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The Paris Opéra, one of the world's most famous opera houses.
.Opera is an art form in which singers and musicians perform a dramatic work combining text (called a libretto) and musical score.^ Opera dance is the art and technique of the dancing when performing in an opera.
  • WikiAnswers - Opera Questions including "What is the opera La Boheme about" 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ What was Christian's music with the opera singers called?
  • WikiAnswers - Opera Questions including "What is the opera La Boheme about" 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ What do you call a solo opera singer?
  • WikiAnswers - Opera Questions including "What is the opera La Boheme about" 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

[1] .Opera is part of the Western classical music tradition.^ Meetup topics: Classical Music , Opera .
  • Opera Meetup Groups - Opera Meetups 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC opera.meetup.com [Source type: General]

^ RPO Novices and Lovers Listeners and appreciators of all music; Pops, Classical, Opera, instrumental, vocal, Jazz, Holiday, traditional or uniquely modern, etc.
  • Opera Meetup Groups - Opera Meetups 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC opera.meetup.com [Source type: General]

^ "You'll get a lot more than beautiful sounds in Opera Erratica and Classical Music Consort's production of Henry Purcell's 1689 opera Dido And Aeneas.

[2] .Opera incorporates many of the elements of spoken theatre, such as acting, scenery and costumes and sometimes includes dance.^ One of the many details he picks up on is Hansel’s love of dancing; in this happy opera everyone dances, even the animals!!

^ June 12, 1952, Waltham, Massachusetts A Quiet Place (incorporating Trouble in Tahiti), opera in three acts Libretto by Stephen Wadsworth after an original libretto by the composer.

^ Having incorporated the merits of many other local drama,Beijing Opera not only appeals to Chinese audiences but is warmly received by people all over the world.

.The performance is typically given in an opera house, accompanied by an orchestra or smaller musical ensemble.^ Typical Chinese musical instruments are used in a Beijing OPera orchestra.

^ Coast to Coast Tickets offers tickets to opera performances around the world, whether youre visiting Rome, Paris, Berlin or the opera house in your hometown.
  • Opera Tickets - Opera Schedules, Musical Shows - Opera Ticket Brokers 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC www.coasttocoasttickets.com [Source type: General]

^ The international jury is unparalleled, comprising representatives from the most important opera houses and festivals, artists’ managers, famous singers, directors and representatives from the media and from music academies.

.Opera started in Italy at the end of the 16th century (with Jacopo Peri's lost Dafne, produced in Florence around 1597) and soon spread through the rest of Europe: Schütz in Germany, Lully in France, and Purcell in England all helped to establish their national traditions in the 17th century.^ Early opera in France - Early opera in Germany and Austria .
  • opera (music) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: General]

^ Later opera in France - Later opera in Italy .
  • opera (music) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: General]

^ Meanwhile, opera was spreading from Italy to other parts of Europe.
  • Evolution of Opera [M.Tevfik Dorak] 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC dorakmt.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, in the 18th century, Italian opera continued to dominate most of Europe, except France, attracting foreign composers such as Handel.^ It became extremely popular and successful in the early years of the eighteenth century via the works of such composers as Pergolesi.
  • Evolution of Opera [M.Tevfik Dorak] 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC dorakmt.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The really big roles in the long, intense operas by composers such as those he names need huge strength to keep the voice going through to the end.
  • Do sexy opera singers sound the swansong for the fat lady? - Telegraph 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ His most famous work was Pagliacci, but he composed around a dozen operas, one being La Boheme, which premired after Puccini's...
  • WikiAnswers - Opera Questions including "What is the opera La Boheme about" 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

.Opera seria was the most prestigious form of Italian opera, until Gluck reacted against its artificiality with his "reform" operas in the 1760s.^ Even with the introduction of new instrumental forms, opera remained the most popular music of the 19th century.
  • Opera - The New York Times 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

^ Adolf Hasse was acknowledged as possibly the most eminent composer of the Metastasian kind of opera seria .
  • Evolution of Opera [M.Tevfik Dorak] 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC dorakmt.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Italian opera in the nineteenth century remained a 'number opera', and division of the drama into clear-cut smaller forms continued.
  • Evolution of Opera [M.Tevfik Dorak] 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC dorakmt.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Today the most renowned figure of late 18th century opera is Mozart, who began with opera seria but is most famous for his Italian comic operas, especially The Marriage of Figaro, Don Giovanni, and Così fan tutte, as well as The Magic Flute, a landmark in the German tradition.^ Who is the most famous opera singer in New Zealand?
  • WikiAnswers - Opera Questions including "What is the opera La Boheme about" 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ The role of Don Giovanni Mozart's opera is sung in what voice range?
  • WikiAnswers - Opera Questions including "What is the opera La Boheme about" 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ In Mozart’s operas, like “Le Nozze de Figaro” (The Marriage of Figaro) and “Don Giovanni,” the music for each character is distinct in tone and style from the other characters, and the action is reflected in the structure of the work.
  • Opera - The New York Times 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

.The first third of the 19th century saw the highpoint of the bel canto style, with Rossini, Donizetti and Bellini all creating works that are still performed today.^ In the early 19th century, Gioacchino Rossini and Gaetano Donizetti dominated Italian opera.
  • opera (music) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: General]

^ The first opera that is still performed, however, belongs to Claudio Monteverdi: La favola d'Orfeo , first staged at Mantua in 1607.
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^ This book explores every facet pf Parisian musical life in the glorious first half of the 19th century.
  • Classical Net - Books About Music - Opera 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC www.classical.net [Source type: General]

.It also saw the advent of Grand Opera typified by the works of Meyerbeer.^ Meyerbeer (1791-1864) maintained the grand opera tradition of Spontini .
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^ The pioneering productions of the 1970s and 80s conceived of this work in a very European way, as heavy "grand opera" using a very large orchestra.

.The mid to late 19th century was a "golden age" of opera, led and dominated by Wagner in Germany and Verdi in Italy.^ Though Adelina Patti was an excellent 19th century opera singer, the low frequency call of the humpback whale is the loudest...
  • WikiAnswers - Opera Questions including "What is the opera La Boheme about" 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ Even with the introduction of new instrumental forms, opera remained the most popular music of the 19th century.
  • Opera - The New York Times 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

^ It concluded a century that had seen Rossini’s comedies, the bel canto era, the grand operas and Verdi’s spectaculars.
  • Evolution of Opera [M.Tevfik Dorak] 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC dorakmt.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The popularity of opera continued through the verismo era in Italy and contemporary French opera through to Puccini and Strauss in the early 20th century.^ Opera in the first half of the 20th century continued to be influenced by the works of the Romantic era.
  • Opera - The New York Times 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

^ Romantic opera was based more on stereotyped musico -dramatic conventions, popular material and subjects drawn from contemporary life or recent history.
  • Evolution of Opera [M.Tevfik Dorak] 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC dorakmt.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It became extremely popular and successful in the early years of the eighteenth century via the works of such composers as Pergolesi.
  • Evolution of Opera [M.Tevfik Dorak] 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC dorakmt.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During the 19th century, parallel operatic traditions emerged in central and eastern Europe, particularly in Russia and Bohemia.^ Mozart's German singspiel The Magic Flute (1791) stands at the head of a German opera tradition that was developed in the 19th century by Beethoven , Weber , Heinrich Marschner and Wagner .
  • Opera - Discussion and Encyclopedia Article. Who is Opera? What is Opera? Where is Opera? Definition of Opera. Meaning of Opera. 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC www.knowledgerush.com [Source type: General]

.The 20th century saw many experiments with modern styles, such as atonality and serialism (Schoenberg and Berg), Neoclassicism (Stravinsky), and Minimalism (Philip Glass and John Adams).^ The later Baroque period saw the cultivation of several different operatic styles, including opera seria (serious opera) and opera buffa (comic opera).
  • Opera - The New York Times 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

^ Though the death of Puccini in 1924 is often cited as the end of grand opera, new and often experimental works—by composers such as Alban Berg , Benjamin Britten , Gian Carlo Menotti , John Adams , and Philip Glass —continued to be produced to critical acclaim.
  • opera (music) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: General]

^ Adams’ music, including his two “grand operas” written with poet Alice Goodman, have been called “post-minimalist” for the way they expand on the style pioneered by composers like Steve Reich and Philip Glass.

.With the rise of recording technology, singers such as Enrico Caruso became known to audiences beyond the circle of opera fans.^ Early/historical recordings of opera singers.
  • Famous Opera Singers. Opera Websites 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.zeroland.co.nz [Source type: Academic]

^ Opera singer fan pages.
  • Opera, Operas, a Directory 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.zeroland.co.nz [Source type: General]

^ E Early recordings of opera singers.
  • Opera, Operas, a Directory 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.zeroland.co.nz [Source type: General]

.Operas were also performed on (and written for) radio and television.^ Since Purcell produced Dido and Aeneas for Josias Priests girls school at Chelsea , no more beautiful opera for child performers has been written.
  • http://www.opera.hu/index_e.php?module=sajat/en/premierek 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC www.opera.hu [Source type: General]

^ "I saw in an American newspaper yeterday, that an opera, still unfinished, had been written on the story of 'The Scarlet Letter,' and that several scenes of it had been performed successfully in New York.
  • Opera versions of Nathaniel Hawthorne 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC www.eldritchpress.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ MetManiac Metropolitan Opera broadcasts database including a complete radio/television program list, message board, features, and schedules for future seasons.

Contents

Operatic terminology

.The words of an opera are known as the libretto (literally "little book").^ However, the words of the opera, or libretto , are sung rather than spoken.
  • Opera - Discussion and Encyclopedia Article. Who is Opera? What is Opera? Where is Opera? Definition of Opera. Meaning of Opera. 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC www.knowledgerush.com [Source type: General]

^ According to the original concept (which worked perfectly), The Little Sweep (libretto by Eric Crozier) was the third act of Lets Make an Opera!
  • http://www.opera.hu/index_e.php?module=sajat/en/premierek 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC www.opera.hu [Source type: General]

.Some composers, notably Richard Wagner, have written their own libretti; others have worked in close collaboration with their librettists, e.g.^ Flute was also a seminal work in the development of German music theater, which hardly existed, according to Richard Wagner, prior to the opera's premiere.
  • Virginia Opera: Current Operas: Don Giovanni 18 September 2009 7:55 UTC www.vaopera.org [Source type: General]

^ In 1854, some years before composing Tristan , new dimensions were opened in Wagners way of thinking after getting acquainted with Schopenhauers philosophy.
  • http://www.opera.hu/index_e.php?module=sajat/en/premierek 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC www.opera.hu [Source type: General]

^ Richard Strauss , who bridged the Romantic and modern eras, composed intense works that reflected the tremendous influence of Wagner.
  • Opera - The New York Times 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

.Mozart with Lorenzo Da Ponte.^ Cosi fan Tutte (1790) found Mozart working with da Ponte for the last time.
  • Virginia Opera: Current Operas: Don Giovanni 18 September 2009 7:55 UTC www.vaopera.org [Source type: General]

^ The music was composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart - born 1756 died 1791 and the libretto was written by Lorenzo da Ponte who was...
  • WikiAnswers - Opera Questions including "What is the opera La Boheme about" 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

.Traditional opera, often referred to as "number opera," consists of two modes of singing: recitative, the plot-driving passages sung in a style designed to imitate and emphasize the inflections of speech,[3] and aria (an "air" or formal song) in which the characters express their emotions in a more structured melodic style.^ The ‘Neapolitan’ opera became a series of arias connected by recitative passages.
  • Evolution of Opera [M.Tevfik Dorak] 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC dorakmt.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ LOOKING back at a year of magical performances I am amazed at the resilience of opera singers who sing at the top of their form despite the obstacles often thrown their way by directors and set designers.
  • Opera News - Topix 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC www.topix.com [Source type: General]

^ In Mozart’s operas, like “Le Nozze de Figaro” (The Marriage of Figaro) and “Don Giovanni,” the music for each character is distinct in tone and style from the other characters, and the action is reflected in the structure of the work.
  • Opera - The New York Times 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

.Duets, trios and other ensembles often occur, and choruses are used to comment on the action.^ Extensive use of ensembles and choruses stressing the collective nature of human emotion, .
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.In some forms of opera, such as Singspiel, opéra comique, operetta, and semi-opera, the recitative is mostly replaced by spoken dialogue.^ Depending on the weight of its subject matter, opera-comique shades into operetta , which, along with vaudeville gave rise to the musical comedy perfected in New York.
  • Opera - Discussion and Encyclopedia Article. Who is Opera? What is Opera? Where is Opera? Definition of Opera. Meaning of Opera. 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC www.knowledgerush.com [Source type: General]

^ In addition to composing symphonies at a tender age, he wrote his first operas while still a boy: La Finta Semplice , commissioned by the Emperor Josef II; and Bastien und Bastienne , a singspiel (German folk opera with spoken dialogue).
  • Virginia Opera: Current Operas: Don Giovanni 18 September 2009 7:55 UTC www.vaopera.org [Source type: General]

^ The dominance of recitatives (monody) in early opera was in contrast with the prevailing vocal forms of the time (choral, contrapuntal, polyphonic), and assured comprehensibility of the words.
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Melodic or semi-melodic passages occurring in the midst of, or instead of, recitative, are also referred to as arioso. .During the Baroque and Classical periods, recitative could appear in two basic forms: secco (dry) recitative, accompanied only by continuo, which was usually a harpsichord and a cello; or accompagnato (also known as strumentato) in which the orchestra provided accompaniment.^ Exclusive use of recitative accompanied by the orchestra ( recitativo accompagnato as opposed to recitativo secco ).
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^ The continuous sequence of linked numbers always had the orchestral support avoiding the unnaturalness of the change of texture when recitative had only harpsichord accompaniment, .
  • Evolution of Opera [M.Tevfik Dorak] 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC dorakmt.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By the 19th century, accompagnato had gained the upper hand, the orchestra played a much bigger role, and Richard Wagner revolutionised opera by abolishing almost all distinction between aria and recitative in his quest for what he termed "endless melody". Subsequent composers have tended to follow Wagner's example, though some, such as Stravinsky in his The Rake's Progress have bucked the trend.^ They had some rye on hand as an example.

^ In some countries a new generation is growing up that, thanks partly to its example, is prepared to accept opera and its conventions as a natural and familiar art.
  • http://www.opera.hu/index_e.php?module=sajat/en/premierek 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC www.opera.hu [Source type: General]

^ "I have always believed that opera is a planet where the muses work together, join hands and celebrate all the arts."
  • Paris Opera, Ballet & Contemporary Dance 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC www.discoverfrance.net [Source type: General]

The terminology of the various kinds of operatic voices is described in section 3 below.[4]

History

Origins

.The word opera means "work" in Italian (it is the plural of Latin opus meaning "work" or "labour") suggesting that it combines the arts of solo and choral singing, declamation, acting and dancing in a staged spectacle.^ To learn opera is to sing, act, to behave.
  • KI Media: Opera Singer Nurtures Cambodian Voice 20 November 2009 20:46 UTC ki-media.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ "I have always believed that opera is a planet where the muses work together, join hands and celebrate all the arts."
  • Paris Opera, Ballet & Contemporary Dance 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC www.discoverfrance.net [Source type: General]

^ Trained in Moscow, Italy and Berkeley, Khuon Sethisak , has been back in Cambodia since 2001 and has since worked steadily to bring opera to Cambodians—and help them sing.
  • KI Media: Opera Singer Nurtures Cambodian Voice 20 November 2009 20:46 UTC ki-media.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

.Dafne by Jacopo Peri was the earliest composition considered opera, as understood today.^ The very first opera is generally considered to be “Daphne,” composed in 1591 by Jacopo Peri (1561-1633).
  • Opera - The New York Times 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

.It was written around 1597, largely under the inspiration of an elite circle of literate Florentine humanists who gathered as the "Camerata de' Bardi". Significantly, Dafne was an attempt to revive the classical Greek drama, part of the wider revival of antiquity characteristic of the Renaissance.^ The very first opera Dafne (now lost, except the prologue and one aria) was written in 1597-8 by Peri and in 1600, he composed Euridice (some parts by Caccini ).
  • Evolution of Opera [M.Tevfik Dorak] 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC dorakmt.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gluck revived the serious approach to the arts, interest in classical -especially Greek- antiquity and a new feeling for nature and the natural.
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^ Thus, the early operas can be described as a collection of recitatives separated by occasional orchestral interludes and the aim was to revive Greek drama.
  • Evolution of Opera [M.Tevfik Dorak] 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC dorakmt.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The members of the Camerata considered that the "chorus" parts of Greek dramas were originally sung, and possibly even the entire text of all roles; opera was thus conceived as a way of "restoring" this situation.^ The only practical way to restore them if they are damaged is to reinstall Opera.
  • Opera : Java Glossary 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC mindprod.com [Source type: General]

^ FAST - all you need to do is install Opera, which is fairly small by the way.
  • DailyTech - Opera Releases 9.6 Browser 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

^ She has just returned from being a member of the Opera Theatre Centre of the Aspen Music Festival and School, where she covered the role of Donna Elvira.

Dafne is unfortunately lost. .A later work by Peri, Euridice, dating from 1600, is the first opera score to have survived to the present day.^ The first operas, Dafne by Jacopo Peri (1561–1633) in 1598 and by Giulio Caccini about the same time, are now lost; the earliest surviving opera is Peri’s Euridice (1600).
  • opera (music) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: General]

^ The Met seems to be attracting its share of controversy these days, first for opening with a non-traditional Tosca and more recently for the version in which it presented The Tales of Hoffmann .

^ The SSL support in Opera was my first assignment when I started working at Opera.
  • Opera Labs 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC labs.opera.com [Source type: General]

The honour of being the first opera still to be regularly performed, however, goes to Claudio Monteverdi's L'Orfeo, composed for the court of Mantua in 1607.[5]

Italian opera

The Baroque era

.Opera did not remain confined to court audiences for long; in 1637 the idea of a "season" (Carnival) of publicly-attended operas supported by ticket sales emerged in Venice.^ For information and tickets for the Dallas Opera's 2009-2010 season, call 214-443-1000 or go to www.dallasopera.org.

^ "As opera-lovers throughout the U.S. know, the recession has already made 2009 a difficult season for opera companies, and many companies of long-standing have closed their doors," Bradley said.

^ It wasn't credible: a quality that opera audiences have long been taught not to expect, still less demand.
  • Do sexy opera singers sound the swansong for the fat lady? - Telegraph 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

.Monteverdi had moved to the city from Mantua and composed his last operas, Il ritorno d'Ulisse in patria and L'incoronazione di Poppea, for the Venetian theatre in the 1640s.^ Recent and upcoming projects include Pluto in Monteverdi's Orfeo, Ottone in Monteverdi's L'Incoronazione di Poppea, and Thoas in Gluck's Iphigenie en Tauride.

^ Monteverdi’s work (“Orfeo,” “The Coronation of Poppea”) became a model for the operatic composers who followed and helped to bring opera to the masses, first in Venice and then throughout Europe.
  • Opera - The New York Times 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

^ Monteverdi's last two operas ( The Return of Ulysses and L'incoronazione di Poppea - the Coronation of Poppea ) and his student Cavalli's operas were written for Venice.
  • Evolution of Opera [M.Tevfik Dorak] 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC dorakmt.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.His most important follower Francesco Cavalli helped spread opera throughout Italy.^ Monteverdi’s work (“Orfeo,” “The Coronation of Poppea”) became a model for the operatic composers who followed and helped to bring opera to the masses, first in Venice and then throughout Europe.
  • Opera - The New York Times 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

^ Trained in Moscow, Italy and Berkeley, Khuon Sethisak , has been back in Cambodia since 2001 and has since worked steadily to bring opera to Cambodians—and help them sing.
  • KI Media: Opera Singer Nurtures Cambodian Voice 20 November 2009 20:46 UTC ki-media.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ This tradition was somehow restricted to Paris perhaps because the visual spectacle was so important in French opera but not so prominent in Italy.
  • Evolution of Opera [M.Tevfik Dorak] 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC dorakmt.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In these early Baroque operas, broad comedy was blended with tragic elements in a mix that jarred some educated sensibilities, sparking the first of opera's many reform movements, sponsored by Venice's Arcadian Academy which came to be associated with the poet Metastasio, whose libretti helped crystallize the genre of opera seria, which became the leading form of Italian opera until the end of the 18th century.^ A directory of Verdi operas: libretti, synopses, premiere dates and places, early singers.
  • Famous Opera Singers. Opera Websites 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.zeroland.co.nz [Source type: Academic]

^ The immediate predecessors of the opera were early semi-dramatic forms as the late sixteenth-century madrigals, madrigal cycles (madrigal comedies), the pastoral, the masque, and the intermedii all of which usually featured pastoral scenes and subjects.
  • Evolution of Opera [M.Tevfik Dorak] 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC dorakmt.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These and other related musicodramatic forms may or may not have become collateral ancestors of opera; their descent seems most certain in some 17th-century operas on religious subjects performed in Rome and at several places in Germany.
  • opera (music) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: General]

.Once the Metastasian ideal had been firmly established, comedy in Baroque-era opera was reserved for what came to be called opera buffa.^ It concluded a century that had seen Rossini’s comedies, the bel canto era, the grand operas and Verdi’s spectaculars.
  • Evolution of Opera [M.Tevfik Dorak] 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC dorakmt.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Illustration for title page of the 1774 Paris edition of Orfeo ed Euridice
.Before such elements were forced out of opera seria, many libretti had featured a separately unfolding comic plot as sort of an "opera-within-an-opera."^ The later Baroque period saw the cultivation of several different operatic styles, including opera seria (serious opera) and opera buffa (comic opera).
  • Opera - The New York Times 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

^ At the end of the seventeenth century, certain poets, under the influence of the French drama, advocated that opera librettos be purified: divested of comic scenes and supernatural or other implausible elements in the plot.
  • Evolution of Opera [M.Tevfik Dorak] 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC dorakmt.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Opera 10 expands on these features with Opera Turbo, a compression engine that Opera claims can compress data up to 80 percent before squeezing it through Opera's servers.
  • Opera - Free software downloads and software reviews - CNET Download.com 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC download.cnet.com [Source type: General]

.One reason for this was an attempt to attract members of the growing merchant class, newly wealthy, but still less cultured than the nobility, to the public opera houses.^ The operas of Strauss, Berg and Britten , for example, are enjoyed by modern audiences no less than some other ‘classic’ operas.
  • Evolution of Opera [M.Tevfik Dorak] 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC dorakmt.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The reason: the Dallas Arts District, with the Winspear Opera House and Wyly Theatre set to open in October.

^ Well, not really new, I've been part of the inventory at Opera for longer than most other team members Anyway, here's the latest snapshot.
  • Opera Desktop Team - Desktop Team - Posts tagged by "". 18 September 2009 7:55 UTC my.opera.com [Source type: General]

These separate plots were almost immediately resurrected in a separately developing tradition that partly derived from the commedia dell'arte, (as indeed, such plots had always been) a long-flourishing improvisatory stage tradition of Italy. .Just as intermedi had once been performed in-between the acts of stage plays, operas in the new comic genre of "intermezzi", which developed largely in Naples in the 1710s and '20s, were initially staged during the intermissions of opera seria.^ Opera in one act performed twice .
  • http://www.opera.hu/index_e.php?module=sajat/en/premierek 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC www.opera.hu [Source type: General]

^ As in a play, the characters act and there is staging.
  • WikiAnswers - Opera Questions including "What is the opera La Boheme about" 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ The change avoids competing with the Dallas Opera's planned May 2010 staging of Madame Butterfly at the Dallas Center for the Performing Arts Winspear Opera House.

They became so popular, however, that they were soon being offered as separate productions.
Opera seria was elevated in tone and highly stylised in form, usually consisting of secco recitative interspersed with long da capo arias. .These afforded great opportunity for virtuosic singing and during the golden age of opera seria the singer really became the star.^ Opera singers sing without Microphone,, we use our bodies and blood and of course intelligence...
  • KI Media: Opera Singer Nurtures Cambodian Voice 20 November 2009 20:46 UTC ki-media.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ Yes, I can sing local songs, but why should I? Opera is more for me and there is more to learn, I can see the local singers who sing Sin Sisamuth and stuffs..
  • KI Media: Opera Singer Nurtures Cambodian Voice 20 November 2009 20:46 UTC ki-media.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ Opera particularly frustrated because they have had so many opportunities to really capture mind share but tripped themselves over so many times.
  • Opera lashes out over Microsoft's browser removal | Beyond Binary - CNET News 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: General]

.The role of the hero was usually written for the castrato voice; castrati such as Farinelli and Senesino, as well as female sopranos such as Faustina Bordoni, became in great demand throughout Europe as opera seria ruled the stage in every country except France.^ Monteverdi’s work (“Orfeo,” “The Coronation of Poppea”) became a model for the operatic composers who followed and helped to bring opera to the masses, first in Venice and then throughout Europe.
  • Opera - The New York Times 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

^ The really big roles in the long, intense operas by composers such as those he names need huge strength to keep the voice going through to the end.
  • Do sexy opera singers sound the swansong for the fat lady? - Telegraph 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Who are well-known Black female opera singers?
  • WikiAnswers - Opera Questions including "What is the opera La Boheme about" 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

.Indeed, Farinelli was the most famous singer of the 18th century.^ Who is the most famous opera singer in New Zealand?
  • WikiAnswers - Opera Questions including "What is the opera La Boheme about" 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ By the 18th century opera had become the most widely cultivated musical form, with most major composers contributing to the repertory.
  • Opera - The New York Times 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

.Italian opera set the Baroque standard.^ By the late Baroque period, Italian opera had become a series of overly wrought arias designed to display the talents of superstar singers.
  • Opera - The New York Times 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

^ Luciano Pavarotti , the Italian singer whose ringing, pristine sound set a standard for operatic tenors of the post-World War II era.
  • Opera - The New York Times 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

^ The Verdi opera is set to an Italian adaptation (much abbreviated, necessarily) of Shakespeare's tragedy.

.Italian libretti were the norm, even when a German composer like Handel found himself writing for London audiences.^ Britten himself often worked outside opera’s conventional boundaries, writing operas for children, for the church, and even for television.
  • Opera - The New York Times 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

.Italian libretti remained dominant in the classical period as well, for example in the operas of Mozart, who wrote in Vienna near the century's close.^ By the late Baroque period, Italian opera had become a series of overly wrought arias designed to display the talents of superstar singers.
  • Opera - The New York Times 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

^ General Opera & Vocal Music Language Opera & Vocal Music Historical Periods Opera & Vocal Music Search Again close close close .
  • American Opera Singers - Shop Smarter.com 23 September 2009 0:00 UTC www.smarter.com [Source type: General]

.Leading Italian-born composers of opera seria include Alessandro Scarlatti, Vivaldi and Porpora.^ Traditionally, the founding of Neopolitan Opera is attributed to Alessandro Scarlatti (1660-1725), and he certainly was one of...
  • WikiAnswers - Opera Questions including "What is the opera La Boheme about" 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ Mark Adamo (born 1962) is an Italian American composer and librettist born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

[6]

Reform: Gluck, the attack on the Metastasian ideal, and Mozart

Opera seria had its weaknesses and critics. The taste for embellishment on behalf of the superbly trained singers, and the use of spectacle as a replacement for dramatic purity and unity drew attacks. .Francesco Algarotti's Essay on the Opera (1755) proved to be an inspiration for Christoph Willibald Gluck's reforms.^ The most important reformer during the Classical era was Christoph Willibald von Gluck (1714-87).
  • Opera - The New York Times 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

^ Related Topix: Arts , Opera , Tarpon Springs, FL , Christoph Willibald Gluck , Indie , Orpheus .
  • Opera News - Topix 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC www.topix.com [Source type: General]

.He advocated that opera seria had to return to basics and that all the various elements —music (both instrumental and vocal), ballet, and staging— must be subservient to the overriding drama.^ The drop down box in the middle of the page allows you to drill down to the "Opera" and "Vocal/Choral" sublistings, both of which have on-topic content.
  • Operacast - Opera Stations 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC www.operacast.com [Source type: Academic]

^ But on that same trip I was in seats at a German opera house that cut off too much from the ballet stage, and I remember not being at all happy.

^ Even with the introduction of new instrumental forms, opera remained the most popular music of the 19th century.
  • Opera - The New York Times 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

.Several composers of the period, including Niccolò Jommelli and Tommaso Traetta, attempted to put these ideals into practice.^ The later Baroque period saw the cultivation of several different operatic styles, including opera seria (serious opera) and opera buffa (comic opera).
  • Opera - The New York Times 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

^ All the practical tips in the story are good, but I found it useful to put each album (or sometimes group of album) on a playlist, and organize the playlists into folders.

.The first to really succeed and to leave a permanent imprint upon the history of opera, however, was Gluck.^ Our first step in realizing this new world was taken with the launch of Opera Platform, the first mobile AJAX framework.
  • Opera Labs 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC labs.opera.com [Source type: General]

^ However, the opera itself is not a stage adaptation of the novel, but a story consisting of episodes which are partly real, partly ones that could have happened.
  • http://www.opera.hu/index_e.php?module=sajat/en/premierek 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC www.opera.hu [Source type: General]

.Gluck tried to achieve a "beautiful simplicity". This is illustrated in the first of his "reform" operas, Orfeo ed Euridice, where vocal lines lacking in the virtuosity of (say) Handel's works are supported by simple harmonies and a notably richer-than-usual orchestral presence throughout.^ The SSL support in Opera was my first assignment when I started working at Opera.
  • Opera Labs 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC labs.opera.com [Source type: General]

^ Slide Show ‘Orfeo ed Euridice’ .
  • Opera - The New York Times 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

^ Orfeo ed Euridice (Christoph Gluck) .
  • Czech Opera: Prague Opera 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC www.czechopera.cz [Source type: General]

Gluck's reforms have had resonance throughout operatic history. Weber, Mozart and Wagner, in particular, were influenced by his ideals. .Mozart, in many ways Gluck's successor, combined a superb sense of drama, harmony, melody, and counterpoint to write a series of comedies, notably Così fan tutte, The Marriage of Figaro, and Don Giovanni (in collaboration with Lorenzo Da Ponte) which remain among the most-loved, popular and well-known operas today.^ The role of Don Giovanni Mozart's opera is sung in what voice range?
  • WikiAnswers - Opera Questions including "What is the opera La Boheme about" 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ In Mozart’s operas, like “Le Nozze de Figaro” (The Marriage of Figaro) and “Don Giovanni,” the music for each character is distinct in tone and style from the other characters, and the action is reflected in the structure of the work.
  • Opera - The New York Times 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

^ The music was composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart - born 1756 died 1791 and the libretto was written by Lorenzo da Ponte who was...
  • WikiAnswers - Opera Questions including "What is the opera La Boheme about" 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

.But Mozart's contribution to opera seria was more mixed; by his time it was dying away, and in spite of such fine works as Idomeneo and La clemenza di Tito, he would not succeed in bringing the art form back to life again.^ Trained in Moscow, Italy and Berkeley, Khuon Sethisak , has been back in Cambodia since 2001 and has since worked steadily to bring opera to Cambodians—and help them sing.
  • KI Media: Opera Singer Nurtures Cambodian Voice 20 November 2009 20:46 UTC ki-media.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ Normally it will work fine, unless your employer has blocked access to Opera Unite.
  • Opera Unite frequently asked questions 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC unite.opera.com [Source type: General]

^ No more bookmark backing-up and settings every time Opera is installed...
  • Opera Desktop Team - Opera Link explained 18 September 2009 7:55 UTC my.opera.com [Source type: General]

[7]

Bel canto, Verdi and verismo

Giuseppe Verdi, by Giovanni Boldini, 1886 (National Gallery of Modern Art, Rome)
.The bel canto opera movement flourished in the early 19th century and is exemplified by the operas of Rossini, Bellini, Donizetti, Pacini, Mercadante and many others.^ It was originated in the early 19th century and was used...
  • WikiAnswers - Opera Questions including "What is the opera La Boheme about" 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ Who composed the bel canto opera?
  • WikiAnswers - Opera Questions including "What is the opera La Boheme about" 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ These newer composers, led by Benjamin Britten (1913-76) , breathed new life into opera by judiciously integrating other 20th-century movements into the established art form.
  • Opera - The New York Times 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

.Literally "beautiful singing", bel canto opera derives from the Italian stylistic singing school of the same name.^ Bel canto is a style or method of opera singing, not an opera per se.
  • WikiAnswers - Opera Questions including "What is the opera La Boheme about" 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ Who composed the bel canto opera?
  • WikiAnswers - Opera Questions including "What is the opera La Boheme about" 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ Lots of operas to Italian librettos Italianize names we know in other guises.

Bel canto lines are typically florid and intricate, requiring supreme agility and pitch control.
.Following the bel canto era, a more direct, forceful style was rapidly popularized by Giuseppe Verdi, beginning with his biblical opera Nabucco.^ Bel canto is a style or method of opera singing, not an opera per se.
  • WikiAnswers - Opera Questions including "What is the opera La Boheme about" 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ Who composed the bel canto opera?
  • WikiAnswers - Opera Questions including "What is the opera La Boheme about" 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ In Italy, Gioacchino Antonio Rossini (1792-1868) introduced a new style known as bel canto (literally “beautiful singing”).
  • Opera - The New York Times 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

.Verdi's operas resonated with the growing spirit of Italian nationalism in the post-Napoleonic era, and he quickly became an icon of the patriotic movement (although his own politics were perhaps not quite so radical).^ Luciano Pavarotti , the Italian singer whose ringing, pristine sound set a standard for operatic tenors of the post-World War II era.
  • Opera - The New York Times 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

^ Posted by opera chic on January 10, 2010 at 03:07 PM in Italian Culture , Milan Fashion .

^ The Verdi opera is set to an Italian adaptation (much abbreviated, necessarily) of Shakespeare's tragedy.

.In the early 1850s, Verdi produced his three most popular operas: Rigoletto, Il trovatore and La traviata.^ Even with the introduction of new instrumental forms, opera remained the most popular music of the 19th century.
  • Opera - The New York Times 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

^ E-mail entry The entry "LA Opera postpones 'Il Postino' world premiere" has no entry tags.

^ Patricia Racette tackles all three leading female roles in Jack OBriens staging of Puccinis Il Trittico at the Metropolitan Opera.
  • Opera - The New York Times 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

.But he continued to develop his style, composing perhaps the greatest French Grand Opera, Don Carlos, and ending his career with two Shakespeare-inspired works, Otello and Falstaff, which reveal how far Italian opera had grown in sophistication since the early 19th century.^ It was originated in the early 19th century and was used...
  • WikiAnswers - Opera Questions including "What is the opera La Boheme about" 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ In Mozart’s operas, like “Le Nozze de Figaro” (The Marriage of Figaro) and “Don Giovanni,” the music for each character is distinct in tone and style from the other characters, and the action is reflected in the structure of the work.
  • Opera - The New York Times 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

^ Like Enrico Caruso and Jenny Lind before him, Mr. Pavarotti extended his presence far beyond the limits of Italian opera.
  • Opera - The New York Times 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

After Verdi, the sentimental "realistic" melodrama of verismo appeared in Italy. .This was a style introduced by Pietro Mascagni's Cavalleria rusticana and Ruggero Leoncavallo's Pagliacci that came virtually to dominate the world's opera stages with such popular works as Giacomo Puccini's La bohème, Tosca, and Madama Butterfly.^ One of Puccini's best known operas, if not "the" best known, is Madama Butterfly.
  • WikiAnswers - Opera Questions including "What is the opera La Boheme about" 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ Giacomo Puccini (1858-1924) , with works like “Tosca,” “La Boheme,” “Madama Butterfly” and “Turandot,” continued the Italian grand opera tradition of Verdi and Rossini.
  • Opera - The New York Times 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

^ The change avoids competing with the Dallas Opera's planned May 2010 staging of Madame Butterfly at the Dallas Center for the Performing Arts Winspear Opera House.

Later Italian composers, such as Berio and Nono, have experimented with modernism.[8]

German-language opera

Illustration inspired by Wagner's music drama Das Rheingold
Richard Wagner in 1871
.The first German opera was Dafne, composed by Heinrich Schütz in 1627 (the music has not survived).^ By the 18th century opera had become the most widely cultivated musical form, with most major composers contributing to the repertory.
  • Opera - The New York Times 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

^ These first operas did not yet fully integrate music and drama.
  • Opera - The New York Times 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

^ In the first act the children decide to compose an opera, which they rehearse in the second act and perform in the third.
  • http://www.opera.hu/index_e.php?module=sajat/en/premierek 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC www.opera.hu [Source type: General]

.Italian opera held a great sway over German-speaking countries until the late 18th century.^ By the late Baroque period, Italian opera had become a series of overly wrought arias designed to display the talents of superstar singers.
  • Opera - The New York Times 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

^ Opera is loved around the world despite the fact that it's mostly sung in Italian or sometimes German.
  • KI Media: Opera Singer Nurtures Cambodian Voice 20 November 2009 20:46 UTC ki-media.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ By the 18th century opera had become the most widely cultivated musical form, with most major composers contributing to the repertory.
  • Opera - The New York Times 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

Nevertheless, native forms developed too. .In 1644 Sigmund Staden produced the first Singspiel, a popular form of German-language opera in which singing alternates with spoken dialogue.^ In Italy, however, this movement was not in the spoken word but rather in a new form that combined drama with music — opera.
  • Opera - The New York Times 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

^ Even with the introduction of new instrumental forms, opera remained the most popular music of the 19th century.
  • Opera - The New York Times 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

^ Who was the first black American male to sing in a leading role at the Metropolitan Opera?
  • WikiAnswers - Opera Questions including "What is the opera La Boheme about" 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

.In the late 17th and early 18th centuries, the Theater am Gänsemarkt in Hamburg presented German operas by Keiser, Telemann and Handel.^ Europe in the 17th century was host to a great rise in dramatic theater.
  • Opera - The New York Times 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

^ By the 18th century opera had become the most widely cultivated musical form, with most major composers contributing to the repertory.
  • Opera - The New York Times 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

^ Claudio Monteverdi (1567-1643) contributed more to the development of the opera form in the 17th century than anyone else.
  • Opera - The New York Times 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

.Yet many of the major German composers of the time, including Handel himself, as well as Graun, Hasse and later Gluck, chose to write most of their operas in foreign languages, especially Italian.^ His most famous work was Pagliacci, but he composed around a dozen operas, one being La Boheme, which premired after Puccini's...
  • WikiAnswers - Opera Questions including "What is the opera La Boheme about" 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ The piece was composed from a German-language libretto, but it is linked with Hungarian history and culture in many ways.
  • http://www.opera.hu/index_e.php?module=sajat/en/premierek 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC www.opera.hu [Source type: General]

^ Are there translations of the Italian opera La Traviata in any other languages than English?
  • WikiAnswers - Opera Questions including "What is the opera La Boheme about" 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

Mozart's Singspiele, Die Entführung aus dem Serail (1782) and Die Zauberflöte (1791) were an important breakthrough in achieving international recognition for German opera. The tradition was developed in the 19th century by Beethoven with his Fidelio, inspired by the climate of the French Revolution. .Carl Maria von Weber established German Romantic opera in opposition to the dominance of Italian bel canto.^ Who composed the bel canto opera?
  • WikiAnswers - Opera Questions including "What is the opera La Boheme about" 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ Bel canto is a style or method of opera singing, not an opera per se.
  • WikiAnswers - Opera Questions including "What is the opera La Boheme about" 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ Opera is loved around the world despite the fact that it's mostly sung in Italian or sometimes German.
  • KI Media: Opera Singer Nurtures Cambodian Voice 20 November 2009 20:46 UTC ki-media.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

His Der Freischütz (1821) shows his genius for creating a supernatural atmosphere. .Other opera composers of the time include Marschner, Schubert, Schumann and Lortzing, but the most significant figure was undoubtedly Wagner.^ His most famous work was Pagliacci, but he composed around a dozen operas, one being La Boheme, which premired after Puccini's...
  • WikiAnswers - Opera Questions including "What is the opera La Boheme about" 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ I don't think you're able to compete with other global opera singers as you have surmised, but time will tell.
  • KI Media: Opera Singer Nurtures Cambodian Voice 20 November 2009 20:46 UTC ki-media.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ Other major works include his most ambitious opera, Athaliah (libretto: Richard Frank Goldman, after Jean Racine), and his often-performed Six Characters in Search of an Author (libretto: Denis Johnston, after Luigi Pirandello).

.Wagner was one of the most revolutionary and controversial composers in musical history.^ His most famous work was Pagliacci, but he composed around a dozen operas, one being La Boheme, which premired after Puccini's...
  • WikiAnswers - Opera Questions including "What is the opera La Boheme about" 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ By the 18th century opera had become the most widely cultivated musical form, with most major composers contributing to the repertory.
  • Opera - The New York Times 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

.Starting under the influence of Weber and Meyerbeer, he gradually evolved a new concept of opera as a Gesamtkunstwerk (a "complete work of art"), a fusion of music, poetry and painting.^ In Italy, however, this movement was not in the spoken word but rather in a new form that combined drama with music — opera.
  • Opera - The New York Times 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

^ Even with the introduction of new instrumental forms, opera remained the most popular music of the 19th century.
  • Opera - The New York Times 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

^ The SSL support in Opera was my first assignment when I started working at Opera.
  • Opera Labs 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC labs.opera.com [Source type: General]

.In his mature music dramas, Tristan und Isolde, Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg, Der Ring des Nibelungen and Parsifal, he abolished the distinction between aria and recitative in favour of a seamless flow of "endless melody". He greatly increased the role and power of the orchestra, creating scores with a complex web of leitmotivs, recurring themes often associated with the characters and concepts of the drama; and he was prepared to violate accepted musical conventions, such as tonality, in his quest for greater expressivity.^ Wagner’s operas, most notably “Tristan und Isolde” and the four-opera cycle “Der Ring des Nibelungen,” pushed the boundaries of traditional tonality and impelled the art form to a larger scale.
  • Opera - The New York Times 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

^ He helped create a world class training orchestra at the Schleswig Holstein Music Festival.

^ He established the fully sung aria (in place of the earlier recitative) and used a larger and richer-sounding orchestra.
  • Opera - The New York Times 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

.Wagner also brought a new philosophical dimension to opera in his works, which were usually based on stories from Germanic or Arthurian legend.^ Is the popular opera 'Aida' based on a true story?
  • WikiAnswers - Opera Questions including "What is the opera La Boheme about" 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ After six performances here, it will go on to the four other companies co-commissioning the new work: San Francisco Opera, San Diego Opera, Calgary Opera and the Australian company.

^ A new production of Wagner’s opera opened at the National Theater in Munich.
  • Opera - The New York Times 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

.Finally, Wagner built his own opera house at Bayreuth, exclusively dedicated to performing his own works in the style he wanted.^ Those who attended last Friday's opening-night performance of The Nutcracker at the Winspear Opera House could not help but notice that the music was canned, not live.

^ The change avoids competing with the Dallas Opera's planned May 2010 staging of Madame Butterfly at the Dallas Center for the Performing Arts Winspear Opera House.

^ E-mail entry The entry "ATTPAC Winspear Opera House entrance congestion" is tagged: AT&T Performing Arts Center , Spencer de Grey , Winspear Opera House .

.Opera would never be the same after Wagner and for many composers his legacy proved a heavy burden.^ Can you imagin how many people you would need to be in one opera show?
  • KI Media: Opera Singer Nurtures Cambodian Voice 20 November 2009 20:46 UTC ki-media.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

On the other hand, Richard Strauss accepted Wagnerian ideas but took them in wholly new directions. He first won fame with the scandalous Salome and the dark tragedy Elektra, in which tonality was pushed to the limits. .Then Strauss changed tack in his greatest success, Der Rosenkavalier, where Mozart and Viennese waltzes became as important an influence as Wagner.^ Richard Strauss , who bridged the Romantic and modern eras, composed intense works that reflected the tremendous influence of Wagner.
  • Opera - The New York Times 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

.Strauss continued to produce a highly varied body of operatic works, often with libretti by the poet Hugo von Hofmannsthal, right up until Capriccio in 1942. Other composers who made individual contributions to German opera in the early 20th century include Zemlinsky, Hindemith, Kurt Weill and the Italian-born Ferruccio Busoni.^ Opera in the first half of the 20th century continued to be influenced by the works of the Romantic era.
  • Opera - The New York Times 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

^ Who composed the bel canto opera?
  • WikiAnswers - Opera Questions including "What is the opera La Boheme about" 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ The music was composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart - born 1756 died 1791 and the libretto was written by Lorenzo da Ponte who was...
  • WikiAnswers - Opera Questions including "What is the opera La Boheme about" 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

The operatic innovations of Arnold Schoenberg and his successors are discussed in the section on modernism.[9]

French opera

Scene from the original, 1885 production of Jules Massenet's Le Cid.
.In rivalry with imported Italian opera productions, a separate French tradition was founded by the Italian Jean-Baptiste Lully at the court of King Louis XIV.^ Notable during this period were the composer Jean-Baptiste Lully in France and the nearly 50 powerful operas by George Frederick Handel , among them “Rinaldo,” “Giulio Cesare” (Julius Caesar) and “Orlando.” .
  • Opera - The New York Times 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

.Despite his foreign origin, Lully established an Academy of Music and monopolised French opera from 1672. Starting with Cadmus et Hermione, Lully and his librettist Quinault created tragédie en musique, a form in which dance music and choral writing were particularly prominent.^ In Italy, however, this movement was not in the spoken word but rather in a new form that combined drama with music — opera.
  • Opera - The New York Times 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

^ By ALLAN KOZINN Philip Glass’s weighty and tangled opera, “Kepler,” which arrived at the Brooklyn Academy of Music on Wednesday, examines the relationship between science and religion.
  • Opera - The New York Times 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

^ Even with the introduction of new instrumental forms, opera remained the most popular music of the 19th century.
  • Opera - The New York Times 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

Lully's operas also show a concern for expressive recitative which matched the contours of the French language. .In the 18th century, Lully's most important successor was Jean-Philippe Rameau, who composed five tragédies en musique as well as numerous works in other genres such as opéra-ballet, all notable for their rich orchestration and harmonic daring.^ The Beta improves on all of those features with more widgets, better handling of Rich Text and several notable bug fixes.
  • Opera Labs 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC labs.opera.com [Source type: General]

^ I've always said the most important person in an opera company is the one who will just say "no" to directors' loonier ideas.

^ Richard Strauss , who bridged the Romantic and modern eras, composed intense works that reflected the tremendous influence of Wagner.
  • Opera - The New York Times 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

.After Rameau's death, the German Gluck was persuaded to produce six operas for the Parisian stage in the 1770s.^ But on that same trip I was in seats at a German opera house that cut off too much from the ballet stage, and I remember not being at all happy.

^ By ALASTAIR MACAULAY Sex and death abound as themes in Christopher Wheeldon’s choreography, part of the Metropolitan Opera’s staging of Bizet’s “Carmen.” .
  • Opera - The New York Times 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

They show the influence of Rameau, but simplified and with greater focus on the drama. .At the same time, by the middle of the 18th century another genre was gaining popularity in France: opéra comique.^ Sure...but when transferring page to another server takes time and end result is the same.
  • Opera Desktop Team - Opera Turbo Labs release 18 September 2009 7:55 UTC my.opera.com [Source type: General]

This was the equivalent of the German singspiel, where arias alternated with spoken dialogue. Notable examples in this style were produced by Monsigny, Philidor and, above all, Grétry. During the Revolutionary period, composers such as Méhul and Cherubini, who were followers of Gluck, brought a new seriousness to the genre, which had never been wholly "comic" in any case.
.By the 1820s, Gluckian influence in France had given way to a taste for Italian bel canto, especially after the arrival of Rossini in Paris.^ In Italy, Gioacchino Antonio Rossini (1792-1868) introduced a new style known as bel canto (literally “beautiful singing”).
  • Opera - The New York Times 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

.Rossini's Guillaume Tell helped found the new genre of Grand Opera, a form whose most famous exponent was another foreigner, Giacomo Meyerbeer.^ In Italy, however, this movement was not in the spoken word but rather in a new form that combined drama with music — opera.
  • Opera - The New York Times 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

^ Even with the introduction of new instrumental forms, opera remained the most popular music of the 19th century.
  • Opera - The New York Times 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

^ Characteristic of the new Romantic opera was the French grand opra.
  • Opera - The New York Times 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

Meyerbeer's works, such as Les Huguenots emphasised virtuoso singing and extraordinary stage effects. Lighter opéra comique also enjoyed tremendous success in the hands of Boïeldieu, Auber, Hérold and Adolphe Adam. .In this climate, the operas of the French-born composer Hector Berlioz struggled to gain a hearing.^ This type of work — like Hector Berlioz ’s epic “Les Troyens” — was not only longer in duration than previous French opera, but also employed more musicians, more artists, more stagehands and more technicians.
  • Opera - The New York Times 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

^ November 11, 2009 MORE ON OPERA AND: VALENCIA (SPAIN) , BERLIOZ, HECTOR Lover of Birds and Opera Leaves Millions to Both .
  • Opera - The New York Times 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

.Berlioz's epic masterpiece Les Troyens, the culmination of the Gluckian tradition, was not given a full performance for almost a hundred years.^ This type of work — like Hector Berlioz ’s epic “Les Troyens” — was not only longer in duration than previous French opera, but also employed more musicians, more artists, more stagehands and more technicians.
  • Opera - The New York Times 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

.In the second half of the 19th century, Jacques Offenbach created operetta with witty and cynical works such as Orphée aux enfers, as well as the opera Les Contes d'Hoffmann; Charles Gounod scored a massive success with Faust; and Bizet composed Carmen, which, once audiences learned to accept its blend of Romanticism and realism, became the most popular of all opéra comiques.^ What is the story of Carmen the opera by Bizet?
  • WikiAnswers - Opera Questions including "What is the opera La Boheme about" 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ Though Adelina Patti was an excellent 19th century opera singer, the low frequency call of the humpback whale is the loudest...
  • WikiAnswers - Opera Questions including "What is the opera La Boheme about" 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ Operas are available on a scaled uncompressed Real Player stereo 96K stream (the stream is better fidelity than most of the streams we list for the stations that carry the NPR broadcasts).
  • Operacast - Opera Stations 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC www.operacast.com [Source type: Academic]

Massenet, Saint-Saëns and Delibes all composed works which are still part of the standard repertory. At the same time, the influence of Richard Wagner was felt as a challenge to the French tradition. Many French critics angrily rejected Wagner's music dramas while many French composers closely imitated them with variable success. Perhaps the most interesting response came from Claude Debussy. .As in Wagner's works, the orchestra plays a leading role in Debussy's unique opera Pelléas et Mélisande (1902) and there are no real arias, only recitative.^ For a long while there had been no obvious reason to to upgrade, since Real One offered no improvements or upgrades to their audio formats, as Version 8 did over versions 6/7.
  • Operacast - Opera Stations 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC www.operacast.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There was something really special about their playing right from the start, and I was hoping to hear them again.

^ What finally got me hooked was realizing that it was great for short works -- lieder, arias, etc.

But the drama is understated, enigmatic and completely unWagnerian.
Other notable 20th century names include Ravel, Dukas, Roussel and Milhaud. .Francis Poulenc is one of the very few post-war composers of any nationality whose operas (which include Dialogues des carmélites) have gained a foothold in the international repertory.^ Luciano Pavarotti , the Italian singer whose ringing, pristine sound set a standard for operatic tenors of the post-World War II era.
  • Opera - The New York Times 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

^ His most famous work was Pagliacci, but he composed around a dozen operas, one being La Boheme, which premired after Puccini's...
  • WikiAnswers - Opera Questions including "What is the opera La Boheme about" 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ Major national and international publications were well represented at Friday's opening performance of the Dallas Opera's "Otello."

Olivier Messiaen's lengthy sacred drama Saint François d'Assise (1983) has also attracted widespread attention.[10]

English-language opera

.In England, opera's antecedent was the 17th century jig.^ Claudio Monteverdi (1567-1643) contributed more to the development of the opera form in the 17th century than anyone else.
  • Opera - The New York Times 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

This was an afterpiece which came at the end of a play. It was frequently libellous and scandalous and consisted in the main of dialogue set to music arranged from popular tunes. In this respect, jigs anticipate the ballad operas of the 18th century. .At the same time, the French masque was gaining a firm hold at the English Court, with even more lavish splendour and highly realistic scenery than had been seen before.^ While the show doesn't work entirely, I found it more interesting than the other MBS shows I have seen.

Inigo Jones became the quintessential designer of these productions, and this style was to dominate the English stage for three centuries. These masques contained songs and dances. In Ben Jonson's Lovers Made Men (1617), "the whole masque was sung after the Italian manner, stilo recitativo".[11]
The approach of the English Commonwealth closed theatres and halted any developments that may have led to the establishment of English opera. However, in 1656, the dramatist Sir William Davenant produced The Siege of Rhodes. Since his theatre was not licensed to produce drama, he asked several of the leading composers (Lawes, Cooke, Locke, Coleman and Hudson) to set sections of it to music. This success was followed by The Cruelty of the Spaniards in Peru (1658) and The History of Sir Francis Drake (1659). These pieces were encouraged by Oliver Cromwell because they were critical of Spain. With the English Restoration, foreign (especially French) musicians were welcomed back. In 1673, Thomas Shadwell's Psyche, patterned on the 1671 'comédie-ballet' of the same name produced by Molière and Jean-Baptiste Lully. .William Davenant produced The Tempest in the same year, which was the first musical adaption of a Shakespeare play (composed by Locke and Johnson).^ I hate it that Dallas Chamber Music has scheduled the Ying Quartet's concert on the same evening as the first performance of the Dallas Opera's "Italian Girl in Algiers."

[11] .About 1683, John Blow composed Venus and Adonis, often thought of as the first true English-language opera.^ Are there translations of the Italian opera La Traviata in any other languages than English?
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^ WikiAnswers - Opera Questions including "What is the opera La Boheme about" English▼ English▼ Deutsch Español Français Italiano Tagalog Search unanswered questions...
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Blow's immediate successor was the better known Henry Purcell. .Despite the success of his masterwork Dido and Aeneas (1689), in which the action is furthered by the use of Italian-style recitative, much of Purcell's best work was not involved in the composing of typical opera, but instead he usually worked within the constraints of the semi-opera format, where isolated scenes and masques are contained within the structure of a spoken play, such as Shakespeare in Purcell's The Fairy-Queen (1692) and Beaumont and Fletcher in The Prophetess (1690) and Bonduca (1696).^ In Mozart’s operas, like “Le Nozze de Figaro” (The Marriage of Figaro) and “Don Giovanni,” the music for each character is distinct in tone and style from the other characters, and the action is reflected in the structure of the work.
  • Opera - The New York Times 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

^ This new style of opera featured complex and ornate melodic lines (which vocalists could ornament at will), simple harmonic structure and musical numbers that combined to make composite scenes.
  • Opera - The New York Times 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

^ To excel at foreign styles like opera adds richness to the local scene - and takes nothing away.
  • KI Media: Opera Singer Nurtures Cambodian Voice 20 November 2009 20:46 UTC ki-media.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

The main characters of the play tend not to be involved in the musical scenes, which means that Purcell was rarely able to develop his characters through song. Despite these hindrances, his aim (and that of his collaborator John Dryden) was to establish serious opera in England, but these hopes ended with Purcell's early death at the age of 36.
Following Purcell, the popularity of opera in England dwindled for several decades. A revived interest in opera occurred in the 1730s which is largely attributed to Thomas Arne, both for his own compositions and for alerting Handel to the commercial possibilities of large-scale works in English. .Arne was the first English composer to experiment with Italian-style all-sung comic opera, with his greatest success being Thomas and Sally in 1760. His opera Artaxerxes (1762) was the first attempt to set a full-blown opera seria in English and was a huge success, holding the stage until the 1830s.^ By GEORGE LOOMIS The Bolshoi Theater production of the Berg opera, its first staging on a Russian stage since 1927, ignores the work’s proletarian roots and has some problems, but warts and all it’s worth a view.
  • Opera - The New York Times 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

^ The later Baroque period saw the cultivation of several different operatic styles, including opera seria (serious opera) and opera buffa (comic opera).
  • Opera - The New York Times 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

^ The very first opera is generally considered to be “Daphne,” composed in 1591 by Jacopo Peri (1561-1633).
  • Opera - The New York Times 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

.Although Arne imitated many elements of Italian opera, he was perhaps the only English composer at that time who was able to move beyond the Italian influences and create his own unique and distinctly English voice.^ Opera voice has colors, many color..
  • KI Media: Opera Singer Nurtures Cambodian Voice 20 November 2009 20:46 UTC ki-media.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ Why were many operas written in Italian?
  • WikiAnswers - Opera Questions including "What is the opera La Boheme about" 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ Who composed the bel canto opera?
  • WikiAnswers - Opera Questions including "What is the opera La Boheme about" 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

.His modernized ballad opera, Love in a Village (1762), began a vogue for pastiche opera that lasted well into the 19th century.^ Though Adelina Patti was an excellent 19th century opera singer, the low frequency call of the humpback whale is the loudest...
  • WikiAnswers - Opera Questions including "What is the opera La Boheme about" 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

Charles Burney wrote that Arne introduced "a light, airy, original, and pleasing melody, wholly different from that of Purcell or Handel, whom all English composers had either pillaged or imitated".
.Besides Arne, the other dominating force in English opera at this time was George Frideric Handel, whose opera serias filled the London operatic stages for decades, and influenced most home-grown composers, like John Frederick Lampe, who wrote using Italian models.^ Composer: George Frideric Handel (1685 - 1759) .
  • American Opera Singer - American Opera Singer - CD - Buy.com 20 November 2009 20:46 UTC www.buy.com [Source type: General]

^ The later Baroque period saw the cultivation of several different operatic styles, including opera seria (serious opera) and opera buffa (comic opera).
  • Opera - The New York Times 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

^ Besides, other web developers will conceivably run across this behaviour in Safari, Opera, or Firefox.
  • Bug Reports for Opera 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC www.quirksmode.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This situation continued throughout the 18th and 19th centuries, including in the work of Michael William Balfe, and the operas of the great Italian composers, as well as those of Mozart, Beethoven and Meyerbeer, continued to dominate the musical stage in England.^ The music was composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart - born 1756 died 1791 and the libretto was written by Lorenzo da Ponte who was...
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^ Though Adelina Patti was an excellent 19th century opera singer, the low frequency call of the humpback whale is the loudest...
  • WikiAnswers - Opera Questions including "What is the opera La Boheme about" 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ His most famous work was Pagliacci, but he composed around a dozen operas, one being La Boheme, which premired after Puccini's...
  • WikiAnswers - Opera Questions including "What is the opera La Boheme about" 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

The Mikado (Lithograph)
.The only exceptions were ballad operas, such as John Gay's The Beggar's Opera (1728), musical burlesques, European operettas, and late Victorian era light operas, notably the Savoy Operas of W. S. Gilbert and Arthur Sullivan, all of which types of musical entertainments frequently spoofed operatic conventions.^ The Savoy operas were the original name for the operas of Sir Arthur Sullivan and W.S. Gilbert, aka Gilbert and Sullivan.
  • WikiAnswers - Opera Questions including "What is the opera La Boheme about" 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ E-mail entry The entry "A super's view of the end of an era at the Dallas Opera" is tagged: Dallas Opera , Fair Park Music Hall .

^ Just before and after the NYCO appointment, he was all the buzz on opera blogs--and the butt of many an unkind jab on the gay opera 'zine Parterre Box.

.Sullivan wrote only one grand opera, Ivanhoe (following the efforts of a number of young English composers beginning about 1876),[11] but he claimed that even his light operas constituted part of a school of "English" opera, intended to supplant the French operettas (usually performed in bad translations) that had dominated the London stage from the mid-19th century into the 1870s.^ E-mail entry The entry "Harth-Bedoya London "Boheme" delayed, to be online" is tagged: English National Opera , Fort Worth Symphony Orchestra , Miguel Harth-Bedoya .

^ But as performance time approaches--in a witty response to the retreating chandeliers at New York's Metropolitan Opera House--the tubes retract into the ceiling, leaving just stars of light.

^ Also unlike the Britten, Heggie's opera will have a part for a woman; the young Pip will be a "trousers role," to be sung by a soprano in boy drag.

London's Daily Telegraph agreed, describing The Yeomen of the Guard as "a genuine English opera, forerunner of many others, let us hope, and possibly significant of an advance towards a national lyric stage."[12]
.In the 20th century, English opera began to assert more independence, with works of Ralph Vaughan Williams and in particular Benjamin Britten, who in a series of works that remain in standard repertory today, revealed an excellent flair for the dramatic and superb musicality.^ Though Adelina Patti was an excellent 19th century opera singer, the low frequency call of the humpback whale is the loudest...
  • WikiAnswers - Opera Questions including "What is the opera La Boheme about" 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

Today composers such as Thomas Adès continue to export English opera abroad.[13] .More recently Sir Harrison Birtwistle has emerged as one of Britain's most significant contemporary composers from his first opera Punch and Judy to his most recent critical success in The Minotaur.^ Italy was greatly affected by the Renaissance, and they were probably the ones who had a great interest in operas in the first...
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^ His most famous work was Pagliacci, but he composed around a dozen operas, one being La Boheme, which premired after Puccini's...
  • WikiAnswers - Opera Questions including "What is the opera La Boheme about" 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ I've always said the most important person in an opera company is the one who will just say "no" to directors' loonier ideas.

.In the 2000s, the librettist of an early Birtwistle opera, Michael Nyman, has been focusing on composing operas, including Facing Goya, Man and Boy: Dada, and Love Counts.^ The idea for a "Moby Dick" opera originated with playwright Terrence McNally, the librettist for "Dead Man Walking."

.Also in the 20th century, American composers like Leonard Bernstein, George Gershwin, Gian Carlo Menotti, Douglas Moore, and Carlisle Floyd began to contribute English-language operas infused with touches of popular musical styles.^ Posted by opera chic on January 07, 2010 at 11:35 PM in Leonard Bernstein .

^ Are there translations of the Italian opera La Traviata in any other languages than English?
  • WikiAnswers - Opera Questions including "What is the opera La Boheme about" 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

.They were followed by composers such as Philip Glass, Mark Adamo, John Corigliano, Robert Moran, John Coolidge Adams, and Jake Heggie.^ Composer John Adams 'blacklisted' at airports .

^ E-mail entry The entry "Composer John Adams 'blacklisted' at airports" is tagged: airport security , Death of Klinghoffer , Doctor Atomic , John Adams , Nixon in China .

^ The Dallas Opera had a nice box lunch for a few of us media types Friday with Jake Heggie, composer of the "Moby Dick" opera that Dallas will premiere in April 2010.

Russian opera

Opera was brought to Russia in the 1730s by the Italian operatic troupes and soon it became an important part of entertainment for the Russian Imperial Court and aristocracy. .Many foreign composers such as Baldassare Galuppi, Giovanni Paisiello, Giuseppe Sarti, and Domenico Cimarosa (as well as various others) were invited to Russia to compose new operas, mostly in the Italian language.^ Why were many operas written in Italian?
  • WikiAnswers - Opera Questions including "What is the opera La Boheme about" 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ Lots of operas to Italian librettos Italianize names we know in other guises.

^ After six performances here, it will go on to the four other companies co-commissioning the new work: San Francisco Opera, San Diego Opera, Calgary Opera and the Australian company.

Simultaneously some domestic musicians like Maksym Berezovsky and Dmitry Bortniansky were sent abroad to learn to write operas. .The first opera written in Russian was Tsefal i Prokris by the Italian composer Francesco Araja (1755).^ Why were many operas written in Italian?
  • WikiAnswers - Opera Questions including "What is the opera La Boheme about" 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ Aleksandr Sergeyevich Dargomyzhsky was a Russian nationalist composer best known for his operas, and whose works are now seldom...
  • WikiAnswers - Opera Questions including "What is the opera La Boheme about" 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ I hate it that Dallas Chamber Music has scheduled the Ying Quartet's concert on the same evening as the first performance of the Dallas Opera's "Italian Girl in Algiers."

.The development of Russian-language opera was supported by the Russian composers Vasily Pashkevich, Yevstigney Fomin and Alexey Verstovsky.^ Aleksandr Sergeyevich Dargomyzhsky was a Russian nationalist composer best known for his operas, and whose works are now seldom...
  • WikiAnswers - Opera Questions including "What is the opera La Boheme about" 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

However, the real birth of Russian opera came with Mikhail Glinka and his two great operas A Life for the Tsar, (1836) and Ruslan and Ludmila (1842). After him in the 19th century in Russia there were written such operatic masterpieces as Rusalka and The Stone Guest by Alexander Dargomyzhsky, Boris Godunov and Khovanshchina by Modest Mussorgsky, Prince Igor by Alexander Borodin, Eugene Onegin and The Queen of Spades by Pyotr Tchaikovsky, and The Snow Maiden and Sadko by Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov. These developments mirrored the growth of Russian nationalism across the artistic spectrum, as part of the more general Slavophilism movement.
.In the 20th century the traditions of Russian opera were developed by many composers including Sergei Rachmaninov in his works The Miserly Knight and Francesca da Rimini, Igor Stravinsky in Le Rossignol, Mavra, Oedipus rex, and The Rake's Progress, Sergei Prokofiev in The Gambler, The Love for Three Oranges, The Fiery Angel, Betrothal in a Monastery, and War and Peace; as well as Dmitri Shostakovich in The Nose and Lady Macbeth of the Mtsensk District, Edison Denisov in L'écume des jours, and Alfred Schnittke in Life with an Idiot, and Historia von D. Johann Fausten.^ His most famous work was Pagliacci, but he composed around a dozen operas, one being La Boheme, which premired after Puccini's...
  • WikiAnswers - Opera Questions including "What is the opera La Boheme about" 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ Aleksandr Sergeyevich Dargomyzhsky was a Russian nationalist composer best known for his operas, and whose works are now seldom...
  • WikiAnswers - Opera Questions including "What is the opera La Boheme about" 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

[14]

Other national operas

.Spain also produced its own distinctive form of opera, known as zarzuela, which had two separate flowerings: one from the mid 17th century through the mid 18th century, and another beginning around 1850. During the late 18th century up until the mid-19th century, Italian opera was immensely popular in Spain, supplanting the native form.^ One of Puccini's best known operas, if not "the" best known, is Madama Butterfly.
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^ Though Adelina Patti was an excellent 19th century opera singer, the low frequency call of the humpback whale is the loudest...
  • WikiAnswers - Opera Questions including "What is the opera La Boheme about" 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ Maestro Luisotti spoke right before his Bologna Salome with Opera Chic in his native Italian.

.Czech composers also developed a thriving national opera movement of their own in the 19th century, starting with Bedřich Smetana who wrote eight operas including the internationally popular The Bartered Bride.^ Who composed the bel canto opera?
  • WikiAnswers - Opera Questions including "What is the opera La Boheme about" 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ Though Adelina Patti was an excellent 19th century opera singer, the low frequency call of the humpback whale is the loudest...
  • WikiAnswers - Opera Questions including "What is the opera La Boheme about" 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ John T. Cody, Jr., who's starting his second stint as interim general director of the Dallas Opera, is one of three recipients of the National Opera Trustee Recognition Award.

.Antonín Dvořák, most famous for Rusalka, wrote 13 operas; and Leoš Janáček gained international recognition in the 20th century for his innovative works including Jenůfa, The Cunning Little Vixen, and Káťa Kabanová.^ His most famous work was Pagliacci, but he composed around a dozen operas, one being La Boheme, which premired after Puccini's...
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^ Who is the most famous opera singer in New Zealand?
  • WikiAnswers - Opera Questions including "What is the opera La Boheme about" 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

The key figure of Hungarian national opera in the 19th century was Ferenc Erkel, whose works mostly dealt with historical themes. Among his most often performed operas are Hunyadi László and Bánk bán. .The most famous modern Hungarian opera is Béla Bartók's Duke Bluebeard's Castle.^ His most famous work was Pagliacci, but he composed around a dozen operas, one being La Boheme, which premired after Puccini's...
  • WikiAnswers - Opera Questions including "What is the opera La Boheme about" 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ Who is the most famous opera singer in New Zealand?
  • WikiAnswers - Opera Questions including "What is the opera La Boheme about" 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

.The best-known composer of Polish national opera was Stanisław Moniuszko, most celebrated for the opera Straszny Dwór (in English The Haunted Manor).^ One of Puccini's best known operas, if not "the" best known, is Madama Butterfly.
  • WikiAnswers - Opera Questions including "What is the opera La Boheme about" 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ His most famous work was Pagliacci, but he composed around a dozen operas, one being La Boheme, which premired after Puccini's...
  • WikiAnswers - Opera Questions including "What is the opera La Boheme about" 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ E-mail entry The entry "Harth-Bedoya London "Boheme" delayed, to be online" is tagged: English National Opera , Fort Worth Symphony Orchestra , Miguel Harth-Bedoya .

[15] .In the 20th century, other operas created by Polish composers included King Roger by Karol Szymanowski and Ubu Rex by Krzysztof Penderecki.^ I am going to create a car stereo company "opera" then I am going to ensure that no car in Europe is sold with a radio included - After that I am going to create a tire company- then I am going to create a cup holder company.
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.Among Dutch composers, Willem Pijper wrote an opera based on the Dutch folktale of Halewijn, and his pupil Henk Badings composed several radio operas.^ Who composed the music for the opera Cosi Fan Tutte and who wrote the words?
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Contemporary, recent, and Modernist trends

Modernism

Perhaps the most obvious stylistic manifestation of modernism in opera is the development of atonality. The move away from traditional tonality in opera had begun with Wagner, and in particular the Tristan chord. .Composers such as Richard Strauss, Claude Debussy, Giacomo Puccini, Paul Hindemith and Hans Pfitzner pushed Wagnerian harmony further with a more extreme use of chromaticism and greater use of dissonance.^ Composer: Giacomo Puccini (1858 - 1924) .
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Arnold Schoenberg in 1917.
Portrait by Egon Schiele.
.Operatic modernism truly began in the operas of two Viennese composers, Arnold Schoenberg and his student Alban Berg, both composers and advocates of atonality and its later development (as worked out by Schoenberg), dodecaphony.^ His most famous work was Pagliacci, but he composed around a dozen operas, one being La Boheme, which premired after Puccini's...
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^ Aleksandr Sergeyevich Dargomyzhsky was a Russian nationalist composer best known for his operas, and whose works are now seldom...
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^ The hover selector combined with an adjacent selector ( dt:hover + dd { color : red; } ) works buggily (Safari) or not at all (Opera), while these browsers support the two of them separately.
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Schoenberg's early musico-dramatic works, Erwartung (1909, premiered in 1924) and Die glückliche Hand display heavy use of chromatic harmony and dissonance in general. Schoenberg also occasionally used Sprechstimme, which he described as: "The voice rising and falling relative to the indicated intervals, and everything being bound together with the time and rhythm of the music except where a pause is indicated".
.The two operas of Schoenberg's pupil Alban Berg, Wozzeck (1925) and Lulu (incomplete at his death in 1935) share many of the same characteristics as described above, though Berg combined his highly personal interpretation of Schoenberg's twelve-tone technique with melodic passages of a more traditionally tonal nature (quite Mahlerian in character) which perhaps partially explains why his operas have remained in standard repertory, despite their controversial music and plots.^ Why were many operas written in Italian?
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^ What is the voice type of Wozzeck in the opera Wozzeck by Alban Berg?
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^ Can't tell you much about it except to say that it's an opera about two women lusting after the same man...sound familiar?
  • WikiAnswers - Opera Questions including "What is the opera La Boheme about" 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

.Schoenberg's theories have influenced (either directly or indirectly) significant numbers of opera composers ever since, even if they themselves did not compose using his techniques.^ Opera particularly frustrated because they have had so many opportunities to really capture mind share but tripped themselves over so many times.
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^ Mozilla and Opera allow change events on s, even though they don't make sense.
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Stravinsky in 1921.
Composers thus influenced include the Englishman Benjamin Britten, the German Hans Werner Henze, and the Russian Dmitri Shostakovich. .(Philip Glass also makes use of atonality, though his style is generally described as minimalist, usually thought of as another 20th century development.^ The orchestra hall itself, designed in collaboration with acoustician Cyril Harris, has been generally considered one of the more successful of the middle 20th century.

)
However, operatic modernism's use of atonality also sparked a backlash in the form of neoclassicism. .An early leader of this movement was Ferruccio Busoni who in 1913 wrote the libretto for his neoclassical number opera Arlecchino (first performed in 1917).^ Italy was greatly affected by the Renaissance, and they were probably the ones who had a great interest in operas in the first...
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^ Who was the first black American male to sing in a leading role at the Metropolitan Opera?
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^ Who composed the music for the opera Cosi Fan Tutte and who wrote the words?
  • WikiAnswers - Opera Questions including "What is the opera La Boheme about" 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

[16] Also among the vanguard was the Russian Igor Stravinsky. .After composing music for the Diaghilev-produced ballets Petrushka (1911) and The Rite of Spring (1913), Stravinsky turned to neoclassicism, a development culminating in his opera-oratorio Oedipus Rex (1927).^ Performer and conductor in opera, oratorio, children's theatre and choral music.
  • WikiAnswers - Opera Questions including "What is the opera La Boheme about" 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ Who composed the music for the opera Cosi Fan Tutte and who wrote the words?
  • WikiAnswers - Opera Questions including "What is the opera La Boheme about" 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ E-mail entry The entry "Texas Ballet Theater: Showdown over music " is tagged: Billy Crystal , Margo McCann , Texas Ballet Theater , The Nutcracker , Winspear Opera House .

[17] .Well after his Rimsky-Korsakov-inspired works The Nightingale (1914), and Mavra (1922), Stravinsky continued to ignore serialist technique and eventually wrote a full-fledged 18th century-style diatonic number opera The Rake's Progress (1951).^ Prior to his position at Opera, Wium Lie worked for W3C, where he proposed the concept of Cascading Style Sheets (CSS).
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His resistance to serialism (which ended at the death of Schoenberg) proved to be an inspiration for many other composers.[18]

Other trends

.A common trend throughout the 20th century, in both opera and general orchestral repertoire, is the use of smaller orchestras as a cost-cutting measure; the grand Romantic-era orchestras with huge string sections, multiple harps, extra horns, and exotic percussion instruments were no longer feasible.^ The orchestra hall itself, designed in collaboration with acoustician Cyril Harris, has been generally considered one of the more successful of the middle 20th century.

^ James Levine, music director of both the Metropolitan Opera and Boston Symphony Orchestra, has cancelled his fall engagements to undergo surgery this week for a herniated disc.

^ NPS Opera Live schedule page [no longer kept current, but click the "NPS Opera Live" link on the left side of the page to see the current listings] .
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.As government and private patronage of the arts decreased throughout the 20th century, new works were often commissioned and performed with smaller budgets, very often resulting in chamber-sized works, and short, one-act operas.^ The orchestra hall itself, designed in collaboration with acoustician Cyril Harris, has been generally considered one of the more successful of the middle 20th century.

^ I'd planned to have dinner at One Arts Plaza down the street, then walk the one block to the Winspear Opera House.

^ His most famous work was Pagliacci, but he composed around a dozen operas, one being La Boheme, which premired after Puccini's...
  • WikiAnswers - Opera Questions including "What is the opera La Boheme about" 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

.Many of Benjamin Britten's operas are scored for as few as 13 instrumentalists; Mark Adamo's two-act realization of Little Women is scored for 18 instrumentalists.^ Opera particularly frustrated because they have had so many opportunities to really capture mind share but tripped themselves over so many times.
  • Opera lashes out over Microsoft's browser removal | Beyond Binary - CNET News 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: General]

^ I'm not sure I really understand why Opera is crying foul, Mozilla was in the same boat a few years ago, and look at their market share now.
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Another feature of 20th century opera is the emergence of contemporary historical operas. .The Death of Klinghoffer, Nixon in China and Doctor Atomic by John Adams, and Dead Man Walking by Jake Heggie exemplify the dramatisation on stage of events in recent living memory, where characters portrayed in the opera were alive at the time of the premiere performance.^ E-mail entry The entry "Composer John Adams 'blacklisted' at airports" is tagged: airport security , Death of Klinghoffer , Doctor Atomic , John Adams , Nixon in China .

^ "Dead Man Walking" launches May 2.

^ John Adams, composer of operas including "Nixon in China," "Doctor Atomic" and "The Death of Klinghoffer," says he gets grilled by airport immigration officers whenever he flies home.

.Earlier models of opera generally stuck to more distant history, re-telling contemporary fictional stories (reworkings of popular plays), or mythical/legendary stories.^ Is the popular opera 'Aida' based on a true story?
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^ Please tell the story of the opera l ritorno di con calandrino?
  • WikiAnswers - Opera Questions including "What is the opera La Boheme about" 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

[19]
.The Metropolitan Opera reports that the average age of its patrons is now 60.[citation needed] Many opera companies have experienced a similar trend, and opera company websites are replete with attempts to attract a younger audience.^ This record company, which has been issuing a number of interesting classic live performance recordings, including several old Met broadcasts, now archives a portion of its catalog on its website.
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^ "As opera-lovers throughout the U.S. know, the recession has already made 2009 a difficult season for opera companies, and many companies of long-standing have closed their doors," Bradley said.

This trend is part of the larger trend of greying audiences for classical music since the last decades of the 20th century.[20] In an effort to attract younger audiences, the Met offers a student discount on ticket purchases.[21] .Major opera companies have been better able to weather the funding cutbacks, because they can afford to hire star singers which draw substantial audiences who want to see if their favourite singer will be able to hit their high "money notes" in the show.^ Opera particularly frustrated because they have had so many opportunities to really capture mind share but tripped themselves over so many times.
  • Opera lashes out over Microsoft's browser removal | Beyond Binary - CNET News 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: General]

^ It was great to see Anthony Whitworth-Jones, the former Dallas Opera general director who helped get the Winspear project moving, with his delightful wife Camilla.

^ I've always said the most important person in an opera company is the one who will just say "no" to directors' loonier ideas.

Smaller companies have a more fragile existence, and they usually depend on a "patchwork quilt" of support from state and local governments, local businesses, and fundraisers. Nevertheless, some smaller companies have found ways of drawing new audiences. .Opera Carolina offer discounts and happy hour events to the 21–40 year old demographic.^ And Opera has 40 million desktop users, more than double what they had 2 years ago.
  • Opera lashes out over Microsoft's browser removal | Beyond Binary - CNET News 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: General]

^ The Living Opera, a five-year-old community opera company which performed at Richardson's Eisemann Center, is ceasing operations.

[22] .In addition to radio and television broadcasts of opera performances, which have had some success in gaining new audiences, broadcasts of live performances in HD to movie theatres have shown the potential to reach new audiences.^ For the opening productions in the brand-new Winspear Opera House and Wyly Theatre, TXDOT piled on by closing Woodall Rodgers Expressway, making the area VERY hard to reach for many outlying folks.

^ Hoboken Now The insider's guide to Hoboken news, real estate, bars and restaurants Entertainment » Opera singer Cristina Fontanelli to perform at Hoboken's St. Ann's Festival .
  • Opera singer Cristina Fontanelli to perform at Hoboken's St. Ann's Festival | Hoboken Now - - Hoboken Now - NJ.com 20 November 2009 20:46 UTC www.nj.com [Source type: General]

^ In celebration of the new CD, SIRIUS XM Radio will be broadcasting an intimate interview with Hahn at 1:30pm on January 12...catch it during your lunch break!

.Since 2006, the Met has broadcast live performances to several hundred movie screens all over the world.^ This record company, which has been issuing a number of interesting classic live performance recordings, including several old Met broadcasts, now archives a portion of its catalog on its website.
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^ Only available during hours of live mid-week broadcasts during the Met Opera season.
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^ CHANNEL 78 - Metropolitan Opera Radio : will be broadcasting over 100 performances live during the Met's current season, as well as performances from the Met's broadcast archives.
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[23]

From musicals back towards opera

.Also by the late 1930s, some musicals began to be written with a more operatic structure.^ "It's lyrical," he says of the music in his work-in-progress, "but it's much denser and more complex than anything I have written."

.These works include complex polyphonic ensembles and reflect musical developments of their times.^ "It's lyrical," he says of the music in his work-in-progress, "but it's much denser and more complex than anything I have written."

.Porgy and Bess, influenced by jazz styles, and Candide, with its sweeping, lyrical passages and farcical parodies of opera, both opened on Broadway but became accepted as part of the opera repertory.^ The Dallas Center for the Performing Arts Winspear Opera House and Wyly Theatre are looking promising, with October openings planned for both.

.Show Boat, West Side Story, Brigadoon, Sweeney Todd, Evita, The Light in the Piazza and others tell dramatic stories through complex music and are now sometimes seen in opera houses.^ AT&TPAC Winspear Opera House: other notables in audience .

^ One problem at the new Winspear Opera House is inherent in the shape of the room -- wider from side to side, but shallower, than, say, the more typically shaped Bass Hall.

^ I have never heard the orchestral playing coming from the pit with such clarity and power in any other opera house in the world.

Some musicals, beginning with Tommy (1969) and Jesus Christ Superstar (1971) and continuing through Les Misérables (1980), Rent (1996) and Spring Awakening (2006), use various operatic conventions, such as through composition, recitative instead of dialogue, leitmotifs and dramatic stories told predominantly through rock, pop or contemporary music.

Acoustic enhancement with speakers

.A subtle type of sound electronic reinforcement called acoustic enhancement is used in some concert halls where operas are performed.^ Last spring's performance of Cleopatra at Bass Performance Hall in Fort Worth used recorded music, and -- no offense to the locked-out musicians -- but the quality and sound of that recording was terrific.

^ What made it particularly meaningful was that after 52 years of performing in the Music Hall, next year the Dallas Opera will be moving to a brand-new facility downtown.

^ "The Met never closes with the Metropolitan Opera Channel, where you can listen to some of the finest opera performances ever recorded, as well as fascinating interviews and features.
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.Acoustic enhancement systems help give a more even sound in the hall and prevent "dead spots" in the audience seating area by "...augment[ing] a hall's intrinsic acoustic characteristics."^ Robert Essert, the acoustical consultant responsible for the outstanding sound of Dallas' new Winspear Opera House, has been tapped as consultant on a reworking of Minneapolis' Orchestra Hall.

The systems use "...an array of microphones connected to a computer [which is] connected to an array of loudspeakers." .However, as concertgoers have become aware of the use of these systems, debates have arisen, because some "...purists maintain that the natural acoustic sound of [Classical] voices [or] instruments in a given hall should not be altered."^ Robert Essert, the acoustical consultant responsible for the outstanding sound of Dallas' new Winspear Opera House, has been tapped as consultant on a reworking of Minneapolis' Orchestra Hall.

^ However, the window.location object should also change when you use the back or forward buttons, or the history.back() and history.forward() methods, to move between these anchors, and in IE 6.0 and IE 6.1, it does not.
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[24]
.Kai Harada's article "Opera's Dirty Little Secret" states that opera houses began using electronic acoustic enhancement systems in the 1990s "...to compensate for flaws in a venue's acoustical architecture."^ Having a full audience will change the sound, but all signs so far is that we've got an acoustically superb opera house.

^ E-mail entry The entry "AT&TPAC: Dallas Opera "Otello," Winspear acoustics promising" is tagged: Dallas Opera , Winspear Opera House .

^ One of our designers was underwhelmed by the audience at the Scene 2 gala Thursday night: "A high-class opera house deserves a high-class audience, and sadly Dallas is in need of a little...class.

[25] .Despite the uproar that has arisen amongst operagoers, Harada points out that none of the major opera houses using acoustic enhancement systems "...use traditional, Broadway-style sound reinforcement, in which most if not all singers are equipped with radio microphones mixed to a series of unsightly loudspeakers scattered throughout the theatre."^ Having a full audience will change the sound, but all signs so far is that we've got an acoustically superb opera house.

^ E-mail entry The entry "AT&TPAC: Dallas Opera "Otello," Winspear acoustics promising" is tagged: Dallas Opera , Winspear Opera House .

^ In particularly, opera directors come here to check out the up-and-coming young singers Santa Fe cultivates in its extensive apprentice program.

.Instead, most opera houses use the sound reinforcement system for acoustic enhancement, and for subtle boosting of offstage voices, child singers, onstage dialogue, and sound effects (e.g., church bells in Tosca or thunder effects in Wagnerian operas).^ Having a full audience will change the sound, but all signs so far is that we've got an acoustically superb opera house.

^ E-mail entry The entry "AT&TPAC: Dallas Opera "Otello," Winspear acoustics promising" is tagged: Dallas Opera , Winspear Opera House .

^ Robert Essert, the acoustical consultant responsible for the outstanding sound of Dallas' new Winspear Opera House, has been tapped as consultant on a reworking of Minneapolis' Orchestra Hall.

Operatic voices

Vocal classifications

Singers and the roles they play are classified by voice type, based on the tessitura, agility, power and timbre of their voices. Male singers can be loosely classified by vocal range as bass, bass-baritone, baritone, tenor and countertenor, and female singers as contralto, mezzo-soprano and soprano. (Men sometimes sing in the "female" vocal ranges, in which case they are termed sopranist or countertenor. .Of these, only the countertenor is commonly encountered in opera, sometimes singing parts written for castrati – men neutered at a young age specifically to give them a higher singing range.^ Don't worry: This is make-believe opera, and these are supernumeraries--"supers," for short: people who portray non-singing characters.

^ Also unlike the Britten, Heggie's opera will have a part for a woman; the young Pip will be a "trousers role," to be sung by a soprano in boy drag.

^ My job was really that of a stagehand in costume, but it did give me the chance to be part of an opera production.

) .Singers are then classified by voice type – for instance, a soprano can be described as a lyric soprano, coloratura, soubrette, spinto, or dramatic soprano.^ I guess you'd call her a lyric coloratura, with a clear, sweet soprano that can toss off the busiest writing as easily as we mere mortals wash our hands.

These terms, although not fully describing a singing voice, associate the singer's voice with the roles most suitable to the singer's vocal characteristics. A particular singer's voice may change drastically over his or her lifetime, rarely reaching vocal maturity until the third decade, and sometimes not until middle age.

Historical use of voice parts

The following is only intended as a brief overview. For the main articles, see soprano, mezzo-soprano, alto, tenor, baritone, bass, countertenor and castrato.
The soprano voice has typically been used as the voice of choice for the female protagonist of the opera since the latter half of the eighteenth century. Earlier, it was common for that part to be sung by any female voice, or even a castrato. The current emphasis on a wide vocal range was primarily an invention of the Classical period. .Before that, the vocal virtuosity, not range, was the priority, with soprano parts rarely extending above a high A (Handel, for example, only wrote one role extending to a high C), though the castrato Farinelli was alleged to possess a top D (his lower range was also extraordinary, extending to tenor C).^ From Scott Cantrell: Had a fun interview today with Laura Claycomb, a Highland Park High School and SMU grad who's singing one of the lead roles in Handel's Radamisto Friday.

^ Also unlike the Britten, Heggie's opera will have a part for a woman; the young Pip will be a "trousers role," to be sung by a soprano in boy drag.

.The mezzo-soprano, a term of comparatively recent origin, also has a large repertoire, ranging from the female lead in Purcell's Dido and Aeneas to such heavyweight roles as Brangäne in Wagner's Tristan und Isolde (these are both roles sometimes sung by sopranos; there is quite a lot of movement between these two voice-types).^ Also unlike the Britten, Heggie's opera will have a part for a woman; the young Pip will be a "trousers role," to be sung by a soprano in boy drag.

For the true contralto, the range of parts is more limited, which has given rise to the insider joke that contraltos only sing "witches, bitches, and britches" roles. .In recent years many of the "trouser roles" from the Baroque era, originally written for women, and those originally sung by castrati, have been reassigned to countertenors.^ Also unlike the Britten, Heggie's opera will have a part for a woman; the young Pip will be a "trousers role," to be sung by a soprano in boy drag.

The tenor voice, from the Classical era onwards, has traditionally been assigned the role of male protagonist. Many of the most challenging tenor roles in the repertory were written during the bel canto era, such as Donizetti's sequence of 9 Cs above middle C during La fille du régiment. With Wagner came an emphasis on vocal heft for his protagonist roles, with this vocal category described as Heldentenor; this heroic voice had its more Italianate counterpart in such roles as Calaf in Puccini's Turandot. Basses have a long history in opera, having been used in opera seria in supporting roles, and sometimes for comic relief (as well as providing a contrast to the preponderance of high voices in this genre). .The bass repertoire is wide and varied, stretching from the comedy of Leporello in Don Giovanni to the nobility of Wotan in Wagner's Ring Cycle.^ The company will present the first complete Los Angeles staging of Wagner's Ring Cycle in three full cycles May 29-June 26, 2010.

^ Jenkins is widely credited with raising Seattle Opera to national prominence, notably with a series of Wagner "Ring" Cycles.

In between the bass and the tenor is the baritone, which also varies in weight from say, Guglielmo in Mozart's Così fan tutte to Posa in Verdi's Don Carlos; the actual designation "baritone" was not used until the mid-nineteenth century.

Famous singers

The castrato Senesino, c. 1720
.Early performances of opera were too infrequent for singers to make a living exclusively from the style, but with the birth of commercial opera in the mid-17th century, professional performers began to emerge.^ Hoboken Now The insider's guide to Hoboken news, real estate, bars and restaurants Entertainment » Opera singer Cristina Fontanelli to perform at Hoboken's St. Ann's Festival .
  • Opera singer Cristina Fontanelli to perform at Hoboken's St. Ann's Festival | Hoboken Now - - Hoboken Now - NJ.com 20 November 2009 20:46 UTC www.nj.com [Source type: General]

^ Opera singer Cristina Fontanelli will be back in Hoboken this week, performing at St. Ann's Festival this Sunday.
  • Opera singer Cristina Fontanelli to perform at Hoboken's St. Ann's Festival | Hoboken Now - - Hoboken Now - NJ.com 20 November 2009 20:46 UTC www.nj.com [Source type: General]

^ Those who attended last Friday's opening-night performance of The Nutcracker at the Winspear Opera House could not help but notice that the music was canned, not live.

.The role of the male hero was usually entrusted to a castrato, and by the 18th century, when Italian opera was performed throughout Europe, leading castrati who possessed extraordinary vocal virtuosity, such as Senesino and Farinelli, became international stars.^ Major national and international publications were well represented at Friday's opening performance of the Dallas Opera's "Otello."

^ Those who attended last Friday's opening-night performance of The Nutcracker at the Winspear Opera House could not help but notice that the music was canned, not live.

^ I hate it that Dallas Chamber Music has scheduled the Ying Quartet's concert on the same evening as the first performance of the Dallas Opera's "Italian Girl in Algiers."

The career of the first major female star (or prima donna), Anna Renzi, dates to the mid-1600s. .In the 18th century, a number of Italian sopranos gained international renown and often engaged in fierce rivalry, as was the case with Faustina Bordoni and Francesca Cuzzoni, who started a fist fight with one another during a performance of a Handel opera.^ Major national and international publications were well represented at Friday's opening performance of the Dallas Opera's "Otello."

^ Note: Starting Friday, May 18th, Channel 85 will rebroadcast this past season's Metropolitan Opera Broadcast, one broadcast each Friday evening at EDT 8:00PM .
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^ John T. Cody, Jr., who's starting his second stint as interim general director of the Dallas Opera, is one of three recipients of the National Opera Trustee Recognition Award.

The French disliked castrati, preferring their male heroes to be sung by a haute-contre (a high tenor), of which Joseph Legros was a leading example.[26]
.Though opera patronage has decreased in the last century in favor of other arts and media, such as musicals, cinema, radio, television and recordings, mass media has also supported the popularity of famous singers such as Luciano Pavarotti, Plácido Domingo, and José Carreras ("The Three Tenors").^ An online radio station provided by WHRO , featuring "alternative classical music" - they play several complete operas every Tuesday .
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^ I have never heard the orchestral playing coming from the pit with such clarity and power in any other opera house in the world.

^ Those who attended last Friday's opening-night performance of The Nutcracker at the Winspear Opera House could not help but notice that the music was canned, not live.

.Other famous 20th century performers include Maria Callas, Montserrat Caballé, Joan Sutherland, Nellie Melba, Rosa Ponselle, Beniamino Gigli, Jussi Björling, Feodor Chaliapin and Enrico Caruso.^ Performer: Caruso, Enrico Instrument: Tenor .
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^ Performer: Ponselle, Rosa Instrument: Soprano .
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Cinema

.Major opera houses and production companies have begun broadcasting their performances to local cinemas throughout the United States and in many other countries.^ For the opening productions in the brand-new Winspear Opera House and Wyly Theatre, TXDOT piled on by closing Woodall Rodgers Expressway, making the area VERY hard to reach for many outlying folks.

^ The change avoids competing with the Dallas Opera's planned May 2010 staging of Madame Butterfly at the Dallas Center for the Performing Arts Winspear Opera House.

^ But, unlike some other opera companies, the Dallas Opera so far has no warning on its ticket-purchase web site that these are partial-view seats.

.The Metropolitan Opera, first opened in 1883, began high-definition television transmissions in 2006.[27].^ The Metropolitan Opera is presenting a new production of Adams' "Doctor Atomic," about the development and explosion of the first nuclear bomb, through Nov.

^ The first thing I do on a fresh OS is get Firefox, I have choice and rarely if ever open IE. Opera on linux isn't all that great either.
  • Opera lashes out over Microsoft's browser removal | Beyond Binary - CNET News 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: General]

^ Users will be able to listen to and watch 170 full-length operas, including recent high-definition broadcasts.

.Many of its performances are also shown live in movie theaters around the world.^ It will be transmitted in HD to movie theaters around the country at noon (CST) on Nov.

In 2007, Met performances were shown in over 424 theaters in 350 U.S. cities. .La bohème went out to 671 screens worldwide.^ San Diego Opera's upcoming La Bohème swaps out their Mimi.

.The Met remains the only company that transmits all of its performances live, although in many cases this is only via radio broadcast.^ The grandaddy of all Opera Radio Broadcasters .
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^ This record company, which has been issuing a number of interesting classic live performance recordings, including several old Met broadcasts, now archives a portion of its catalog on its website.
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^ Only available during hours of live mid-week broadcasts during the Met Opera season.
  • Operacast - Opera Stations 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC www.operacast.com [Source type: Academic]

.San Francisco Opera, founded in 1923, began prerecorded broadcasts in March 2008. As of June 2008, approximately 125 theaters in 117 U.S. cities carry the broadcast.^ Operas are available on a scaled uncompressed Real Player stereo 96K stream (the stream is better fidelity than most of the streams we list for the stations that carry the NPR broadcasts).
  • Operacast - Opera Stations 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC www.operacast.com [Source type: Academic]

^ After six performances here, it will go on to the four other companies co-commissioning the new work: San Francisco Opera, San Diego Opera, Calgary Opera and the Australian company.

^ Posted by opera chic on January 14, 2010 at 07:55 PM in Nicola Luisotti , San Francisco Opera .

Their distribution company, Bigger Picture, screens the operas with the same HD digital cinema projectors used for major Hollywood films.[28] .European opera houses and festivals such as La Scala in Milan, the Salzburg Festival, La Fenice in Venice and the Maggio Musicale in Florence have also broadcast their productions to 91 theaters in 90 U.S. cities since 2006.[29][30]The emergence of the Internet is also seemingly affecting the way in which audiences consume opera.^ A couple of readers have inquired about the spelling "Otello" for the Dallas Opera's opening production in the new Winspear Opera House.

^ Having a full audience will change the sound, but all signs so far is that we've got an acoustically superb opera house.

^ AT&TPAC Winspear Opera House: other notables in audience .

.In a first for the genre, in 2009 British Opera house Glyndebourne made available online a full digital video download of Wagner’s Tristan und Isolde, filmed two years previously[31].^ Having a full audience will change the sound, but all signs so far is that we've got an acoustically superb opera house.

^ What made it particularly meaningful was that after 52 years of performing in the Music Hall, next year the Dallas Opera will be moving to a brand-new facility downtown.

^ I agree with everything my colleague Scott Cantrell said in h is peek at the first gala at the Winspear Opera House last night .

See also

Lists

Related topics

Notes

  1. ^ Some definitions of opera: "dramatic performance or composition of which music is an essential part, branch of art concerned with this" (Concise Oxford English Dictionary); "any dramatic work that can be sung (or at times declaimed or spoken) in a place for performance, set to original music for singers (usually in costume) and instrumentalists" (Amanda Holden, Viking Opera Guide); "musical work for the stage with singing characters, originated in early years of 17th century" (Pears Cyclopaedia, 1983 ed.).
  2. ^ Comparable art forms from various other parts of the world, many of them ancient in origin, are also sometimes called "opera" by analogy, usually prefaced with an adjective indicating the region (for example, Chinese opera). These independent traditions are not derivative of Western opera, but are rather distinct forms of musical theatre. Opera is also not the only type of Western musical theatre: in the ancient world, Greek drama featured singing and instrumental accompaniment; and in modern times, other forms such as the musical have appeared.
  3. ^ Apel, p. 718.
  4. ^ General information in this section comes from the relevant articles in The Oxford Companion to Music, by. P.Scholes (10th ed., 1968).
  5. ^ Oxford Illustrated History of Opera, Chapter 1; articles on Peri and Monteverdi in The Viking Opera Guide.
  6. ^ Oxford Illustrated History of Opera, Chapters 1–3.
  7. ^ Man and Music: the Classical Era, ed. Neal Zaslaw (Macmillan, 1989); entries on Gluck and Mozart in The Viking Opera Guide.
  8. ^ Oxford Illustrated History of Opera, Chapters 5, 8 and 9. Viking Opera Guide entry on Verdi.
  9. ^ General outline for this section from the The Oxford Illustrated History of Opera, Chapters 1–3, 6, 8 and 9, and The Oxford Companion to Music; more specific references from the individual composer entries in The Viking Opera Guide.
  10. ^ General outline for this section from the The Oxford Illustrated History of Opera, Chapters 1–4, 8 and 9; and The Oxford Companion to Music (10th ed., 1968); more specific references from the individual composer entries in The Viking Opera Guide.
  11. ^ a b c From Webrarian.com's Ivanhoe site.
  12. ^ the Daily Telegraph's review of Yeomen stated, "The accompaniments... are delightful to hear, and especially does the treatment of the woodwind compel admiring attention. Schubert himself could hardly have handled those instruments more deftly. ...we have a genuine English opera, forerunner of many others, let us hope, and possibly significant of an advance towards a national lyric stage. (quoted at p. 312 in Allen, Reginald (1975). The First Night Gilbert and Sullivan. London: Chappell & Co. Ltd.). Sullivan produced a few light operas in the 1890s that were of a more serious nature than those in the G&S series, including Haddon Hall and The Beauty Stone, but Ivanhoe (which ran for 155 consecutive performances, using alternating casts – a record until Broadway's La bohème) survives as his only Grand Opera.
  13. ^ Oxford Illustrated History of Opera, Chapters 1, 3 and 9. The Viking Opera Guide articles on Blow, Purcell and Britten.
  14. ^ Taruskin, Richard: Russia in 'The New Grove Dictionary of Opera', ed. Stanley Sadie (London, 1992); Oxford Illustrated History of Opera, Chapters 7–9.
  15. ^ See the chapter on "Russian, Czech, Polish and Hungarian Opera to 1900" by John Tyrrell in The Oxford Illustrated History of Opera (1994).
  16. ^ Chris Walton, "Neo-classical opera" in Cooke, p. 108.
  17. ^ Stravinsky had already turned away from the modernist trends of his early ballets to produce small-scale works that do not fully qualify as opera, yet certainly contain many operatic elements, including Renard (1916: "a burlesque in song and dance") and The Soldier's Tale (1918: "to be read, played, and danced"; in both cases the descriptions and instructions are those of the composer). In the latter, the actors declaim portions of speech to a specified rhythm over instrumental accompaniment, peculiarly similar to the older German genre of Melodrama.
  18. ^ Oxford Illustrated History of Opera, Chapter 8; The Viking Opera Guide articles on Schoenberg, Berg and Stravinsky; Malcolm MacDonald Schoenberg (Dent,1976); Francis Routh, Stravinsky (Dent, 1975).
  19. ^ However, something similar happened in French opera during the Revolutionary era. One example is Gossec's Le triomphe de la République (1793), depicting the French victory at Valmy the previous year. Such works were obviously intended as propaganda.
  20. ^ General reference for this section: Oxford Illustrated History of Opera, Chapter 9.
  21. ^ Information about Metropolitan Opera Company student discounts
  22. ^ Opera Carolina discount information
  23. ^ "On Air & On Line: 2007–08 HD Season". The Metropolitan Opera. 2007. http://www.metoperafamily.org/metopera/broadcast/hd_events_alternates.aspx. Retrieved 10 April 2008. 
  24. ^ Kai Harada, "Why do you need a Sound System?", harada-sound.com, 2005
  25. ^ Kai Harada, "Opera's Dirty Little Secret", Entertainment Design, 1 Mar 2001
  26. ^ The Oxford Illustrated History of Opera (ed. Parker, 1994), Chapter 11
  27. ^ Metropolitan Opera high-definition live broadcast page
  28. ^ The Bigger Picture
  29. ^ Emerging Pictures
  30. ^ "Where to See Opera at the Movies" sidebar p. W10 in June 21–22, 2008 The Wall Street Journal.
  31. ^ http://www.glyndebourne.com/operas/tristan_und_isolde/download

References

  • Apel, Willi, ed. (1969). Harvard Dictionary of Music, Second Edition. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. SBN 674375017.
  • Cooke, Mervyn (2005). The Cambridge Companion to Twentieth-Century Opera. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521780098. See also Google Books partial preview. Accessed 3 October 2009.
  • Silke Leopold, "The Idea of National Opera, c. 1800", United and Diversity in European Culture c. 1800, ed. .Tim Blanning and Hagen Schulze (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006), 19–34.
  • The New Grove Dictionary of Opera, edited by Stanley Sadie (1992), 5,448 pages, is the best, and by far the largest, general reference in the English language.^ George Steel, 41, executive director of Columbia University's Miller Theatre in New York, will take the Dallas job Oct.

    ^ I'm not interested in the job at New York City Opera."

    ^ He was interim general director between the departure of Karen Stone and the arrival of George Steel, who's stepping down after less than four months on the job to head New York City Opera.

    ISBN 0-333-73432-7 and ISBN 1-56159-228-5
  • The Viking Opera Guide (1994), 1,328 pages, ISBN 0-670-81292-7
  • The Oxford Illustrated History of Opera, ed. Roger Parker (1994)
  • The Oxford Dictionary of Opera, by John Warrack and Ewan West (1992), 782 pages, ISBN 0-19-869164-5
  • Opera, the Rough Guide, by Matthew Boyden et al. (1997), 672 pages, ISBN 1-85828-138-5
  • Opera: A Concise History, by Leslie Orrey and Rodney Milnes, World of Art, Thames & Hudson

Further reading

  • DiGaetani, John Louis: An Invitation to the Opera Anchor Books, 1986/91. ISBN 0-385-26339-2
  • Simon, Henry W.: A Treasury of Grand Opera. Simon and Schuster, New York, 1946.

External links

.
Opera SUCKS if you go there you suck

Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

.
The Teatro alla Scala in Milan.
^ Posted by opera chic on January 10, 2010 at 03:20 PM in Milan Fashion , Teatro alla Scala .

^ In 1953, Bernstein was the first American to conduct opera at the Teatro alla Scala in Milan: Cherubini’s Medea with Maria Callas.

^ Posted by opera chic on January 06, 2010 at 03:47 PM in Il Trittico , Teatro alla Scala .

Founded in 1778, La Scala is one of the world's most famous opera houses.
The Sydney Opera House is one of the world's most recognizable opera houses and landmarks.
Bolshoi Theatre.
Quotes regarding Opera.

Sourced

.
  • No good opera plot can be sensible, for people do not sing when they are feeling sensible.^ On the Acorn take, Byllye sings the line "I want a great big 45 / To blow out your dirty brains — 'Cause you ain't no good" twice; on the Opera take it appears only at the end of the piece.

    ^ Had it not been for my involvement with the Opera I’m certain I would not have met some of the people I now consider very good friends…that doesn’t happen often in life.

    ^ Hello people, who told you that my voice have no feeling?
    • KI Media: Opera Singer Nurtures Cambodian Voice 20 November 2009 20:46 UTC ki-media.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

Unsourced

.
  • The theatre only knows what it's doing next week, not like the opera, where they say: What are we going to do in five years' time?^ Take your children to this, says Rupert Christiansen, and they may never want to see another opera again .
    • Opera: news, reviews, previews, singers, opera houses, downloads, CDs, DVDs - Telegraph 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: General]

    ^ As CEO of Opera Software, Tetzchner spreads the company's vision of One Web, which means giving people universal access to the Web the way they like it.
    • Opera Software | Company News & Executive Profiles | BNET 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC resources.bnet.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The only practical way to restore them if they are damaged is to reinstall Opera.
    • Opera : Java Glossary 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC mindprod.com [Source type: General]

    A completely different attitude.
  • Opera is when a guy gets stabbed in the back and, instead of bleeding, he sings. .
  • Opera is an 18th- and 19th-century art that must find a 20th-century audience.^ In the early 19th century, Gioacchino Rossini and Gaetano Donizetti dominated Italian opera.
    • opera (music) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Though Adelina Patti was an excellent 19th century opera singer, the low frequency call of the humpback whale is the loudest...
    • WikiAnswers - Opera Questions including "What is the opera La Boheme about" 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

    ^ He'll be leading the Vox Vocal Ensemble in a program "The Art of the Canon" that follows the development of the canon from the 13th through the 20th century.

    .
  • If you put together all the ingredients that naturally attract children — sex, violence, revenge, spectacle and vigorous noise — what you have is grand opera.^ "I have always believed that opera is a planet where the muses work together, join hands and celebrate all the arts."
    • Paris Opera, Ballet & Contemporary Dance 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC www.discoverfrance.net [Source type: General]

    ^ FAST - all you need to do is install Opera, which is fairly small by the way.
    • DailyTech - Opera Releases 9.6 Browser 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

    ^ A status indicator is all you'll see after having logged in from the "Synchronize Opera..."
    • Opera Desktop Team - Opera Link explained 18 September 2009 7:55 UTC my.opera.com [Source type: General]

    .
  • Because I want to do a piece about real people!^ If Dallas REALLY wanted people to come to its Arts District, it would do likewise.

    ^ Of couse they (software builders) start wyning to people who have not the slightes clue about what people really want so they (the government) makes up a law...
    • Opera lashes out over Microsoft's browser removal | Beyond Binary - CNET News 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Amen Like this by nihouma March 26, 2009 10:45 AM PDT Because, you know, people want Flash on mobiles in 100% of what it can do.
    • Opera Mobile's business build hints at Flash video | Wireless - CNET News 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    And I want to set it in a real place! A boudoir! — because that to me is the most exciting place on earth. Underclothes on the floor! Sheets still warm from a woman’s body! A pisspot brimming under the bed! .
  • There are shrinking audiences for opera.^ Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791) .
    • Virginia Opera: Current Operas: Don Giovanni 18 September 2009 7:55 UTC www.vaopera.org [Source type: General]

    ^ Recent interest has centered around the composer's enigmatic life and personality as well as his music, exemplified in the great popularity of Peter Shaffer's Amadeus on stage and film.
    • Virginia Opera: Current Operas: Don Giovanni 18 September 2009 7:55 UTC www.vaopera.org [Source type: General]

    ^ The music was composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart - born 1756 died 1791 and the libretto was written by Lorenzo da Ponte who was...
    • WikiAnswers - Opera Questions including "What is the opera La Boheme about" 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

    Things are not going well, and the support has to be at the base, not the top, of the pyramid. Nonetheless, we continue to willfully exclude the public. .People hide behind phrases such as 'dumbing down' as a way of avoiding the fact that this thing we care about is becoming more and more isolated.^ I'd wager it's more like those people coding for IE's non-standard weirdness than Opera's failings, but it wouldn't matter to me either way.
    • DailyTech - Opera Releases 9.6 Browser 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

    ^ You’ll learn a lot more about styling tables with CSS later in the course , but for now I’ll just briefly break down what each section of this CSS is doing: .
    • 19: HTML tables - Opera Developer Community 18 September 2009 7:55 UTC dev.opera.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ More about WAI-ARIA from Steve Faulkner of Paciello Group ) .
    • Opera 9.5 - the next generation of web standards - Opera Developer Community 14 January 2010 23:11 UTC dev.opera.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

External links

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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

English

Proper noun

Singular
Opera
Plural
-
Opera
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Anagrams

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Simple English

File:Mariinsky
Mariinsky Theatre is a world-famous opera house

Opera is a drama set to music. An opera is like a play in which everything is sung instead of spoken. Operas are usually performed in opera houses. The singers who sing and act out the story are on the stage, and the orchestra is in front of the stage but lower down, in the orchestra pit, so that the audience can see the stage.

Contents

Musical numbers of an opera

An opera is normally divided into two, three, four or even five acts. In older operas the music was mostly recitative and arias. During the recitative things would happen in the story. The aria was a song for a solo singer, a setting of a lyric. As well as recitative and aria there would be choruses. The chorus were a group of singers who sing in the crowd scenes. The opera would start with an overture for the orchestra. The overture would usually include tunes that are going to be heard later in the opera.

In operas from the 19th century onwards there is often little or no difference between recitative and aria. Composers like Wagner wanted to get away from operas which had lots of separate arias in which the singers showed off, with the audience clapping loudly after each one. He wanted continuous music so that the mood would not be broken.

Sometimes operas have a lot of dancing in them. French opera especially would often have one act which was full of dances.

Types of opera

Not all operas have music all the time.

Grand opera is opera which is all set to music.

Opéra buffe (French) or Opera buffa (Italian) is comic opera. The story is very light-hearted and funny.

Opéra comique is a French term for opera which has some spoken words. Surprisingly it does not mean a “comic” opera. An opera like Carmen, which is a tragedy, is still an opéra comique due to the fact that it uses spoken dialogues instead of recitatives.

Singspiel is a German term for a type of opera with lots of magic and fantasy in the story. There were spoken words between the songs. Mozart’s Magic Flute is an example.

Operetta is a short opera which is light-hearted and usually has some spoken words.

The singers

Opera singers have to have powerful voices as well as a good technique. Most opera houses are very big, and the singers need to be heard at the back. They also need to be good at acting. They need to be able to learn their music quickly and to sing from memory. It is a help to be good at languages because operas are often in Italian, German, French, English or Russian etc. Some opera companies, like the English National Opera, sing their operas in English. Others, like the Royal Opera House, sing operas in whatever language they were composed in. Translations are printed on a screen above the front of the stage ("subtitles") so that the audience can understand what is being sung.

Although singers train to get a wide range (good top and bottom notes) they cannot be expected to sing any role in their voice range. For example: some sopranos may have big, dramatic voices, suitable for parts like Tosca in Puccini’s opera Tosca. Some may have a very light and high voice, called “coloratura”, suitable for parts like the Queen of the Night in Mozart’s Magic Flute. Some may have a medium range, called mezzo-soprano, suitable for parts like Carmen in Bizet’s opera Carmen.

Very often in opera the heroine is a soprano and the hero is a tenor. Basses may often have the part of a powerful king, or he may be the bad guy.

Operatic conventions

The 18th century lexicographer and critic Dr Johnson described opera as an “exotic and irrational entertainment”. By “exotic” he meant that it came from a foreign country (which in those days was true: all opera at the time came from Italy). By “irrational” he meant that the things which happened in the stories were strange and not like real life. A play can be like real life, but an opera is being sung, so things are not going to happen like they normally do in real life. A singer might be singing “I must go, I must go!” and he may stand on the stage and sing this for several minutes before at last he goes! A singer may be pretending to die, and will sing a beautiful song before he or she finally dies. These things are “conventions”, which means that they are a kind of habit we have to accept when watching and listening to opera. Another convention of earlier operas was to have the part of young men sung by women. This is sometimes called a breeches role or trouser role. They are often small parts such as page boys, or teenagers who flirt with older women, such as the part of Cherubino in Mozart’s The Marriage of Figaro or Oktavian in Richard Strauss’s Der Rosenkavalier. It should be remembered that in the 18th century it was usual for the main female part to be sung by a man who was a castrato. That seems a very strange (and cruel) convention to us now.

There are lots of famous operas, and the best ones have some of the greatest music ever written. The music could not have been written like that if it had not been written for opera. For example: Mozart is very clever at writing music where maybe six people are all singing different things at once because they all have different ideas about the situation in the story.

The history of opera

Baroque opera (1600-1750)

The first opera ever written was performed in 1597 in Florence in Italy. It was called Dafne and the composer was Jacopo Peri. This opera is now lost, but three years later, in 1600, he worked together with another composer called Giulio Caccini to write an opera called Euridice. The music for this still exists. It was nearly all recitative. This kind of writing was new, but if opera was to tell a story it was important to have a solo voice singing words that could be heard. They were trying to produce something like an ancient Greek tragedy. It was performed at a kind of club, called “camerata”, for intellectual (clever) people to a small audience. It was not great music, but the amazing thing was that there was a composer of genius around. His name was Claudio Monteverdi, and only seven years later, in 1607, he wrote the first really good opera: Orfeo, which was produced in Mantua. Monteverdi must have realized that opera had the possibilities of putting poetry, music, scenery and acting all together. He took the kind of songs that were popular at the time and joined them with speaking or recitative. Later in life he joined these so that the music flowed more dramatically.

In 1637 the first public opera house was opened in Venice. Soon lots of theatres in Italy started to produce operas. The stories were usually about ancient times, like the Roman Empire or Greek myths. They started to put in comic (funny) bits to make people laugh. Soon there was opera in Paris, Vienna, Hamburg and in the small courts of Germany which in those days was lots of little countries, each with their own prince who ruled and who kept musicians at court. The composers who are best remembered today include Jean-Baptiste Lully (1632-1687) who was an Italian who moved to France and wrote operas for the French king, and George Frideric Handel (1685-1759) who was a German who moved to England and wrote operas for the opera houses in London. In Italy there were composers like Francesco Cavalli (1602-1676) who had been a choirboy in Monteverdi’s church choir in Venice, and Alessandro Scarlatti 1660-1725 who lived in Naples.

During this period, known as the Baroque period, the opera was an entertainment for the upper classes who went to the opera to be seen in public. Opera was a social occasion where you could meet people and talk, even during the music. Both the singers and the audience behaved in ways that we would think were bad manners.

Classical opera (late 18th century)

Christoph Willibald Gluck was a composer who tried to make people take opera more seriously. In 1762 he wrote an opera called Orfeo which was performed in Vienna. It had lots of choruses and ballet numbers, like French opera, but the words were in Italian and the music really concentrated on the story rather than being just a display for clever singers to show off. Some of its music is very famous today, e.g. the Dance of the Blessed Spirits which is played on a flute, and Orfeo’s aria Che faró senza Euridice? (What shall I do without Euridice?).

Mozart learned from Gluck’s ideas about opera. This can be seen in his opera Idomeneo which is about a Greek story. Other Italian operas by Mozart include: Don Giovanni, Le Nozze di Figaro and Cosi fan tutte. He also wrote operas in German: The Abduction from the Serail and The Magic Flute. These are Singspiel: operas which tell magic and fantasy stories.

Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827) only wrote one opera: Fidelio. It is a story of a woman who rescues her lover from prison. Rescue operas were popular in France, but this one is in German. It is a serious opera about how a woman can save a man by being true and faithful.

Romantic opera (19th century)

In the 19th century Richard Wagner (1813-1883) continued Gluck’s ideas. Wagner had very personal ideas about how his operas should be performed, and he liked to train the singers himself. He wanted them to take the drama of his operas seriously instead of treating the music as a way of showing off their voices. He always wrote the libretti (words for the opera) himself, and they were always in German. They are mostly about serious subjects from German folklore and myths, although he did write one comic opera: The Mastersingers of Nürnberg. Wagner used “leitmotifs” which means that there are tunes which are used for particular characters or ideas in the opera. This allows the music to develop with the story, and can be used in interesting ways. For example: when Sigmund (in the opera Die Walküre) says that he does not know who his father is, we hear his father’s tune in the orchestra! The audience, of course, know (this is called: dramatic irony).

In Italy Gioachino Rossini (1792-1868) wrote lots of operas. There was no difference in style between his comic and his serious operas. Often the same overture was used for both. He wrote exactly all the notes that the singers were to sing, he did not want to leave it to them to improvise their own ornamental notes. Everything was carefully thought out. Musicians are not sure whether to call him a Classical or Romantic composer. Composers like Vincenzo Bellini (1801-1835) and Gaetano Donizetti (1797-1848) are definitely Romantic. They had the ability to write lovely lyrical tunes. The most famous Italian opera composer of the 19th century was Giuseppe Verdi (1813-1901). His music is not always continuous like Wagner’s. Sometimes it stopped for the audience to applaud. Verdi had a wonderful sense of drama, and could write beautiful melodies which captured people’s hearts. He loved Shakespeare, and based several of his operas on Shakespeare plays: Otello, Macbeth and Falstaff.

The 19th century was the time when Nationalism was important. Composers were writing music typical of their own countries. Wagner, as we have seen, took German myths for his opera stories. In Spain they had their own kind of opera called “zarzuela”. In Russia Mikhail Glinka (1804-1857) wrote Ruslan and Lyudmila which was based on a Russian fairy tale. Other Russian composers include Alexander Borodin who wrote Prince Igor, and Modest Mussorgsky (1839-1881) who wrote Boris Godunov. Both these operas are about stories from Russian history. Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov (1844-1908) wrote a fairy tale opera Sadko, and Pyotr Tchaikovsky (1840-1893) used some very Russian tunes in Eugene Onegin and The Queen of Spades.

Czech composers wrote national operas. The most famous Czech opera composers were Antonín Dvořák (1841-1904), Bedřich Smetana (1824-1884) and Leoš Janáček (1854-1928). In France the most famous composer was Charles Gounod (1818-1893) who wrote an opera called Faust.

Opera in the 20th century

In the 20th century composers had many different styles of composing. This was true of all kinds of music, including opera. Richard Strauss (1864-1949) was really a Romantic, although almost all his operas were written in the 20th century. His harmonies show that he had studied Wagner’s operas. Der Rosenkavalier (1909) has lots of romantic tunes, although it is a story about Vienna in the Classical period. In Italy composers like Giacomo Puccini (1858-1924) wrote operas in the verismo style. This meant operas with stories that felt like real life. The characters in the stories were usually from the lower classes.

Alban Berg (1885-1935) also wrote operas about poor or simple people. He wrote an opera called Wozzeck which is the tragedy of a man who is too simple to understand that people are being unkind to him and using him. Berg’s music is often built on the twelve tone series which he had learned from Schoenberg. Stravinsky’s (1882-1971) The Rake's Progress is in yet another style called Neo-classical because the music is made to sound a bit like music of the Classical Period. In England Britten wrote many great operas like Peter Grimes and Billy Budd. Most of them are about unfortunate people who want to be part of society but are not accepted.

More recent composers who wrote operas include the Hungarian Győrgy Ligeti (1923-2006), the Polish Krzysztof Penderecki (b.1933), the English Sir Harrison Birtwistle and the Americans Philip Glass (b.1937) and John Adams (b.1947).

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