their annual reports, many public companies note their use of open source as a risk factor to their businesses, while others go as far as to highlight their lack of open source as a positive factor.
  • How Open-Source Software Can Affect A Company's Value 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.computerworld.com [Source type: General]

^ Open source isn't just for software: "Elephants Dream is the world's first open movie, made entirely with open source graphics software such as Blender, and with all production files freely available to use however you please, under a Creative Commons license."
  • Open Source Software and Applications 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.eadon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Open Source Cinema is a website to create Basement Tapes, a feature documentary about copyright in the digital age, co-produced by the National Film Board of Canada.^ Is that not what open source is all about?
  • Open Source | ZDNet.com 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC blogs.zdnet.com [Source type: General]

^ Open source has complex legal restrictions that can create copyright and patent compliance issues and corporate transaction challenges for companies that rely heavily on customized software or that distribute software to partners or customers.
  • How Open-Source Software Can Affect A Company's Value 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.computerworld.com [Source type: General]

^ A: Yes, Sun's implementations for feature phones and advanced OS phones will be based on the open-source code base.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Open Source Filmmaking refers to a form of filmmaking that takes a method of idea formation from open source software, but in this case the 'source' for a film maker is raw unedited footage rather than programming code.^ At its core, open source refers to open access to the source code of a program.
  • AITopics / Software 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.aaai.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Q: What components of the JDK software have been open sourced?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Are you open sourcing the latest code?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It can also refer to a method of filmmaking where the process of creation is 'open' i.e. a disparate group of contributors, at different times contribute to the final piece.
.Open-IPTV is IPTV that is not limited to one recording studio, production studio, or cast.^ It's one thing if Open Source is to be used as an operating system on a backoffice server, it is something altogether different if that same Open Source software is to be modified and embedded in a product.
  • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The company that makes open source - friendly product will likely attract these customers that prefer such product against the alternative one.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Open-IPTV uses the Internet or other means to pool efforts and resources together to create an online community that all contributes to a show.^ OffiSync Wouldn't it be nice if you could make a mash-up of Microsoft Office and Google Docs, using all of Office's great tools for document creation and editing, and Google Docs's online storage and collaboration tools?
  • Computerworld - Knowledge Centers - Learn about Open Source 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.computerworld.com [Source type: General]

^ In their annual reports, many public companies note their use of open source as a risk factor to their businesses, while others go as far as to highlight their lack of open source as a positive factor.
  • How Open-Source Software Can Affect A Company's Value 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.computerworld.com [Source type: General]

^ I am a big Open Source fan and use it in a lot of other places, but we just couldn't take the risk on such an important, high profile project as this one.
  • Open Source ERP Applications: They're Real and They're Spectacular | CIO - Blogs and Discussion 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC advice.cio.com [Source type: General]

Education

.Within the academic community, there is discussion about expanding what could be called the "intellectual commons" (analogous to the Creative Commons).^ The most important difference from the above baseline is what the Creative Commons calls a "Share and Share Alike" clause.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Here is a sample trademark policy that Project Foo could use to communicate some simple guidelines to its community about using their name and logo.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sun welcomes all comments and questions about this license, and we hope that the discussion can happen within the OpenJDK community.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Proponents of this view have hailed the Connexions Project at Rice University, OpenCourseWare project at MIT, Eugene Thacker's article on "Open Source DNA", the "Open Source Cultural Database" and Wikipedia as examples of applying open source outside the realm of computer software.^ Q: What components of the JDK software have been open sourced?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is an open source project.
  • AITopics / Software 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.aaai.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Expression Engine is open source software.
  • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

.Open source curricula are instructional resources whose digital source can be freely used, distributed and modified.^ Free Software vs. Open Source software .
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Free software is open-source software, but not all open-source software is free.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In their annual reports, many public companies note their use of open source as a risk factor to their businesses, while others go as far as to highlight their lack of open source as a positive factor.
  • How Open-Source Software Can Affect A Company's Value 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.computerworld.com [Source type: General]

Another strand to the academic community is in the area of research. .Many funded research projects produce software as part of their work.^ There are many people that feel that using free software is an important part of how they live and work.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ArcView APR Parser "Work with ArcView leads to large directories with numerous files consisting of many projects and tables and views, etc.

^ At Intel, too, researchers have developed software for combined audiovisual analysis of speech and released the software for public use as part of the company's Open Source Computer Vision Library, said Ara V. Nefian, a senior Intel researcher who led the project."
  • AITopics / Software 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.aaai.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There is an increasing interest in making the outputs of such projects available under an open source license.^ Q: Is GPL v2 an open-source license?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is an open source project.
  • AITopics / Software 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.aaai.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Under what license is it available?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the UK the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) has developed a policy on open source software.^ This includes modification of Open Source software.
  • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Q: What components of the JDK software have been open sourced?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Open source Software » Open source software .
  • Open source software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC blog.lorla.com [Source type: General]

.JISC also funds a development service called OSS Watch which acts as an advisory service for higher and further education institutions wishing to use, contribute to and develop open source software.^ Q: What components of the JDK software have been open sourced?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Expression Engine is open source software.
  • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

^ Roadster "Roadster aims to be easy-to-use and open-source mapping software."

Innovation communities

.The principle of sharing predates the open source movement; for example, the free sharing of information has been institutionalized in the scientific enterprise since at least the 19th century.^ The Internet is an example of what can be built on free open source software and open standards.
  • Obama wants to know: Why open source? | The Open Road - CNET News 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: General]

^ Examples of such free and open source software organizations are: .
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Free Software vs. Open Source software .
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Open source principles have always been part of the scientific community.^ Is Open Source always of worse quality, then ?
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Corinis Corinis CCM is a Java-based, open-source content and community management system.
  • Property Viewer 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.cmsreview.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Is Open Source software always of better quality than other types of software?
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The sociologist Robert K. Merton described the four basic elements of the community - universalism (an international perspective), communism (sharing information), disinterestedness (removing one's personal views from the scientific inquiry) and organized skepticism (requirements of proof and review) that accurately describe the scientific community today.^ Groups of copyright holders should designate one point-person to handle communication with the violator.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In particular, identify the four basic steps as given here (identify, review, compare, analyze) and how long you spent doing the evaluation.
  • How to Evaluate Open Source Software / Free Software (OSS/FS) Programs 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.dwheeler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is a legal document describing the Governance Board and its roles and responsibilities, and to grant to the GB the powers and rights required to carry out their duties on behalf of the community.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These principles are, in part, complemented by US law's focus on protecting expression and method but not the ideas themselves.^ The Software Freedom Law Center and the Free Software Foundation agree with Sun's analysis of these licenses and helped us develop this approach.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There is also a tradition of publishing research results to the scientific community instead of keeping all such knowledge proprietary.^ In this model, development was be opened up to all developers in the community and a central repository (website) would be used to distribute all the resultant code.
  • eXtropia | a case study in open source software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC extropia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That said, there are several necessary steps for Sun in accepting such contributions: Sun must get the changes with all rights needed from the authors to include them in the code base.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is not as insane as it sounds; in 1997 InfoWorld awarded the “Best Technical Support” award to the “Linux User Community,” beating all proprietary software vendors’ technical support for the year.
  • How to Evaluate Open Source Software / Free Software (OSS/FS) Programs 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.dwheeler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One of the recent initiatives in scientific publishing has been open access - the idea that research should be published in such a way that it is free and available to the public.^ A certification standard issued by the Open Source Initiative (OSI) that indicates that the source code of a computer program is made available free of charge to the general public.

^ Developing something under GPL may give free access to high quality components (like QT) that are otherwise expensive to buy or not available at all.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Now one way you can "protect" your free software/works from being submissive to this "hole" in Copyright Law is to assign all rights to the Free Software Foundation.
  • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

.There are currently many open access journals where the information is available free online, however most journals do charge a fee (either to users or libraries for access).^ A certification standard issued by the Open Source Initiative (OSI) that indicates that the source code of a computer program is made available free of charge to the general public.

^ Comments On top of everything else, teetering in the breeze, I have a July 7 deadline for a short article in School Library Journal on open source software in school libraries.

^ Open source platforms, like Linux, are there to give the USER the FREEDOM to do what THEY WANT to do.
  • Obama wants to know: Why open source? | The Open Road - CNET News 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: General]

.The Budapest Open Access Initiative is an international effort with the goal of making all research articles available free on the Internet.^ All schematics freely available.
  • Make: Online : The Open Source Gift Guide: Open source hardware, software, and more for the holidays! 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC blog.makezine.com [Source type: General]

^ A certification standard issued by the Open Source Initiative (OSI) that indicates that the source code of a computer program is made available free of charge to the general public.

^ Few of these people, whether from an academic tradition of freely distributed software or not, were willing to make their products available without fee.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The National Institutes of Health has recently proposed a policy on "Enhanced Public Access to NIH Research Information." This policy would provide a free, searchable resource of NIH-funded results to the public and with other international repositories six months after its initial publication. .The NIH's move is an important one because there is significant amount of public funding in scientific research.^ However, licenses are an important issue to consider for OSS/FS, because there are a few cases where they definitely do matter.
  • How to Evaluate Open Source Software / Free Software (OSS/FS) Programs 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.dwheeler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are only two significant ways in which BSD-like licences differ from public domain.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While there may be advantages to one-developer projects, it is important to realize that the personal assets of the developer could be completely exposed.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Many of the questions have yet to be answered - the balancing of profit vs. public access, and ensuring that desirable standards and incentives do not diminish with a shift to open access.
.Farmavita.Net - Community of Pharmaceuticals Executives have recently proposed new business model of Open Source Pharmaceuticals [21].^ Services are the key open source business model.
  • Open Source | ZDNet.com 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC blogs.zdnet.com [Source type: General]

^ Is this the future of open source business collaboration?
  • Open Source | ZDNet.com 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC blogs.zdnet.com [Source type: General]

^ Open source code is typically created as a collaborative effort in which programmers improve upon the code and share the changes within the community.

.The project is targeted to development and sharing of know-how for manufacture of essential and life saving medicines.^ But look for website development expertise rather than try to match a tool you don't know how to choose.
  • Open Source Changes the Software Acquisition Process | ITworld 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.itworld.com [Source type: General]

^ By choosing the same license as their peers in related projects, these developers make it easier to share code and create copyright policies that are standard throughout a development community.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Software Release Practice HOWTO includes guidance to developers on how to create a project web site; the Free Software Project Management HOWTO provides guidance to those who manage such projects.
  • How to Evaluate Open Source Software / Free Software (OSS/FS) Programs 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.dwheeler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is mainly dedicated to the countries with less developed economies where local pharmaceutical research and development resources are insufficient for national needs.^ Its aim is to provide people in developing countries with a powerful yet simple tool to assist in the managing of their own resources."

^ The SimAgent toolkit provides a range of resources for research and teaching related to the development of interacting agents in environments of various degrees and kinds of complexity.
  • AITopics / Software 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.aaai.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Developing nations and people can use no cost materials and resources.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It will be limited to generic (off-patent) medicines with established use.^ In this document we avoid use of the term “software patent,” which has no generally agreed-upon definition.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By the definition, medicinal product have a “well-established use” if is used for at least 15 years, with recognized efficacy and an acceptable level of safety.^ This name was originally used for a collection of geostatistical programs developed at Stanford University over the last 15 years."

^ February 10, 2008 by Gerhard Lazu I have been using Textpattern for a few years now, it’s definitely the best thing out there.
  • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

^ Normally you will not know the date of the invention, so, if possible, you should use prior art that was published at least one year before the priority date.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In that event, the expensive clinical test and trial results could be replaced by appropriate scientific literature.
.Benjamin Franklin was an early contributor eventually donating all his inventions including the Franklin stove, bifocals and the lightning rod to the public domain.^ Even when they published books and magazine articles, they demanded contractually that all work would remain in the public domain.
  • eXtropia | a case study in open source software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC extropia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Still others require contributors to “disclaim their copyright interest” (placing the contribution into the “public domain”), so that the contribution can be included under the main copyright of the work.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Related business income is not considered in the public support test, which could be advantageous, since in the calculation of public support, as discussed above (where the numerator is “public support” and the denominator is all of the organization’s support), related business income is not included in either of the numerator or the denominator.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.New NGO communities are starting to use the open source technology as a tool.^ Use open source.
  • How to Compete Against Open Source Competition | Software by Rob 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarebyrob.com [Source type: General]

^ Open source code is typically created as a collaborative effort in which programmers improve upon the code and share the changes within the community.

^ "One of the spectacular successes of open source is Linux, which is famed for its strong community of enthusiasts as well as its competitiveness as an operating system.
  • AITopics / Software 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.aaai.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One example is the Open Source Youth Network started in 2007 in Lisboa by ISCA members[22].^ "One of the spectacular successes of open source is Linux, which is famed for its strong community of enthusiasts as well as its competitiveness as an operating system.
  • AITopics / Software 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.aaai.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Probably the most important lesson that we learned was that in a distributed network, like an open source community, or a decentralized network or developers, trust is central to all else.
  • eXtropia | a case study in open source software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC extropia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of the other (commercial) CMSs we use is MS-based, so I really doubt that the open source system we choose will be too.
  • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

Open innovation is also a new emerging concept which advocate putting R&D in a common pool. .The Eclipse platform is openly presenting itself as an Open innovation network [23].^ And there is a new spirit of innovation with Web 2.0, SOA and collaboration/participation technologies, and the Java platform is the perfect foundation platform on which to innovate - and open-source can help accelerate this innovation.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Now, as Free software, the Java platform can address new markets and be the engine of innovation for the next generation of networked applications.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Arts and recreation

.Copyright protection is used in the performing arts and even in athletic activities.^ If your project decides to unify copyrights, developers need not give up their rights to use that code in other projects, even proprietary ones!
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While copyright is intended to most protect written works from unauthorized use, and most commercial copyright licenses do so by prohibiting changes or distribution, copyleft licenses encourage free and widespread use.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you believe that someone is using your mark in a manner protected by your exclusive rights and has not obtained your authorization to do so, you should take action even if you do not object to their use.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some groups have attempted to remove copyright from such practices.^ They will typically describe the offending behavior and the applicable laws and penalties, and will demand some action on the part of the recipient (such as removing offending content from a website or product).
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Whereas copyright law has traditionally been used to withhold permission to copy, modify or distribute software, some licenses instead use copyright law to require that such permissions be granted.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[24]

See also

References

  1. ^ Information Technology @ John Hopkins University "Glossary"
  2. ^ The complexity of such communication relates to Brooks' law, and it is also described by Eric S. Raymond, "Brooks predicts that as your number of programmers N rises, work performed scales as N but complexity and vulnerability to bugs rises as N-squared. N-squared tracks the number of communications paths (and potential code interfaces) between developers' code bases." —"The Revenge of the Hackers". 2000.
  3. ^ Raymond, Eric S. The Cathedral and the Bazaar. ed 3.0. 2000.
  4. ^ "Science 2.0 is here as CSIR resorts to open source drug research for TB" Business Standard, 1 March 2009
  5. ^ a b c d James J. Flink The Car Culture (MIT Press, 1977) ISBN 0-262-56015-1
  6. ^ Fisher, Franklin M.; James W. McKie, Richard B. Mancke (1983). IBM and the U.S. Data Processing Industry: An Economic History. Praeger. ISBN 0-03-063059-2.  pages 172-179 IBM unbundled (began charging for) software June 23, 1969
  7. ^ Dave Pitts' IBM 7090 support – An example of distributed source: Page contains a link to IBM 7090/94 IBSYS source, including COBOL and FORTRAN compilers.
  8. ^ a b Tiemann, Michael (September 19, 2006). "History of the OSI". Open Source Initiative. http://www.opensource.org/history. Retrieved August 23, 2008. 
  9. ^ Muffatto, Moreno (2006). Open Source: A Multidisciplinary Approach. Imperial College Press. ISBN 1860946658. 
  10. ^ Open Source Summit Linux Gazette. 1998.
  11. ^ Goodbye, "free software"; hello, "open source"
  12. ^ Stallman, Richard M. The Free Software Definition. Free Software Foundation. 2005.
  13. ^ Cohn, David. "Free Beer for Geeks". Wired News. 18 July 2005.
  14. ^ Formats-ouverts.org (French)
  15. ^ Can open-source R&D reinvigorate drug research?
  16. ^ Finding Cures for Tropical Diseases: Is Open Source an Answer?
  17. ^ Berry (2004) Internet Ethics: Privacy, Ethics and Alienation - An Open Source Approach. (PDF file)
  18. ^ El-Emam, K (2001). Ethics and Open Source. Empirical Software Engineering 6(4).
  19. ^ Elephantsdream.org
  20. ^ "The American Revolution
  21. ^ Open Source Pharmaceuticals http://www.farmavita.net/content/view/336/84/
  22. ^ ISCA - International Sport and Culture Association - Youth - Youth corner - Racism in football
  23. ^ Eclipse.org
  24. ^ Open Source Yoga Unity - Home

Further reading

  • David M. Berry (2008). .Copy, Rip, Burn: The Politics of Copyleft and Open Source.^ A: Because Sun owns the copyright for the open-source code base, Sun is able to license each copy of this code base distributed by Sun, under any license, including a commercial software license.
    • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The concept of copyleft also grew out of the work by GNU and others in the open source movement.
    • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ We also make copies of approved open source licenses here."
    • AITopics / Software 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.aaai.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    London:Pluto Press. .http://www.amazon.com/Copy-Rip-Burn-Politics-Source/dp/0745324142. 
  • Karl Fogel.^ GML4J "GML4J is a Java API for facilitating work with the Geography Markup Language (http://www.gmlcentral.com).

    ^ These are outlined at http://www.java.com/en/about/brand/ .
    • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Please credit this paper as your process, if you use it, as How to Evaluate Open Source Software / Free Software (OSS/FS) Programs by David A. Wheeler, http://www.dwheeler.com/oss_fs_eval.html .
    • How to Evaluate Open Source Software / Free Software (OSS/FS) Programs 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.dwheeler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Producing Open Source Software (How to Run a Successful Free Software Project).^ How can Sun have multiple licenses that bear on the same open-source code base?
    • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ How do these tests apply to derivative works in Open Source software?
    • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ There are many people that feel that using free software is an important part of how they live and work.
    • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Free PDF version available.
  • Ron Goldman and Richard P. Gabriel (2005).^ In addition to the free download students can buy a PDF version, a printed version (black and white or color), even an audio version.
    • Open Source | ZDNet.com 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC blogs.zdnet.com [Source type: General]

    ^ They did some contributions to the kernel and and made a free version of the hypervisor available but not in open source.
    • Open Source | ZDNet.com 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC blogs.zdnet.com [Source type: General]

    Innovation Happens Elsewhere. Richard P. Gabriel. ISBN 1558608893. .http://dreamsongs.com./IHE/IHE.html. 
  • Isaac Hunter Dunlap (2006).^ The Java SE 6 version of this license can be found at http://java.sun.com/javase/6/docs/legal/license.html .
    • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Open Source Database Driven Web Development.^ NETGEAR Launches Open Source Wireless-G Router Enabling Linux Developers and Enthusiasts to Create Firmware for Specialized Applications .

    ^ Open Source is Market Driven .
    • eXtropia | a case study in open source software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC extropia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Open 3D GIS "Open 3D GIS is an Open Source project with the main goal of making available a simple way to display 3D objects from a Geodatabase on the Web."

    Oxford: Chandos. ISBN 1843341611. .http://www.chandospublishing.com/chandos_publishing_record_detail.php?ID=98. 
  • Steven Weber (2005).^ These are outlined at http://www.java.com/en/about/brand/ .
    • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ A quick check at http://www.opensource.org/d ocs/definition.php reveals that the intended meaning is more like: 4.
    • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Please see http://www.sun.com/policies/trademarks/ for more details.
    • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The Success of Open Source.^ "One of the spectacular successes of open source is Linux, which is famed for its strong community of enthusiasts as well as its competitiveness as an operating system.
    • AITopics / Software 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.aaai.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ But will all successful open source companies end up in the clutches of proprietary software titans?
    • Open Source | ZDNet.com 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC blogs.zdnet.com [Source type: General]

    ^ You can read about successful software products that have these properties, and about our certification mark and program, which allow you to be confident that software really is "Open Source."
    • AITopics / Software 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.aaai.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Harvard: Harvard University Press. .http://www.amazon.com/Success-Open-Source-Steven-Weber/dp/0674018583/ref=ed_oe_p. 
  • Nettingsmeier, Jörn.^ Visual Basic GIS http://www.visualbasicgis.com/ .

    ^ "One of the spectacular successes of open source is Linux, which is famed for its strong community of enthusiasts as well as its competitiveness as an operating system.
    • AITopics / Software 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.aaai.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Please see http://www.sun.com/policies/trademarks/ for more details.
    • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    “So What? I Don’t Hack!.” eContact! .11.3 — Logiciels audio « open source » / Open Source for Audio Application (September 2009).^ Engineering Portal Open Source engineering applications.

    ^ Wissam El-Kik - March 6th, 2008 at 8:20 am gr8 list of open source applications !
    • Open source software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC blog.lorla.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Map Guide Open Source "MapGuide Open Source is a web-based platform that enables users to quickly develop and deploy web mapping applications and geospatial web services."

    Montréal: CEC.
  • Various authors. eContact! .11.3 — Logiciels audio « open source » / Open Source for Audio Application (September 2009).^ Engineering Portal Open Source engineering applications.

    ^ Wissam El-Kik - March 6th, 2008 at 8:20 am gr8 list of open source applications !
    • Open source software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC blog.lorla.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Map Guide Open Source "MapGuide Open Source is a web-based platform that enables users to quickly develop and deploy web mapping applications and geospatial web services."

    Montréal: CEC.
  • Various authors. “Open Source Travel Guide [wiki].” eContact! .11.3 — Logiciels audio « open source » / Open Source for Audio Application (September 2009).^ Engineering Portal Open Source engineering applications.

    ^ Wissam El-Kik - March 6th, 2008 at 8:20 am gr8 list of open source applications !
    • Open source software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC blog.lorla.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Map Guide Open Source "MapGuide Open Source is a web-based platform that enables users to quickly develop and deploy web mapping applications and geospatial web services."

    Montréal: CEC.

Literature on legal and economic aspects

  • François Letellier (2008), Open Source Software: the Role of Nonprofits in Federating Business and Innovation Ecosystems, AFME 2008 (in Adobe pdf format).
  • Benkler, Y. (2002): “Coase's Penguin, or, Linux and The Nature of the Firm." Yale Law Journal 112.3 (Dec 2002): p367(78) (in Adobe pdf format)
  • Berry, D. M & Moss, G. (2008). Libre Culture: Meditations on Free Culture. .Canada: Pygmalion Books. (in Adobe pdf format)
  • Bitzer, J. & Schröder, P. J.H. (2005): "The Impact of Entry and Competition by Open Source Software on Innovation Activity", Industrial Organization 0512001, EconWPA. (in Adobe pdf format)
  • v.^ How do these tests apply to derivative works in Open Source software?
    • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Some of those risks may relate specifically to Open Source software, but most often they relate to all software, regardless of the form of license.
    • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Since its launch in 2006, the Conservancy has grown to include free and open source software projects active in a wide range of fields.
    • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Engelhardt, S. (2008): "The Economic Properties of Software", Jena Economic Research Papers, Volume 2 (2008), Number 2008-045. (in Adobe pdf format)
  • v.^ Mapyrus "Mapyrus is software for creating plots of points, lines, polygons and labels to PostScript, PDF and web image output formats.

    .Engelhardt, S. (2008): "Intellectual Property Rights and Ex-Post Transaction Costs: the Case of Open and Closed Source Software", Jena Economic Research Papers 2008-047.^ How do these tests apply to derivative works in Open Source software?
    • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Is Open Source software always of better quality than other types of software?
    • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Boston area company started as an IP (intellectual property) risk management and mitigation company , but has since grown into an open-source legal management firm.
    • How many billions is open-source software worth? - Computerworld Blogs 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC blogs.computerworld.com [Source type: General]

    (in Adobe pdf format)
  • v. .Engelhardt, S. & Swaminathan, S. (2008): "Open Source Software, Closed Source Software or Both: Impacts on Industry Growth and the Role of Intellectual Property Rights", Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 799. (in Adobe pdf format)
  • Feller, J., Fitzgerald, B. & Hissam, S. A. (eds), (2005): Perspectives on Free and Open Source Software, MIT Press.
  • Ghosh, R. A. (2006): Study on the: Economic impact of open source software on innovation and the competitiveness of the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) sector in the EU
  • v.^ The Boston area company started as an IP (intellectual property) risk management and mitigation company , but has since grown into an open-source legal management firm.
    • How many billions is open-source software worth? - Computerworld Blogs 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC blogs.computerworld.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Whether you value Free and open-source software for philosophical or economic reasons, want more flexibility, appreciate the quality that transparency brings, or want to know you have ultimate control over your investment, you can adopt the JDK knowing that you'll gain these advantages.
    • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Since its launch in 2006, the Conservancy has grown to include free and open source software projects active in a wide range of fields.
    • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Hippel, E. & v. .Krogh, G. (2003): ‘Open source software and the "private-collective" innovation model: Issues for organization science’, Organization Science 14(2), 209–223.
  • Lerner J. & Pathak P. A. & Tirole, J. (2006): "The Dynamics of Open Source Contributors", American Economic Review, vol.^ How do these tests apply to derivative works in Open Source software?
    • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Although it is this OSI definition of Open Source to which the remainder of this paper relates, it is worthwhile to also examine the definition of Free Software, for often times the terms Free Software and Open Source are used interchangeably.
    • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ This includes modification of Open Source software.
    • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

    .96 (2), p. 114-118.
  • Lerner, J. & Tirole, J. (2002): ‘Some simple economics on open source’, Journal of Industrial Economics 50(2), p 197–234. Download of an earlier version.
  • Lerner, J. & Tirole, J. (2005): "The Scope of Open Source Licensing", The Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization, vol.^ How can Sun have multiple licenses that bear on the same open-source code base?
    • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Do not volunteer to the company-owned projects that are not releasing some parts of they code under approved Open Source license.
    • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Open 3D GIS "Open 3D GIS is an Open Source project with the main goal of making available a simple way to display 3D objects from a Geodatabase on the Web."

    .21, p. 20-56.
  • Lerner, J. & Tirole, J. (2005): "The Economics of Technology Sharing: Open Source and Beyond", Journal of Economic Perspectives, vol.^ Wissam El-Kik - March 6th, 2008 at 8:20 am gr8 list of open source applications !
    • Open source software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC blog.lorla.com [Source type: General]

    ^ IBM, a longtime supporter of the open-source movement in which developers freely write and modify software and share code, also is presenting UIMA to the Open Source Technology Group, a network of online technology resources.
    • AITopics / Software 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.aaai.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Community Mapbuilder "Our mission is to empower communities to collaboratively build and share geographic data using standards-based, open source tools.

    .19(2), p. 99-120.
  • Maurer, S. M. (2008): ‘Open source biology: Finding a niche (or maybe several)’, UMKC Law Review 76(2).^ February 8, 2008 by Michael Dick I just released my free open source CMS called PureEdit.
    • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Find a serious, high level Free software or Open source project.
    • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Fundamentals of Copyright Law To better appreciate Open Source software, we need a basic understanding of copyright law.
    • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

    .(download an online version) (in Adobe pdf format)
  • Osterloh, M. & Rota, S. (2007): "Open source software development--Just another case of collective invention?", Research Policy, vol.^ Since its launch in 2006, the Conservancy has grown to include free and open source software projects active in a wide range of fields.
    • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ February 8, 2008 by Michael Dick I just released my free open source CMS called PureEdit.
    • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Generally Recognized as Mature (GRAM) OSS/FS Programs , Open Source Software / Free Software (OSS/FS) References , and David A. Wheeler's home page .
    • How to Evaluate Open Source Software / Free Software (OSS/FS) Programs 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.dwheeler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .36(2), pages 157-171. Download of an earlier version
  • Riehle, D. (2007): "The Economic Motivation of Open Source: Stakeholder Perspectives", IEEE Computer, vol.^ Generally Recognized as Mature (GRAM) OSS/FS Programs , Open Source Software / Free Software (OSS/FS) References , and David A. Wheeler's home page .
    • How to Evaluate Open Source Software / Free Software (OSS/FS) Programs 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.dwheeler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ An earlier software movement similar to Open Source is the Free Software Movement (embodied in the Free Software Foundation).
    • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ They did some contributions to the kernel and and made a free version of the hypervisor available but not in open source.
    • Open Source | ZDNet.com 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC blogs.zdnet.com [Source type: General]

    40, no. .4 (April 2007), p. 25-32.
  • Rossi, M. A. (2006): Decoding the free/open source software puzzle: A survey of theoretical and empirical contributions, in J. Bitzer P. Schröder, eds, ‘The Economics of Open Source Software Development’, p 15–55. (download an online version) (in Adobe pdf format)
  • Schiff, A. (2002): "The Economics of Open Source Software: A Survey of the Early Literature," Review of Network Economics, vol.^ About 80 programmers, led by Apache developer (and Collabnet employee) Brian Behlendorf , will spend about four hours trying to stamp out bugs in the open source software gateway, which is based on National Health Information Network (NHIN) conventions.
    • Open Source | ZDNet.com 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC blogs.zdnet.com [Source type: General]

    ^ How do these tests apply to derivative works in Open Source software?
    • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ A: Open-source, compatible Java has gone from a long-standing dream of developers worldwide, to concrete reality in just two years of intensive effort.
    • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    1(1), p 66-74.

External links


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 16, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Open source, which are similar to those in the above article.








Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message