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.Open source describes practices in production and development that promote access to the end product's source materials—typically, their source code.^ At its core, open source refers to open access to the source code of a program.
  • AITopics / Software 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.aaai.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It’s a good post for open source developers competing with commercial products.
  • How to Compete Against Open Source Competition | Software by Rob 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarebyrob.com [Source type: General]

^ Open Source developers can hardly be .
  • Xtreme Programming and Open Source Software Development | freshmeat.net 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC freshmeat.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1] .Some consider open source a philosophy, others consider it a pragmatic methodology.^ Open source software as a philosophy and a process .
  • Open source software in libraries / Eric Lease Morgan 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Facebook today confirmed that it is preparing to further open its platform so that third-party developers will be able to create applications using its source code that will run on other environments.
  • Facebook Confirms Open Source Plans - InternetNews.com 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.internetnews.com [Source type: General]

^ This exact strategy is used by many people who want to make a program Open Source and still make some money from it.
  • Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC oreilly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Open Source Definition 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC perens.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Before the term open source became widely adopted, developers and producers used a variety of phrases to describe the concept; open source gained hold with the rise of the Internet, and the attendant need for massive retooling of the computing source code.^ Open-source components (used as is or modified).

^ Open source software is software for which the source code is available.
  • Open Source Software and Applications 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.eadon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Eclipse : An open source development environment.
  • Using open source software to design, develop, and deploy a collaborative Web site, Part 1: Introduction and overview 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.ibm.com [Source type: General]

.Opening the source code enabled a self-enhancing diversity of production models, communication paths, and interactive communities.^ Most commercial open source products, however, are self-sufficient.
  • Open Source Software in Education (EDUCAUSE Quarterly) | EDUCAUSE 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.educause.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Open source is ultimately about communication.
  • tim.oreilly.com -- Open Source Software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC tim.oreilly.com [Source type: General]

^ Confusion in the open source community.

.[2] Subsequently, a new, three-word phrase "open source software" was born to describe the environment that the new copyright, licensing, domain, and consumer issues created.^ And thus it is with the majority of open source software: .
  • How to Compete Against Open Source Competition | Software by Rob 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarebyrob.com [Source type: General]

^ This isn't permissible for Open Source licenses.
  • Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC oreilly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Open Source Definition 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC perens.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Open source software is fundamentally grounded in copyright law[1] .
  • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

.The open source model includes the concept of concurrent yet different agendas and differing approaches in production, in contrast with more centralized models of development such as those typically used in commercial software companies.^ And thus it is with the majority of open source software: .
  • How to Compete Against Open Source Competition | Software by Rob 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarebyrob.com [Source type: General]

^ Most commercial open source products, however, are self-sufficient.
  • Open Source Software in Education (EDUCAUSE Quarterly) | EDUCAUSE 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.educause.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Q: What components of the JDK software have been open sourced?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.[3] A main principle and practice of open source software development is peer production by bartering and collaboration, with the end-product (and source-material) available at no cost to the public.^ And thus it is with the majority of open source software: .
  • How to Compete Against Open Source Competition | Software by Rob 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarebyrob.com [Source type: General]

^ Q: What components of the JDK software have been open sourced?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It’s a good post for open source developers competing with commercial products.
  • How to Compete Against Open Source Competition | Software by Rob 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarebyrob.com [Source type: General]

This is increasingly being applied in other fields of endeavor, such as biotechnology.[4]

Contents

History

.The concept of open source and free sharing of technological information has existed long before computers existed.^ Open source planetarium Stellarium is a free open source planetarium for your computer.
  • Make: Online : The Open Source Gift Guide: Open source hardware, software, and more for the holidays! 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC blog.makezine.com [Source type: General]

^ Pencil is free and open source.
  • List of Open Source Video Software - Open Video Alliance 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC openvideoalliance.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Open source, commercial open source, real free open source, ...
  • The Failure of Commercial Open Source Software - BusinessWeek 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.businessweek.com [Source type: General]

.There is open source pertaining to businesses and there is open source pertaining to computers, software, and technology.^ Q: What components of the JDK software have been open sourced?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Expression Engine is open source software.
  • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

^ Open source software companies are selling their "software".
  • The Failure of Commercial Open Source Software - BusinessWeek 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.businessweek.com [Source type: General]

.In the early years of automobile development, a group of capital monopolists owned the rights to a 2 cycle gasoline engine patent originally filed by George B. Selden.^ WinDisp was originally developed for the FAO Global Information and Early Warning System.

^ The controlling power coalition then exercises power in the pursuit of its own agenda, often to the detriment of the larger group, e.g., the Religious Right’s rise to power in the US. .
  • Open Source Truth Process | Yoism 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.yoism.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Zebra - Zebra is a workflow engine - originally developed to fill in the gaps in some commercial and open source workflow engines.
  • Manageability - Open Source Workflow Engines Written in Java 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.manageability.org [Source type: General]

[5] By controlling this patent, they were able to monopolize the industry and force car manufacturers to adhere to their demands, or risk a lawsuit. In 1911, independent automaker Henry Ford won a challenge to the Selden patent. .The result was that the Selden patent became virtually worthless and a new association (which would eventually become the Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association) was formed.^ Eventually it became the new GCC. .
  • 10 interesting open source software forks and why they happened | Royal Pingdom 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC royal.pingdom.com [Source type: General]

^ It was with the World Wide Web that the Internet broke into national consciousness and where Netscape Communications would become the central Bay Area firm around which a slew of new Silicon Valley companies would form.
  • The Origins and Future of Open Source Software 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.netaction.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rather, we are simply observing that patents, as recognized by the applicable legal system, possess characteristics associated generally with forms of personal property.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5] .The new association instituted a cross-licensing agreement among all US auto manufacturers: although each company would develop technology and file patents, these patents were shared openly and without the exchange of money between all the manufacturers.^ That's good news for all of us.

^ The Globus Alliance is a community of organizations and individuals developing fundamental technologies behind the " Grid ," which lets people share computing power, databases, instruments, and other on-line tools securely across corporate, institutional, and geographic boundaries without sacrificing local autonomy.

^ These provisions are a response to the Microsoft-Novell deal regarding patent licenses and software distribution.
  • Managing Rights Management: Open Source 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.managingrights.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5] .Up to the point where the US entered World War II, 92 Ford patents were being used freely by other manufacturers and were in turn making use of 515 patents from other companies, all without lawsuits or the exchange of any money.^ A big issue for sales is that companies want indemnification against lawsuits, mainly for patent infringement.
  • The Failure of Commercial Open Source Software - BusinessWeek 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.businessweek.com [Source type: General]

^ In the Technology At Work blog, Rachael King and occasional guest bloggers explore how companies are using innovative software, hardware and other tools to revolutionize work spaces, cut costs of getting the job done, and make us better, faster and smarter at earning a living.
  • The Failure of Commercial Open Source Software - BusinessWeek 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.businessweek.com [Source type: General]

^ This exact strategy is used by many people who want to make a program Open Source and still make some money from it.
  • Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC oreilly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Open Source Definition 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC perens.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5]
.Very similar to open standards, researchers with access to the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) used a process called Request for Comments to develop telecommunication network protocols.^ Licklider in 1960 has written a manifesto for using computers to enhance research and research collaboration called "Man-Computer Symbiosis" and would define the IPTO's office's mandate in research funding.
  • The Origins and Future of Open Source Software 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.netaction.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Apache XML Project The goal of the Apache XML Project is to provide "commercial-quality standards-based XML solutions that are developed in an open and cooperative fashion, to provide feedback to standards bodies (such ...
  • Open Source 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.xml.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Using models from ARPA's project around radio packet switching, Metcalfe created a system called Ethernet to exchange information between computers in what would come to be called Local Area Networks (LANs).
  • The Origins and Future of Open Source Software 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.netaction.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Characterized by contemporary open source work, this 1960s' collaborative process led to the birth of the Internet in 1969. There are earlier instances of open source and free software such as IBM's source releases of its operating systems and other programs in the 1950s, 60s, and the SHARE user group that formed to facilitate the exchange of software.^ And thus it is with the majority of open source software: .
  • How to Compete Against Open Source Competition | Software by Rob 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarebyrob.com [Source type: General]

^ There are also elements incorporated from other free software projects.

^ An earlier software movement similar to Open Source is the Free Software Movement (embodied in the Free Software Foundation).
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6][7] .Open source on the internet began when the internet was just a message board and progressed to more advanced presentation and sharing forms like a website.^ It's not just an open-source problem.
  • open source posts - The Open Road - CNET News 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: General]

^ More about: open source .
  • The 5 Best Open-Source Social Networking Software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.makeuseof.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Free software, just like open source software, has weakened our ability to share our outlook with others—both now and in the future—by reducing the number of people who are going to really listen to us!

.There are now many websites, organizations, and businesses who promote open source sharing of everything from computer code to mechanics of improving a product, technique, or medical advancement.^ Are there exceptions in the open source world?
  • How to Compete Against Open Source Competition | Software by Rob 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarebyrob.com [Source type: General]

^ Are you open sourcing the latest code?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Open source software is software for which the source code is available.
  • Open Source Software and Applications 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.eadon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The decision by some people in the free software movement to use the label “open source” came out of a strategy session[8] held at Palo Alto, California, in reaction to Netscape's January 1998 announcement of a source code release for Navigator.^ And thus it is with the majority of open source software: .
  • How to Compete Against Open Source Competition | Software by Rob 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarebyrob.com [Source type: General]

^ As a whole the movement is often called "Free and Open-Source software" (FOSS).
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An earlier software movement similar to Open Source is the Free Software Movement (embodied in the Free Software Foundation).
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The group of individuals at the session included Christine Peterson who suggested “open source”, Todd Anderson, Larry Augustin, Jon Hall, Sam Ockman, Michael Tiemann and Eric S. Raymond.^ Larry Augustin of VA Research and Sam Ockman (who later left VA to form Penguin Computing) were involved, as well as others who aren't known to me.
  • Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC oreilly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It’s all explained in a blogalicious post from co-founder Eric Woodward, who said that by September 15 Nambu will become an open source project offering its software under the GPL-compatible MIT license .
  • Open Source | ZDNet.com 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC blogs.zdnet.com [Source type: General]

^ Five years ago a brainstorming session in Palo Alto led to the coining of the term " open source ."
  • ECHO Science & Technology Memory Bank - History of Free and Open Source Software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC echo.gmu.edu [Source type: General]

.They used the opportunity before the release of Navigator's source code to free themselves of the ideological and confrontational connotations of the term free software.^ Open source software is software for which the source code is available.
  • Open Source Software and Applications 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.eadon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The user is free to use the software for any purpose.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Expect many minor releases from Free and Open Source software.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Netscape licensed and released its code as open source under the Netscape Public License and subsequently under the Mozilla Public License.^ This isn't permissible for Open Source licenses.
  • Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC oreilly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Open Source Definition 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC perens.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A MORE interesting open source fork is Netscape -> Mozilla.
  • 10 interesting open source software forks and why they happened | Royal Pingdom 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC royal.pingdom.com [Source type: General]

^ Q: Is GPL v2 an open-source license?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[9]
.The term was given a big boost at an event organized in April 1998 by technology publisher Tim O'Reilly.^ Why O'Reilly books aren't open source  --  An Ask Tim piece from December 1998.
  • tim.oreilly.com -- Open Source Software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC tim.oreilly.com [Source type: General]

^ Tim O'Reilly Sends an "Open Letter to Microsoft"  -- This was written in November 1998, just after the release of the Halloween Documents.
  • tim.oreilly.com -- Open Source Software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC tim.oreilly.com [Source type: General]

.Originally titled the “Freeware Summit” and later known as the “Open Source Summit”,[10] the event brought together the leaders of many of the most important free and open source projects, including Linus Torvalds, Larry Wall, Brian Behlendorf, Eric Allman, Guido van Rossum, Michael Tiemann, Paul Vixie, Jamie Zawinski of Netscape, and Eric Raymond.^ This is an open source project.
  • AITopics / Software 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.aaai.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mono-culture tends to arise in most open source projects.
  • 10 interesting open source software forks and why they happened | Royal Pingdom 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC royal.pingdom.com [Source type: General]

^ Open source, commercial open source, real free open source, ...
  • The Failure of Commercial Open Source Software - BusinessWeek 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.businessweek.com [Source type: General]

.At that meeting, the confusion caused by the name free software was brought up.^ That would bring us up to about today--but the free software movement would be far far ahead of where it is now.
  • Without Free Software, Open Source Would Lose its Meaning | Linux Journal 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.linuxjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ Determined to circumvent the confusion and the combativeness that was perceived to emanate from the free software camp, in 1998 a group of hackers met in Palo Alto, California and brainstormed a new name for nonproprietary software, to Stallman's dismay.
  • Dr. Dobb's | Is Open Source for You? | May 1, 2001 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.ddj.com [Source type: General]

^ These new models incorporated, evolved from or grew up in parallel with the "Free Software" model developed by the Free Software Foundation in the mid-eighties.
  • eXtropia | a case study in open source software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC extropia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Tiemann argued for “sourceware” as a new term, while Raymond argued for “open source.” The assembled developers took a vote, and the winner was announced at a press conference that evening.^ For any Open source development : Contact Us .
  • Open Source Development | Open Source Application | Open Source Ecommerce | Web Development India 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.perceptionsystem.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Eclipse : An open source development environment.
  • Using open source software to design, develop, and deploy a collaborative Web site, Part 1: Introduction and overview 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.ibm.com [Source type: General]

^ O’Reilly’s OSCON is perhaps best conference for open source developers.

.Five days later, Raymond made the first public call to the free software community to adopt the new term.^ Debian's guidelines were lauded in the free software community, especially among Linux developers, who were working their own free software revolution at the time in developing the first practical free operating system.
  • Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC oreilly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Open Source Definition 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC perens.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Raymond is the Margaret Meade of free software: he has written several anthropological articles explaining the free software phenomenon and the culture that has grown around it, works that are the first of their kind and have shown a spotlight on this formerly little-known phenomenon.
  • The Open Source Definition 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC perens.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I find the free software is really good for building small online communities or using it to determine feasibility.
  • The 5 Best Open-Source Social Networking Software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.makeuseof.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[11] .The Open Source Initiative was formed shortly thereafter.^ The Open Source Initiative has this for a definition of open-source software: .
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A few open source licenses have other restrictions requiring some form of attribution.
  • Collaboration and Content Strategies Blog: open source 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC ccsblog.burtongroup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some of those risks may relate specifically to Open Source software, but most often they relate to all software, regardless of the form of license.
  • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

[8]
.Starting in the early 2000's, a number of companies began to publish a portion of their source code to claim they were open source, while keeping key parts closed.^ They didn't mean to include the open-source code fragments.

^ Are you open sourcing the latest code?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Open source software is software for which the source code is available.
  • Open Source Software and Applications 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.eadon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This led to the development of the now widely used terms Free open source software and Commercial Open Source Software to distinguish between truly open and hybrid forms of open source.^ And thus it is with the majority of open source software: .
  • How to Compete Against Open Source Competition | Software by Rob 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarebyrob.com [Source type: General]

^ Can download free for non commercial use.
  • The 5 Best Open-Source Social Networking Software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.makeuseof.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Q: What components of the JDK software have been open sourced?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Markets

.Software is not the only field affected by open source; many fields of study and social and political views have been affected by the growth of the concept of open source.^ View all Open Source Interviews .
  • Closed and Open Source for Unix | Free Linux Downloads 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.developers.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And thus it is with the majority of open source software: .
  • How to Compete Against Open Source Competition | Software by Rob 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarebyrob.com [Source type: General]

^ View all Open Source Solutions .
  • Closed and Open Source for Unix | Free Linux Downloads 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.developers.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Advocates in one field will often support the expansion of open source in other fields, including Linus Torvalds who is quoted as saying, "the future is open source everything."
.Eric Raymond and other founders of the open source movement have sometimes publicly tried to put the brakes on speculation about applications outside of software, arguing that strong arguments for software openness should not be weakened by overreaching into areas where the story is less compelling.^ And thus it is with the majority of open source software: .
  • How to Compete Against Open Source Competition | Software by Rob 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarebyrob.com [Source type: General]

^ Q: What components of the JDK software have been open sourced?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But what about open source?
  • open source posts - The Open Road - CNET News 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: General]

.The broader impacts of the open source movement, and the extent of its role in the development of new information sharing procedures, remains to be seen.^ Eclipse : An open source development environment.
  • Using open source software to design, develop, and deploy a collaborative Web site, Part 1: Introduction and overview 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.ibm.com [Source type: General]

^ For any Open source development : Contact Us .
  • Open Source Development | Open Source Application | Open Source Ecommerce | Web Development India 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.perceptionsystem.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Is this what the founding open source developers envisioned?
  • Open Source | ZDNet.com 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC blogs.zdnet.com [Source type: General]

.The open source movement has been the inspiration for increased transparency and liberty in other fields, including the release of biotechnology research by CAMBIA, Wikipedia, and other projects.^ This is an open source project.
  • AITopics / Software 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.aaai.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What has the open source movement done for the industry?

^ Joining the existing Open Source Project .
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The open-source concept has also been applied to media other than computer programs, e.g., by Creative Commons.^ This License applies to any program or other work which Apple Computer, Inc.
  • Pogoplug - Open Source Credits 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.pogoplug.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In this case, Open Office, Java, and other Open Source products created and managed by SUN have a zero dollar value in and of themselves because of licensing.
  • How many billions is open-source software worth? - Computerworld Blogs 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC blogs.computerworld.com [Source type: General]

^ It lacks, for example, the collaborative improvement process promoted by the open source Open Source definition sponsored by SearchEnterpriseLinux.com, powered by WhatIs.com an online computer dictionary .
  • Open Source - White Papers, Webcasts and IT downloads - Bitpipe.com 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC www.bitpipe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It also constitutes an example of user innovation (see for example the book Democratizing Innovation). .Often, open source is an expression where it simply means that a system is available to all who wish to work on it.^ View all Open Source Interviews .
  • Closed and Open Source for Unix | Free Linux Downloads 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.developers.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It's not precisely open source, but it's all open.
  • Make: Online : The Open Source Gift Guide: Open source hardware, software, and more for the holidays! 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC blog.makezine.com [Source type: General]

^ View all Open Source Solutions .
  • Closed and Open Source for Unix | Free Linux Downloads 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.developers.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The difference between crowdsourcing and open source is that open source production is a cooperative activity initiated and voluntarily undertaken by members of the public
.Most economists would agree that open source candidates have a public goods aspect to them.^ So, why would any one open source.
  • The Failure of Commercial Open Source Software - BusinessWeek 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.businessweek.com [Source type: General]

^ (Most notably, the Apple Public Source License before version 2.0 is OSI-certified, but is not considered "Free" by the FSF.) Though many of the principles are the same, Open Source has a pragmatic and economic emphasis, while Free Software emphasizes philosophy and ethics.
  • Meatball Wiki: OpenSource 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC meatballwiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While everyone was speculating if Android is going to be an open source platform, they have come out with Android Open Source Project, which will give public at large the opportunity to make contributions.
  • 10 Best Open Source ERP Software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC blog.taragana.com [Source type: General]

.In general, this suggests that the original work involves a great deal of time, money, and effort.^ But in general you’re right, it comes down to trading time for money and realizing what you provide.
  • How to Compete Against Open Source Competition | Software by Rob 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarebyrob.com [Source type: General]

^ Yes it does cost some money, but you get great support, large friendly community and something that works straight out of the box.
  • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

^ However, though only a short time has passed, we have learned a great deal.
  • eXtropia | a case study in open source software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC extropia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, the cost of reproducing the work is very low so that additional users may be added at zero or near zero cost - this is referred to as the marginal cost of a product.^ However, licenses do impact those who modify the program, and the license can even impact users who don't modify their programs in the sense that the licenses impact what they (and those they work with) can do later.
  • How to Evaluate Open Source Software / Free Software (OSS/FS) Programs 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.dwheeler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The search and advertising markets are already highly competitive with very low switching costs, so users and advertisers already have plenty of choice and are not locked in.
  • open source posts - The Open Road - CNET News 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: General]

^ You may not refer to your product or implementation as a JDK, even if it is based on code you downloaded from the OpenJDK Project.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

At this point, it is necessary to consider a copyright. .The idea of copyright for works of authorship is to protect the incentive of making these original works.^ Act provides: "In no case does copyright protection for an original work of authorship extend to any idea, procedure, process, system, method of operation, concept, principle, or discovery, regardless of the form in which it is described, explained, illustrated, or embodied in such work."
  • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Now one way you can "protect" your free software/works from being submissive to this "hole" in Copyright Law is to assign all rights to the Free Software Foundation.
  • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ By choosing the same license as their peers in related projects, these developers make it easier to share code and create copyright policies that are standard throughout a development community.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Copyright restriction then creates access costs on consumers who value the original more than making an additional copy but value the original less than its price.^ Seems to me that $179 more than covers distribution cost, also, warranty protection is not being offered, it is being required.
  • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ And not many people understand this better than Gary Hardy, IT consultant and contributor to the original initiative that created CobiT. .

^ Try to be flexible in comparing needs to products, though; a product that meets 80% of your needs may have other advantages that make it better than a product that meets 100% of your originally-posited needs.
  • How to Evaluate Open Source Software / Free Software (OSS/FS) Programs 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.dwheeler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Thus, they will pay an access cost of this difference.^ Each of these business models has a different set of factors to pay attention to in terms of how they use open source and what they must do to succeed.
  • Collaboration and Content Strategies Blog: open source 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC ccsblog.burtongroup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Access costs also pose problems for authors who wish to create something based on another work yet are not willing to pay the copyright holder for the rights to the copyrighted work.^ In US copyright law, this is an implicit exclusive right of the creator of a work.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Who owns the copyright to a derivative work?
  • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Right to create modifications and derivative works.
  • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

.The second type of cost incurred with a copyright system is the cost of administration and enforcement of the copyright.^ Learn the business benefits gained through increased productivity, reduced system life cycle costs, greater administration consistency, and enhanced security.
  • Open Source - White Papers, Webcasts and IT downloads - Bitpipe.com 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC www.bitpipe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Open Source Definition 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC www.bitpipe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The idea of open source is then to eliminate the access costs of the consumer and the creator by reducing the restrictions of copyright.^ Can open source be consumer friendly?
  • open source posts - The Open Road - CNET News 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: General]

^ Open source has complex legal restrictions that can create copyright and patent compliance issues and corporate transaction challenges for companies that rely heavily on customized software or that distribute software to partners or customers.
  • How Open-Source Software Can Affect A Company's Value 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.computerworld.com [Source type: General]

^ At its core, open source refers to open access to the source code of a program.
  • AITopics / Software 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.aaai.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This will lead to creation of additional works, which build upon previous work and add to greater social benefit.^ The purpose of this plug-in is to add additional Errors and Warnings to the Eclipse Framework, assisting Java programmers to create bug free, high quality code.
  • Open Source Software in Java 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC java-source.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Our participation in GSoC has strengthened our project by encouraging us to create additional technical and social infrastructure.

^ Without expectation of financially capturing the social benefits of their creation, they are free to innovate without restriction.
  • The Origins and Future of Open Source Software 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.netaction.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Additionally, some proponents argue that open source also relieves society of the administration and enforcement costs of copyright.^ With publicly available source code generally offered without charge, it is tempting to look to open source for potentially significant cost savings in this time of need.
  • How Open-Source Software Can Affect A Company's Value 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.computerworld.com [Source type: General]
  • Computerworld - Knowledge Centers - Learn about Open Source 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.computerworld.com [Source type: General]

^ Users will similarly discover that some of these new-style “blurred” open source applications fail to deliver the promised benefits of control, customisation and cost-savings.
  • Without Free Software, Open Source Would Lose its Meaning | Linux Journal 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.linuxjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ This exact strategy is used by many people who want to make a program Open Source and still make some money from it.
  • Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC oreilly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Open Source Definition 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC perens.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Organizations such as Creative Commons have websites where individuals can file for alternative "licenses", or levels of restriction, for their works.^ A: Each source file is individually licensed.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An OSD-conformant license may warn licensees of applicable restrictions and remind them that they are obliged to obey the law; however, it may not incorporate such restrictions itself.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Open source isn't just for software: "Elephants Dream is the world's first open movie, made entirely with open source graphics software such as Blender, and with all production files freely available to use however you please, under a Creative Commons license."
  • Open Source Software and Applications 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.eadon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These self-made protections free the general society of the costs of policing copyright infringement.^ While copyright is intended to most protect written works from unauthorized use, and most commercial copyright licenses do so by prohibiting changes or distribution, copyleft licenses encourage free and widespread use.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So their costs are comparable to proprietary software companies that offer free trial versions for lead generation.
  • The Failure of Commercial Open Source Software - BusinessWeek 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.businessweek.com [Source type: General]

^ If you notice that someone is using the mark generically, you can point them to these guidelines and politely request that they help you protect your mark by using it properly.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Thus, on several fronts, there is an efficiency argument to be made on behalf of open sourced goods.^ And thus it is with the majority of open source software: .
  • How to Compete Against Open Source Competition | Software by Rob 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarebyrob.com [Source type: General]

^ Are there exceptions in the open source world?
  • How to Compete Against Open Source Competition | Software by Rob 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarebyrob.com [Source type: General]

^ There's no open-source app for that.
  • open source posts - The Open Road - CNET News 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: General]

.Others argue that society loses through open sourced goods.^ And if you missed Scott Ambler's column on internal open source (" Reuse Through Internal Open Source ," Thinking Objectively, Dec.
  • Dr. Dobb's | Is Open Source for You? | May 1, 2001 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.ddj.com [Source type: General]

^ In this case, Open Office, Java, and other Open Source products created and managed by SUN have a zero dollar value in and of themselves because of licensing.
  • How many billions is open-source software worth? - Computerworld Blogs 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC blogs.computerworld.com [Source type: General]

^ LinuxWorld is a more business-oriented event, and a good place for to catch up with latest developments in the world of infrastructure, Linux and Open Source software.

.Because there is a loss in monetary incentive to the creation of new goods, some argue that new products will not be created.^ The quality of the markup is quite good to start with but there are some modules (like CKK and Views) that tend to generate some really bloated markup.
  • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

^ Second, they are creating a whole new integrated product based off of the amalgamation of several open source products, which sounds like a big integration challenge.
  • Collaboration and Content Strategies Blog: open source 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC ccsblog.burtongroup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Open source is so successful because it’s creating new markets.

.This argument seems to apply particularly to the business model where extensive research and development is done, e.g.^ One of the keys to effectively applying open source solutions is to understand a vendor’s business model and the role the software plays in their market plans.
  • Collaboration and Content Strategies Blog: open source 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC ccsblog.burtongroup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While the Bluenog ICE product itself looks interesting, it is the business model the company uses to develop it that is causing a controversy and, in my opinion, raises some flags.
  • Collaboration and Content Strategies Blog: open source 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC ccsblog.burtongroup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So the two began researching business models oriented around free software.
  • eXtropia | a case study in open source software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC extropia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

pharmaceuticals. .However, others argue that visual art and other works of authorship should be free.^ However, this argument considers the license in the body of contract law, while some argue that it should be considered as copyright law, where there is more precedent for no-signature licenses.
  • Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC oreilly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, this argument considers the license in the body of contract law , while some argue that it should be considered as copyright law , where there is more precedent for no-signature licenses.
  • The Open Source Definition 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC perens.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A work consisting of editorial revisions, annotations, elaborations, or other modifications, which, as a whole, represent an original work of authorship, is a "derivative work"."
  • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

.These proponents of extensive open source ideals argue that there should be no monetary incentive for artists.^ Isn't that no longer "open source"?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Are there exceptions in the open source world?
  • How to Compete Against Open Source Competition | Software by Rob 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarebyrob.com [Source type: General]

^ Are there any open source solutions that meet these needs?
  • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

Agriculture

.
  • Beverages
    • OpenCola — An idea inspired by the open source movement.^ What has the open source movement done for the industry?

      ^ Some months before Open Source, I had concieved of the idea of Open Hardware, a similar concept but for hardware devices and their interfaces rather than software programs.
      • The Open Source Definition 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC perens.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ As a whole the movement is often called "Free and Open-Source software" (FOSS).
      • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      Soft drink giants like Coke and Pepsi hold their formulas as closely guarded secrets. Now volunteers have posted the recipe for a similar cola drink on the Internet. The taste is said to be comparable to that of the standard beverages.
    • Beer — A beer recipe called Vores Øl. .The beer was created by students at the IT-University in Copenhagen together with Superflex, a Copenhagen-based artist collective, to illustrate how open source concepts might be applied outside the digital world.^ Are there exceptions in the open source world?
      • How to Compete Against Open Source Competition | Software by Rob 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarebyrob.com [Source type: General]

      ^ This is the best open source software in the world.
      • Best Open Source Software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC lifehacker.biz [Source type: General]

      ^ If all open source was this good , it might take over the world.
      • Obama wants to know: Why open source? | The Open Road - CNET News 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: General]

      .The concept expands upon a statement found in the Free Software Definition: "Free software is a matter of liberty, not price.^ The concept of Free Software was created for the individual.
      • Without Free Software, Open Source Would Lose its Meaning | Linux Journal 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.linuxjournal.com [Source type: General]

      ^ The concept of free software is an old one.
      • Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC oreilly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
      • The Open Source Definition 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC perens.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Free software is a matter of liberty, not price.
      • eXtropia | a case study in open source software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC extropia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      .To understand the concept, you should think of 'free' as in 'free speech' not as in 'free beer.'"^ Post in the comments on what you think should be in the Open Source Gift Guide and we'll add it!
      • Make: Online : The Open Source Gift Guide: Open source hardware, software, and more for the holidays! 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC blog.makezine.com [Source type: General]

      ^ Often Free Software is referred to as "free as in speech, not as in beer", stressing the idea that the Free-software movement is concerned with freedom , not with price .
      • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ You should truly and completely understand the obligations imposed by the license before you can explain to a violator how to comply.
      • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      [12] .Following its release, an article in Wired magazine commented that "as open source spreads beyond software to online encyclopedias like Wikipedia and biological research, it was only a matter of time before somebody created an open-source beer".[13]
    • But before that In 2002 a beer company in Australia, Brewtopia, started an open source brewery which invited the general population to be involved in the development and ownership of the brewery, but asking them to vote on the development of every aspect of their beer, Blowfly, and its road to market.^ Open Source or open-source software is different from proprietary software.
      • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Open source is so successful because it’s creating new markets.

      ^ And thus it is with the majority of open source software: .
      • How to Compete Against Open Source Competition | Software by Rob 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarebyrob.com [Source type: General]

      .In return for their feedback and input, they received shares in the company, which is now publicly traded on one of the Stock Exchanges in Australia.^ Now I need a function like this in my company's software (a trade secret one, with commercial distributions).
      • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Small wonder, then, that the company elected to repurchase 1.9 million shares of common stock for $52.3 million.
      • open source posts - The Open Road - CNET News 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: General]

      ^ Now, JBoss is a part of a public company, MySQL is VC-backed, and they both have external shareholders.

      The company has always adhered to its Open Source roots and is the only beer company in the world that allows the public to design, customise and develop their own beers online.
    • Coffee - It has been pointed out[14] that capsule-based beverage systems such as Nestle's Nespresso or Krups' Tassimo turn home-brewed coffee from an inherently "open-source" beverage into a product limited by the specific range of capsules made available by the system manufacturers.

Content

.
  • Open-content projects organized by the Wikimedia Foundation — Sites such as Wikipedia and Wiktionary have embraced the open-content GFDL and Creative Commons content licenses.^ I run the Science Commons project at Creative Commons.
    • Distributed Science, Part 2 : Common Knowledge 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Open source isn't just for software: "Elephants Dream is the world's first open movie, made entirely with open source graphics software such as Blender, and with all production files freely available to use however you please, under a Creative Commons license."
    • Open Source Software and Applications 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.eadon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ While freedom to use and revise the content is ONE aspect of open source works, what makes a software project like Linux, Apache, or a text compilation product like Wikipedia "open source" is a system for collective modification and revision of a single product.
    • Open Source Truth Process | Yoism 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.yoism.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .These licenses were designed to adhere to principles similar to various open-source software development licenses.^ And thus it is with the majority of open source software: .
    • How to Compete Against Open Source Competition | Software by Rob 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarebyrob.com [Source type: General]

    ^ This includes modification of Open Source software.
    • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ This isn't permissible for Open Source licenses.
    • Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC oreilly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • The Open Source Definition 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC perens.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Many of these licenses ensure that content remains free for re-use, that source documents are made readily available to interested parties, and that changes to content are accepted easily back into the system.^ In this way, "unofficial" changes can be made available but readily distinguished from the base source.
    • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The availability of the LOGOS system as open source can change this situation...."
    • AITopics / Software 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.aaai.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ License: free for noncommercial use ] .

    .An important site embracing open source-like ideals is Project Gutenberg, which posts many books on which the copyright has expired and are thus in the Public Domain, ensuring that anyone can use that content for any purpose whatsoever.
  • There are few examples of business information (methodologies, advice, guidance, practices) using the open source model, although this is another case where the potential is enormous.^ And thus it is with the majority of open source software: .
    • How to Compete Against Open Source Competition | Software by Rob 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarebyrob.com [Source type: General]

    ^ There are a few loopholes in the GPL that allow it to be used in programs that are not entirely Open Source.
    • Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC oreilly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ This is an open source project.
    • AITopics / Software 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.aaai.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .ITIL is close to open source.^ The bad guys will find the holes whether source is open or closed.
    • eXtropia | a case study in open source software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC extropia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The license must not restrict other software, thus permitting the distribution of open source and closed source software together.
    • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ All what you sell with closed software, is valid with open source software, only that you don’t sell an empty box.
    • How to Compete Against Open Source Competition | Software by Rob 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarebyrob.com [Source type: General]

    .It uses the Cathedral model (no mechanism exists for user contribution) and the content must be bought for a fee that is small by business consulting standards (hundreds of British pounds).^ Our business model would not change if we used free software.
    • Meatball Wiki: OpenSource 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC meatballwiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ No matter if you're a Linux fan, Mac user or you use Windows regularly, I think everyone will enjoy this video.

    ^ GeoVRML "GeoVRML is an effort to provide support for representing and visualizing geographic data using standard VRML97 (Virtual Reality Modeling Language)."

    .Various checklists are published by government, banks or accounting firms.^ It supports multiple accounts in different currencies, double entry banking, income/expense categories, various reports and Quicken file (QIF) exchange.
    • Open Source Software in Java 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC java-source.net [Source type: Reference]

    Possibly the only example of free, bazaar-model open source business information is Core Practice.

Health and science

.
  • Medicine
  • Science
    • Research — The Science Commons was created as an alternative to the expensive legal costs of sharing and reusing scientific works in journals etc.
    • ResearchThe Open Source Science Project was created to increase the ability for students to participate in the research process by providing them access to microfunding - which, in turn, offers non-researchers the opportunity to directly invest, and follow, cutting-edge scientific research.^ So, why would any one open source.
      • The Failure of Commercial Open Source Software - BusinessWeek 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.businessweek.com [Source type: General]

      ^ This is an open source project.
      • AITopics / Software 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.aaai.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Discussions in an open source truth process .
      • Open Source Truth Process | Yoism 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.yoism.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      All data and methodology is subsequently published in an openly-accessible manner under a Creative Commons fair use license.

Technology

.
MediaWiki logo
  • Computer software
    • Open source software — software whose source code is published and made available to the public, enabling anyone to copy, modify and redistribute the source code without paying royalties or fees.^ And thus it is with the majority of open source software: .
      • How to Compete Against Open Source Competition | Software by Rob 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarebyrob.com [Source type: General]

      ^ Q: What components of the JDK software have been open sourced?
      • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Does anyone reading this have experience from open source portal software?
      • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

      .Open source code evolves through community cooperation.^ Confusion in the open source community.

      ^ Are you open sourcing the latest code?
      • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Open source software is software for which the source code is available.
      • Open Source Software and Applications 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.eadon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      .These communities are composed of individual programmers as well as very large companies.^ However, we got the impression the framework was well written, robust, very extensible, and seemed to have a thriving development community that was generating a lot of adoption and support.
      • Using open source software to design, develop, and deploy a collaborative Web site, Part 1: Introduction and overview 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.ibm.com [Source type: General]

      ^ We are part of a very smart and very well connected community of people, especially when it comes to scientific matters.

      ^ But these fine programs are the tip of a very large iceberg, based in academia, that is slowly transforming education and the education process.
      • Open Source | ZDNet.com 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC blogs.zdnet.com [Source type: General]

      .Examples of open-source software products are:
  • Computer hardware
    • Open source hardware — hardware whose initial specification, usually in a software format, are published and made available to the public, enabling anyone to copy, modify and redistribute the hardware and source code without paying royalties or fees.^ Bricolage cmsInfo Bricolage is a full-featured, open-source content-management and publishing system.
      • Property Viewer 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.cmsreview.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ And thus it is with the majority of open source software: .
      • How to Compete Against Open Source Competition | Software by Rob 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarebyrob.com [Source type: General]

      ^ At its core, open source refers to open access to the source code of a program.
      • AITopics / Software 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.aaai.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      .Open source hardware evolves through community cooperation.^ Confusion in the open source community.

      ^ Sun Open Sources Java (April Fool) April 1st, 2006 In a significant (read earth shattering for Java community worldwide) move Sun has announced their decision to open source Java technologies.
      • OrangeHRM Free Open Source HRM Software: Review 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC blog.taragana.com [Source type: General]

      ^ The Open Source Truth Process aims to ensure that the Yoan Community's core writings and beliefs will evolve over time, as everyone—based on each person's own direct experience of Reality—is invited to provide input and improvements.
      • Open Source Truth Process | Yoism 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.yoism.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      .These communities are composed of individual hardware/software developers, hobbyists, as well as very large companies.^ Debian's guidelines were lauded in the free software community, especially among Linux developers, who were working their own free software revolution at the time in developing the first practical free operating system.
      • The Open Source Definition 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC perens.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ If you’ve been involved in open source or follow the communities that develop around open source projects, the one thing you learn very quickly is that more than just the software has to be open.

      ^ Most universities annually pay large sums to software companies to use their products, but open source licenses are free.
      • Open Source Software in Education (EDUCAUSE Quarterly) | EDUCAUSE 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.educause.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      .Examples of open source hardware initiatives are:
      • Sun Microsystems's OpenSPARC T1 Multicore processor.^ The Open Source Initiative has this for a definition of open-source software: .
        • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

        ^ It lacks, for example, the collaborative improvement process promoted by the open source Open Source definition sponsored by SearchEnterpriseLinux.com, powered by WhatIs.com an online computer dictionary .
        • Open Source - White Papers, Webcasts and IT downloads - Bitpipe.com 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC www.bitpipe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

        ^ Microsoft originated the shared source approach, which has since been adopted by other major industry players, including Hewlett-Packard and Sun Microsystems.The shared source model offers fewer benefits than the open source model.
        • Open Source - White Papers, Webcasts and IT downloads - Bitpipe.com 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC www.bitpipe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

        .Sun has released it under GPL.
      • Arduino, a microcontroller platform for hobbyists, artists and designers.
  • Open design — which involves applying open source methodologies to the design of artifacts and systems in the physical world.^ Sun Microsystems released and Open Office as open source, and support it.
    • Open Source Software and Applications 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.eadon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Q: Is GPL v2 an open-source license?
    • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Every open-source project should have a UI designer involved.
    • open source posts - The Open Road - CNET News 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: General]

    .Very nascent but has huge potential.
  • Teaching - which involves applying the concepts of open source to instruction using a shared web space as a platform to improve upon learning, organizational, and management challenges.^ Contenido (in German) Contenido is an open source Web Content Management System.
    • Property Viewer 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.cmsreview.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Apache : An open source Web server.
    • Using open source software to design, develop, and deploy a collaborative Web site, Part 1: Introduction and overview 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.ibm.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Very nice review of open source and its potentials.
    • Open Source Software in Education (EDUCAUSE Quarterly) | EDUCAUSE 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.educause.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    An example of an Open Source Courseware is the Java Education & Development Initiative (JEDI).
.Open source principles can also be applied to technical areas other than computer software, such as digital communication protocols and data storage formats (for instance the Indian development simputer).^ And thus it is with the majority of open source software: .
  • How to Compete Against Open Source Competition | Software by Rob 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarebyrob.com [Source type: General]

^ Q: What components of the JDK software have been open sourced?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Open source software is software for which the source code is available.
  • Open Source Software and Applications 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.eadon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Example
.An investigation of open source industrial symbiosis is performed by Doyle and Pearce [1] using Google Earth (GE).^ Use open source.
  • How to Compete Against Open Source Competition | Software by Rob 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarebyrob.com [Source type: General]

^ What has the open source movement done for the industry?

^ Sun Open Sources Java (April Fool) April 1st, 2006 In a significant (read earth shattering for Java community worldwide) move Sun has announced their decision to open source Java technologies.
  • OrangeHRM Free Open Source HRM Software: Review 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC blog.taragana.com [Source type: General]

This paper found that virtual globes coupled with open source waste information can be used to:
  1. reduce embodied transport energy by reducing distances to recycling facilities,
  2. choose end of life at recycling facilities rather than landfills, and
  3. establish industrial symbiosis and eco-industrial parks on known by-product synergies.
.Ultimately, open source sharing of information in virtual globes provide a means to identify economically and environmentally beneficial opportunities for waste management if the data have been made available.^ Open source software is software for which the source code is available.
  • Open Source Software and Applications 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.eadon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An open source content management solution .
  • Using open source software to design, develop, and deploy a collaborative Web site, Part 1: Introduction and overview 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.ibm.com [Source type: General]

^ Talend - Talend is a provider of open source data integration software.
  • Open Source Software in Java 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC java-source.net [Source type: Reference]

Society and culture

Conceptual map of FOSS (Free and Open Source Software)
.Open source culture is the creative practice of appropriation and free sharing of found and created content.^ Several Free and open-source communities also follow this practice.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Free Software vs. Open Source software .
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Free software is open-source software, but not all open-source software is free.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Examples include collage, found footage film, music, and appropriation art. .Open source culture is one in which fixations, works entitled to copyright protection, are made generally available.^ Open source software is software for which the source code is available.
  • Open Source Software and Applications 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.eadon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While freedom to use and revise the content is ONE aspect of open source works, what makes a software project like Linux, Apache, or a text compilation product like Wikipedia "open source" is a system for collective modification and revision of a single product.
  • Open Source Truth Process | Yoism 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.yoism.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With the JDK nearly completely available under the GPL, and working implementations based on OpenJDK code on the horizon, both the promise and peril to compatibility of an open-source Java platform are upon us.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Participants in the culture can modify those products and redistribute them back into the community or other organizations.^ Any enhancements or security patches from the originating open source community would have to be manually integrated into Bluenog because they are now separate products.
  • Collaboration and Content Strategies Blog: open source 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC ccsblog.burtongroup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, an OSS/FS program that is not copylefted is often modified and incorporated into a proprietary product.
  • How to Evaluate Open Source Software / Free Software (OSS/FS) Programs 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.dwheeler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A desire to tap into innovative solutions, particularly those driven by active open source communities.
  • Collaboration and Content Strategies Blog: open source 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC ccsblog.burtongroup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The rise of open-source culture in the 20th century resulted from a growing tension between creative practices that involve appropriation, and therefore require access to content that is often copyrighted, and increasingly restrictive intellectual property laws and policies governing access to copyrighted content.^ An open source content management solution .
  • Using open source software to design, develop, and deploy a collaborative Web site, Part 1: Introduction and overview 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.ibm.com [Source type: General]

^ AM ET, Jul 15, 2009 Analysis of open source from a legal perspective has typically been the domain of websites like Groklaw, or the occasional column in a law journal.

^ Best practice policies and procedures for taking large code bases open source, balancing concerns and monetizing adoption and ubiquity, all while respecting intellectual property rights.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The two main ways in which intellectual property laws became more restrictive in the 20th century were extensions to the term of copyright (particularly in the United States) and penalties, such as those articulated in the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA), placed on attempts to circumvent anti-piracy technologies.^ An OSD-conformant license may warn licensees of applicable restrictions and remind them that they are obliged to obey the law; however, it may not incorporate such restrictions itself.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Section 6 states terms for distribution of such executables.
  • Pogoplug - Open Source Credits 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.pogoplug.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Myth 2 - Open Source software is more prone to claims of intellectual property infringement.
  • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

.Although artistic appropriation is often permitted under fair use doctrines, the complexity and ambiguity of these doctrines creates an atmosphere of uncertainty among cultural practitioners.^ You could only use the trademarked term "OpenJDK" under "fair use" guidelines, as described in this section of the FAQ, and also as part of Sun's trademark policy.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A: A developer can use these frameworks to drive testing of compatibility tests for new mobile JSRs, and create tests to improve the quality of implementations.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The open source community provides various tools that, when plugged together, begin to create a useful development and production environment for complex Web applications.
  • Using open source software to design, develop, and deploy a collaborative Web site, Part 1: Introduction and overview 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.ibm.com [Source type: General]

.Also, the protective actions of copyright owners create what some call a "chilling effect" among cultural practitioners.^ CFR 201.26 defines public domain computer software as software which has been publicly distributed with an explicit disclaimer of copyright protection by the copyright owner.
  • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

.In the late 20th century, cultural practitioners began to adopt the intellectual property licensing techniques of free software and open-source software to make their work more freely available to others, including the Creative Commons.^ And thus it is with the majority of open source software: .
  • How to Compete Against Open Source Competition | Software by Rob 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarebyrob.com [Source type: General]

^ This includes modification of Open Source software.
  • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ This isn't permissible for Open Source licenses.
  • Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC oreilly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Open Source Definition 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC perens.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The idea of an "open source" culture runs parallel to "Free Culture," but is substantively different.^ Free Software vs. Open Source software .
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Free software is open-source software, but not all open-source software is free.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Free/Open source papers .
  • Open Source Software and Applications 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.eadon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Free culture is a term derived from the free software movement, and in contrast to that vision of culture, proponents of Open Source Culture (OSC) maintain that some intellectual property law needs to exist to protect cultural producers.^ And thus it is with the majority of open source software: .
  • How to Compete Against Open Source Competition | Software by Rob 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarebyrob.com [Source type: General]

^ As a whole the movement is often called "Free and Open-Source software" (FOSS).
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Myth 2 - Open Source software is more prone to claims of intellectual property infringement.
  • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

.Yet they propose a more nuanced position than corporations have traditionally sought.^ Section 5 of the Artistic License prohibits sale of the software, yet allows an aggregate software distribution of more than one program to be sold.
  • Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC oreilly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The programs, however, are clearly copyrighted and covered by a license, just a license that gives people more rights than they are used to.
  • Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC oreilly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Open Source Definition 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC perens.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They may be more likely to shout their questions across the cube farm than try Bing.
  • Open Source | ZDNet.com 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC blogs.zdnet.com [Source type: General]

.Instead of seeing intellectual property law as an expression of instrumental rules intended to uphold either natural rights or desirable outcomes, an argument for OSC takes into account diverse goods (as in "the Good life") and ends.^ Yet good will for good will's sake was not right either.
  • eXtropia | a case study in open source software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC extropia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you read the intellectual property notice, you will see that they may also freely be resold.
  • eXtropia | a case study in open source software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC extropia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Intellectual property rights can make it difficult to ascertain whether a particular software solution has been patented.
  • Open Source Software in Education (EDUCAUSE Quarterly) | EDUCAUSE 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.educause.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One way of achieving the goal of making the fixations of cultural work generally available is to maximally utilize technology and digital media.^ Now one way you can "protect" your free software/works from being submissive to this "hole" in Copyright Law is to assign all rights to the Free Software Foundation.
  • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ To achieve that, we would like to make profiling easy-to-use and as unobtrusive as possible - and the JFluid technology that we use, with dynamic bytecode instrumentation at its heart, suits this goal perfectly.
  • Open Source Software in Java 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC java-source.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Tim has a suggestion for the for the friend who already has everything: make a donation in their name to one of the many great organizations that work tirelessly to support the ideals of open source and free culture - complete list here.
  • Make: Online : The Open Source Gift Guide: Open source hardware, software, and more for the holidays! 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC blog.makezine.com [Source type: General]

In keeping with Moore's law's prediction about processors, the cost of digital media and storage plummeted in the late 20th Century. .Consequently, the marginal cost of digitally duplicating anything capable of being transmitted via digital media dropped to near zero.^ At the heart of the economics of FOSS is the zero marginal cost of goods in a digital environment.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Zero Marginal Cost .
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Combined with an explosive growth in personal computer and technology ownership, the result is an increase in general population's access to digital media.^ Podcasting technologies have encouraged an increase in learner-generated content, enhancing learner participation in digital education.
  • Open Source Software in Education (EDUCAUSE Quarterly) | EDUCAUSE 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.educause.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Computer Science Open Source Software Digital Media Open Source/Open Access and Libraries Technical Communication .
  • Academia.edu | People | People who have Open Source Software as a research interest (194) 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.academia.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ CDSA ContentGuard Coral Consortium Digital Media Project InterTrust Technologies Marlin Microsoft RMS Open Media Commons - Sun Trusted Computing Group Wave Systems .
  • Managing Rights Management: Open Source 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.managingrights.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This phenomenon facilitated growth in open source culture because it allowed for rapid and inexpensive duplication and distribution of culture.^ Any enhancements or security patches from the originating open source community would have to be manually integrated into Bluenog because they are now separate products.
  • Collaboration and Content Strategies Blog: open source 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC ccsblog.burtongroup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Probably the most important lesson that we learned was that in a distributed network, like an open source community, or a decentralized network or developers, trust is central to all else.
  • eXtropia | a case study in open source software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC extropia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Enterprises and organizations that have selected OS distributions based on GNU/Linux, OpenSolaris, and other open source OSs as preferred for deployment.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Where the access to the majority of culture produced prior to the advent of digital media was limited by other constraints of proprietary and potentially "open" mediums, digital media is the latest technology with the potential to increase access to cultural products.^ BusinessWeek has an article on open source and restrictive and/or proprietary technologies such as DRM .
  • Managing Rights Management: Open Source 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.managingrights.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, the license must not insist that all other programs distributed on the same medium must be open-source software.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC oreilly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Open Source Definition 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC perens.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In essence, major parts of Bluenog are built from forks of open source products that are folded into their proprietary framework.
  • Collaboration and Content Strategies Blog: open source 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC ccsblog.burtongroup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Artists and users who choose to distribute their work digitally face none of the physical limitations that traditional cultural producers have been typically faced with.^ However, licenses do impact those who modify the program, and the license can even impact users who don't modify their programs in the sense that the licenses impact what they (and those they work with) can do later.
  • How to Evaluate Open Source Software / Free Software (OSS/FS) Programs 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.dwheeler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This means that users who choose use GNOME can develop proprietary programs (or have them developed) using the "native" library without paying an additional fee, while users who choose KDE and use proprietary programs using the "native" library will pay additional fees.
  • How to Evaluate Open Source Software / Free Software (OSS/FS) Programs 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.dwheeler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sun will continue to work with licensees who want to distribute derivatives of Sun's implementations without the requirement in the GPL to contribute modifications back to the community.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Accordingly, the audience of an open source culture faces little physical cost in acquiring digital media.^ Lets face it open source is a label.
  • Without Free Software, Open Source Would Lose its Meaning | Linux Journal 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.linuxjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ Both open source and digital education projects are taking their first tentative steps into the consumer world.
  • Open Source Software in Education (EDUCAUSE Quarterly) | EDUCAUSE 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.educause.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To summarise this little call for input: any suggestions, hints, and recommendations on open source content management and portal software are welcome.
  • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

.Open source culture precedes Richard Stallman's codification of the concept with the creation of the Free Software Foundation.^ And thus it is with the majority of open source software: .
  • How to Compete Against Open Source Competition | Software by Rob 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarebyrob.com [Source type: General]

^ This includes modification of Open Source software.
  • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Free Software and Open Source are two names for the same thing.
  • Without Free Software, Open Source Would Lose its Meaning | Linux Journal 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.linuxjournal.com [Source type: General]

.As the public began to communicate through Bulletin Board Systems (BBS) like FidoNet, places like Sourcery Systems BBS were dedicated to providing source code to Public Domain, Shareware and Freeware programs.^ The source code must be the preferred form in which a programmer would modify the program.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC oreilly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Open Source Definition 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC perens.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Freeware , at least in the corner of the WinDOS world occupied by shareware, typically does NOT mean public-domain .
  • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ At its core, open source refers to open access to the source code of a program.
  • AITopics / Software 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.aaai.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Essentially born out of a desire for increased general access to digital media, the Internet is open source culture's most valuable asset.^ Mono-culture tends to arise in most open source projects.
  • 10 interesting open source software forks and why they happened | Royal Pingdom 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC royal.pingdom.com [Source type: General]

^ While everyone was speculating if Android is going to be an open source platform, they have come out with Android Open Source Project, which will give public at large the opportunity to make contributions.
  • 10 Best Open Source ERP Software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC blog.taragana.com [Source type: General]

^ And if you took ms and apple out of the picture, contrary to what you suggest, you would suddenly have a MASSIVE INCREASE in the resources devoted to the advancement of open source software.
  • Obama wants to know: Why open source? | The Open Road - CNET News 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: General]

.It is questionable whether the goals of an open source culture could be achieved without the Internet.^ With publicly available source code generally offered without charge, it is tempting to look to open source for potentially significant cost savings in this time of need.
  • How Open-Source Software Can Affect A Company's Value 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.computerworld.com [Source type: General]
  • Computerworld - Knowledge Centers - Learn about Open Source 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.computerworld.com [Source type: General]

^ Bolinos is based on a data structure compatible with Sqeleton, Internet / Web operating system, and uses standard open-source software: PHP, Apache, mySQL .
  • Property Viewer 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.cmsreview.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Over the past year or so we’ve seen a definite increase in the number of questions we get about open source content management and portal software at NetRelations .
  • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

.The global network not only fosters an environment where culture can be generally accessible, but also allows for easy and inexpensive redistribution of culture back into various communities.^ You read Stendhal, you understand something not only about mid-19th century French culture, but the adventuring human spirit and freedom versus community.

^ Probably only a few large communities with considerable commercial backing will survive after a few years.
  • Open Source Software in Education (EDUCAUSE Quarterly) | EDUCAUSE 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.educause.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is only when network members are forced into a prisoner's dilemma that emergence of the network is threatened.
  • eXtropia | a case study in open source software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC extropia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Some reasons for this are as follows.
.First, the Internet allows even greater access to inexpensive digital media and storage.^ Even before Mosaic, the NCSA had back in 1985 created software "clients" for PCS and Macs, called Telnet, to allow people to access and use computers connected to the Internet as if the user were locally based.
  • The Origins and Future of Open Source Software 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.netaction.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Computer Science Open Source Software Digital Media Open Source/Open Access and Libraries Technical Communication .
  • Academia.edu | People | People who have Open Source Software as a research interest (194) 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.academia.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Instead of users being limited to their own facilities and resources, they are granted access to a vast network of facilities and resources, some free.^ Developers can assign content development rights to limited users, and some have done so as Web 2.0 tools slowly gain the sophistication needed to provide much-needed security features.
  • Open Source Software in Education (EDUCAUSE Quarterly) | EDUCAUSE 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.educause.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unlike Drupal developers, Joomla developers don’t work together to create one calendar module that works; instead they each create their own incomplete modules.
  • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

^ It's conceivable that they could kill off development of some categories of Open Source software by releasing a "good enough," "almost-free-enough" solution.
  • Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC oreilly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Sites such as Archive.org offer up free web space for anyone willing to license their work under a Creative Commons license.^ PJ's articles are licensed under a Creative Commons License .
  • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ While there does need to be the creative spark and driving force that starts a project, people also need to be willing to give up some ownership to further the overall common good.
  • Open Source Changes the Software Acquisition Process | ITworld 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.itworld.com [Source type: General]

^ Open source isn't just for software: "Elephants Dream is the world's first open movie, made entirely with open source graphics software such as Blender, and with all production files freely available to use however you please, under a Creative Commons license."
  • Open Source Software and Applications 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.eadon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The resulting cultural product is then available to download free (generally accessible) to anyone with an Internet connection.^ Few of these people, whether from an academic tradition of freely distributed software or not, were willing to make their products available without fee.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Copyrighted by the University of Illinois, Mosaic could be downloaded for free by individuals and by companies wishing to use the Internet for internal communications.
  • The Origins and Future of Open Source Software 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.netaction.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Our applications are still free for anyone to download and install.
  • eXtropia | a case study in open source software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC extropia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Second, users are granted unprecedented access to each other.^ Every resource in OpenCms has an owner, an associated user group and specific access rights (divided into read, write and visible) that can be assigned to the owner, the group and all others.
  • Property Viewer 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.cmsreview.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Older analog technologies such as the telephone or television have limitations on the kind of interaction users can have. .In the case of television there is little, if any interaction between users participating on the network.^ In this case, there is little to gain by limiting the free library to free software only, so we use the Lesser General Public License.
  • Pogoplug - Open Source Credits 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.pogoplug.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In this case, there were contracts promising that the source code would be held in escrow, but users have been unable to acquire the source code, and now they can't even reinstall the software.
  • How to Evaluate Open Source Software / Free Software (OSS/FS) Programs 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.dwheeler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The AGPL requires that you offer corresponding source code to users who interact with your modified version of AGPL-licensed software over a network.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.And in the case of the telephone, users rarely interact with any more than a couple of their known peers.^ Linux users are more like to go to Ask.Com than Bing.
  • Open Source | ZDNet.com 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC blogs.zdnet.com [Source type: General]

^ The Affero GPL creates code distribution requirements for a class of people the FOSS world has traditionally treated more as end-users than developers.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The experience of e-learning for many has been no more than a hand-out published online, coupled with a simple multiple-choice quiz.
  • Open Source Software in Education (EDUCAUSE Quarterly) | EDUCAUSE 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.educause.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

On the Internet, however, users have the potential to access and meet millions of their peers. .This aspect of the Internet facilitates the modification of culture as users are able to collaborate and communicate with each other across international and cultural boundaries.^ Q: If the JCK is confidential and I agree to keep it confidential when I agree to the OpenJDK Community TCK License Agreement, then how can I collaborate with others on community support?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the JCK is confidential and I agree to keep it confidential when I agree to the OpenJDK Community TCK License Agreement, then how can I collaborate with others on community support?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The speed in which digital media travels on the Internet in turn facilitates the redistribution of culture.
.Through various technologies such as peer-to-peer networks and blogs, cultural producers can take advantage of vast social networks in order to distribute their products.^ Among the most important Web 2.0 features are social-networking sites, video- and photo-sharing sites, blogs, RSS feeds, tags, podcasts, wikis, and discussion forums.
  • Open Source Software in Education (EDUCAUSE Quarterly) | EDUCAUSE 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.educause.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Media-sharing and other social-networking sites such as Elgg, Slashdot, and AROUNDMe can serve as important interactive learning tools.
  • Open Source Software in Education (EDUCAUSE Quarterly) | EDUCAUSE 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.educause.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Further, random job assignment did not take advantage of the natural strengths within the network.
  • eXtropia | a case study in open source software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC extropia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

As opposed to traditional media distribution, redistributing digital media on the Internet can be virtually costless. .Technologies such as BitTorrent and Gnutella take advantage of various characteristics of the Internet protocol (TCP/IP) in an attempt to totally decentralize file distribution.^ TCP/IP packet switched networks were evolution and birth of digital freedom and ultimately the Internet.
  • Obama wants to know: Why open source? | The Open Road - CNET News 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: General]

^ Several application examples are provided, including an embedded Webserver, a simple RS232 to TCP/IP gateway and an Internet Radio playing MP3 streams.
  • Make: Online : The Open Source Gift Guide: Open source hardware, software, and more for the holidays! 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC blog.makezine.com [Source type: General]

^ Troll Tech's new license is notable in that it takes advantage of a loophole in the Open Source Definition that allows patch files to be treated differently from other software.
  • Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC oreilly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Government

.
  • Open politics (sometimes known as Open source politics) — is a term used to describe a political process that uses Internet technologies such as blogs, email and polling to provide for a rapid feedback mechanism between political organizations and their supporters.^ Examples of such free and open source software organizations are: .
    • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ SourceLabs , provider of technology to support open source software, toda...

    ^ Many pointed to the existing use of the term " Open Source" in the political intelligence industry.
    • Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC oreilly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    There is also an alternative conception of the term Open source politics which relates to the development of public policy under a set of rules and processes similar to the Open Source Software movement.
  • Open source governance — is similar to open source politics, but it applies more to the democratic process and promotes the freedom of information.

Ethics

Open Source ethics is split into two strands:
.
  • Open Source Ethics as an Ethical School - Charles Ess and David Berry are researching whether ethics can learn anything from an open source approach.^ The bad guys will find the holes whether source is open or closed.
    • eXtropia | a case study in open source software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC extropia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Programmers may still be learning, and provide their projects in an open-source venue as a means of quicker development by opening the project to others.
    • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ FUSE WEBCAST: Download this webcast learn first-hand, how easy it is to develop advanced SOA applications using open source tools.
    • Open Source - White Papers, Webcasts and IT downloads - Bitpipe.com 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC www.bitpipe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Open Source Definition 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC www.bitpipe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Ess famously even defined the AoIR Research Guidelines as an example of open source ethics.^ It lacks, for example, the collaborative improvement process promoted by the open source Open Source definition sponsored by SearchEnterpriseLinux.com, powered by WhatIs.com an online computer dictionary .
    • Open Source - White Papers, Webcasts and IT downloads - Bitpipe.com 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC www.bitpipe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ As Mitch Stoltz notes in " The Case for Government Promotion of Open Source Software ," the federal government already spends billions of dollars on software research, purchases and implementation.
    • The Origins and Future of Open Source Software 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.netaction.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ They do not have to even write an inserted bytecode sequence; Javassist instead can compile a fragment of source text on line (for example, just a single statement).
    • Open Source Software in Java 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC java-source.net [Source type: Reference]

    [17]
  • .
  • Open Source Ethics as a Professional Body of Rules - This is based principally on the computer ethics school, studying the questions of ethics and professionalism in the computer industry in general and software development in particular.^ And thus it is with the majority of open source software: .
    • How to Compete Against Open Source Competition | Software by Rob 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarebyrob.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Expression Engine is open source software.
    • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Open source storage software .
    • Open source software takes the storage stage 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.computerworld.com [Source type: News]

    [18]

Media

.Open source journalism — referred to the standard journalistic techniques of news gathering and fact checking, and reflected a similar term that was in use from 1992 in military intelligence circles, open source intelligence.^ Many pointed to the existing use of the term " Open Source" in the political intelligence industry.
  • Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC oreilly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In their annual reports, many public companies note their use of open source as a risk factor to their businesses, while others go as far as to highlight their lack of open source as a positive factor.
  • How Open-Source Software Can Affect A Company's Value 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.computerworld.com [Source type: General]

^ At the same time, the use of open-source software is expanding rapidly, and even commercial software companies often provide open-source licensing options and opportunities.
  • How Open-Source Software Can Affect A Company's Value 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.computerworld.com [Source type: General]

.It is now commonly used to describe forms of innovative publishing of online journalism, rather than the sourcing of news stories by a professional journalist.^ This article was originally published in the March 2003 Journal of the New South Wales Society for Computers and the Law, and we republish with Mr. Webbink's kind permission.
  • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met: .
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, linking a "work that uses the Library" with the Library creates an executable that is a derivative of the Library (because it contains portions of the Library), rather than a "work that uses the library".
  • Pogoplug - Open Source Credits 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.pogoplug.com [Source type: Reference]

.In the December 25, 2006 issue of TIME magazine this is referred to as user created content and listed alongside more traditional open source projects such as OpenSolaris and Linux.^ This is an open source project.
  • AITopics / Software 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.aaai.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A fresh issue of the Linux Format magazine.

^ Linux is an open source operating system.
  • Open Source Software and Applications 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.eadon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Weblogs, or blogs, are another significant platform for open source culture.^ This blog covers open source.
  • Open Source | ZDNet.com 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC blogs.zdnet.com [Source type: General]

^ It is a complete open source platform.
  • 10 Best Open Source ERP Software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC blog.taragana.com [Source type: General]

^ While everyone was speculating if Android is going to be an open source platform, they have come out with Android Open Source Project, which will give public at large the opportunity to make contributions.
  • 10 Best Open Source ERP Software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC blog.taragana.com [Source type: General]

.Blogs consist of periodic, reverse chronologically ordered posts, using a technology that makes webpages easily updatable with no understanding of design, code, or file transfer required.^ No code changes required.
  • Open Source Software in Java 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC java-source.net [Source type: Reference]

^ A: As well as fulfilling its original purpose of promoting Free software, the GPL v2 is designed to help advance projects and code commons by requiring innovation sharing with the commons.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To achieve that, we would like to make profiling easy-to-use and as unobtrusive as possible - and the JFluid technology that we use, with dynamic bytecode instrumentation at its heart, suits this goal perfectly.
  • Open Source Software in Java 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC java-source.net [Source type: Reference]

.While corporations, political campaigns and other formal institutions have begun using these tools to distribute information, many blogs are used by individuals for personal expression, political organizing, and socializing.^ In their annual reports, many public companies note their use of open source as a risk factor to their businesses, while others go as far as to highlight their lack of open source as a positive factor.
  • How Open-Source Software Can Affect A Company's Value 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.computerworld.com [Source type: General]

^ Since then the Linux kernel has been used in multiple Linux system distributions that are currently supported by organizations like IBM , Novell , HP, many universities (eg, ETH-Zurich), Bell Labs, and Borland.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These social-networking tools were not created exclusively for educational purposes, however, and might contain objectionable materials, raising ethical concerns regarding students' exposure to and use of the sites.
  • Open Source Software in Education (EDUCAUSE Quarterly) | EDUCAUSE 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.educause.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some, such as LiveJournal or WordPress, utilize open source software that is open to the public and can be modified by users to fit their own tastes.^ Q: What components of the JDK software have been open sourced?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Open source software is software for which the source code is available.
  • Open Source Software and Applications 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.eadon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Expression Engine is open source software.
  • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

.Whether the code is open or not, this format represents a nimble tool for people to borrow and re-present culture; whereas traditional websites made the illegal reproduction of culture difficult to regulate, the mutability of blogs makes "open sourcing" even more uncontrollable since it allows a larger portion of the population to replicate material more quickly in the public sphere.^ Are you open sourcing the latest code?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He makes the following case for the robustness of open source code...
  • eXtropia | a case study in open source software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC extropia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This blog covers open source.
  • Open Source | ZDNet.com 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC blogs.zdnet.com [Source type: General]

.Messageboards are another platform for open source culture.^ Open source platforms, like Linux, are there to give the USER the FREEDOM to do what THEY WANT to do.
  • Obama wants to know: Why open source? | The Open Road - CNET News 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: General]

^ What impact do you see open sourcing the JDK will have on bringing Java to platforms that Sun may not be directly interested in supporting?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ WHITE PAPER: Today, many sites are using open source solutions and platforms as a way to ensure applications can scale as needed.
  • Open Source - White Papers, Webcasts and IT downloads - Bitpipe.com 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC www.bitpipe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Messageboards (also known as discussion boards or forums), are places online where people with similar interests can congregate and post messages for the community to read and respond to.^ These may be interesting to read but it may be better just to search for a project you like, regardless if it posts invitations or not.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Packed with rich features, like news and file management, discussion forum, survey, calendar and more, SmartSite is a Swiss-army knife for people who want to use the web as a communication and collaboration medium.
  • Property Viewer 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.cmsreview.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As we said, aside from the job referral program, developers had the opportunity to participate in three members-only online discussion forums.
  • eXtropia | a case study in open source software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC extropia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Messageboards sometimes have moderators who enforce community standards of etiquette such as banning users who are spammers.^ Open source podcasting software such as Audacity and Juice is widely employed by the user community.
  • Open Source Software in Education (EDUCAUSE Quarterly) | EDUCAUSE 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.educause.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other common board features are private messages (where users can send messages to one another) as well as chat (a way to have a real time conversation online) and image uploading.^ Converts image data from one format to another correctly transferring Geo information between GeoTiff and GeoJp2 (GeoJpeg2000).

^ Its own WYSIWYG web page publishing tool (no HTML needed) Support for existing web pages (load other HTML pages) Image upload and positioning File attachments and document management A web form builder Timed publishing.
  • Property Viewer 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.cmsreview.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Another way of looking at this is that copylefting licenses ensure that all later users and developers have more freedoms, at a cost of giving fewer freedoms to the immediate recipients.
  • How to Evaluate Open Source Software / Free Software (OSS/FS) Programs 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.dwheeler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some messageboards use phpBB, which is a free open source package.^ Free Software vs. Open Source software .
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Free software is open-source software, but not all open-source software is free.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In their annual reports, many public companies note their use of open source as a risk factor to their businesses, while others go as far as to highlight their lack of open source as a positive factor.
  • How Open-Source Software Can Affect A Company's Value 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.computerworld.com [Source type: General]

.Where blogs are more about individual expression and tend to revolve around their authors, messageboards are about creating a conversation amongst its users where information can be shared freely and quickly.^ Most of my experience (about 2 years) has been with Wordpress as a CMS. Overall it has been a good experience, however the primary downside is that it is more built out of the box as a blogging platform.
  • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

^ For more information, see Why Open Source Software / Free Software (OSS/FS)?
  • How to Evaluate Open Source Software / Free Software (OSS/FS) Programs 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.dwheeler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The project includes a forum area where participants can share information about the test harness and participate in its development.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Messageboards are a way to remove intermediaries from everyday life - for instance, instead of relying on commercials and other forms of advertising, one can ask other users for frank reviews of a product, movie or CD. By removing the cultural middlemen, messageboards help speed the flow of information and exchange of ideas.^ It has a lot of information that will help you understand the GPL and explain it to others.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Any user of one can instantly use the other with no retraining necessary.
  • Obama wants to know: Why open source? | The Open Road - CNET News 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: General]

^ The Genetic Algorithms Archive is a repository for information related to research in genetic algorithms and other forms of evolutionary computation.
  • AITopics / Software 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.aaai.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.OpenDocument is an open document file format for saving and exchanging editable office documents such as text documents (including memos, reports, and books), spreadsheets, charts, and presentations.^ MP2KML MP2KML converts .mp files (alternative open format for Garmin's IMG map files) to .kml files (Google Earth's open format).

^ Sony chose an open source format , EPUB, for its e-book reader .
  • Open Source | ZDNet.com 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC blogs.zdnet.com [Source type: General]

^ Publish the same content in multiple file formats (xml, pure text, css, word, excel, pdf..
  • Property Viewer 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.cmsreview.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Organizations and individuals that store their data in an open format such as OpenDocument avoid being locked in to a single software vendor, leaving them free to switch software if their current vendor goes out of business, raises their prices, changes their software, or changes their licensing terms to something less favorable.^ The software is free and open source (under a BSD-style license).
  • Property Viewer 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.cmsreview.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Examples of such free and open source software organizations are: .
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Free software is a matter of liberty, not price.
  • eXtropia | a case study in open source software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC extropia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Open source movie production is either an open call system in which a changing crew and cast collaborate in movie production, a system in which the end result is made available for re-use by others or in which exclusively open source products are used in the production.^ The availability of the LOGOS system as open source can change this situation...."
  • AITopics / Software 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.aaai.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Is this the future of open source business collaboration?
  • Open Source | ZDNet.com 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC blogs.zdnet.com [Source type: General]

^ The end result, though, is an open source project that isn’t open.
  • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

.The 2006 movie Elephants Dream is said to be the "world's first open movie",[19] created entirely using open source technology.^ Are there exceptions in the open source world?
  • How to Compete Against Open Source Competition | Software by Rob 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarebyrob.com [Source type: General]

^ Use open source.
  • How to Compete Against Open Source Competition | Software by Rob 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarebyrob.com [Source type: General]

^ In their annual reports, many public companies note their use of open source as a risk factor to their businesses, while others go as far as to highlight their lack of open source as a positive factor.
  • How Open-Source Software Can Affect A Company's Value 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.computerworld.com [Source type: General]

.An open source documentary film has a production process allowing the open contributions of archival material, footage, and other filmic elements, both in unedited and edited form.^ Open Source Tutorials & Training products .
  • Open Source Tutorials & Training 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.lynda.com [Source type: General]

^ In their annual reports, many public companies note their use of open source as a risk factor to their businesses, while others go as far as to highlight their lack of open source as a positive factor.
  • How Open-Source Software Can Affect A Company's Value 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.computerworld.com [Source type: General]

^ While everyone was speculating if Android is going to be an open source platform, they have come out with Android Open Source Project, which will give public at large the opportunity to make contributions.
  • 10 Best Open Source ERP Software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC blog.taragana.com [Source type: General]

.By doing so, on-line contributors become part of the process of creating the film, helping to influence the editorial and visual material to be used in the documentary, as well as its thematic development.^ Sometimes these parts are even divided into separate projects: The "engine" creators may provide a simple command line interface, but most users are supposed to use one of the available GUIs available from another project.
  • How to Evaluate Open Source Software / Free Software (OSS/FS) Programs 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.dwheeler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Both application developers and operators benefit from the accelerated innovation, enabling developers to continue to create compelling applications and services, which in turn help drive revenue.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They'll also have all of the responsibilities, including code-review duties and the obligation to adhere to, as well as to assist, the various development practices and processes that help to maintain a high-quality OpenJDK code base.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The first open source documentary film to go into production "The American Revolution" [20]," which will examine the role that WBCN-FM in Boston played in the cultural, social and political changes locally and nationally from 1968 to 1974, is being produced by Lichtenstein Creative Media and the non-profit The Fund for Independent Media.^ Open source revolution at Sony .
  • Open Source | ZDNet.com 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC blogs.zdnet.com [Source type: General]

^ In their annual reports, many public companies note their use of open source as a risk factor to their businesses, while others go as far as to highlight their lack of open source as a positive factor.
  • How Open-Source Software Can Affect A Company's Value 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.computerworld.com [Source type: General]

^ Open source isn't just for software: "Elephants Dream is the world's first open movie, made entirely with open source graphics software such as Blender, and with all production files freely available to use however you please, under a Creative Commons license."
  • Open Source Software and Applications 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.eadon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Open Source Cinema is a website to create Basement Tapes, a feature documentary about copyright in the digital age, co-produced by the National Film Board of Canada.^ Is that not what open source is all about?
  • Open Source | ZDNet.com 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC blogs.zdnet.com [Source type: General]

^ Open source has complex legal restrictions that can create copyright and patent compliance issues and corporate transaction challenges for companies that rely heavily on customized software or that distribute software to partners or customers.
  • How Open-Source Software Can Affect A Company's Value 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.computerworld.com [Source type: General]

^ A: Yes, Sun's implementations for feature phones and advanced OS phones will be based on the open-source code base.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Open Source Filmmaking refers to a form of filmmaking that takes a method of idea formation from open source software, but in this case the 'source' for a film maker is raw unedited footage rather than programming code.^ At its core, open source refers to open access to the source code of a program.
  • AITopics / Software 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.aaai.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Q: What components of the JDK software have been open sourced?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Are you open sourcing the latest code?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It can also refer to a method of filmmaking where the process of creation is 'open' i.e. a disparate group of contributors, at different times contribute to the final piece.
.Open-IPTV is IPTV that is not limited to one recording studio, production studio, or cast.^ It's one thing if Open Source is to be used as an operating system on a backoffice server, it is something altogether different if that same Open Source software is to be modified and embedded in a product.
  • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The company that makes open source - friendly product will likely attract these customers that prefer such product against the alternative one.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Open-IPTV uses the Internet or other means to pool efforts and resources together to create an online community that all contributes to a show.^ OffiSync Wouldn't it be nice if you could make a mash-up of Microsoft Office and Google Docs, using all of Office's great tools for document creation and editing, and Google Docs's online storage and collaboration tools?
  • Computerworld - Knowledge Centers - Learn about Open Source 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.computerworld.com [Source type: General]

^ In their annual reports, many public companies note their use of open source as a risk factor to their businesses, while others go as far as to highlight their lack of open source as a positive factor.
  • How Open-Source Software Can Affect A Company's Value 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.computerworld.com [Source type: General]

^ I am a big Open Source fan and use it in a lot of other places, but we just couldn't take the risk on such an important, high profile project as this one.
  • Open Source ERP Applications: They're Real and They're Spectacular | CIO - Blogs and Discussion 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC advice.cio.com [Source type: General]

Education

.Within the academic community, there is discussion about expanding what could be called the "intellectual commons" (analogous to the Creative Commons).^ The most important difference from the above baseline is what the Creative Commons calls a "Share and Share Alike" clause.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Here is a sample trademark policy that Project Foo could use to communicate some simple guidelines to its community about using their name and logo.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sun welcomes all comments and questions about this license, and we hope that the discussion can happen within the OpenJDK community.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Proponents of this view have hailed the Connexions Project at Rice University, OpenCourseWare project at MIT, Eugene Thacker's article on "Open Source DNA", the "Open Source Cultural Database" and Wikipedia as examples of applying open source outside the realm of computer software.^ Q: What components of the JDK software have been open sourced?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is an open source project.
  • AITopics / Software 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.aaai.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Expression Engine is open source software.
  • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

.Open source curricula are instructional resources whose digital source can be freely used, distributed and modified.^ Free Software vs. Open Source software .
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Free software is open-source software, but not all open-source software is free.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In their annual reports, many public companies note their use of open source as a risk factor to their businesses, while others go as far as to highlight their lack of open source as a positive factor.
  • How Open-Source Software Can Affect A Company's Value 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.computerworld.com [Source type: General]

Another strand to the academic community is in the area of research. .Many funded research projects produce software as part of their work.^ There are many people that feel that using free software is an important part of how they live and work.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ArcView APR Parser "Work with ArcView leads to large directories with numerous files consisting of many projects and tables and views, etc.

^ At Intel, too, researchers have developed software for combined audiovisual analysis of speech and released the software for public use as part of the company's Open Source Computer Vision Library, said Ara V. Nefian, a senior Intel researcher who led the project."
  • AITopics / Software 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.aaai.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There is an increasing interest in making the outputs of such projects available under an open source license.^ Q: Is GPL v2 an open-source license?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is an open source project.
  • AITopics / Software 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.aaai.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Under what license is it available?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the UK the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) has developed a policy on open source software.^ This includes modification of Open Source software.
  • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Q: What components of the JDK software have been open sourced?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Open source Software » Open source software .
  • Open source software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC blog.lorla.com [Source type: General]

.JISC also funds a development service called OSS Watch which acts as an advisory service for higher and further education institutions wishing to use, contribute to and develop open source software.^ Q: What components of the JDK software have been open sourced?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Expression Engine is open source software.
  • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

^ Roadster "Roadster aims to be easy-to-use and open-source mapping software."

Innovation communities

.The principle of sharing predates the open source movement; for example, the free sharing of information has been institutionalized in the scientific enterprise since at least the 19th century.^ The Internet is an example of what can be built on free open source software and open standards.
  • Obama wants to know: Why open source? | The Open Road - CNET News 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: General]

^ Examples of such free and open source software organizations are: .
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Free Software vs. Open Source software .
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Open source principles have always been part of the scientific community.^ Is Open Source always of worse quality, then ?
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Corinis Corinis CCM is a Java-based, open-source content and community management system.
  • Property Viewer 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.cmsreview.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Is Open Source software always of better quality than other types of software?
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The sociologist Robert K. Merton described the four basic elements of the community - universalism (an international perspective), communism (sharing information), disinterestedness (removing one's personal views from the scientific inquiry) and organized skepticism (requirements of proof and review) that accurately describe the scientific community today.^ Groups of copyright holders should designate one point-person to handle communication with the violator.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In particular, identify the four basic steps as given here (identify, review, compare, analyze) and how long you spent doing the evaluation.
  • How to Evaluate Open Source Software / Free Software (OSS/FS) Programs 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.dwheeler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is a legal document describing the Governance Board and its roles and responsibilities, and to grant to the GB the powers and rights required to carry out their duties on behalf of the community.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These principles are, in part, complemented by US law's focus on protecting expression and method but not the ideas themselves.^ The Software Freedom Law Center and the Free Software Foundation agree with Sun's analysis of these licenses and helped us develop this approach.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There is also a tradition of publishing research results to the scientific community instead of keeping all such knowledge proprietary.^ In this model, development was be opened up to all developers in the community and a central repository (website) would be used to distribute all the resultant code.
  • eXtropia | a case study in open source software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC extropia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That said, there are several necessary steps for Sun in accepting such contributions: Sun must get the changes with all rights needed from the authors to include them in the code base.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is not as insane as it sounds; in 1997 InfoWorld awarded the “Best Technical Support” award to the “Linux User Community,” beating all proprietary software vendors’ technical support for the year.
  • How to Evaluate Open Source Software / Free Software (OSS/FS) Programs 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.dwheeler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One of the recent initiatives in scientific publishing has been open access - the idea that research should be published in such a way that it is free and available to the public.^ A certification standard issued by the Open Source Initiative (OSI) that indicates that the source code of a computer program is made available free of charge to the general public.

^ Developing something under GPL may give free access to high quality components (like QT) that are otherwise expensive to buy or not available at all.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Now one way you can "protect" your free software/works from being submissive to this "hole" in Copyright Law is to assign all rights to the Free Software Foundation.
  • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

.There are currently many open access journals where the information is available free online, however most journals do charge a fee (either to users or libraries for access).^ A certification standard issued by the Open Source Initiative (OSI) that indicates that the source code of a computer program is made available free of charge to the general public.

^ Comments On top of everything else, teetering in the breeze, I have a July 7 deadline for a short article in School Library Journal on open source software in school libraries.

^ Open source platforms, like Linux, are there to give the USER the FREEDOM to do what THEY WANT to do.
  • Obama wants to know: Why open source? | The Open Road - CNET News 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: General]

.The Budapest Open Access Initiative is an international effort with the goal of making all research articles available free on the Internet.^ All schematics freely available.
  • Make: Online : The Open Source Gift Guide: Open source hardware, software, and more for the holidays! 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC blog.makezine.com [Source type: General]

^ A certification standard issued by the Open Source Initiative (OSI) that indicates that the source code of a computer program is made available free of charge to the general public.

^ Few of these people, whether from an academic tradition of freely distributed software or not, were willing to make their products available without fee.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The National Institutes of Health has recently proposed a policy on "Enhanced Public Access to NIH Research Information." This policy would provide a free, searchable resource of NIH-funded results to the public and with other international repositories six months after its initial publication. .The NIH's move is an important one because there is significant amount of public funding in scientific research.^ However, licenses are an important issue to consider for OSS/FS, because there are a few cases where they definitely do matter.
  • How to Evaluate Open Source Software / Free Software (OSS/FS) Programs 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.dwheeler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are only two significant ways in which BSD-like licences differ from public domain.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While there may be advantages to one-developer projects, it is important to realize that the personal assets of the developer could be completely exposed.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Many of the questions have yet to be answered - the balancing of profit vs. public access, and ensuring that desirable standards and incentives do not diminish with a shift to open access.
.Farmavita.Net - Community of Pharmaceuticals Executives have recently proposed new business model of Open Source Pharmaceuticals [21].^ Services are the key open source business model.
  • Open Source | ZDNet.com 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC blogs.zdnet.com [Source type: General]

^ Is this the future of open source business collaboration?
  • Open Source | ZDNet.com 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC blogs.zdnet.com [Source type: General]

^ Open source code is typically created as a collaborative effort in which programmers improve upon the code and share the changes within the community.

.The project is targeted to development and sharing of know-how for manufacture of essential and life saving medicines.^ But look for website development expertise rather than try to match a tool you don't know how to choose.
  • Open Source Changes the Software Acquisition Process | ITworld 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.itworld.com [Source type: General]

^ By choosing the same license as their peers in related projects, these developers make it easier to share code and create copyright policies that are standard throughout a development community.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Software Release Practice HOWTO includes guidance to developers on how to create a project web site; the Free Software Project Management HOWTO provides guidance to those who manage such projects.
  • How to Evaluate Open Source Software / Free Software (OSS/FS) Programs 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.dwheeler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is mainly dedicated to the countries with less developed economies where local pharmaceutical research and development resources are insufficient for national needs.^ Its aim is to provide people in developing countries with a powerful yet simple tool to assist in the managing of their own resources."

^ The SimAgent toolkit provides a range of resources for research and teaching related to the development of interacting agents in environments of various degrees and kinds of complexity.
  • AITopics / Software 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.aaai.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Developing nations and people can use no cost materials and resources.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It will be limited to generic (off-patent) medicines with established use.^ In this document we avoid use of the term “software patent,” which has no generally agreed-upon definition.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By the definition, medicinal product have a “well-established use” if is used for at least 15 years, with recognized efficacy and an acceptable level of safety.^ This name was originally used for a collection of geostatistical programs developed at Stanford University over the last 15 years."

^ February 10, 2008 by Gerhard Lazu I have been using Textpattern for a few years now, it’s definitely the best thing out there.
  • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

^ Normally you will not know the date of the invention, so, if possible, you should use prior art that was published at least one year before the priority date.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In that event, the expensive clinical test and trial results could be replaced by appropriate scientific literature.
.Benjamin Franklin was an early contributor eventually donating all his inventions including the Franklin stove, bifocals and the lightning rod to the public domain.^ Even when they published books and magazine articles, they demanded contractually that all work would remain in the public domain.
  • eXtropia | a case study in open source software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC extropia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Still others require contributors to “disclaim their copyright interest” (placing the contribution into the “public domain”), so that the contribution can be included under the main copyright of the work.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Related business income is not considered in the public support test, which could be advantageous, since in the calculation of public support, as discussed above (where the numerator is “public support” and the denominator is all of the organization’s support), related business income is not included in either of the numerator or the denominator.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.New NGO communities are starting to use the open source technology as a tool.^ Use open source.
  • How to Compete Against Open Source Competition | Software by Rob 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarebyrob.com [Source type: General]

^ Open source code is typically created as a collaborative effort in which programmers improve upon the code and share the changes within the community.

^ "One of the spectacular successes of open source is Linux, which is famed for its strong community of enthusiasts as well as its competitiveness as an operating system.
  • AITopics / Software 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.aaai.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One example is the Open Source Youth Network started in 2007 in Lisboa by ISCA members[22].^ "One of the spectacular successes of open source is Linux, which is famed for its strong community of enthusiasts as well as its competitiveness as an operating system.
  • AITopics / Software 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.aaai.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Probably the most important lesson that we learned was that in a distributed network, like an open source community, or a decentralized network or developers, trust is central to all else.
  • eXtropia | a case study in open source software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC extropia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of the other (commercial) CMSs we use is MS-based, so I really doubt that the open source system we choose will be too.
  • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

Open innovation is also a new emerging concept which advocate putting R&D in a common pool. .The Eclipse platform is openly presenting itself as an Open innovation network [23].^ And there is a new spirit of innovation with Web 2.0, SOA and collaboration/participation technologies, and the Java platform is the perfect foundation platform on which to innovate - and open-source can help accelerate this innovation.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Now, as Free software, the Java platform can address new markets and be the engine of innovation for the next generation of networked applications.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Arts and recreation

.Copyright protection is used in the performing arts and even in athletic activities.^ If your project decides to unify copyrights, developers need not give up their rights to use that code in other projects, even proprietary ones!
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While copyright is intended to most protect written works from unauthorized use, and most commercial copyright licenses do so by prohibiting changes or distribution, copyleft licenses encourage free and widespread use.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you believe that someone is using your mark in a manner protected by your exclusive rights and has not obtained your authorization to do so, you should take action even if you do not object to their use.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some groups have attempted to remove copyright from such practices.^ They will typically describe the offending behavior and the applicable laws and penalties, and will demand some action on the part of the recipient (such as removing offending content from a website or product).
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Whereas copyright law has traditionally been used to withhold permission to copy, modify or distribute software, some licenses instead use copyright law to require that such permissions be granted.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[24]

See also

References

  1. ^ Information Technology @ John Hopkins University "Glossary"
  2. ^ The complexity of such communication relates to Brooks' law, and it is also described by Eric S. Raymond, "Brooks predicts that as your number of programmers N rises, work performed scales as N but complexity and vulnerability to bugs rises as N-squared. N-squared tracks the number of communications paths (and potential code interfaces) between developers' code bases." —"The Revenge of the Hackers". 2000.
  3. ^ Raymond, Eric S. The Cathedral and the Bazaar. ed 3.0. 2000.
  4. ^ "Science 2.0 is here as CSIR resorts to open source drug research for TB" Business Standard, 1 March 2009
  5. ^ a b c d James J. Flink The Car Culture (MIT Press, 1977) ISBN 0-262-56015-1
  6. ^ Fisher, Franklin M.; James W. McKie, Richard B. Mancke (1983). IBM and the U.S. Data Processing Industry: An Economic History. Praeger. ISBN 0-03-063059-2.  pages 172-179 IBM unbundled (began charging for) software June 23, 1969
  7. ^ Dave Pitts' IBM 7090 support – An example of distributed source: Page contains a link to IBM 7090/94 IBSYS source, including COBOL and FORTRAN compilers.
  8. ^ a b Tiemann, Michael (September 19, 2006). "History of the OSI". Open Source Initiative. http://www.opensource.org/history. Retrieved August 23, 2008. 
  9. ^ Muffatto, Moreno (2006). Open Source: A Multidisciplinary Approach. Imperial College Press. ISBN 1860946658. 
  10. ^ Open Source Summit Linux Gazette. 1998.
  11. ^ Goodbye, "free software"; hello, "open source"
  12. ^ Stallman, Richard M. The Free Software Definition. Free Software Foundation. 2005.
  13. ^ Cohn, David. "Free Beer for Geeks". Wired News. 18 July 2005.
  14. ^ Formats-ouverts.org (French)
  15. ^ Can open-source R&D reinvigorate drug research?
  16. ^ Finding Cures for Tropical Diseases: Is Open Source an Answer?
  17. ^ Berry (2004) Internet Ethics: Privacy, Ethics and Alienation - An Open Source Approach. (PDF file)
  18. ^ El-Emam, K (2001). Ethics and Open Source. Empirical Software Engineering 6(4).
  19. ^ Elephantsdream.org
  20. ^ "The American Revolution
  21. ^ Open Source Pharmaceuticals http://www.farmavita.net/content/view/336/84/
  22. ^ ISCA - International Sport and Culture Association - Youth - Youth corner - Racism in football
  23. ^ Eclipse.org
  24. ^ Open Source Yoga Unity - Home

Further reading

  • David M. Berry (2008). .Copy, Rip, Burn: The Politics of Copyleft and Open Source.^ A: Because Sun owns the copyright for the open-source code base, Sun is able to license each copy of this code base distributed by Sun, under any license, including a commercial software license.
    • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The concept of copyleft also grew out of the work by GNU and others in the open source movement.
    • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ We also make copies of approved open source licenses here."
    • AITopics / Software 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.aaai.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    London:Pluto Press. .http://www.amazon.com/Copy-Rip-Burn-Politics-Source/dp/0745324142. 
  • Karl Fogel.^ GML4J "GML4J is a Java API for facilitating work with the Geography Markup Language (http://www.gmlcentral.com).

    ^ These are outlined at http://www.java.com/en/about/brand/ .
    • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Please credit this paper as your process, if you use it, as How to Evaluate Open Source Software / Free Software (OSS/FS) Programs by David A. Wheeler, http://www.dwheeler.com/oss_fs_eval.html .
    • How to Evaluate Open Source Software / Free Software (OSS/FS) Programs 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.dwheeler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Producing Open Source Software (How to Run a Successful Free Software Project).^ How can Sun have multiple licenses that bear on the same open-source code base?
    • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ How do these tests apply to derivative works in Open Source software?
    • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ There are many people that feel that using free software is an important part of how they live and work.
    • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Free PDF version available.
  • Ron Goldman and Richard P. Gabriel (2005).^ In addition to the free download students can buy a PDF version, a printed version (black and white or color), even an audio version.
    • Open Source | ZDNet.com 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC blogs.zdnet.com [Source type: General]

    ^ They did some contributions to the kernel and and made a free version of the hypervisor available but not in open source.
    • Open Source | ZDNet.com 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC blogs.zdnet.com [Source type: General]

    Innovation Happens Elsewhere. Richard P. Gabriel. ISBN 1558608893. .http://dreamsongs.com./IHE/IHE.html. 
  • Isaac Hunter Dunlap (2006).^ The Java SE 6 version of this license can be found at http://java.sun.com/javase/6/docs/legal/license.html .
    • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Open Source Database Driven Web Development.^ NETGEAR Launches Open Source Wireless-G Router Enabling Linux Developers and Enthusiasts to Create Firmware for Specialized Applications .

    ^ Open Source is Market Driven .
    • eXtropia | a case study in open source software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC extropia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Open 3D GIS "Open 3D GIS is an Open Source project with the main goal of making available a simple way to display 3D objects from a Geodatabase on the Web."

    Oxford: Chandos. ISBN 1843341611. .http://www.chandospublishing.com/chandos_publishing_record_detail.php?ID=98. 
  • Steven Weber (2005).^ These are outlined at http://www.java.com/en/about/brand/ .
    • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ A quick check at http://www.opensource.org/d ocs/definition.php reveals that the intended meaning is more like: 4.
    • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Please see http://www.sun.com/policies/trademarks/ for more details.
    • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The Success of Open Source.^ "One of the spectacular successes of open source is Linux, which is famed for its strong community of enthusiasts as well as its competitiveness as an operating system.
    • AITopics / Software 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.aaai.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ But will all successful open source companies end up in the clutches of proprietary software titans?
    • Open Source | ZDNet.com 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC blogs.zdnet.com [Source type: General]

    ^ You can read about successful software products that have these properties, and about our certification mark and program, which allow you to be confident that software really is "Open Source."
    • AITopics / Software 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.aaai.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Harvard: Harvard University Press. .http://www.amazon.com/Success-Open-Source-Steven-Weber/dp/0674018583/ref=ed_oe_p. 
  • Nettingsmeier, Jörn.^ Visual Basic GIS http://www.visualbasicgis.com/ .

    ^ "One of the spectacular successes of open source is Linux, which is famed for its strong community of enthusiasts as well as its competitiveness as an operating system.
    • AITopics / Software 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.aaai.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Please see http://www.sun.com/policies/trademarks/ for more details.
    • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    “So What? I Don’t Hack!.” eContact! .11.3 — Logiciels audio « open source » / Open Source for Audio Application (September 2009).^ Engineering Portal Open Source engineering applications.

    ^ Wissam El-Kik - March 6th, 2008 at 8:20 am gr8 list of open source applications !
    • Open source software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC blog.lorla.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Map Guide Open Source "MapGuide Open Source is a web-based platform that enables users to quickly develop and deploy web mapping applications and geospatial web services."

    Montréal: CEC.
  • Various authors. eContact! .11.3 — Logiciels audio « open source » / Open Source for Audio Application (September 2009).^ Engineering Portal Open Source engineering applications.

    ^ Wissam El-Kik - March 6th, 2008 at 8:20 am gr8 list of open source applications !
    • Open source software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC blog.lorla.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Map Guide Open Source "MapGuide Open Source is a web-based platform that enables users to quickly develop and deploy web mapping applications and geospatial web services."

    Montréal: CEC.
  • Various authors. “Open Source Travel Guide [wiki].” eContact! .11.3 — Logiciels audio « open source » / Open Source for Audio Application (September 2009).^ Engineering Portal Open Source engineering applications.

    ^ Wissam El-Kik - March 6th, 2008 at 8:20 am gr8 list of open source applications !
    • Open source software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC blog.lorla.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Map Guide Open Source "MapGuide Open Source is a web-based platform that enables users to quickly develop and deploy web mapping applications and geospatial web services."

    Montréal: CEC.

Literature on legal and economic aspects

  • François Letellier (2008), Open Source Software: the Role of Nonprofits in Federating Business and Innovation Ecosystems, AFME 2008 (in Adobe pdf format).
  • Benkler, Y. (2002): “Coase's Penguin, or, Linux and The Nature of the Firm." Yale Law Journal 112.3 (Dec 2002): p367(78) (in Adobe pdf format)
  • Berry, D. M & Moss, G. (2008). Libre Culture: Meditations on Free Culture. .Canada: Pygmalion Books. (in Adobe pdf format)
  • Bitzer, J. & Schröder, P. J.H. (2005): "The Impact of Entry and Competition by Open Source Software on Innovation Activity", Industrial Organization 0512001, EconWPA. (in Adobe pdf format)
  • v.^ How do these tests apply to derivative works in Open Source software?
    • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Some of those risks may relate specifically to Open Source software, but most often they relate to all software, regardless of the form of license.
    • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Since its launch in 2006, the Conservancy has grown to include free and open source software projects active in a wide range of fields.
    • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Engelhardt, S. (2008): "The Economic Properties of Software", Jena Economic Research Papers, Volume 2 (2008), Number 2008-045. (in Adobe pdf format)
  • v.^ Mapyrus "Mapyrus is software for creating plots of points, lines, polygons and labels to PostScript, PDF and web image output formats.

    .Engelhardt, S. (2008): "Intellectual Property Rights and Ex-Post Transaction Costs: the Case of Open and Closed Source Software", Jena Economic Research Papers 2008-047.^ How do these tests apply to derivative works in Open Source software?
    • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Is Open Source software always of better quality than other types of software?
    • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Boston area company started as an IP (intellectual property) risk management and mitigation company , but has since grown into an open-source legal management firm.
    • How many billions is open-source software worth? - Computerworld Blogs 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC blogs.computerworld.com [Source type: General]

    (in Adobe pdf format)
  • v. .Engelhardt, S. & Swaminathan, S. (2008): "Open Source Software, Closed Source Software or Both: Impacts on Industry Growth and the Role of Intellectual Property Rights", Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 799. (in Adobe pdf format)
  • Feller, J., Fitzgerald, B. & Hissam, S. A. (eds), (2005): Perspectives on Free and Open Source Software, MIT Press.
  • Ghosh, R. A. (2006): Study on the: Economic impact of open source software on innovation and the competitiveness of the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) sector in the EU
  • v.^ The Boston area company started as an IP (intellectual property) risk management and mitigation company , but has since grown into an open-source legal management firm.
    • How many billions is open-source software worth? - Computerworld Blogs 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC blogs.computerworld.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Whether you value Free and open-source software for philosophical or economic reasons, want more flexibility, appreciate the quality that transparency brings, or want to know you have ultimate control over your investment, you can adopt the JDK knowing that you'll gain these advantages.
    • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Since its launch in 2006, the Conservancy has grown to include free and open source software projects active in a wide range of fields.
    • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Hippel, E. & v. .Krogh, G. (2003): ‘Open source software and the "private-collective" innovation model: Issues for organization science’, Organization Science 14(2), 209–223.
  • Lerner J. & Pathak P. A. & Tirole, J. (2006): "The Dynamics of Open Source Contributors", American Economic Review, vol.^ How do these tests apply to derivative works in Open Source software?
    • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Although it is this OSI definition of Open Source to which the remainder of this paper relates, it is worthwhile to also examine the definition of Free Software, for often times the terms Free Software and Open Source are used interchangeably.
    • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ This includes modification of Open Source software.
    • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

    .96 (2), p. 114-118.
  • Lerner, J. & Tirole, J. (2002): ‘Some simple economics on open source’, Journal of Industrial Economics 50(2), p 197–234. Download of an earlier version.
  • Lerner, J. & Tirole, J. (2005): "The Scope of Open Source Licensing", The Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization, vol.^ How can Sun have multiple licenses that bear on the same open-source code base?
    • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Do not volunteer to the company-owned projects that are not releasing some parts of they code under approved Open Source license.
    • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Open 3D GIS "Open 3D GIS is an Open Source project with the main goal of making available a simple way to display 3D objects from a Geodatabase on the Web."

    .21, p. 20-56.
  • Lerner, J. & Tirole, J. (2005): "The Economics of Technology Sharing: Open Source and Beyond", Journal of Economic Perspectives, vol.^ Wissam El-Kik - March 6th, 2008 at 8:20 am gr8 list of open source applications !
    • Open source software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC blog.lorla.com [Source type: General]

    ^ IBM, a longtime supporter of the open-source movement in which developers freely write and modify software and share code, also is presenting UIMA to the Open Source Technology Group, a network of online technology resources.
    • AITopics / Software 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.aaai.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Community Mapbuilder "Our mission is to empower communities to collaboratively build and share geographic data using standards-based, open source tools.

    .19(2), p. 99-120.
  • Maurer, S. M. (2008): ‘Open source biology: Finding a niche (or maybe several)’, UMKC Law Review 76(2).^ February 8, 2008 by Michael Dick I just released my free open source CMS called PureEdit.
    • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Find a serious, high level Free software or Open source project.
    • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Fundamentals of Copyright Law To better appreciate Open Source software, we need a basic understanding of copyright law.
    • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

    .(download an online version) (in Adobe pdf format)
  • Osterloh, M. & Rota, S. (2007): "Open source software development--Just another case of collective invention?", Research Policy, vol.^ Since its launch in 2006, the Conservancy has grown to include free and open source software projects active in a wide range of fields.
    • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ February 8, 2008 by Michael Dick I just released my free open source CMS called PureEdit.
    • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Generally Recognized as Mature (GRAM) OSS/FS Programs , Open Source Software / Free Software (OSS/FS) References , and David A. Wheeler's home page .
    • How to Evaluate Open Source Software / Free Software (OSS/FS) Programs 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.dwheeler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .36(2), pages 157-171. Download of an earlier version
  • Riehle, D. (2007): "The Economic Motivation of Open Source: Stakeholder Perspectives", IEEE Computer, vol.^ Generally Recognized as Mature (GRAM) OSS/FS Programs , Open Source Software / Free Software (OSS/FS) References , and David A. Wheeler's home page .
    • How to Evaluate Open Source Software / Free Software (OSS/FS) Programs 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.dwheeler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ An earlier software movement similar to Open Source is the Free Software Movement (embodied in the Free Software Foundation).
    • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ They did some contributions to the kernel and and made a free version of the hypervisor available but not in open source.
    • Open Source | ZDNet.com 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC blogs.zdnet.com [Source type: General]

    40, no. .4 (April 2007), p. 25-32.
  • Rossi, M. A. (2006): Decoding the free/open source software puzzle: A survey of theoretical and empirical contributions, in J. Bitzer P. Schröder, eds, ‘The Economics of Open Source Software Development’, p 15–55. (download an online version) (in Adobe pdf format)
  • Schiff, A. (2002): "The Economics of Open Source Software: A Survey of the Early Literature," Review of Network Economics, vol.^ About 80 programmers, led by Apache developer (and Collabnet employee) Brian Behlendorf , will spend about four hours trying to stamp out bugs in the open source software gateway, which is based on National Health Information Network (NHIN) conventions.
    • Open Source | ZDNet.com 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC blogs.zdnet.com [Source type: General]

    ^ How do these tests apply to derivative works in Open Source software?
    • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ A: Open-source, compatible Java has gone from a long-standing dream of developers worldwide, to concrete reality in just two years of intensive effort.
    • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    1(1), p 66-74.

External links


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

.Open source describes practices in production and development that promote access to the end product's source materials—typically, their source code allowing users to create user-generated software content.^ And thus it is with the majority of open source software: .
  • How to Compete Against Open Source Competition | Software by Rob 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarebyrob.com [Source type: General]

^ At its core, open source refers to open access to the source code of a program.
  • AITopics / Software 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.aaai.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Open source software management for the midmarket .

Sourced

.
  • You may not like the fact that some information must be licensed, but that's how it is.^ So how do you respond in cases like that?
    • Open Source CU: Credit Union Blog 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC opensourcecu.com [Source type: General]

    ^ You must supply a copy of this License.
    • Pogoplug - Open Source Credits 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.pogoplug.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Q: How would you like to die?

    .Those who want information to be free as a matter of principle should create some information and make it free.
    • Nicholas Petreley, "Information doesn't want to be free — people want it to be", The Open Source, InfoWorld, 4 September 2000.^ This exact strategy is used by many people who want to make a program Open Source and still make some money from it.
      • Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC oreilly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
      • The Open Source Definition 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC perens.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Making Free Software palatable - the switch to Open Source .
      • The Open-Source Story: From Free Software To Revolution OS - Video 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.masternewmedia.org [Source type: General]

      ^ The premier free, open-source browser.
      • Open Source Mac - Free Mac software, all open-source, all OS X. 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC www.opensourcemac.org [Source type: General]

      .URL accessed on 2007-01-02.
  • There is no such thing as free software.^ Yes, there is such a thing!

    ^ There are no restrictions on access to later versions of the software.

    ^ This initiative was later dropped, the term being too descriptive to qualify as a trademark; thus, the legal status of “open source” is the same as that of “free software”: there is no legal constraint on using it.
    • Why “Free Software” is better than “OpenSource” - GNU Project - Free Software Foundation (FSF) 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.gnu.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Why "Free Software" is better than "Open Source" - Free Software Foundation 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.fsf.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Nobody develops software for charity.^ Nobody develops software for charity.
    • Open source - Wikiquote 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .For innovation to continue, there needs to be value - and even open-source applications have some form of market model, which incentivises them to continue innovating.^ Open source enterprise application vendors .
    • Open Source Zone – Computerworld UK - The latest, breaking Open Source news, reviews and resources on solutions, enterprise, APIs, MySQL, Linux, SUSE Linux, open source software development 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.computerworlduk.com [Source type: General]

    ^ There could also be a significant market for extending Open Source commodity applications.
    • Our Open Source / Free Software Future 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC yoderdev.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Can an Open Source business model support innovation?
    • OPEN SOURCE CONTENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS REDUX 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC gilbane.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
    • Paulo Ferreira, platform strategy manager at Microsoft South Africa, March 2008 [1]
  • ...^ Posted by Chris Pratley , Group Program Manager at Microsoft on March 1, 2006 at 2:21pm EST I was asked for the "Microsoft perspective," so here goes: .
    • News: Open to Open Source - Inside Higher Ed 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.insidehighered.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ LovdbyLess launched mid-March of 2008 and is also an open source social networking platform – free to download and customize.
    • Let’s Take A Look On Some Of The Great Free And Open-Source Community/Networking Website Softwares! @ SmashingApps 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.smashingapps.com [Source type: General]

    there is this thing called the GPL, which we disagree with ... nobody can ever improve the software. .
  • [open source software] is long-term credible ...^ Home > Products > Forum Software > Open Source Forums Open Source Forum Software for Content Management .

    ^ What exactly constitutes open-source software is somewhat fuzzy.
    • Open-Source Software Opening HR Doors | workforce.com 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.workforce.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Open Source Software News Editors .
    • Open Source Software News - Topix 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.topix.net [Source type: General]

    .FUD tactics can not [sic] be used to combat it.^ FUD tactics can not [ sic ] be used to combat it.
    • Open source - Wikiquote 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
    • Vinod Valloppillil, Microsoft Program Manager, "Open Source Software: A (New?^ Home > Products > Forum Software > Open Source Forums Open Source Forum Software for Content Management .

      ^ Open Source Software News Editors .
      • Open Source Software News - Topix 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.topix.net [Source type: General]

      ^ So how can open source software actually be more secure than proprietary?
      • BeyeNETWORK: Open Source Software: It's Not (Only) About the Money 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.b-eye-network.com [Source type: General]

      ) .Development Methodology", 1998
  • Recent case studies (the Internet) provide very dramatic evidence ...^ Recent case studies (the Internet) provide very dramatic evidence ...
    • eXtropia | a case study in open source software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC extropia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Development Methodology", 1998 Recent case studies (the Internet) provide very dramatic evidence ...
    • Open source - Wikiquote 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ We have also prepared some case studies of organizations that are using Eclipse RCP. Hopefully it will provide you a better understanding of the benefits from using Eclipse RCP for your application platform.
    • Open Source Rich client platform (RCP) applications 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.eclipse.org [Source type: Reference]

    that commercial quality can be achieved / exceeded by OSS projects. .
    • Vinod Valloppillil, Microsoft Program Manager, "Open Source Software: A (New?^ Home > Products > Forum Software > Open Source Forums Open Source Forum Software for Content Management .

      ^ Open Source Software News Editors .
      • Open Source Software News - Topix 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.topix.net [Source type: General]

      ^ So how can open source software actually be more secure than proprietary?
      • BeyeNETWORK: Open Source Software: It's Not (Only) About the Money 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.b-eye-network.com [Source type: General]

      ) Development Methodology", 1998
  • The GNU GPL is not Mr. Nice Guy. .It says "no" to some of the things that people sometimes want to do.^ This exact strategy is used by many people who want to make a program Open Source and still make some money from it.
    • Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC oreilly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • The Open Source Definition 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC perens.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ People want to find an article on a particular topic, say, global warming.
    • Open source software in libraries / Eric Lease Morgan 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Management wants to know that when an instance of the software has a bug, they will be able to call someone and get a fix ASAP. Here are some things you may want to consider.

    .There are users who say that this is a bad thing--that the GPL "excludes" some proprietary software developers who "need to be brought into the free software community."^ The user is free to redistribute the software to another user.
    • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Who controls free software?
    • Salon | The free software story 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.salon.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The user is free to use the software for any purpose.
    • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]


    .But we are not excluding them from our community; they are choosing not to enter.^ We want commercial users to join our community, not feel excluded from it.
    • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Their decision to make software proprietary is a decision to stay out of our community.^ Details on how to evaluate proprietary software are out of scope of this paper, since I presume you already know how to do that.
    • How to Evaluate Open Source Software / Free Software (OSS/FS) Programs 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.dwheeler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ They are a fair way through the Q&A, so read on down: RMS: "...the issue of free software versus proprietary arises for software that we're going to have on our computers and run on our computers.
    • tim.oreilly.com -- Open Source Software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC tim.oreilly.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Many of them resemble proprietary software, which makes them easier to learn and interact with.
    • » Open-Source Software on the Desktop Open Source Software For Libraries 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC maisonbisson.com [Source type: General]

    .Being in our community means joining in cooperation with us; we cannot "bring them into our community" if they don't want to join.^ We want commercial users to join our community, not feel excluded from it.
    • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ They sought to bring a higher profile to the practical benefits of freely available source code, and they wanted to bring major software businesses and other high-tech industries into open source.
    • Novell SuSE Linux OS Turkey - Open-source software ? 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.suse-tr.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ They’ve always been into web standards, accessability, etc for the admin area, and it lets you go wherever you want to for the front end.
    • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]


    What we can do is offer them an inducement to join. .The GNU GPL is designed to make an inducement from our existing software: "If you will make your software free, you can use this code."^ OSS software must make its source code freely-available.
    • Open Source 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.cippic.ca [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Do you want to make money from your open source software?
    • Open source licensing, Part 1: The intent 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.ibm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Licensees are free to access and use the source code of open source software.
    • Open source licensing, Part 1: The intent 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.ibm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Of course, it won't win 'em all, but it wins some of the time.^ But McCreesh and other Renaissance project developers insist the prototypes are concepts and were never intended to be representative of the final UI, which won’t be completed for some time.
    • Open Source | ZDNet.com 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC blogs.zdnet.com [Source type: General]

    ^ As noted above, not all warnings reported by such scanning tools are really defects; it can take quite some time to examine their reports to determine what is really a defect.
    • How to Evaluate Open Source Software / Free Software (OSS/FS) Programs 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.dwheeler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ I’ve read a lot this week and it’s taking some time for it all to sink in and organise itself into a coherent set of thoughts!

    .
  • Paying isn’t wrong, and being paid isn’t wrong.^ But with the Novell/Microsoft "deal" and Windows Vista being DRM'ed up the wazoo, I am more and more coming to the conclusion that Richard Stallman is right.

    .Trampling other people’s freedom and community is wrong, so the free software movement aims to put an end to it, at least in the area of software.^ Freedom is not free, people.
    • Without Free Software, Open Source Would Lose its Meaning | Linux Journal 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.linuxjournal.com [Source type: General]

    ^ What is the free software movement?
    • Open Source 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.cippic.ca [Source type: Reference]

    ^ All about free software -- free as in freedom!

    .
  • Talk is cheap.^ In the beginning, there was free software and Richard Stallman .
    • Open Source Science? Or Distributed Science? : Common Knowledge 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ One of the most ironic things I've seen in this political circus is Richard Stallman asserting that the GPL doesn't actually guarantee software freedom .
    • Application Platform Strategies Blog: open source software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC apsblog.burtongroup.com [Source type: General]

    ^ "This is a political and ethical issue, just like freedom of the press or freedom of association," said Richard Stallman, founder and president of the Free Software Foundation, who this year addressed the Brazilian Congress on the subject.
    • Governments push open-source software - CNET News 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: General]

    Show me the code. .
    • Linus Torvalds, Torvalds, Linus (2000-08-25).^ Chapter 1: Boot Time, Part 1: Linus Torvalds at the Villa Montalvo .” salon.com Free Software Project, 2000.
      • ECHO Science & Technology Memory Bank - History of Free and Open Source Software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC echo.gmu.edu [Source type: General]

      ^ Corrected 5/5/2000: Linus' Law is attributed to Eric Raymond, not Linus Torvalds.
      • Open Source Software and Documents: A Literature and Online Resource Review 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.omar.org [Source type: Reference]

      .Message to linux-kernel mailing list.^ In a posting on the Linux kernel mailing list , Torvalds said the Free Software Foundation's position on Tivoization is one reason he won't license his Linux kernel under GPLv3.
      • Managing Rights Management: Open Source 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.managingrights.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Tools like mailing lists and instant messaging provide means of Internet communications between developers.
      • Novell SuSE Linux OS Turkey - Open-source software ? 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.suse-tr.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Linux Kernel Archive Mirror System Mailing Lists FAQ .
      • Novell Industry Standards 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.novell.com [Source type: General]
      • Novell Industry Standards 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC developer.novell.com [Source type: General]

      .Retrieved on 2006-08-28.
  • Making Linux GPL'd was definitely the best thing I ever did.^ So, what we have to do is get it right from the very beginning and what we have to do is find an intellectual property framework that makes sharing safe, and makes it easily understandable, and the inspiration here is taken from open-source software, things like Linux and the GPL. .
    • Richard Baraniuk on open-source learning | Video on TED.com 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.ted.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Ideally I would like software to be "free" but failing that, I will make use of "open source" software...because it's the next best thing.

    ^ Apple didn't use Linux to make Darwin, did they?
    • Meatball Wiki: OpenSource 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC meatballwiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    • Linus Torvalds, Yamagata, Hiroo. .The Pragmatist of Free Software: Linus Torvalds Interview.^ Introduction History of the Internet The early programmer's culture The transition - open to commercial Richard Stallman's Free Software Foundation Linus Torvalds - the Linux kernel Formation of Open Source Initiative Benefits of Free/Open Source Conclusion .
      • elearnspace. everything elearning. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.elearnspace.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Linus Torvalds is on CNN this weekend and though the interview is largely unsurprising, he is always charming and self-deprecating- taking as little credit for the “revolution” as possible.

      ^ Martin Luther, meet Linus Torvalds Linux and free software challenge the Microsoft papacy: historical parallels between the Reformation and today's software industry.
      • Salon | The free software story 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.salon.com [Source type: General]

      .Retrieved on 2006-08-28.
  • For example, the GPLv2 in no way limits your use of the software.^ If we as citizens of the world don't have some degree of control over the tools we use to interact with one another and have no easy way to find out what the software tools are doing then that will not create a good society.

    ^ Open Source - Software - Technology - news in the news Blogs your way .
    • Open Source - Software - Technology - news 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.wikio.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Some incompatibility exists between OSS licenses (for example, the BSD is compatible with GPL , but not the inverse), limiting the ability to use some OSS products with others.
    • Is There Such a Thing as Free Software? The Pros and Cons of Open-Source Software (EDUCAUSE Quarterly) | EDUCAUSE 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.educause.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .If you're a mad scientist, you can use GPLv2'd software for your evil plans to take over the world ("Sharks with lasers on their heads!!"^ When you use your trademark (e.g.
    • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Which software did you use?
    • The 5 Best Open-Source Social Networking Software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.makeuseof.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Basically, you need to have a good inventory of all your open-source assets—a central repository for open-source software that has been approved for deployment.

    ), and the .GPLv2 just says that you have to give source code back.^ Are you open sourcing the latest code?
    • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ It was unthinkable to not give out the source code when you shipped a machine.
    • Meatball Wiki: OpenSource 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC meatballwiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ You could just say: this is what you have to do.
    • What Business Can Learn from Open Source 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.paulgraham.com [Source type: Original source]

    And that's OK by me. I like sharks with lasers. .I just want the mad scientists of the world to pay me back in kind.^ "I also wanted to let the world know just how great an impact the free software culture had already made.
    • Free as in Freedom: Chapter 11 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC oreilly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ I just got back from Dr. Dobb’s Architecture & Design World 2008, where I was speaking on the future of mashups.

    ^ It didn’t come overnight, but I have learned over the past couple years that I can do just about anything I want with WP as a back-end system.
    • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

    .I made source code available to them, they have to make their changes to it available to me.^ OSS software must make its source code freely-available.
    • Open Source 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.cippic.ca [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Freely available source code .
    • Open Source 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.cippic.ca [Source type: Reference]

    ^ You must make sure that they, too, receive or can get the source code.
    • Pogoplug - Open Source Credits 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.pogoplug.com [Source type: Reference]

    .After that, they can fry me with their shark-mounted lasers all they want.^ They want you to use their software only and they use all types of tricks to make you do that.
    • Obama wants to know: Why open source? | The Open Road - CNET News 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Students can name their own price for textbooks, actually spending more than they do now if they want ancillary services, or spending nothing at all.
    • Open Source | ZDNet.com 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC blogs.zdnet.com [Source type: General]

    .
  • So the whole 'We have a list and we're not telling you' should tell you something.^ Linus Torvalds - the Linux kernel .
    • elearnspace. everything elearning. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.elearnspace.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ And if you think Linux is only 1% it's because you're nothing but a hobbyist yourself and you know nothing about Linux server installations.
    • Obama wants to know: Why open source? | The Open Road - CNET News 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: General]

    ^ No one can succinctly tell you the difference between Linux and IBM’s AIX, or JBOSS and Oracle WebLogic, so why not buy the cheaper one!
    • The Failure of Commercial Open Source Software - BusinessWeek 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.businessweek.com [Source type: General]

    .Don't you think that if Microsoft actually had some really foolproof patent, they'd just tell us and go, 'nyaah, nyaah, nyaah!'?
    • Thomson, Iain (2007-05-16).^ They really don’t have that many features.
      • The 5 Best Open-Source Social Networking Software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.makeuseof.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ When you go to the site, don't be intimidated !
      • Switch to Open Source Software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

      ^ Share with us, they say, you don't have any choice.
      • BeyondVC: Open Source 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.beyondvc.com [Source type: General]

      Torvalds tells Microsoft to put up or shut up. .Retrieved on 2007-05-18.
    • Linus Torvalds, Said about Microsoft's claim that the Linux kernel infringes upon 42 of their patents.
  • Nobody should start to undertake a large project.^ Today 18:05:42 by opikdesign .

    ^ This is summed up in a famous statement by ESR known as "Linus' Law" (so named for Linus Torvalds , original author and maintainer of the Linux kernel 4 ): "Many eyes make all bugs shallow."
    • Open Source Software and Documents: A Literature and Online Resource Review 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.omar.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Linux came about when a college student, Linus Torvolds, desired Unix (another operating system) functionality on this inexpensive Intel-based hardware.
    • Open source software in libraries / Eric Lease Morgan 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .You start with a small _trivial_ project, and you should never expect it to get large.^ Even if you are already comfortable with an HTML editor, you should be aware of alternatives that may be more suitable for a specific project or...
    • dzone.com - Popular links: open source 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.dzone.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ For the same reason, never expect an older hacker writing a detailed description of your task or even providing any kind of supervision for you.
    • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ If you start an open source project whose end product is useful to programmers, you'll rapidly achieve a critical mass of dog-food gourmets.
    • Dr. Dobb's | Is Open Source for You? | May 1, 2001 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.ddj.com [Source type: General]

    .If you do, you'll just overdesign and generally think it is more important than it likely is at that stage.^ I'm dating myself terribly here, but my generation heard a similar refrain 30 years ago: "It'll all be beautiful if we just join hands " .
    • Dr. Dobb's | Is Open Source for You? | May 1, 2001 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.ddj.com [Source type: General]

    ^ (If a newer version than version 2 of the ordinary GNU General Public License has appeared, then you can specify that version instead if you wish.
    • Pogoplug - Open Source Credits 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.pogoplug.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ For example, maybe you are using an open source library in one of your applications or perhaps you are using a full product (like an open source blog) but are thinking of integrating it with an application.
    • Collaboration and Content Strategies Blog: open source 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC ccsblog.burtongroup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Or worse, you might be scared away by the sheer size of the work you envision.^ You might take the work on yourself and try to fill the index, or you might crowdsource it – let everyone add themselves, spreading the cost around to everyone else.
    • Open Source Planning Paradigm & Climate Change 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC opensourceplanning.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Surely if its free, and you give it away for nothing, you couldn't possibly claim any compensation for the work you've done.
    • The Open-Source Story: From Free Software To Revolution OS - Video 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.masternewmedia.org [Source type: General]

    ^ So most open source software has some kind of license that tries to spell out what you can and can't do, and to protect the interests of people who gave away their work.
    • The Open Source Revolution: how free software is changing computing 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.itwriting.com [Source type: General]

    .So start small, and think about the details.^ Second, we present a starting point for lawyers and risk managers for thinking about the particular, at times counter-intuitive, logic of software freedom.
    • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ That is a good starting point to think about software and food.
    • Meatball Wiki: OpenSource 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC meatballwiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ I think science commons (and creative commons before that) *started* from the recognition that open source wasn't just about software.
    • Distributed Science, Part 2 : Common Knowledge 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: General]

    .Don't think about some big picture and fancy design.^ A: I don’t think too much about it.

    ^ The Firefox team has some pretty good user interface designers who’ve been really thoughtful about improving the usability of Firefox.

    ^ I don’t think you know what you are talking about.
    • How to Compete Against Open Source Competition | Software by Rob 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarebyrob.com [Source type: General]

    If it doesn't solve some fairly immediate need, it's almost certainly over-designed. .And don't expect people to jump in and help you.^ If you don't mind people taking modifications private, use the X or Apache license.
    • Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC oreilly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • The Open Source Definition 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC perens.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ If you want support you are expected to ask for help through online forums such as mailing lists or discussion forums.
    • Open source software in libraries / Eric Lease Morgan 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Participating in FOSS helps to build a professional social network: a group of people that know well enough and if needed can recommend you as a programmer.
    • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .That's not how these things work.^ How do these tests apply to derivative works in Open Source software?
    • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Although it’s a work of fiction, here are some things that actually helped me learn how to write.

    .You need to get something half-way _useful_ first, and then others will say "hey, that _almost_ works for me", and they'll get involved in the project.^ If you don't, you'll need to first determine what your basic needs are.
    • How to Evaluate Open Source Software / Free Software (OSS/FS) Programs 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.dwheeler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ "The work they are doing is something that has an impact.
    • Aid agencies turn to open-source software - science-in-society - 03 October 2009 - New Scientist 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.newscientist.com [Source type: News]
    • Aid agencies turn to open-source software - science-in-society - 03 October 2009 - New Scientist 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.newscientist.com [Source type: News]

    ^ Then we'll get to say to them: "Look, you guys, you missed something.
    • tim.oreilly.com -- Open Source Software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC tim.oreilly.com [Source type: General]

    .
  • The legal system doesn't work.^ Linux came about when a college student, Linus Torvolds, desired Unix (another operating system) functionality on this inexpensive Intel-based hardware.
    • Open source software in libraries / Eric Lease Morgan 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Suppose that someone who doesn't like us contributes software that contains Trojan horse, a hidden way to defeat the security of a Linux system.
    • Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC oreilly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Debian's guidelines were lauded in the free software community, especially among Linux developers, who were working their own free software revolution at the time in developing the first practical free operating system.
    • Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC oreilly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Or more accurately, it doesn't work for anyone except those with the most resources.^ These are just the tip of the iceberg, though I have consciously tried to denote those resources which will provide the most valuable information and point the reader toward other resources of more specialized interest.
    • Open Source Software and Documents: A Literature and Online Resource Review 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.omar.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Reciprocal licenses , such as the GPL , allow use for most purposes, but require creators of derivative works to distribute those works under the same license.
    • Is There Such a Thing as Free Software? The Pros and Cons of Open-Source Software (EDUCAUSE Quarterly) | EDUCAUSE 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.educause.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Are those resources more or less reliable and expensive than their commercial equivalent?
    • Open Source Software | Linux 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC linux.sys-con.com [Source type: General]

    Not because the system is corrupt. .I don't think our legal system (at the federal level, at least) is at all corrupt.^ I don't think Mr. Gerard meant that at all.
    • Without Free Software, Open Source Would Lose its Meaning | Linux Journal 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.linuxjournal.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Our operating systems are the least expense to deploy and maintain.

    ^ If you don't know what Emacs is, this is probably the least exciting news you'll read all week.

    .I mean simply because the costs of our legal system are so astonishingly high that justice can practically never be done.^ This is simply never gonna happen, because of the huge irreducible expense of maintaining and manipulating these reagents.
    • Distributed Science, Part 2 : Common Knowledge 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: General]
    • Open Source Science? Or Distributed Science? : Common Knowledge 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ By "Truth" we simply mean the clearest expression of a system of ideas and beliefs that is most consistent with Reality as it is directly experienced.
    • Open Source Truth Process | Yoism 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.yoism.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ It will simply push any faith in our political system over the cliff.
    • Open Source Planning Paradigm & Climate Change 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC opensourceplanning.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
  • I bumped into him (Craig Mundie of Microsoft) in an elevator.^ Tim O'Reilly on Microsoft's Participation in the Open Source Convention  -- Why I invited Craig Mundie to talk about Shared Source at OScon, and what I hope to achieve there.
    • tim.oreilly.com -- Open Source Software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC tim.oreilly.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Open Source and Popular Culture Open Source Everywhere Free Culture by Lawrence Lessig Other Resource Lists .
    • Open Source 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.cippic.ca [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Free/Open Source Bibliography .” Lessig, Lawrence.
    • ECHO Science & Technology Memory Bank - History of Free and Open Source Software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC echo.gmu.edu [Source type: General]

    .I looked at his badge and said, "ah, you work for Microsoft."^ With our software, you can look at the code if you really want to know how it works, and you can suggest improvements or become a committer and help make future products.
    • Open Source | ZDNet.com 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC blogs.zdnet.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Drupal and Joomla, well okay, but if you are looking for freedom, adaptability and for it to work in the way you want to Modx is wonderful.
    • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Microsoft makes it as easy as possible for people to get locked in by the promise of doing all the work for you.
    • Obama wants to know: Why open source? | The Open Road - CNET News 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: General]

    .He looked back at me and said, “Oh ya, and what do you do?” And I thought it was some kind of tad dismissive, here is a guy in a suit looking at a scruffy hacker...^ Some thoughts on the idea of hacker culture.
    • ECHO Science & Technology Memory Bank - History of Free and Open Source Software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC echo.gmu.edu [Source type: General]

    ^ In looking at the current enterprise e-mail market, here are some thoughts: .
    • Collaboration and Content Strategies Blog: open source 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC ccsblog.burtongroup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ While it will require some up front investment, you will save it back just on the Tylenol you won’t be buying for the headaches you will have with osCommerce or zenCart.
    • Open Source - Xavisys 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC xavisys.com [Source type: General]

    so I gave him a thousand yard stare and said, "I am your worst nightmare!" .
  • Given enough eyeballs, all bugs are shallow.^ Eric Raymond, author of a book called The Cathedral and the Bazaar, describes this process in detail and posits that "given enough eyeballs, all bugs are shallow."
    • Open source software in libraries / Eric Lease Morgan 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Given enough eyeballs, all bugs are shallow.
    • Meatball Wiki: OpenSource 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC meatballwiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ If a project can attract enough users and developers, it can leverage The Cathedral and the Bazaar author Eric S. Raymond's famous epigram: "Given enough eyes, all bugs are shallow."
    • Dr. Dobb's | Is Open Source for You? | May 1, 2001 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.ddj.com [Source type: General]

  • The Many Minds Principle: the coolest thing to do with your data will be thought of by someone else.^ This is summed up in a famous statement by ESR known as "Linus' Law" (so named for Linus Torvalds , original author and maintainer of the Linux kernel 4 ): "Many eyes make all bugs shallow."
    • Open Source Software and Documents: A Literature and Online Resource Review 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.omar.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Since there are so many developers, running under a directive of "release early, release often," open source software can change at a rapid pace.
    • Open Source Software and Documents: A Literature and Online Resource Review 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.omar.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ I know buddypress wasn’t mentione in your post, but I’m curious what your thoughts are between the latest release of Elgg 1.5 and Buddypress 1.0.2.
    • The 5 Best Open-Source Social Networking Software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.makeuseof.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

  • This existing base of FLOSS software represents a lower bound of about 131 000 real person-years of effort that has been devoted exclusively by programmers.^ And thus it is with the majority of open source software: .
    • How to Compete Against Open Source Competition | Software by Rob 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarebyrob.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Q: What components of the JDK software have been open sourced?
    • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ But what about open source?
    • open source posts - The Open Road - CNET News 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: General]

    .As this is mostly by individuals not directly paid for development, it represents a significant gap in national accounts of productivity.^ You can buy a standard paid license for one of the existing Movable Type products if you'd like professional support directly from Six Apart.
    • Movable Type Open Source | MovableType.org - Home of the MT Community 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC www.movabletype.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Annualised and adjusted for growth this represents at least Euro 800 million in voluntary contribution from programmers alone each year, of which nearly half are based in Europe.^ (Figures on the installed base for Linux are notoriously messy—one study by International Data Corporation put purchased, shipped Linux distributions last year for servers alone at around 1.5 million; Red Hat and Mandrake claim anywhere from a quarter to over half of that.
    • Dr. Dobb's | Is Open Source for You? | May 1, 2001 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.ddj.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The total cost savings exceeded 18 million euros, or nearly one third of the total budget of 67 million euros.
    • Why Open Source in Schools 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC edge-op.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
  • Firms have invested an estimated Euro 1.2 billion in developing FLOSS software that is made freely available.^ And thus it is with the majority of open source software: .
    • How to Compete Against Open Source Competition | Software by Rob 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarebyrob.com [Source type: General]

    ^ OSS software must make its source code freely-available.
    • Open Source 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.cippic.ca [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Free and Open Source Software This lens is for all open source and free software.
    • Switch to Open Source Software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

    Such firms represent in total at least 565 000 jobs and Euro 263 billion in annual revenue. .Contributing firms are from several non-IT (but often ICT intensive) sectors, and tend to have much higher revenues than non-contributing firms.^ Most software has atrocious FeatureKarma , and OpenSource for what it's worth is often much worse in that respect than proprietary software.
    • Meatball Wiki: OpenSource 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC meatballwiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ However, the pricing of Windows hosting is still generally much higher than Linux.
    • Collaboration and Content Strategies Blog: open source 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC ccsblog.burtongroup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Most people value their non-work time at a higher value than the time they spend at work.
    • How to Compete Against Open Source Competition | Software by Rob 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarebyrob.com [Source type: General]

    .
  • Let's put it this way: if you need to ask a lawyer whether what you do is "right" or not, you are morally corrupt.^ And thus it is with the majority of open source software: .
    • How to Compete Against Open Source Competition | Software by Rob 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarebyrob.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Q: What components of the JDK software have been open sourced?
    • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Open Source vs. Free Software .
    • open source@Everything2.com 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Let's not go there. We don't base our morality on law.
    • Linus Torvalds, Torvalds, Linus (2004-08-26). .Message to linux-usb-devel mailing list.^ In a posting on the Linux kernel mailing list , Torvalds said the Free Software Foundation's position on Tivoization is one reason he won't license his Linux kernel under GPLv3.
      • Managing Rights Management: Open Source 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.managingrights.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Linux Kernel Archive Mirror System Mailing Lists FAQ .
      • Novell Industry Standards 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.novell.com [Source type: General]
      • Novell Industry Standards 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC developer.novell.com [Source type: General]

      Retrieved on 2009-11-27.

Unsourced

.
  • Open-source development violates almost all known management theories.^ View all Open Source Interviews .
    • Closed and Open Source for Unix | Free Linux Downloads 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.developers.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ It's not precisely open source, but it's all open.
    • Make: Online : The Open Source Gift Guide: Open source hardware, software, and more for the holidays! 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC blog.makezine.com [Source type: General]

    ^ All posts tagged ‘open source’ .
    • Open Source | Gadget Lab | Wired.com 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: General]

    .
    • Marietta Baba, Dean of the College of Social Science, Michigan State University
  • Free as in freedom, not beer.^ Often Free Software is referred to as "free as in speech, not as in beer", stressing the idea that the Free-software movement is concerned with freedom , not with price .
    • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The only problem is the double meaning of the word in English (free as in free beer vs. Free as in Freedom), which can confuse newcomers.

    .
  • Protecting essential freedoms is always a matter of restricting the actions that would deny them.^ One of the most ironic things I've seen in this political circus is Richard Stallman asserting that the GPL doesn't actually guarantee software freedom .
    • Application Platform Strategies Blog: open source software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC apsblog.burtongroup.com [Source type: General]

    ^ But what they overlook is that freedom fighters – for that is how Stallman regards himself – have always been so focussed on their larger goals that mundane matters like convenience and good manners tend to fall by the wayside.
    • Without Free Software, Open Source Would Lose its Meaning | Linux Journal 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.linuxjournal.com [Source type: General]

    ^ This is why, for Richard Stallman and some others, it is an issue of freedom.
    • The Open Source Revolution: how free software is changing computing 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.itwriting.com [Source type: General]

  • [W]e have a problem ... when the government funds open-source work. .Government funding should be for work that is available to everybody.^ It should work on any platform that wxPython is available for.
    • Best Open Source Software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC lifehacker.biz [Source type: General]

    .Open source is not available to commercial companies.^ Open source software is software for which the source code is available.
    • Open Source Software and Applications 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.eadon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Open source software companies are selling their "software".
    • The Failure of Commercial Open Source Software - BusinessWeek 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.businessweek.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Open source, commercial open source, real free open source, ...
    • The Failure of Commercial Open Source Software - BusinessWeek 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.businessweek.com [Source type: General]

    .The way the license is written, if you use any open-source software, you have to make the rest of your software open source.^ And thus it is with the majority of open source software: .
    • How to Compete Against Open Source Competition | Software by Rob 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarebyrob.com [Source type: General]

    ^ This isn't permissible for Open Source licenses.
    • Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC oreilly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • The Open Source Definition 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC perens.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Respecting the licenses of the open-source components you use is the minimum you can do in return.

    .If the government wants to put something in the public domain, it should.^ I'd like to urge every company whose products are "obsolete" to consider making them available under an open source license, or putting them in the public domain.
    • tim.oreilly.com -- Open Source Software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC tim.oreilly.com [Source type: General]

    ^ This story erupts into the public domain with the delicious nausea of something widely felt, but rarely observed: the recklessness of this economic system, its out-of-control heartlessness.

    ^ Because you can treat it as your personal property, you can do what you want with a public-domain program.
    • Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC oreilly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • The Open Source Definition 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC perens.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Linux is not in the public domain. .Linux is a cancer that attaches itself in an intellectual property sense to everything it touches.^ And as Barlow and Dyson both show in their discussions of Intellectual Property in the Information Era, in the digital economy, market share is everything.
    • eXtropia | a case study in open source software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC extropia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .That's the way that the license works.^ The only way you could have our permission to distribute copies or derivative works of b a r would be to comply with the terms of our license, the GPL. Unfortunately, it appears that you failed to comply with the terms of the GPL by [ b r i e f l y d e s c r i b e t h e l i c e n s e v i o l a t i o n h e r e ] .
    • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

  • "Do you understand the GPL?" And they'll say, "Huh?" And they're pretty stunned when the Pac-Man-like nature of it is described to them. […] .There is a part of open source called GPL [that] makes it impossible for a commercial company to use any of that work or build on any of that work.^ There are a few loopholes in the GPL that allow it to be used in programs that are not entirely Open Source.
    • Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC oreilly.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Q: Is GPL v2 an open-source license?
    • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ And there’s a bunch of commercial open source companies still trudging along.
    • The Failure of Commercial Open Source Software - BusinessWeek 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.businessweek.com [Source type: General]

    .So what you saw with TCP/IP or (e-mail technology) Sendmail or the browser could never happen.^ Ethernet was crucial for the expansion of the Internet since local computers could be networked together and then connected to other networks using the TCP/IP protocol and local router computers.
    • The Origins and Future of Open Source Software 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.netaction.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
  • I assert that open source software—available widely through the Internet—has the potential to provide our nation's enemies or potential enemies with computing capabilities that are restricted by US law.^ View all Open Source Interviews .
    • Closed and Open Source for Unix | Free Linux Downloads 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.developers.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ And thus it is with the majority of open source software: .
    • How to Compete Against Open Source Competition | Software by Rob 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarebyrob.com [Source type: General]

    ^ This includes modification of Open Source software.
    • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • There are plans to rely on Linux to control our most advanced future defense systems, including the Army's Future Combat Systems (FCS), the Joint Tactical Radio System (JTRS), and the Global Information Grid (GIG).^ Free software, just like open source software, has weakened our ability to share our outlook with others—both now and in the future—by reducing the number of people who are going to really listen to us!

    ^ In addition to eroding the hard one freedoms for which America had stood, the control exercised by the Bush Authority did extensive damage—global political, military, environmental, and economic damage—to the larger group (including most of those who voted for Bush) within the U.S., not to mention the damage outside of America.
    • Open Source Truth Process | Yoism 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.yoism.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Getting benefits and passing it to our patrons Perception System offers best and the most exclusive solutions to your software, OOS, browsers’ plug-ins and web related developments using Open Source Development .
    • Open Source Development | Open Source Application | Open Source Ecommerce | Web Development India 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.perceptionsystem.com [Source type: Reference]

    .Until Linux achieves the same level of reliability and security required of commercial operating systems, it should not be used in critical defense systems.^ Operating system: Linux/Unix.
    • Best Open Source Software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC lifehacker.biz [Source type: General]

    ^ Operating system: Linux.
    • Best Open Source Software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC lifehacker.biz [Source type: General]

    ^ Operating system: Windows, Linux/Unix.
    • Best Open Source Software 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC lifehacker.biz [Source type: General]


    .Now that foreign intelligence agencies and terrorists know that Linux is going to control our most advanced defense systems, they can use fake identities to contribute subversive software that will soon be incorporated into our most advanced defense systems.^ What can we do to incorporate these things into our systems if they are not initially a part of its makeup?
    • Open source software in libraries / Eric Lease Morgan 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC infomotions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Free software, just like open source software, has weakened our ability to share our outlook with others—both now and in the future—by reducing the number of people who are going to really listen to us!

    ^ Getting benefits and passing it to our patrons Perception System offers best and the most exclusive solutions to your software, OOS, browsers’ plug-ins and web related developments using Open Source Development .
    • Open Source Development | Open Source Application | Open Source Ecommerce | Web Development India 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.perceptionsystem.com [Source type: Reference]

    .
  • Intellectual property (IP) socialism is the worst that can happen to any IP-based society ...^ All software is a form of intellectual property.
    • Is There Such a Thing as Free Software? The Pros and Cons of Open-Source Software (EDUCAUSE Quarterly) | EDUCAUSE 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.educause.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ A: Sun is actively negotiating with Intellectual Property (IP) owners to gain the rights to add the encumbered code, if any, to the open source code base.
    • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Second, it protects the intellectual property of members, and advocates a legal and regulatory environment that benefits the entire industry.
    • Novell Industry Standards 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.novell.com [Source type: General]
    • Novell Industry Standards 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC developer.novell.com [Source type: General]

    and we are an IP-based society. If there is no way to protect IP, there is no reason to invest in IP.
    • SAP AG Executive Board member Shai Agassi, November 10, 2005, Speaking event at the Churchill Club in Silicon Valley

External links

Wikipedia
Wikipedia has an article about:

Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010
(Redirected to open-source article)

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Alternative spellings

Adjective

  1. (computing) Of, or relating to a product which is licensed to permit modifications and redistribution of its source code.^ Can I redistribute the Flex source code myself?
    • Flex:Open Source:FAQ - Adobe Labs 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC labs.adobe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ There is open source publishing: With Bruce Perens, who helped define open source software in the '90s, Prentice Hall is publishing a series of computer books open to any use, modification, or redistribution, with readers' improvements considered for succeeding editions.
    • Wired 11.11: Open Source Everywhere 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: General]
    • Wired 11.11: Open Source Everywhere 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Companies losing their product differentiation and intellectual property rights protection when required to release source code (and perceived trade secrets) to the Open Source community and effectively license it to competitors royalty-free.

    Linux is an open-source operating system

Antonyms

Verb

Infinitive
to open-source
Third person singular
open-sources
Simple past
open-sourced
Past participle
open-sourced
Present participle
open-sourcing
to open-source (third-person singular simple present open-sources, present participle open-sourcing, simple past and past participle open-sourced)
.
  1. (transitive) To release the source code of.^ Also its source code isn't released.
    • Open Source Software - RedCafe.net 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.redcafe.net [Source type: General]

    ^ Google Android source code released .
    • Learn Open Source with tutorials, articles, forums, jobs and news - developer Fusion - ASP.NET, C# Programming, VB.NET, .NET Framework, Java and Visual Basic Tutorials 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.developerfusion.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Therefore, we have released the source code (along with all necessary support files, graphics files, sound effects, etc.

    • 2005, David Brickner, Test Driving Linux: From Windows to Linux in 60 Seconds
    The big Unix company Sun Microsystems bought the code for StarOffice in 1999, and some time afterward they open-sourced as much of it as they could.

Wikibooks

Up to date as of January 23, 2010
(Redirected to Open Source article)

From Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection

Cover Art Created by Lobster
.This book is intended to be an introduction to the Open source software movement.^ This includes modification of Open Source software.
  • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Free Software vs. Open Source software .
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Expression Engine is open source software.
  • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

.It is still getting organized.^ It is still getting organized.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At the moment a basic outline is available below, once there is some content for each section, and it looks like the outline is more or less stable, the various chapters will be moved into proper sections to conform to wikibook standards.^ At the moment a basic outline is available below, once there is some content for each section, and it looks like the outline is more or less stable, the various chapters will be moved into proper sections to conform to wikibook standards.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It’s not, as The New York Times snarked , that “as the site grows more influential, they must transform its embrace-the-chaos culture into something more mature and dependable.” It’s more like a couple that owns its house and has come into some money.
  • Open Source | ZDNet.com 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC blogs.zdnet.com [Source type: General]

^ It depends, even Word documents can be build into a semantic-correct structure that would more or less translate in passable HTML! .
  • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

.Please take a moment to read the introduction to understand the direction this book is intended to take (at least as of this writing).^ Please take a moment to read the introduction to understand the direction this book is intended to take (at least as of this writing).
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cover Art Created by Lobster This book is intended to be an introduction to the Open source software movement.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

--Ahc 16:03, 4 Jan 2005 (UTC)

Contents

Introduction

.In the last few years the Open Source movement has changed the face of computing more than almost anyone would have thought possible.^ That is true, but no more true for Open Source vendors than for proprietary vendors.
  • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ More than a few feel as I do.
  • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In the last few years the Open Source movement has changed the face of computing more than almost anyone would have thought possible.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many people in the computer industry believe that these changes are the most important changes in computing since IBM contracted Microsoft to write an operating system for their personal computers.^ Many people in the computer industry believe that these changes are the most important changes in computing since IBM contracted Microsoft to write an operating system for their personal computers.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since then the Linux kernel has been used in multiple Linux system distributions that are currently supported by organizations like IBM , Novell , HP, many universities (eg, ETH-Zurich), Bell Labs, and Borland.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This choice changed the face of computing by creating a standard operating system that most personal computers would run on, it lead directly to Microsoft's dominance of personal computing, and later allowed them major access to the server side market as well.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This book is intended to discuss the history, philosophy, and legal issues relating to Open Source, as well as ways for software developers to get involved by selecting and joining projects they want to contribute to.^ This is an open source project.
  • AITopics / Software 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.aaai.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Expression Engine is open source software.
  • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

^ Open source has had an important impact on the way many developers view and create software.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.More detail will be provided here than the Wikipedia articles on Open Source and Free Software, and information found in the Wikibook on Freeware will be enhanced and extended.^ This includes modification of Open Source software.
  • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Q: What components of the JDK software have been open sourced?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Examples of such free and open source software organizations are: .
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Please feel free to add/correct information throughout the book.^ Please feel free to add/correct information throughout the book.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Throughout this book the reader should assume that the word "free" is referring to freedom.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Until then, please feel free to download a beta from the Google Code project page , either a package or the latest SVN source.
  • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

.This book is not meant to be a listing of projects nor a guide to picking the best software to use (although some pointers are provided later in the book).^ This book is not meant to be a listing of projects nor a guide to picking the best software to use (although some pointers are provided later in the book).
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Here is a partial list of some of the projects and milestones planned for the OpenJDK community.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Using Software: A Guide to the Ethical and Legal Use of Software for Members of the Academic Community from The Pennsylvania State University computer-related policies, guidelines, and laws .
  • AITopics / Software 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.aaai.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

What is Open Source?

.Open Source or open-source software is different from proprietary software.^ Expression Engine is open source software.
  • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

^ This includes modification of Open Source software.
  • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Free Software vs. Open Source software .
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In Open Source, the source code used in the software is available to anyone to examine, evaluate, and adapt.^ This includes modification of Open Source software.
  • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Open source embodies a philosphy as well as software code.
  • AITopics / Software 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.aaai.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Q: What components of the JDK software have been open sourced?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Open source has had an important impact on the way many developers view and create software.^ This includes modification of Open Source software.
  • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Q: What components of the JDK software have been open sourced?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Expression Engine is open source software.
  • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

.End users often use the term open-source to cover a variety of free and open source software.^ As a whole the movement is often called "Free and Open-Source software" (FOSS).
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Q: What components of the JDK software have been open sourced?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The user is free to redistribute the software to another user.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Open Source Initiative has this for a definition of open-source software:
.Open source doesn't just mean access to the source code.^ At its core, open source refers to open access to the source code of a program.
  • AITopics / Software 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.aaai.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Access to the source code is a precondition for this.
  • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Are you open sourcing the latest code?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The distribution terms of open-source software must comply with the following criteria:
1. Free Redistribution
.The license shall not restrict any party from selling or giving away the software as a component of an aggregate software distribution containing programs from several different sources.^ Q: What components of the JDK software have been open sourced?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What components of the JDK software have been open sourced?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Open Source or open-source software is different from proprietary software.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The license shall not require a royalty or other fee for such sale.^ The license shall not require a royalty or other fee for such sale.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is actually no different than with proprietary programs - proprietary program developers have had to check their library licenses for compatibility for many decades (e.g., to identify royalty payment requirements).
  • How to Evaluate Open Source Software / Free Software (OSS/FS) Programs 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.dwheeler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of course, there may be other issues that are important to you, such as local policies or unusual technical requirements.
  • How to Evaluate Open Source Software / Free Software (OSS/FS) Programs 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.dwheeler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Rationale: By constraining the license to require free redistribution, we eliminate the temptation to throw away many long-term gains in order to make a few short-term sales dollars.^ Rationale: By constraining the license to require free redistribution, we eliminate the temptation to throw away many long-term gains in order to make a few short-term sales dollars.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Few of these people, whether from an academic tradition of freely distributed software or not, were willing to make their products available without fee.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Both JCK access and access to the brand are free of charge for implementations meeting the requirements of this license.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If we didn't do this, there would be lots of pressure for cooperators to defect.^ If we didn't do this, there would be lots of pressure for cooperators to defect.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is a colleague that each site he makes tells me “I would have used Joomla, but I didn’t think I could make this layout work in it”.
  • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

2. Source Code
.The program must include source code, and must allow distribution in source code as well as compiled form.^ The source code must be the preferred form in which a programmer would modify the program.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Deliberately obfuscated source code is not allowed.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The program must include source code, and must allow distribution in source code as well as compiled form.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Where some form of a product is not distributed with source code, there must be a well-publicized means of obtaining the source code for no more than a reasonable reproduction cost–preferably, downloading via the Internet without charge.^ The source code must be the preferred form in which a programmer would modify the program.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you do not distribute the software, you have no obligation to distribute source code.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because there are encumbered components that must be shipped without source.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The source code must be the preferred form in which a programmer would modify the program.^ The source code must be the preferred form in which a programmer would modify the program.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The program must include source code, and must allow distribution in source code as well as compiled form.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At its core, open source refers to open access to the source code of a program.
  • AITopics / Software 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.aaai.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Deliberately obfuscated source code is not allowed.^ Deliberately obfuscated source code is not allowed.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rationale: We require access to un-obfuscated source code because you can't evolve programs without modifying them.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The only requirement to be a truly FOSS project is that the publisher provides the source code with the program, and to allow the user to edit that code.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Intermediate forms such as the output of a preprocessor or translator are not allowed.^ Intermediate forms such as the output of a preprocessor or translator are not allowed.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Rationale: We require access to un-obfuscated source code because you can't evolve programs without modifying them.^ At its core, open source refers to open access to the source code of a program.
  • AITopics / Software 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.aaai.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rationale: We require access to un-obfuscated source code because you can't evolve programs without modifying them.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Deliberately obfuscated source code is not allowed.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since our purpose is to make evolution easy, we require that modification be made easy.^ Since our purpose is to make evolution easy, we require that modification be made easy.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

3. Derived Works
.The license must allow modifications and derived works, and must allow them to be distributed under the same terms as the license of the original software.^ The case is much different with a Protective license because it requires derivative works to be licensed under the same license as the original work.
  • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Right to create modifications and derivative works.
  • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The license must allow modifications and derived works, and must allow them to be distributed under the same terms as the license of the original software.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Rationale: The mere ability to read source isn't enough to support independent peer review and rapid evolutionary selection.^ Rationale: The mere ability to read source isn't enough to support independent peer review and rapid evolutionary selection.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It has some ability to read data from a variety of data sources, and to display that data."

^ Before the rise of the open-source software movement a great deal of software written in academic circles was released into the public domain for peer-review.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For rapid evolution to happen, people need to be able to experiment with and redistribute modifications.^ For rapid evolution to happen, people need to be able to experiment with and redistribute modifications.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

4. Integrity of The Author's Source Code
.The license may restrict source-code from being distributed in modified form only if the license allows the distribution of "patch files" with the source code for the purpose of modifying the program at build time.^ The source code must be the preferred form in which a programmer would modify the program.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Deliberately obfuscated source code is not allowed.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A: Each source file is individually licensed.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The license must explicitly permit distribution of software built from modified source code.^ The license must not restrict other software, thus permitting the distribution of open source and closed source software together.
  • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The license must not place restrictions on other software that is distributed along with the licensed software.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The license must explicitly permit distribution of software built from modified source code.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The license may require derived works to carry a different name or version number from the original software.^ The case is much different with a Protective license because it requires derivative works to be licensed under the same license as the original work.
  • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ May require modified versions to be distributed as the original version plus patches.
  • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The license may require derived works to carry a different name or version number from the original software.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Rationale: Encouraging lots of improvement is a good thing, but users have a right to know who is responsible for the software they are using.^ Rationale: Encouraging lots of improvement is a good thing, but users have a right to know who is responsible for the software they are using.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Know how the software will be used.
  • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The user is free to use the software for any purpose.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Authors and maintainers have reciprocal right to know what they're being asked to support and protect their reputations.^ Authors and maintainers have reciprocal right to know what they're being asked to support and protect their reputations.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Now one way you can "protect" your free software/works from being submissive to this "hole" in Copyright Law is to assign all rights to the Free Software Foundation.
  • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Rationale: Encouraging lots of improvement is a good thing, but users have a right to know who is responsible for the software they are using.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Accordingly, an open-source license must guarantee that source be readily available, but may require that it be distributed as pristine base sources plus patches.^ Q: Is GPL v2 an open-source license?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This requirement is not true of all open source licenses.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This appears to say that an Open Source licence "May require modified versions to be distributed", specifically in the form of "the original version plus patches."
  • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

.In this way, "unofficial" changes can be made available but readily distinguished from the base source.^ In this way, "unofficial" changes can be made available but readily distinguished from the base source.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How can we contribute changes made to the code under these licenses for inclusion in the OpenJDK code base?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Therefore, if you build a server based on improvements to AGPL-licensed software, those improvements must be made available to all who use the software via the network.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

5. No Discrimination Against Persons or Groups
.The license must not discriminate against any person or group of persons.^ The license must not discriminate against any person or group of persons.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No discrimination against persons or groups.
  • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ A license must be granted by a person, institution, or government that has the legal authority to do so.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Rationale: In order to get the maximum benefit from the process, the maximum diversity of persons and groups should be equally eligible to contribute to open sources.^ Rationale: In order to get the maximum benefit from the process, the maximum diversity of persons and groups should be equally eligible to contribute to open sources.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Should open source hate Apple?
  • Open Source | ZDNet.com 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC blogs.zdnet.com [Source type: General]

^ Groups of copyright holders should designate one point-person to handle communication with the violator.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Therefore we forbid any open-source license from locking anybody out of the process.^ Therefore we forbid any open-source license from locking anybody out of the process.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some of those risks may relate specifically to Open Source software, but most often they relate to all software, regardless of the form of license.
  • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The license must not restrict other software, thus permitting the distribution of open source and closed source software together.
  • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

.Some countries, including the United States, have export restrictions for certain types of software.^ In the United States and some other countries software is subject to patent protections.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some countries, including the United States, have export restrictions for certain types of software.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While only some other countries have placed similar restrictions on the production of software the patent system in the US has become problematic worldwide.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.An OSD-conformant license may warn licensees of applicable restrictions and remind them that they are obliged to obey the law; however, it may not incorporate such restrictions itself.^ An OSD-conformant license may warn licensees of applicable restrictions and remind them that they are obliged to obey the law; however, it may not incorporate such restrictions itself.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A: The license specifically allows you as a licensee to share comments, questions, results, and relevant portions of the JCK code itself with other licensees.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some of those risks may relate specifically to Open Source software, but most often they relate to all software, regardless of the form of license.
  • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

6. No Discrimination Against Fields of Endeavor
.The license must not restrict anyone from making use of the program in a specific field of endeavor.^ The license must not restrict anyone from making use of the program in a specific field of endeavor.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sun does not currently have a licensing program that permits the use of the "Java" mark in your product or company name, and as owner of the trademark, Sun reserves the right to use the mark "Java" for its own products.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Please note that under US law, and other jurisdictions, there is no "fair use" of a logo, and you must have a license.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, it may not restrict the program from being used in a business, or from being used for genetic research.^ For example, it may not restrict the program from being used in a business, or from being used for genetic research.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some organizations may decide that they wish to only use OSS/FS programs.
  • How to Evaluate Open Source Software / Free Software (OSS/FS) Programs 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.dwheeler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, you will find some programs of artificial life simulation, cellular automata, fuzzy logic, genetic algorithms, neural networks, pattern recognition, ....
  • AITopics / Software 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.aaai.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Rationale: The major intention of this clause is to prohibit license traps that prevent open source from being used commercially.^ Rationale: This clause forecloses yet another class of license traps.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rationale: The major intention of this clause is to prohibit license traps that prevent open source from being used commercially.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I am a big Open Source fan and use it in a lot of other places, but we just couldn't take the risk on such an important, high profile project as this one.
  • Open Source ERP Applications: They're Real and They're Spectacular | CIO - Blogs and Discussion 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC advice.cio.com [Source type: General]

.We want commercial users to join our community, not feel excluded from it.^ We want commercial users to join our community, not feel excluded from it.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With the OpenJDK code base available under the open-source GPL, the TCKs provide the assurance of compatibility that users need to feel confident in using a particular implementation whether developed commercially, or in the community.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There’s also a very supportive growing user community providing support and also recently added commercial support service.
  • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

7. Distribution of License
.The rights attached to the program must apply to all to whom the program is redistributed without the need for execution of an additional license by those parties.^ The rights attached to the program must apply to all to whom the program is redistributed without the need for execution of an additional license by those parties.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the program is extracted from that distribution and used or distributed within the terms of the program's license, all parties to whom the program is redistributed should have the same rights as those that are granted in conjunction with the original software distribution.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, licenses do impact those who modify the program, and the license can even impact users who don't modify their programs in the sense that the licenses impact what they (and those they work with) can do later.
  • How to Evaluate Open Source Software / Free Software (OSS/FS) Programs 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.dwheeler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Rationale: This clause is intended to forbid closing up software by indirect means such as requiring a non-disclosure agreement.^ Rationale: This clause is intended to forbid closing up software by indirect means such as requiring a non-disclosure agreement.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The mild overhead of receiving such assignments is usually made up for by the legal certainty it gives the software.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When you're evaluating proprietary software, be sure to examine its licensing terms such as its End User License Agreement (EULA).
  • How to Evaluate Open Source Software / Free Software (OSS/FS) Programs 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.dwheeler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

8. License Must Not Be Specific to a Product
.The rights attached to the program must not depend on the program's being part of a particular software distribution.^ The rights attached to the program must not depend on the program's being part of a particular software distribution.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Users of proprietary software must set up organizations to track proprietary programs, and ensure that extra copies are not made.
  • How to Evaluate Open Source Software / Free Software (OSS/FS) Programs 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.dwheeler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ OSS/FS programs' fundamental difference from proprietary software is the legal right of users to view, modify, and redistribute OSS/FS programs.
  • How to Evaluate Open Source Software / Free Software (OSS/FS) Programs 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.dwheeler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If the program is extracted from that distribution and used or distributed within the terms of the program's license, all parties to whom the program is redistributed should have the same rights as those that are granted in conjunction with the original software distribution.^ All rights granted must flow through to/with redistributed versions.
  • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The rights attached to the program must apply to all to whom the program is redistributed without the need for execution of an additional license by those parties.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The license must allow modifications and derived works, and must allow them to be distributed under the same terms as the license of the original software.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Rationale: This clause forecloses yet another class of license traps.^ Rationale: This clause forecloses yet another class of license traps.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rationale: The major intention of this clause is to prohibit license traps that prevent open source from being used commercially.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

9. License Must Not Restrict Other Software
.The license must not place restrictions on other software that is distributed along with the licensed software.^ The license must not restrict other software, thus permitting the distribution of open source and closed source software together.
  • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The license must not place restrictions on other software that is distributed along with the licensed software.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under the scope of this license."
  • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

.For example, the license must not insist that all other programs distributed on the same medium must be open-source software.^ This includes modification of Open Source software.
  • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Q: What components of the JDK software have been open sourced?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Examples of such free and open source software organizations are: .
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Rationale: Distributors of open-source software have the right to make their own choices about their own software.^ This includes modification of Open Source software.
  • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Free Software vs. Open Source software .
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Is that not what open source is all about?
  • Open Source | ZDNet.com 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC blogs.zdnet.com [Source type: General]

.Yes, the GPL is conformant with this requirement.^ Yes, the GPL is conformant with this requirement.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Software linked with GPLed libraries only inherits the GPL if it forms a single work, not any software with which they are merely distributed.^ Some of those risks may relate specifically to Open Source software, but most often they relate to all software, regardless of the form of license.
  • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In addition, mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under the scope of this license."
  • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In other words, is there any way that I as the developer, using GPL software, can design a contract that would allow my customer to do what they want with the source code, but limit my rights to distribute?
  • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

10. License Must Be Technology-Neutral
.No provision of the license may be predicated on any individual technology or style of interface.^ No provision of the license may be predicated on any individual technology or style of interface.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We recognize that the application process and requirement for a signature may be difficult for some groups or individuals who might want to exercise the license.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While it may truly be a derivative of Java technology, trademark law only supports use of the word if it's verifiable and licensed by Sun.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Rationale: This provision is aimed specifically at licenses which require an explicit gesture of assent in order to establish a contract between licensor and licensee.^ Rationale: This provision is aimed specifically at licenses which require an explicit gesture of assent in order to establish a contract between licensor and licensee.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rationale: By constraining the license to require free redistribution, we eliminate the temptation to throw away many long-term gains in order to make a few short-term sales dollars.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A: The license specifically allows you as a licensee to share comments, questions, results, and relevant portions of the JCK code itself with other licensees.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Provisions mandating so-called "click-wrap" may conflict with important methods of software distribution such as FTP download, CD-ROM anthologies, and web mirroring; such provisions may also hinder code re-use.^ Provisions mandating so-called "click-wrap" may conflict with important methods of software distribution such as FTP download, CD-ROM anthologies, and web mirroring; such provisions may also hinder code re-use.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Conformant licenses must allow for the possibility that (a) redistribution of the software will take place over non-Web channels that do not support click-wrapping of the download, and that (b) the covered code (or re-used portions of covered code) may run in a non-GUI environment that cannot support popup dialogues.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are many people that feel that using free software is an important part of how they live and work.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Conformant licenses must allow for the possibility that (a) redistribution of the software will take place over non-Web channels that do not support click-wrapping of the download, and that (b) the covered code (or re-used portions of covered code) may run in a non-GUI environment that cannot support popup dialogues.^ Conformant licenses must allow for the possibility that (a) redistribution of the software will take place over non-Web channels that do not support click-wrapping of the download, and that (b) the covered code (or re-used portions of covered code) may run in a non-GUI environment that cannot support popup dialogues.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The license must not place restrictions on other software that is distributed along with the licensed software.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Provisions mandating so-called "click-wrap" may conflict with important methods of software distribution such as FTP download, CD-ROM anthologies, and web mirroring; such provisions may also hinder code re-use.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Free software is open-source software, but not all open-source software is free.^ This includes modification of Open Source software.
  • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Examples of such free and open source software organizations are: .
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Free Software vs. Open Source software .
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

What is Free Software?

.Free software is software that adheres to the concept of the four freedoms of software, as articulated by the GNU Project.^ Free software is software that adheres to the concept of the four freedoms of software, as articulated by the GNU Project.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since its launch in 2006, the Conservancy has grown to include free and open source software projects active in a wide range of fields.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The GNU General Public License is a free software license, created by the Free Software Foundation (FSF); version 2 was released in 1991.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

These four freedoms are as follows:
  • The user is free to use the software for any purpose.
  • The user is free to study the mechanisms by which the program operates and to adjust these mechanisms to a specific purpose.
  • The user is free to redistribute the software to another user.
  • The user is free to adapt and improve the program and release these adaptations and improvements to the public.
Free Software shares much of its philosophy with Open-Source software, but many people within the open source community feel that there are important distinctions between the terms, as described in the section Free Software vs. Open-source software.
.Often Free Software is referred to as "free as in speech, not as in beer", stressing the idea that the Free-software movement is concerned with freedom, not with price.^ Although it is this OSI definition of Open Source to which the remainder of this paper relates, it is worthwhile to also examine the definition of Free Software, for often times the terms Free Software and Open Source are used interchangeably.
  • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ He is a well-known and outspoken thought leader for the free software movement, and a co-maintainer of the Kaffe.org virtual machine project.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More precisely, it refers to four kinds of freedom, for the users of the software: The freedom to run the program, for any purpose (freedom 0).
  • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

.Throughout this book the reader should assume that the word "free" is referring to freedom.^ Throughout this book the reader should assume that the word "free" is referring to freedom.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Often Free Software is referred to as "free as in speech, not as in beer", stressing the idea that the Free-software movement is concerned with freedom , not with price .
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Please feel free to add/correct information throughout the book.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Free Software vs. Open Source software

.The primary distinction of open source software is that it's not about freedom, it's about what software does things better.^ Q: What components of the JDK software have been open sourced?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Does anyone reading this have experience from open source portal software?
  • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

^ The primary distinction of open source software is that it's not about freedom, it's about what software does things better.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This requirement is not true of all open source licenses.^ Q: Is GPL v2 an open-source license?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Is that not what open source is all about?
  • Open Source | ZDNet.com 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC blogs.zdnet.com [Source type: General]

^ Free software is open-source software, but not all open-source software is free.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In this book we hope to provide enough information so that the reader can understand what the two are and make choices accordingly.^ In this book we hope to provide enough information so that the reader can understand what the two are and make choices accordingly.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are two relatively new books out (Pro Drupal Development, and Drupal 5 Themes) that make the learning curve way less steep.
  • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

.As a whole the movement is often called "Free and Open-Source software" (FOSS).^ As a whole the movement is often called "Free and Open-Source software" (FOSS).
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An earlier software movement similar to Open Source is the Free Software Movement (embodied in the Free Software Foundation).
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Q: What components of the JDK software have been open sourced?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While many people point to the differences between the two, this book will focus on what unites the two.^ While many people point to the differences between the two, this book will focus on what unites the two.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Find and show routes between two points.

^ There are however two main branches of thought in which many people share some similar views and have helped create a strong movement.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For the purposes of clarity the abbreviation FOSS will be used when describing issues that apply to all open source software projects, whereas OSS will be used when describing issues that apply only to software with open-source licenses that allow future developers to close the source code, and FSS will be used when talking about issues that apply only to software with free licenses requiring future developers maintain the previous style of licensing (if not the license itself).^ As a whole the movement is often called "Free and Open-Source software" (FOSS).
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Find a serious, high level Free software or Open source project.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Deliberately obfuscated source code is not allowed.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Public Domain Software

.Another common form of open-source software is software that has entered into the public domain.^ Expression Engine is open source software.
  • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

^ This includes modification of Open Source software.
  • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Free Software vs. Open Source software .
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This is software that is unrestricted by copyright or licenses, and therefore free to use for any purpose.^ License: free for noncommercial use ] .

^ This is software that is unrestricted by copyright or licenses, and therefore free to use for any purpose.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The user is free to use the software for any purpose.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Before the rise of the open-source software movement a great deal of software written in academic circles was released into the public domain for peer-review.^ Q: What components of the JDK software have been open sourced?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Before the rise of the open-source software movement a great deal of software written in academic circles was released into the public domain for peer-review.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Expression Engine is open source software.
  • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

.This practice has changed with the rise of a more intentional open-source movement, resulting in much software that was once public domain, now being released as FOSS. The public domain is where many resources used in open-source projects come from, but there are few (if any) major projects that operate totally within the public domain.^ This includes modification of Open Source software.
  • Groklaw - Understanding Open Source Software - by Red Hat's Mark Webbink, Esq. 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.groklaw.net [Source type: Original source]

^ As a whole the movement is often called "Free and Open-Source software" (FOSS).
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are many FOSS licenses.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

FOSS does not mean no cost

.This is a common misunderstanding about FOSS, in no small part because nearly all FOSS programs are available free of charge.^ This is a common misunderstanding about FOSS, in no small part because nearly all FOSS programs are available free of charge.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Developing something under GPL may give free access to high quality components (like QT) that are otherwise expensive to buy or not available at all.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If no OSS/FS project seems to meet your needs at all, you can certainly consider developing an OSS/FS program to meet the need - again, this requires a more significant commitment.
  • How to Evaluate Open Source Software / Free Software (OSS/FS) Programs 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.dwheeler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example when the text editor Emacs was first released Richard Stallman charged from time to time to get copies.^ For example when the text editor Emacs was first released Richard Stallman charged from time to time to get copies.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His first major software development effort (even before he became disenchanted with trends in the software industry) was the text editor, GNU Emacs .
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An example of a licence that provides software freedom with some restrictions on the distributer of the software is the GNU General Public Licence, or GPL. The GPL was written by Richard Stallman et al., for the GNU Project.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Developers have the choice to charge under most FOSS licenses, although they rarely choose to.^ Developers have the choice to charge under most FOSS licenses, although they rarely choose to.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What are developers' obligations under this license?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Q: What are developers' obligations under this license?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The only requirement to be a truly FOSS project is that the publisher provides the source code with the program, and to allow the user to edit that code.^ Deliberately obfuscated source code is not allowed.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The only requirement to be a truly FOSS project is that the publisher provides the source code with the program, and to allow the user to edit that code.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For the purposes of clarity the abbreviation FOSS will be used when describing issues that apply to all open source software projects, whereas OSS will be used when describing issues that apply only to software with open-source licenses that allow future developers to close the source code, and FSS will be used when talking about issues that apply only to software with free licenses requiring future developers maintain the previous style of licensing (if not the license itself).
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On top of the initial cost of purchasing software, there are other ongoing costs associated with all software.^ On top of the initial cost of purchasing software, there are other ongoing costs associated with all software.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are also elements incorporated from other free software projects.

^ Rgeo "This collection of web pages is intended to be a guide to some of the resources for the analysis of spatial data using R, and other associated software."

.This can come in the form of support agreements, the cost of customization, training costs support personnel and other sources.^ This can come in the form of support agreements, the cost of customization, training costs support personnel and other sources.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ GeoJasPer "GeoJasPer is a free and open source Geo supporting command line transcoder between JPEG2000 and other formats.

^ Other costs may include expensive hardware (new hardware or upgrades), other software that is required but sold separately, support fees, and any separate upgrade fees.
  • How to Evaluate Open Source Software / Free Software (OSS/FS) Programs 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.dwheeler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This is true of both traditional commercial software and FOSS programs.^ Problems with traditional commercial software .
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is true of both traditional commercial software and FOSS programs.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most organizations preferring "commercial" software are simply trying to avoid programs that are entirely created and supported internally, since such approaches are very expensive.
  • How to Evaluate Open Source Software / Free Software (OSS/FS) Programs 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.dwheeler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There is a large and active debate about which type of software is more expensive over the long run for large corporations, for individual users there is little to no question that FOSS is cheaper by far.^ There is a large and active debate about which type of software is more expensive over the long run for large corporations, for individual users there is little to no question that FOSS is cheaper by far.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The corporation is created in the public interest so there can be no shareholders or other owners that have a stake in the corporation.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Over the past year or so we’ve seen a definite increase in the number of questions we get about open source content management and portal software at NetRelations .
  • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

History

.The history given here is not intended to be a complete, and perfect rendering of the history of the open source movement.^ The history given here is not intended to be a complete, and perfect rendering of the history of the open source movement.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a whole the movement is often called "Free and Open-Source software" (FOSS).
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An earlier software movement similar to Open Source is the Free Software Movement (embodied in the Free Software Foundation).
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Indeed it would be quite impossible to do so, as we are currently in the middle of the movement, and proper histories cannot be written about current events.^ Indeed it would be quite impossible to do so, as we are currently in the middle of the movement, and proper histories cannot be written about current events.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Instead this chapter is intended to give the reader a general understanding of how the open source movement got started, so they can better understand the current debates.^ Developers can’t contribute to the better modules; instead they have to start over.
  • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

^ Instead this chapter is intended to give the reader a general understanding of how the open source movement got started, so they can better understand the current debates.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How can Sun have multiple licenses that bear on the same open-source code base?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the beginning (1960's and 1970's) nearly all code was provided as a form of open-source.^ Is that not what open source is all about?
  • Open Source | ZDNet.com 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC blogs.zdnet.com [Source type: General]

^ Are you open sourcing the latest code?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Free software is open-source software, but not all open-source software is free.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since you had to get programs to run on many different machines, companies that wanted customers to be able to run their software they had to provide the source code to compile themselves.^ Are you open sourcing the latest code?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you do not distribute the software, you have no obligation to distribute source code.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You can’t make someone buy a support subscription, but if they are buying the services provided by your software their checkbook is open to you.
  • Open Source | ZDNet.com 18 September 2009 7:43 UTC blogs.zdnet.com [Source type: General]

.Frequently this code was not encumbered by licensing agreements, or those licenses were never enforced.^ Frequently this code was not encumbered by licensing agreements, or those licenses were never enforced.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is important for projects to understand the conditions in their licenses as well as those in the licenses of code they link to and code they incorporate into their project.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Know what licenses apply to the code, who holds the copyrights and what those licenses say.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Often the users would notice flaws in the programs, fix them, and provide the improvements back to the publisher at no charge.^ Often the users would notice flaws in the programs, fix them, and provide the improvements back to the publisher at no charge.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is a common misunderstanding about FOSS, in no small part because nearly all FOSS programs are available free of charge.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The only requirement to be a truly FOSS project is that the publisher provides the source code with the program, and to allow the user to edit that code.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Unix user groups often shared code with each other as well, creating an even larger body of code to work from.^ Unix user groups often shared code with each other as well, creating an even larger body of code to work from.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sometimes the computer library issues can indirectly affect users, even though the users aren't writing any code themselves.
  • How to Evaluate Open Source Software / Free Software (OSS/FS) Programs 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.dwheeler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Can I take my non-GPL code and combine it with the OpenJDK code base to create a combined work if I apply the Assembly exception to my code?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At the time most companies believed that hardware would always generate far more profit than software.^ At the time most companies believed that hardware would always generate far more profit than software.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Perhaps most famously, Bill Gates (a co-founder of Microsoft) realized that software, not hardware, held the prospect of being the greatest profit source in the new world of computing.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Is Open Source software always of better quality than other types of software?
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At the same time when academics wrote programs as part of their research, they would often release the code into the public domain to others to learn from their work.^ At the same time when academics wrote programs as part of their research, they would often release the code into the public domain to others to learn from their work.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The source code must be the preferred form in which a programmer would modify the program.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are many people that feel that using free software is an important part of how they live and work.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The first email server, ftp server, and web server were all public domain projects that were created by academics and shared as public domain software.^ The first email server, ftp server, and web server were all public domain projects that were created by academics and shared as public domain software.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The GNU General Public License is a free software license, created by the Free Software Foundation (FSF); version 2 was released in 1991.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By choosing the same license as their peers in related projects, these developers make it easier to share code and create copyright policies that are standard throughout a development community.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Over time the hardware became more standardized.^ Over time the hardware became more standardized.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the time most companies believed that hardware would always generate far more profit than software.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This allowed software publishers to tighten up on what segments of code they would allow their users to see and edit.^ This allowed software publishers to tighten up on what segments of code they would allow their users to see and edit.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ See: Scheduler module Does the CMS part prevent users from entering “bad” code?
  • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

^ Users of proprietary software must set up organizations to track proprietary programs, and ensure that extra copies are not made.
  • How to Evaluate Open Source Software / Free Software (OSS/FS) Programs 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.dwheeler.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This tightening started to frustrate users, especially academics, since they could no longer fix the problem they found, and from time to time found that they couldn't use the hardware or software they wanted to.^ This tightening started to frustrate users, especially academics, since they could no longer fix the problem they found, and from time to time found that they couldn't use the hardware or software they wanted to.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The user is free to use the software for any purpose.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are many people that feel that using free software is an important part of how they live and work.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This trend mostly continued in main stream software, strengthed by the rise of Microsoft.^ This trend mostly continued in main stream software, strengthed by the rise of Microsoft.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During the late 1970's, many small businesses attempted to survive writing software for the new microcomputers.^ During the late 1970's , many small businesses attempted to survive writing software for the new microcomputers.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With so many developers generating new copyrights almost constantly as they develop software, most FOSS projects need a process to manage, and perhaps centralize, copyrights.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.None were able to rely on hardware sales or after sale support contracts to subsidize software development.^ None were able to rely on hardware sales or after sale support contracts to subsidize software development.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ QAT was developed to ease the issues encountered by having to perform Quality Assurance tests across a variety of hardware and software combinations.

.Few of these people, whether from an academic tradition of freely distributed software or not, were willing to make their products available without fee.^ Few of these people, whether from an academic tradition of freely distributed software or not, were willing to make their products available without fee.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are many people that feel that using free software is an important part of how they live and work.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nevertheless, the JCK remains a large and complex software product that can sometimes be difficult to configure and whose output may be difficult to interpret without expert help.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Perhaps most famously, Bill Gates (a co-founder of Microsoft) realized that software, not hardware, held the prospect of being the greatest profit source in the new world of computing.^ Perhaps most famously, Bill Gates (a co-founder of Microsoft) realized that software, not hardware, held the prospect of being the greatest profit source in the new world of computing.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Posted by PeterJudge Amongst the speculation about what Microsoft will be like after Bill Gates' final retirement, some are wondering whether the company might become more friendly to open source.

^ Today is apparently Bill Gates' first day away from Microsoft.

.When IBM needed an operating system for their personal computer, instead of writing their own, Microsoft licenced an early version of DOS, but retained the licensing rights for other hardware manufacturers.^ When IBM needed an operating system for their personal computer, instead of writing their own, Microsoft licenced an early version of DOS, but retained the licensing rights for other hardware manufacturers.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He wanted a Unix-like operating system that would work on his computer, an early and expensive 386 machine, and was unsatisfied with anything available at an affordable cost, including academic teaching examples like Minix (from Professor Andrew Tannenbaum ).
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many people in the computer industry believe that these changes are the most important changes in computing since IBM contracted Microsoft to write an operating system for their personal computers.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This choice changed the face of computing by creating a standard operating system that most personal computers would run on, it lead directly to Microsoft's dominance of personal computing, and later allowed them major access to the server side market as well.^ This choice changed the face of computing by creating a standard operating system that most personal computers would run on, it lead directly to Microsoft's dominance of personal computing, and later allowed them major access to the server side market as well.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He wanted a Unix-like operating system that would work on his computer, an early and expensive 386 machine, and was unsatisfied with anything available at an affordable cost, including academic teaching examples like Minix (from Professor Andrew Tannenbaum ).
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many people in the computer industry believe that these changes are the most important changes in computing since IBM contracted Microsoft to write an operating system for their personal computers.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Microsoft has grown into the largest software producer in the world, competing in almost every segment of the market.^ Microsoft has grown into the largest software producer in the world, competing in almost every segment of the market.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since open source software allows competing programs to share different data file types, there is no reason to be trapped into any one program.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ First it should be noted that the commercial software industry is one of the largest and most important industries in the world.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are many people that feel that the only way to compete with Microsoft is through open source projects which leverage a far larger support base than most companies can provide.^ In fact, there are only 3 major open source CMS: .
  • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

^ It seems that most open source portal platforms are Java based.
  • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

^ There are many people that feel that the only way to compete with Microsoft is through open source projects which leverage a far larger support base than most companies can provide.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In this sea of activity, the FOSS movement primarily grew out of two places: the Berkeley Software Distribution license from the University of California and Richard Stallman's Free Software Foundation Gnu Public License.^ The GNU General Public License is a free software license, created by the Free Software Foundation (FSF); version 2 was released in 1991.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In this sea of activity, the FOSS movement primarily grew out of two places: the Berkeley Software Distribution license from the University of California and Richard Stallman's Free Software Foundation Gnu Public License.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The license must not place restrictions on other software that is distributed along with the licensed software.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

BSD

.During the 1970s, after Ken Thompson of Bell Labs spent a year teaching at the University of California at Berkeley, several research groups there began to develop software for the Unix operating system.^ There are also several Members of OpenJDK Groups who are no longer Sun employees but who retain their Membership, and so gradually there are non-Sun committers becoming a part of the project.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This name was originally used for a collection of geostatistical programs developed at Stanford University over the last 15 years."

^ The GPL is endorsed by the Free Software Foundation, and is the license used by the GNU/Linux operating system.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.And, as Bell Labs had no plans to port the system to the then new DEC VAX computer system, the Computer Science Research Group at Berkeley undertook the port.^ And, as Bell Labs had no plans to port the system to the then new DEC VAX computer system, the Computer Science Research Group at Berkeley undertook the port.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Will it be possible to contribute code to the OpenJDK community that Sun does not plan to ship in its implementations, such as ports to other operating systems or hardware platforms?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Providing paid support for porting the FOSS to the new processor, device or operating system.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.That port became very popular at other universities, and the CSRG began distribution of it, with their modifications and additions, under the name Berkeley Software Distribution.^ That port became very popular at other universities, and the CSRG began distribution of it, with their modifications and additions, under the name Berkeley Software Distribution.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For instance it is very common to see software in wide distribution that has a version number less than 1.0.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A: We've opened sub-projects under the OpenJDK project focused on the major encumbrances that need to be addressed so that OpenJDK can be 100% free software, with very high quality.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The researchers at Berkeley frequently found ways to improve or add to the existing versions of Unix.^ The researchers at Berkeley frequently found ways to improve or add to the existing versions of Unix.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As development progressed on the Berkeley version of Unix, it grew further and further away from the work that AT&T was doing on their version (the last version of which was System V).
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Over time the CSRG found ways to improve the basic aspects of Unix (eg, the file system).
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Bell Labs accepted some of the BSD changes, and passed on others.^ Bell Labs accepted some of the BSD changes, and passed on others.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The suit resulted in most of BSD being found to be unencumbered by copyright restrictions by those who controlled the original Bell Labs code.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ BSD (unlike some other licenses) does not require that source code be distributed at all.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Over time the CSRG found ways to improve the basic aspects of Unix (eg, the file system).^ Use of a revision control system that includes the system date and time on each operation, as Subversion does, is one way to do this.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Concurrently, AT&T made improvements of their own, causing the two versions to move in different (although similar) directions.^ Concurrently, AT&T made improvements of their own, causing the two versions to move in different (although similar) directions.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

As development progressed on the Berkeley version of Unix, it grew further and further away from the work that AT&T was doing on their version (the last version of which was System V). .In the early 1990s there was a major legal skirmish over the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) between AT&T, the University of California at Berkeley, and the Unix System Laboratories (USL), to which AT&T had turned over the marketing and development of Unix.^ In the early 1990s there was a major legal skirmish over the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) between AT&T, the University of California at Berkeley, and the Unix System Laboratories (USL), to which AT&T had turned over the marketing and development of Unix.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By the mid-1990s, the CSRG released 4.4BSD-Lite, Release 2 as their final product as they were closed down by the Regents of the University of California.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In this sea of activity, the FOSS movement primarily grew out of two places: the Berkeley Software Distribution license from the University of California and Richard Stallman's Free Software Foundation Gnu Public License.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The suit resulted in most of BSD being found to be unencumbered by copyright restrictions by those who controlled the original Bell Labs code.^ The suit resulted in most of BSD being found to be unencumbered by copyright restrictions by those who controlled the original Bell Labs code.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Know what licenses apply to the code, who holds the copyrights and what those licenses say.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the fork is initiated by existing project members, it is appropriate for the fork to associate itself with the goodwill and reputation of those members who helped develop and promote the original project’s marks.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By the mid-1990s, the CSRG released 4.4BSD-Lite, Release 2 as their final product as they were closed down by the Regents of the University of California.^ By the mid-1990s, the CSRG released 4.4BSD-Lite, Release 2 as their final product as they were closed down by the Regents of the University of California.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The BSD releases were the root of the various versions of BSD that are common today, most notably FreeBSD, NetBSD and OpenBSD. Throughout its development, BSD was distributed in an open manner, resulting in contributions from many different contributors.^ February 7, 2008 by craig Just want to reiterate the recommendation that you look at Symphony , especially version 2, which is in beta and will be open-sourced once released.
  • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

^ Many Perl and PHP developers, for example, choose to distribute their code under the same licenses as Perl and PHP themselves.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many open-source implementations of JSRs developed under the JCP are available today.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Free Software Foundation and the GNU Project

.In 1983 Richard Stallman (then of MIT) became frustrated with the growing commercialization of the computer development work that had been done at MIT, and with the increasing limitations imposed on software users.^ Developer-users can extend the application by writing plug-ins using any .NET Framework compatible language, or developers can write GIS enabled software using the MapWinGIS ActiveX control."

^ I had to sound cynic, but in every CMS-based project I’ve ever worked on, once the CMS was in place it quickly became painfully restrictive to how the project wanted to grow.
  • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

^ The goal is to make the most important of the solutions and methods developed in computational geometry available to users in industry and academia in a C++ library."

.After a time, he began to create software that gave control to users.^ After a time, he began to create software that gave control to users.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.His vision was to create an entire operating system totally free of the restrictions being imposed by proprietary licensing.^ His vision was to create an entire operating system totally free of the restrictions being imposed by proprietary licensing.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you do bring your laptop, it must run Linux or other operating system that they consider as "Free software".
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The license may restrict source-code from being distributed in modified form only if the license allows the distribution of "patch files" with the source code for the purpose of modifying the program at build time.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.His first major software development effort (even before he became disenchanted with trends in the software industry) was the text editor, GNU Emacs.^ A: The Classpath exception was developed by the Free Software Foundation's GNU/Classpath Project (see http://www.gnu.org/software/classpath/license.html ).
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I generally use Tinymce as my rich text editor on Drupal sites that I develop.
  • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

^ Industry News (Market) Summary: Embedded Linux commercialization accelerates development with consideration for power management and performance Full Text: MontaVista has announced that MontaVista Mo...

.His next was a LISP system, a w:C compiler, and finally the GNU project.^ His next was a LISP system, a w:C compiler, and finally the GNU project.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The GNU Project continues its slow progress on its own operating system kernel, which will be known as Hurd.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1994, Linus Torvalds released the first version of the Linux kernel, and when combined with the GNU utilities already available from the GNU Project, the Linux operating system came to be.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1985 Stallman founded the Free Software Foundation (FSF) to help generate support for the GNU Project.^ The Free Software Foundation acts as an umbrella organization for its projects.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Not only are people generally familiar with the license, but there is a lot of knowledge and support available for projects that use the GPL. The Free Software Foundation (FSF), which wrote and maintains the license, offers some support for developers.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ FreeType "The FreeType project develops free, portable and high-quality software solutions for digital typography.

.FSF has grown into one of the most important organizations in the FOSS movement.^ FSF has grown into one of the most important organizations in the FOSS movement.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most important decisions about the organization will be decided at these meetings, and the minutes comprise the paperwork support of these decisions.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While it is one of the OpenJDK Initiative's most important benefits to give developers this early, direct influence over the future, the JCK is about the current, shipping specification.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While the primary FSF mission continues to be the completion of the GNU operating system, FSF has also taken on the role of "free-software evangelist" by protecting and supporting free software.^ This effort represents an attempt to build a complete index of Open Source / Free GIS related software projects.

^ Not only are people generally familiar with the license, but there is a lot of knowledge and support available for projects that use the GPL. The Free Software Foundation (FSF), which wrote and maintains the license, offers some support for developers.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you can, use software tools available for analyzing binary files (such as, on GNU/Linux systems, strings and strace ) to confirm that your software is in the product.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.FSF also holds the copyrights to much of the source code written for the GNU project, ensuring that it always remains freely availabe to users.^ FSF also holds the copyrights to much of the source code written for the GNU project, ensuring that it always remains freely availabe to users.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Anyhow users must always be instructed a bit about the back-end tools and the general guidelines of the site/project they will be involved in.
  • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

^ If your project decides to unify copyrights, developers need not give up their rights to use that code in other projects, even proprietary ones!
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Over the next 10 years Stallman gathered a group of people together who essentially developed all of the core utitilies found in Unix and the Unix-like operating systems.^ Over the next 10 years Stallman gathered a group of people together who essentially developed all of the core utitilies found in Unix and the Unix-like operating systems.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He wanted a Unix-like operating system that would work on his computer, an early and expensive 386 machine, and was unsatisfied with anything available at an affordable cost, including academic teaching examples like Minix (from Professor Andrew Tannenbaum ).
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Developing something under GPL may give free access to high quality components (like QT) that are otherwise expensive to buy or not available at all.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the Unix spirit, these consist of hundreds (perhaps thousands) of small utility programs and tools.^ In the Unix spirit, these consist of hundreds (perhaps thousands) of small utility programs and tools.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But for really big sites, multi-national corporations, and organisations with perhaps hundreds or even thousands of editors, there is often a need for a different approach.
  • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

.This project is still operating and is known as the GNU Project.^ This project is still operating and is known as the GNU Project.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The GNU Project continues its slow progress on its own operating system kernel, which will be known as Hurd.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1994, Linus Torvalds released the first version of the Linux kernel, and when combined with the GNU utilities already available from the GNU Project, the Linux operating system came to be.
  • Open Source - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many of these programs have become standard on the BSD variants as well (see above).^ OGDI is an application programming interface (API) that uses a standardized access methods to work in conjunction with GIs software packages (the application) and various geospatial data products.

^ To see whether you qualify for one of these programs and to learn how to participate, please visit http://java.com/brand for more details.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1994, Linus Torvalds released the first version of the Linux kernel, and when combined with the GNU utilities already available from the GNU Project, the Linux operating system came to be.^ Kosmo is available for Windows and Linux operating systems."

^ This more stable code base is specifically designed to be built and supported by GNU/Linux and other open source operating system distributions and is intended to be 100% Free software.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Another option available to free software projects is to join an already existing nonprofit organization.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Debian distribution of Linux is called GNU/Linux, in recognition of Stallman's position that it is a joint production, to recognize that the GNU Project provides most of the essential utilities.^ Enterprises and organizations that have selected OS distributions based on GNU/Linux, OpenSolaris, and other open source OSs as preferred for deployment.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This could present a serious barrier to adoption, for example by OpenSolaris or GNU/Linux distributions if left unaddressed.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This implementation is fully Free software, with no required binary plugs to build, stable, and intended to be built and integrated into GNU/Linux distributions.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The GNU Project continues its slow progress on its own operating system kernel, which will be known as Hurd. Hurd is intended to be offered as the official GNU replacement for the Unix kernel, though it is currently at a beta development stage.
While the FSF has become somewhat controversial, it has certainly had a major impact on computing. .Millions of copies of the GNU software are used every day throughout the world.^ Ideally, financial transactions will be recorded using accounting software, such as GNU Cash .
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The GPL is endorsed by the Free Software Foundation, and is the license used by the GNU/Linux operating system.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you can, use software tools available for analyzing binary files (such as, on GNU/Linux systems, strings and strace ) to confirm that your software is in the product.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

For More Information

Much of the information for this article came from the following sources. .They also contain more information about their areas of open source history if you are interested.^ Are you open sourcing the latest code?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Over the past year or so we’ve seen a definite increase in the number of questions we get about open source content management and portal software at NetRelations .
  • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

^ Q: Are you open sourcing the Java language or the Java SE platform specifications?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Wikipedia Articles:
Outside Sources:

Philosophy

.There is no one philosophy that brings people to open-source software.^ Expression Engine is open source software.
  • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

^ Comments On top of everything else, teetering in the breeze, I have a July 7 deadline for a short article in School Library Journal on open source software in school libraries.

^ Are there any open source solutions that meet these needs?
  • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

.There are however two main branches of thought in which many people share some similar views and have helped create a strong movement.^ The quality of the markup is quite good to start with but there are some modules (like CKK and Views) that tend to generate some really bloated markup.
  • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

.To understand the open-source movement as a whole you need to understand both of these main philosophies.^ Are you open sourcing the latest code?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Are there any open source solutions that meet these needs?
  • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

^ Q: Are you open sourcing the Java language or the Java SE platform specifications?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Software Freedom

.An earlier software movement similar to Open Source is the Free Software Movement (embodied in the Free Software Foundation).^ Q: What components of the JDK software have been open sourced?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Expression Engine is open source software.
  • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

^ What components of the JDK software have been open sourced?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although there is some debate over its precise definition, there are generally three primary components of software freedom.^ The quality of the markup is quite good to start with but there are some modules (like CKK and Views) that tend to generate some really bloated markup.
  • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

^ Some copyleft advocates regard the AGPL as the next logical step toward software freedom.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Not only are people generally familiar with the license, but there is a lot of knowledge and support available for projects that use the GPL. The Free Software Foundation (FSF), which wrote and maintains the license, offers some support for developers.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

  • Freedom to Use
.Many believe that software should not have limitations on their private use, aside from restrictions on the creator's liability.^ If you believe that someone is using your mark in a manner protected by your exclusive rights and has not obtained your authorization to do so, you should take action even if you do not object to their use.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A: Sun recognizes that restrictions on how documentation can be created and disseminated would limit many beneficial activities such as training programs and materials, and added-value third party websites.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The OpenJDK Developers Guide is an important document that describes many of the processes used to create the JDK and should be reviewed by anyone interested in participating in active OpenJDK development with Sun.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In contrast, some commercial packages (like Microsoft Windows) disallow certain usages while a more expensive product allows such a use.^ Some have suggested using a framework like Django or Ruby on Rails, and yeah, for smaller sites that may be an option (which we have explored by using RoR).
  • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

^ They will typically describe the offending behavior and the applicable laws and penalties, and will demand some action on the part of the recipient (such as removing offending content from a website or product).
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In practice, you should exercise your right to control use of the mark such that the reputation your users associate with your product is effectively upheld by your licensees.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.According to US copyright law, this right is implicit unless limited by private contracts.^ This right is inherent in copyright law.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The moment you save code to a file, copyright law gives you certain rights to control what other people can do with your work.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

  • Freedom to modify
.Possibly more important than the freedom to use is the freedom to modify existing programs.^ In today's online world of logins, passwords, registrations and online banking, it's more important than ever to guard passwords and login details to prevent fraud.

.Although certainly related to the overall open-source ideal, this freedom also implies that your modifications remain yours.^ Q: What impact will the choice of the GPL license have on your relationships with other open-source Java SE and Java ME implementation communities?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This effort represents an attempt to build a complete index of Open Source / Free GIS related software projects.

^ It seems to be very flexible on front-end modifications, and is open source unless you would like to purchase support.
  • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

.Some open-source licences require the modifier to assign the rights to their work to the originator of the license (Microsoft's Shared Source program is generally considered one example).^ Q: Is GPL v2 an open-source license?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Is GPL v2 an open-source license?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How can Sun have multiple licenses that bear on the same open-source code base?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Obviously, very few completely commercial software packages give users this freedom.^ As more and more software is delivered as a service instead of as copies of software packages, the Affero GPL can ensure that freedom endures even as distribution dwindles.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There’s also a very supportive growing user community providing support and also recently added commercial support service.
  • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

^ Mapbender "The Mapbender Client Suite software package provides user interfaces for displaying, navigating and querying OGC WMS compliant map services.

.In US copyright law, this is an implicit exclusive right of the creator of a work.^ This right is inherent in copyright law.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A person (or company, foundation, trust, or other legal entity) who has these exclusive legal rights is called a “copyright holder”.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The trademark gives us the exclusive right to use the term to promote websites, services, businesses and products.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

To give others this right, the creator must agree to do so.
  • Freedom to distribute
A final key freedom is the ability to distribute software, modified or unmodified. .Software packages that limit their distribution limit others freedom to do with it what they will.^ As more and more software is delivered as a service instead of as copies of software packages, the Affero GPL can ensure that freedom endures even as distribution dwindles.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Computer-readable medium claims typically duplicate the limitations found in corresponding system or method claims in the patent, but are intended to cover software embodied in a storage or distribution medium.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because they are often distributed together, it is a good idea to have similar rules apply to both your software and the related materials.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It can also prevent them from providing their improvement to the community. .Similar to the freedom to modify, some open-source licences also limit the freedom to distribute, often requiring changes to be submitted back to some central repository.^ Enterprises and organizations that have selected OS distributions based on GNU/Linux, OpenSolaris, and other open source OSs as preferred for deployment.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Are you open sourcing the JCK? Why aren't you open sourcing the JCK? Will developers have the ability to run JCK tests on components they modify, or run the whole JCK on complete implementations?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A: Because Sun owns the copyright for the open-source code base, Sun is able to license each copy of this code base distributed by Sun, under any license, including a commercial software license.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As with the right to modify, this is an exclusive right of the creator.^ A software copyright is the exclusive legal right to control the rules for copying, modifying, and distributing a work of software.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Notably absent from these freedoms is the requirement that free software be economically free.^ Many existing free software organizations keep this corporate documentation available on their websites and are a good resource to understand the different ways that these documents can be drafted.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A: As well as fulfilling its original purpose of promoting Free software, the GPL v2 is designed to help advance projects and code commons by requiring innovation sharing with the commons.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We at the Software Freedom Law Center are extremely fortunate because we get to provide legal assistance to some of the world’s leading free and open source software (FOSS) projects.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Several licences do not prevent merchants from selling the software whether modified or unmodified. .In fact, several groups have historically charged for various pieces of software which are generally considered free software.^ Working on creating or improving the Free software replacements for these encumbered pieces is one of the most valuable initial contributions you could make, so please consider joining these projects and helping make OpenJDK completely free software.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Projects might want to consider including directors that are not directly involved in the development of their software, but have free software project management or nonprofit organizational experience.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are several tax exempt organizations that act as an umbrella organization and provide fiscal sponsorship to the free software projects that join them.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Depending on the licence, the merchant may still be under other restrictions.^ Still others require contributors to “disclaim their copyright interest” (placing the contribution into the “public domain”), so that the contribution can be included under the main copyright of the work.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.An example of a licence that provides software freedom with some restrictions on the distributer of the software is the GNU General Public Licence, or GPL. The GPL was written by Richard Stallman et al., for the GNU Project.^ The GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL) is sometimes classified as a weak copyleft.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The GPL is endorsed by the Free Software Foundation, and is the license used by the GNU/Linux operating system.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Software in the Public Interest was originally formed as a corporate structure for Debian and has expanded to include a number of other free software projects.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The GPL has all of the above freedoms listed within. .The most important difference from the above baseline is what the Creative Commons calls a "Share and Share Alike" clause.^ Most of these differences and advantages stem from the wide acceptance of the GPL and the fact that it is the only license in common use that implements a strong copyleft.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Despite their differences, the most widely-used FOSS licenses share a common goal: creation of a large pool of software that can be combined and built upon to create new works.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

If you distribute a modification to a particular software package under the GPL, then you must agree that your portion of the work is also licenced by the GPL. For more information about the GPL there is more information in the licenses section of this book

Open Source Development Model

.The second main branch of open-source philosophy revolves around the opportunity for a new software development model.^ Q: What components of the JDK software have been open sourced?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Expression Engine is open source software.
  • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

^ What components of the JDK software have been open sourced?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Open-source is also about sharing ideas, and spreading the effort of creating software over a large number of interested developers.^ Q: What components of the JDK software have been open sourced?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An open source Java API for creating Java test software .

^ Expression Engine is open source software.
  • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

This sharing can lead to better software in shorter development times. .It also allows for better feedback directly to the developers than is often present in traditional development models.^ Development Drupal has a clean and robust code base, with an easy to use API. Documentation is also better than other similar solutions.
  • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

.Major companies like Apple and IBM have recognized that there can be a significant advantage to writing software in this way.^ I think Wordpress is way in front of other CMS’/blogging software on offer, it’s open source and there is so much help available online it’s great.
  • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

^ There are a number of different ways to organize a free software project: as an unincorporated organization, as a nonprofit corporation, as part of an umbrella organization or as an individual acting independently, for example.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Apple by way of the Darwin project and IBM through several significant donations of software and patents to open source groups have paved the way for other companies to seriously consider using this development model.^ Q: What components of the JDK software have been open sourced?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Expression Engine is open source software.
  • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

^ It exists to promote the use of open-source software and to convince businesses to open-source their projects.

Licences and Patents

What Is A License?

.In legal theory, a license is the permission or right granted to engage in some act without which the act might be otherwise unlawful.^ Legal rules prohibit non-copyright holders from copying, modifying or distributing copyrighted works without permission from the copyright holder.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, words that imply a certain kind of government office, savings and loan reference or professional license may not be permissible names of the organization without special permission.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The new license will grant usage rights to everything needed to test for platform compatibility.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A license must be granted by a person, institution, or government that has the legal authority to do so. .The term "license" also refers to the document that specifically describes these permissions and rights.^ See below for specifics on how each of these modules is licensed.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, words that imply a certain kind of government office, savings and loan reference or professional license may not be permissible names of the organization without special permission.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In order to use the term "Java Compatible" and the corresponding cup-and-steam logo, you must pass the JCK, and accept a trademark license, as described below.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Important FOSS Licenses

.While there are many open source licenses in use today, a few have emerged as more popular (and therefore more important) than most.^ There are many FOSS licenses.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Check it out at sitellite.org , there’s an open source as well as professional and enterprise versions available.
  • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

^ There are many licenses commonly referred to as “BSD” or “BSD-style” licenses.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.We will take some time here to examine these important licenses in some detail.^ It takes some time.
  • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

^ Take some time to watch the screencasts.
  • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

^ Some licenses address issues concerning patents, 1 demand acknowledgments of prior authors, or require recipients to take other kinds of actions.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

They are listed here in alphabetical order.
.For an extensive list of open source licenses see the GNU Project's list of licenses, or The OSI list of licenses.^ Q: Is GPL v2 an open-source license?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Is GPL v2 an open-source license?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How can Sun have multiple licenses that bear on the same open-source code base?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Apache

.The Apache Software Foundation (ASF) is a non-profit corporation to support Apache software projects.^ Software in the Public Interest was originally formed as a corporate structure for Debian and has expanded to include a number of other free software projects.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Keep in mind that the licenses discussed above were specifically designed for software projects and sometimes have strange and confusing implications when applied to non-software works.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Not only are people generally familiar with the license, but there is a lot of knowledge and support available for projects that use the GPL. The Free Software Foundation (FSF), which wrote and maintains the license, offers some support for developers.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Apache's projects are characterized by a collaborative, consensus based development process, an open and pragmatic software license.^ How can Sun have multiple licenses that bear on the same open-source code base?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since its launch in 2006, the Conservancy has grown to include free and open source software projects active in a wide range of fields.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A: We've opened sub-projects under the OpenJDK project focused on the major encumbrances that need to be addressed so that OpenJDK can be 100% free software, with very high quality.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Among the ASF's objectives are to provide legal protection to volunteers working on Apache projects, and to protect the Apache brand name from being used by other organizations.^ Using a project’s name in place of its function or general class increases the risk that the name will become generic and thus unprotected.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This chapter provides guidance to FOSS developers who wish to protect their projects and their users against patent risk.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If your project decides to unify copyrights, developers need not give up their rights to use that code in other projects, even proprietary ones!
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are currently two forms of the Apache in wide use today: versions 1.1 and 2.0. While 2.0 is considered by ASF to be the current version and most users have happily switched, a few large groups objected to new clauses inserted into 2.0 regarding patents, and have refused to use any software with the new license (most notable the OpenBSD project).^ The most widely-used version of the LGPL is version 2.1.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Have you considered using that license?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The GNU General Public License, version 2 (GPLv2), is the most widely used FOSS license.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Code under Apache license can be linked with the proprietary code that is developed in the companies.^ What are developers' obligations under this license?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Q: What are developers' obligations under this license?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How can we contribute changes made to the code under these licenses for inclusion in the OpenJDK code base?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Because of this the license is accepted inside the most of the companies. .Companies time to time contribute to the code under Apache license to boost the activity of these projects.^ How can we contribute changes made to the code under these licenses for inclusion in the OpenJDK code base?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Finally, developers who are combining code from permissive-licensed projects with code licensed under GPL or LGPL are encouraged to read the guidance on this issue that SFLC has published .
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By choosing the same license as their peers in related projects, these developers make it easier to share code and create copyright policies that are standard throughout a development community.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For instance, IBM and Intel have contributed big parts of the alternative java implementation to the Apache Harmony project.^ A dynamic, active community of Sun engineers and Free Java developers collaborate on a broad range of packaging, porting, language and implementation projects.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A: The phoneME project is where Sun develops its phone implementations for Java ME. It has a single repository that consists of various active development modules including CLDC, CDC, MIDP, and various JSR implementations.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Q: Have you been engaging with the non-Sun Java SE platform communities such as Apache Harmony, GNU Classpath, IcedTea, and Kaffe?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

BSD

.BSD is both a license, and a class of licenses (generally referred to as BSD-like).^ The word “modified” refers historically to the revision of a more restrictive earlier version of the BSD license.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Q: Why didn't you choose a license like BSD or Apache v2?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are many licenses commonly referred to as “BSD” or “BSD-style” licenses.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The modified BSD license (in wide use today) is very similar to the license originally used for the BSD version of Unix (see BSD history above).^ A: The Java platform has been very widely adopted already - it is one of the most important and widely used components of modern web-based infrastructure.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Doesn't GPL v2 + Classpath exception offer very similar licensing terms to the LGPL? Why not use LGPL instead?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Q: Doesn't GPL v2 + Classpath exception offer very similar licensing terms to the LGPL? Why not use LGPL instead?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The BSD license is a simple license that merely requires that all code licensed under the BSD license be licensed under the BSD license IF redistributed in source code format.^ All of Sun's Java platform implementations are or will be licensed under the GPL version 2, or GPL version 2 with the Classpath exception.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How can Sun have multiple licenses that bear on the same open-source code base?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This means that unfortunately, once you choose a particular license, you close off collaboration that involves combining source code with communities using incompatible licenses.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.BSD (unlike some other licenses) does not require that source code be distributed at all.^ Some projects require the assignment of all of the project’s copyrights while others do not.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Moreover, these licenses do not require source code distribution.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How can Sun have multiple licenses that bear on the same open-source code base?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.BSD is actually very close, though still distinct, from a public domain licence.^ Still others require contributors to “disclaim their copyright interest” (placing the contribution into the “public domain”), so that the contribution can be included under the main copyright of the work.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Using these licenses is as close to releasing into the public domain as FOSS licenses get.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Like works in the public domain, BSD-like licences permit nearly free modification and distribution of a work.^ In particular, this Primer, like most of our other public work at SFLC, is addressed to two constituencies.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A commercial license that permits redistribution, but does not allow for modification or creation of derivative works.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sun will continue to work with licensees who want to distribute derivatives of Sun's implementations without the requirement in the GPL to contribute modifications back to the community.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are only two significant ways in which BSD-like licences differ from public domain.^ Most of these licenses differ from each other in only minor ways, which is why they can be grouped together and described generally as “permissive, non-copyleft” licenses.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The only problem is that once you start using MODx there is no way to stop.
  • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

^ There are two relatively new books out (Pro Drupal Development, and Drupal 5 Themes) that make the learning curve way less steep.
  • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

.First, the BSD licence carries the requirement that the licence, along with it's statement of copyright, is carried along with the work, or modified copies.^ Whereas copyright law has traditionally been used to withhold permission to copy, modify or distribute software, some licenses instead use copyright law to require that such permissions be granted.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Still others require contributors to “disclaim their copyright interest” (placing the contribution into the “public domain”), so that the contribution can be included under the main copyright of the work.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Legal rules prohibit non-copyright holders from copying, modifying or distributing copyrighted works without permission from the copyright holder.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This does not however limit code under different licences from being combined with it.^ Finally, developers who are combining code from permissive-licensed projects with code licensed under GPL or LGPL are encouraged to read the guidance on this issue that SFLC has published .
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Code licensed under terms that do not permit such combinations are difficult to combine in the same project.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Doesn't this get around the GPL's requirement to license the entire combined work under GPL? So, what if I work on the OpenJDK code base and make a change to a module covered by the Classpath exception or that is a designated exception module with a different license?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Second, the BSD-like licences have a standard disclaimer of guarantees, such as fitness for a particular use and merchantability.^ The preamble might seem to restrict the claim in some way, such as by stating what might look to you like a field of use.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Trademark holders have the right to prevent the unauthorized use of their marks (or similar imitative designs) when such marks are used in commerce and are used in a manner that is likely to cause confusion or to deceive.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Like other products, FOSS applications develop reputations over time as users come to associate an application’s name with a particular standard of quality or set of features.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This latter portion should not come as any surprise, since practically all software packages carry a clause nearly identical to this one.^ How hard can it be to get all this in one small TINY package.
  • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

^ So nearly all of the encumbered components have been replaced by Free software alternatives.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In summary, the major difference between BSD-like licences and the public domain is that BSD licenced works must remain attributed to the original creator(s).^ Still others require contributors to “disclaim their copyright interest” (placing the contribution into the “public domain”), so that the contribution can be included under the main copyright of the work.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Looks like TXP is always forgotten between the open source CMSes, maybe because the lack of publicity of it.
  • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

^ In particular, this Primer, like most of our other public work at SFLC, is addressed to two constituencies.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some BSD licences take this further, and require similar copyright statements in advertising materials for a distributed software product.^ A: Because Sun owns the copyright for the open-source code base, Sun is able to license each copy of this code base distributed by Sun, under any license, including a commercial software license.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Copyleft licenses require that those who take material from the common pool give something back as well.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some projects require the assignment of all of the project’s copyrights while others do not.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Most however are simply limited this basic requirement.
.For those who are opposed to the GPL for its limitations on modification and distribution, the BSD licence is often quite acceptable.^ Sun will continue to work with licensees who want to distribute derivatives of Sun's implementations without the requirement in the GPL to contribute modifications back to the community.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Due to the inherent lack of limitations, BSD code can be incorporated into any other project, commercial or otherwise, removing a lot of the worries of licencing issues from code.^ Finally, developers who are combining code from permissive-licensed projects with code licensed under GPL or LGPL are encouraged to read the guidance on this issue that SFLC has published .
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If your project decides to unify copyrights, developers need not give up their rights to use that code in other projects, even proprietary ones!
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Second, you may not incorporate the Project Foo name or logo into the name or logo of your website, product, business or service.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Similarly, for those who endorse the licences such as the GPL for their ability to protect software freedoms, the BSD is looked upon as a step in the right direction, but not enough to guarantee said freedoms.^ Some copyleft advocates regard the AGPL as the next logical step toward software freedom.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ive had a look at their Alpha and its heading in the right direction.
  • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

^ As more and more software is delivered as a service instead of as copies of software packages, the Affero GPL can ensure that freedom endures even as distribution dwindles.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They often encourage the use of more GPL like licences for this reason.^ Although Project Foo can often stop a website like FooNews, it usually has no reason to do so.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In this case, if they see value in using Java technology to make their game platform more open to application developers, they would likely want to do so under a commercial license from Sun, which would protect their interests.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We’ve been looking around for a while and two of the very few systems that look like they could be worth spending more time with are ModX and Drupal .
  • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

BSD is usually accepted inside the companies. .The Apple Mac OS is based on the originally BSD - licensed operating system but with big parts of proprietary code.^ How can Sun have multiple licenses that bear on the same open-source code base?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How can we contribute changes made to the code under these licenses for inclusion in the OpenJDK code base?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How are the regression tests you have released as part of the buildable OpenJDK code base licensed?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

GPL

.The GNU General Public License is a free software license, created by the Free Software Foundation (FSF); version 2 was released in 1991. It is usually abbreviated to GNU GPL, or, simply, GPL. FSF recently announced that they have started work on version 3 of this license, and should be releasing the new version in the spring of 2007. The motivations for these changes have not been articulated yet, but based on a lecture by Richard Stallman held at New York's Cooper Union on November 29, 2005, the changes are related to the World Intellectual Property Organization's (WIPO) work on world copyright standardization.^ The GNU Affero General Public License, version 3 (AGPL), is a variant of GPLv3 published by the FSF in late 2007.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 2007 the FSF published GPL version 3 (GPLv3), the first update of the GPL since 1991.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Free Software Foundation acts as an umbrella organization for its projects.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The GPL protects the 3 main articles of software freedom as defined in the section on Software Freedom.^ As more and more software is delivered as a service instead of as copies of software packages, the Affero GPL can ensure that freedom endures even as distribution dwindles.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Software Freedom Law Center and the Free Software Foundation have helped us craft a special exception to the GPL, called the Assembly exception, to allow the full JDK to be built.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The GPL also contains a clause requiring publishers of GPL licensed programs, that make modifications to the software, to distribute that modification under the GPL. This is something that many company managers do not like because they want proprietary control on all code that was written in the company.^ Moreover, these licenses do not require source code distribution.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A: Because Sun owns the copyright for the open-source code base, Sun is able to license each copy of this code base distributed by Sun, under any license, including a commercial software license.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A: Implementations must be substantially derived from the OpenJDK source code and must be distributed under GPL which of course would be a requirement of any implementation making use of code from the OpenJDK code commons (except to the extent that Sun's use of the any license exceptions permits combinations of code under a different license).
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Even if the software is for internal use only and is never sold, the managers still want proprietary control to be sure that the software will not be used by a concurrent.^ If your project decides to unify copyrights, developers need not give up their rights to use that code in other projects, even proprietary ones!
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If there is a lot of objection to your policies, you might want to examine them and see if there are ways to allow use while still protecting the project’s name.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Projects might want to consider including directors that are not directly involved in the development of their software, but have free software project management or nonprofit organizational experience.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Trying to create the negative attitude, GPL oponents gave GPL the label "viral", since it apparently "infects" any code which it touches.^ Can I take my non-GPL code and combine it with the OpenJDK code base to create a combined work if I apply the Assembly exception to my code?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Affero GPL creates code distribution requirements for a class of people the FOSS world has traditionally treated more as end-users than developers.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Q: Can I take my non-GPL code and combine it with the OpenJDK code base to create a combined work if I apply the Assembly exception to my code?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From the other side, it is possible to say that GPL is tuned to support and even enforce the code sharing as much as possible.^ If your project decides to unify copyrights, developers need not give up their rights to use that code in other projects, even proprietary ones!
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Companies and individuals that write code and release it under GPL get access to the large amount of the existing code under GPL. That way they are rewarded for picking this license and probably can afford to experiment with GPL compatible business models that otherwise bring less direct profit than proprietary control on the code.^ The demo and sample code modules are released under the BSD license.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Can you relicense this code under the GPL? A: Where such licenses are compatible with the GPL, then this code is licensed under the GPL in the OpenJDK code base.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sun has released a license, called the OpenJDK Community TCK License which allows developers to run the Java SE TCKs on OpenJDK-based implementations that are distributed under the GPL. In developing this license, we've made certain that the terms under which we offer access to the Java SE TCKs are legally compatible with developers' obligations under the GPL. The same license terms are applicable both to testing individual components and complete implementations.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is not true that GPL is never accepted inside the companies: many companies have used software libraries under this license and did released all code that interacts with these libraries, as the license requires.^ Q: What license did you choose for Java ME? A: Java ME code is licensed under GPL v2, as are all of our Java implementations.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A: These components are licensed under GPL v2 only.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For the sake of simplicity, many projects release their documentation under the same license as their code.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This is how GNU gcc compiler have got C++ support, for instance. .It is also true that GPL seems one of most popular licenses in the world.^ One important copyright concept that originated in the world of FOSS licensing is “copyleft”.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We expect a GPL-licensed Developer Documentation bundle will be most attractive to distributors offering an OpenJDK-based implementation.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most of these differences and advantages stem from the wide acceptance of the GPL and the fact that it is the only license in common use that implements a strong copyleft.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However the most of the companies will likely first try to contact the authors of the GPL-covered software, asking to sell the "commercial" license.^ Even if you don’t choose the GPL, there are strong arguments for choosing a license that is understood to permit combination with GPL-licensed software (i.e., a license which the FSF, authors of the GPL, call “compatible”).
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cease-and-desist (or “demand”) letters are often the first contact a company will make with someone it believes has infringed its trademark rights.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Therefore, if people interact with your software in a way that does not require them to have a copy of it, most of the GPL’s source-code provision requirements do not apply.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

LGPL

.An important corner-case of the GPL requires that only GPL code can link with with GPL libraries, even if the library is contained in a separate file, and the code which uses it contains no GPL code unto itself.^ As of JavaOne 2008, the only remaining encumbrances are the sound engine, SNMP code, and a few data configuration files within the imaging APIs.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If your project decides to unify copyrights, developers need not give up their rights to use that code in other projects, even proprietary ones!
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No don’t even think of using the legacy plugin to run them.
  • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

.This is seen by some as too strict, since such an action could be considered a "use" of the library, not as a modification.^ They will typically describe the offending behavior and the applicable laws and penalties, and will demand some action on the part of the recipient (such as removing offending content from a website or product).
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Related business income is not considered in the public support test, which could be advantageous, since in the calculation of public support, as discussed above (where the numerator is “public support” and the denominator is all of the organization’s support), related business income is not included in either of the numerator or the denominator.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Here is a sample trademark policy that Project Foo could use to communicate some simple guidelines to its community about using their name and logo.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In order to allow for such a distinction, the LGPL was created. .The LGPL fixes precisely this problem: If someone uses an LGPL work as a library which is symbolically linked with a project, the rest of the project does not have to be put under the LGPL. On the other hand, if any modifications are made to the LGPL'ed work which are distributed along with the software package as a whole, the changes must be made public, similar to the rules of the GPL. The "L" in the LGPL stands for different things for different people.^ It is much like the GPL, but it allows distribution of works forming certain types of combinations with proprietary, closed-source software that are generally assumed to be impermissible under the ordinary GPL. In particular, the copyleft requirement in the LGPL does not extend to works that link against your work.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I use a couple of CMSs at work, for different clients.
  • Looking for open source CMS and portal software options | 456 Berea Street 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.456bereastreet.com [Source type: General]

^ Legal rules prohibit non-copyright holders from copying, modifying or distributing copyrighted works without permission from the copyright holder.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Initially it was considered as a "Library" licence, since the clause specifically dealt with issues of linking. .However, the GNU Foundation describes this as the "Lesser" GPL, since it gives fewer protections to the work than the GPL does.^ By contrast, the Apache License version 2.0 provides an explicit definition of “derivative work” that is narrower than the definition understood by the typical GPL licensor.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The vast majority of FOSS projects license their works under either a version of the GPL or a version of the GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL), which can be regarded as a more permissive variant of the GPL. .
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The GPL is endorsed by the Free Software Foundation, and is the license used by the GNU/Linux operating system.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While the GNU Foundation does not frown upon the use of the LGPL, it encourages the use of the GPL when possible.^ Finally, developers who are combining code from permissive-licensed projects with code licensed under GPL or LGPL are encouraged to read the guidance on this issue that SFLC has published .
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Using GPL v2 does not indicate anything negative about GPL v3.
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Q: Doesn't GPL v2 + Classpath exception offer very similar licensing terms to the LGPL? Why not use LGPL instead?
  • Free and Open Source Java - FAQ 6 January 2010 8:33 UTC www.sun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.LGPL makes a clear difference between the code that has been covered by this license (usually software library) and the external code that is just linked to the LGPL covered code.^ Finally, developers who are combining code from permissive-licensed projects with code licensed under GPL or LGPL are encouraged to read the guidance on this issue that SFLC has published .
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By choosing the same license as their peers in related projects, these developers make it easier to share code and create copyright policies that are standard throughout a development community.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is important for projects to understand the conditions in their licenses as well as those in the licenses of code they link to and code they incorporate into their project.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The external code can stay proprietary. However modifications inside the LGPL covered library must be shared with public.
.Companies usually find LGPL terms acceptable and it is common to find public libraries with this license inside the commercial software.^ The GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL) is sometimes classified as a weak copyleft.
  • A Legal Issues Primer for Open Source and Free Software Projects - Software Freedom Law Center 10 January 2010 10:46 UTC www.softwarefreedom.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A: This is the licensing paradigm