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.In computing, an operating system (OS) is an interface between hardware and user, which is responsible for the management and coordination of activities and the sharing of the resources of computer, that acts as a host for computing applications run on the machine.^ Programs br each machine runs within the operating system kernel.
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ A layer structure showing where the Operating System is located on generally used software systems on desktops operating system (commonly abbreviated to either OS or O/S ) is an interface between hardware and user; it is responsible for the management and coordination of activities and the sharing of the limited resources of the computer.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Computer/Operating System One of the following: .
  • Microsoft Hardware Mice and Keyboard Product Documentation 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: General]

.One of the purposes of an operating system is to handle the resource allocation and access protection of the hardware.^ Computer/Operating System One of the following: .
  • Microsoft Hardware Mice and Keyboard Product Documentation 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: General]

^ Protection and resource control in distributed operating systems.
  • Distributed operating systems 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC portal.acm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ As a host, one of the purposes of an operating system is to handle the details of the operation of the hardware .
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.This relieves the application programmers from having to manage these details.^ This relieves application programs from having to manage these details and makes it easier to write applications.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Operating System - Free Operating System - Learn Operating System for Free at AcademicTutorials.Com 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.academictutorials.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Operating systems offer a number of services to application programs and users.^ Operating systems offer a number of services to application programs and users.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The operating system is a set of services which simplifies development of applications.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Ken Thompson , Dennis Ritchie and Douglas McIlroy at Bell Labs designed and developed the C programming language to build the operating system Unix.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.Applications access these services through application programming interfaces (APIs) or system calls.^ Applications access these services through application programming interfaces (APIs) or system calls .
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Operating systems offer a number of services to application programs and users.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ System Calls System calls provide the interface between a running program and the operating system.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

.By invoking these interfaces, the application can request a service from the operating system, pass parameters, and receive the results of the operation.^ Three general methods are used to pass parameters to the operating system.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Applications access these services through application programming interfaces (APIs) or system calls .
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ By invoking these interfaces, the application can request a service from the operating system, pass parameters, and receive the results of the operation.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.Users may also interact with the operating system with some kind of software user interface like typing commands by using command line interface (CLI) or using a graphical user interface.^ Graphical user interfaces .
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Unix and Unix-like operating systems .
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Solaris operating system used.
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

.For hand-held and desktop computers, the user interface is generally considered part of the operating system.^ Computer/Operating System One of the following: .
  • Microsoft Hardware Mice and Keyboard Product Documentation 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: General]

^ The first computers did not have operating systems.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Stores with computer operating system .
  • Computer Operating System - Shop Smarter.com 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC www.smarter.com [Source type: General]
  • Computer Operating System - Shop Smarter.com 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC www.smarter.com [Source type: General]

.On large systems such as Unix-like systems, the user interface is generally implemented as an application program that runs outside the operating system.^ UNIX operating system SunOS is described.
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Programs br each machine runs within the operating system kernel.
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ UNIX operating system .
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

.While servers generally run Unix or some Unix-like operating system, embedded system markets are split amongst several operating systems,[1][2] although the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems has almost 90% of the client PC market.^ For a Microsoft® Windows®-based computer:Computer/Operating System One of the following: .
  • Microsoft Hardware Mice and Keyboard Product Documentation 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: General]

^ C and requires an operating system compatible with Unix .
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Unix and Unix-like operating systems .
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

Contents

History

Mainframe

.Through the 1950s, many major features were pioneered in the field of operating systems.^ Through the 1960s, many major features were pioneered in the field of operating systems.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Alternative also implies at least parity with the features of major operating systems.
  • 10 amazingly alternative operating systems and what they could mean for the future | Royal Pingdom 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC royal.pingdom.com [Source type: General]

^ ABSTRACT Distributed operating systems have many aspects in common with centralized ones, but they also differ in certain ways.
  • Distributed operating systems 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC portal.acm.org [Source type: Academic]

.The development of the IBM System/360 produced a family of mainframe computers available in widely differing capacities and price points, for which a single operating system OS/360 was planned (rather than developing ad-hoc programs for every individual model).^ Computer/Operating System One of the following: .
  • Microsoft Hardware Mice and Keyboard Product Documentation 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: General]

^ Esoteric Operating Systems - OS/360 and its successors .
  • Esoteric Operating Systems: The History of OS/360 and its successors 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.escapistmagazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Today's mainframe is much different to the mainframe of 1964, on the introduction of the System/360.
  • Esoteric Operating Systems: The History of OS/360 and its successors 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.escapistmagazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This concept of a single OS spanning an entire product line was crucial for the success of System/360 and, in fact, IBM's current mainframe operating systems are distant descendants of this original system; applications written for the OS/360 can still be run on modern machines.^ Programs br each machine runs within the operating system kernel.
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Esoteric Operating Systems - OS/360 and its successors .
  • Esoteric Operating Systems: The History of OS/360 and its successors 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.escapistmagazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The operating system (OS) acts as a host for application programs that are run on the machine.
  • Operating System - Free Operating System - Learn Operating System for Free at AcademicTutorials.Com 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.academictutorials.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the mid-'70s, the MVS, the descendant of OS/360 offered the first[citation needed] implementation of using RAM as a transparent cache for data.^ In the mid-70's, the MVS , the descendant of OS/360 offered the first [ citation needed ] implementation of using RAM as a transparent cache for disk resident data.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ July 9, 2009 11:57 am Link Maritz seems to acknowledge that the OS is still needed, and is offering a method for switching between OS-es.
  • The Incredible Shrinking Operating System - Bits Blog - NYTimes.com 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC bits.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

^ These drives were also a source of some frustration as they could use regular audio cassettes, but you needed to get them formatted by Coleco first.
  • Operating Systems Through Time (8-bits) 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.armory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.OS/360 also pioneered a number of concepts that, in some cases, are still not seen outside of the mainframe arena.^ OS/360 also pioneered a number of concepts that, in some cases, are still not seen outside of the mainframe arena.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The three lines of operating systems from the 1960s still remain, with z/OS the successor of the OS/360 line, z/VSE the successor of DOS/360 and z/VM replacing the CP/CMS project.
  • Esoteric Operating Systems: The History of OS/360 and its successors 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.escapistmagazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Supposedly this is due to some of the Microsoft code that still exists in OS/2 that IBM has exclusive rights to.
  • 5 of the best desktop operating systems you never used | Classics Rock | TechRepublic.com 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC blogs.techrepublic.com.com [Source type: General]

.For instance, in OS/360, when a program is started, the operating system keeps track of all of the system resources that are used including storage, locks, data files, and so on.^ Esoteric Operating Systems - OS/360 and its successors .
  • Esoteric Operating Systems: The History of OS/360 and its successors 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.escapistmagazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Solaris operating system used.
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Operating Systems Storage br Storage hierarchies D. .
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

.When the process is terminated for any reason, all of these resources are re-claimed by the operating system.^ When the process is terminated for any reason, all of these resources are re-claimed by the operating system.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ For example, I mention nothing of mainframe or minicomputer OSes (mostly due to ignorance) and so I should probably call this " Home Computer Operating Systems Through Time" even though not all of these OSes are purely home computer machines, particularly CP/M. The title is left for historical reasons, though.
  • Operating Systems Through Time (8-bits) 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.armory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The criticisms of the article are for the most part valid; it really doesn’t say enough, but it is a good starting point if you’re interested in researching operating systems.
  • 10 amazingly alternative operating systems and what they could mean for the future | Royal Pingdom 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC royal.pingdom.com [Source type: General]

.An alternative CP-67 system started a whole line of operating systems focused on the concept of virtual machines.^ An alternative CP-67 system started a whole line of operating systems focused on the concept of virtual machines .
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Mach operating system virtual memory.
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Linux began as a pet project of a Finnish university student, Linus Torvalds, in 1991 as an alternative to the server operating system Unix.

.Control Data Corporation developed the SCOPE operating system in the 1960s, for batch processing.^ Control Data Corporation developed the SCOPE operating system in the 1960s, for batch processing.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Each process is represented in the operating system by its own process control block (PCB).
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Unix Unix or UNIX is a computer operating system originally developed in the 1960s and 1970s by a group of AT&T Bell Labs employees including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and Douglas McIlroy.
  • Operating System - Free Operating System - Learn Operating System for Free at AcademicTutorials.Com 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.academictutorials.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In cooperation with the University of Minnesota, the KRONOS and later the NOS operating systems were developed during the 1970s, which supported simultaneous batch and timesharing use.^ Tech Support: "Windows 3.1 is the operating system.
  • Computer Stupidities: Operating Systems 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.rinkworks.com [Source type: General]

^ Solaris operating system used.
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ I will never ever use a Google operating system.
  • Google targets Microsoft with new operating system | Technology | guardian.co.uk 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: General]

.Like many commercial timesharing systems, its interface was an extension of the Dartmouth BASIC operating systems, one of the pioneering efforts in timesharing and programming languages.^ Computer/Operating System One of the following: .
  • Microsoft Hardware Mice and Keyboard Product Documentation 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: General]

^ Unix and Unix-like operating systems .
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Free Operating systems and commercial operating systems .
  • Free Operating systems and commercial operating systems 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.freebyte.com [Source type: Reference]

.In the late 1970s, Control Data and the University of Illinois developed the PLATO operating system, which used plasma panel displays and long-distance time sharing networks.^ Operating System Share of 2006 .
  • 2006 Operating System Vulnerability Summary - OmniNerd 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.omninerd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Solaris operating system used.
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Control Data Corporation developed the SCOPE operating system in the 1960s, for batch processing.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.Plato was remarkably innovative for its time, featuring real-time chat, and multi-user graphical games.^ Graphical user interfaces evolve over time.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Plato was remarkably innovative for its time, featuring real-time chat, and multi-user graphical games.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Very often just after a fresh installation, a host can be compromised by an automated tool before the real user even had a chance to log in for the first time.
  • 2006 Operating System Vulnerability Summary - OmniNerd 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.omninerd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Burroughs Corporation introduced the B5000 in 1961 with the MCP, (Master Control Program) operating system.^ Burroughs MCP – B5000 ,1961 to Unisys Clearpath/MCP, present.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Burroughs Corporation introduced the B5000 in 1961 with the MCP , ( Master Control Program ) operating system.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Ken Thompson , Dennis Ritchie and Douglas McIlroy at Bell Labs designed and developed the C programming language to build the operating system Unix.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.The B5000 was a stack machine designed to exclusively support high-level languages with no machine language or assembler, and indeed the MCP was the first OS to be written exclusively in a high-level language – ESPOL, a dialect of ALGOL.^ The B5000 was a stack machine designed to exclusively support high-level languages with no machine language or assembler, and indeed the MCP was the first OS to be written exclusively in a high-level language – ESPOL , a dialect of ALGOL .
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Mac OS version 7.0 was the first Mac OS GUI which supported colors.
  • Operating System Interface Design Between 1981-2009 | Webdesigner Depot 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.webdesignerdepot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Tomy, on the other hand, has an interpreter fully written in 9995 machine language, so it blows away its progenitor.
  • Operating Systems Through Time (8-bits) 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.armory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.MCP also introduced many other ground-breaking innovations, such as being the first commercial implementation of virtual memory.^ MCP also introduced many other ground-breaking innovations, such as being the first commercial implementation of virtual memory .
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ In most Linux systems, part of the hard disk is reserved for virtual memory when the Operating system is being installed on the system.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The user/admin will be able to replace original Windows in many commercial situations and follow to other options.
  • 10 amazingly alternative operating systems and what they could mean for the future | Royal Pingdom 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC royal.pingdom.com [Source type: General]

.During development of the AS400, IBM made an approach to Burroughs to licence MCP to run on the AS400 hardware.^ During development of the AS400 , IBM made an approach to Burroughs to licence MCP to run on the AS400 hardware.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Some Unix variants like HP's HP-UX and IBM's AIX are designed to run only on that vendor's hardware.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The project was started in 1995 and can today be run on both PowerPC and IBM PC compatible hardware.
  • 10 amazingly alternative operating systems and what they could mean for the future | Royal Pingdom 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC royal.pingdom.com [Source type: General]

.This proposal was declined by Burroughs management to protect its existing hardware production.^ This proposal was declined by Burroughs management to protect its existing hardware production.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ (Correct) The exokernel operating system architecture safely gives untrusted software efficient control over hardware and software resources by separating management from protection.
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

.MCP is still in use today in the Unisys ClearPath/MCP line of computers.^ MCP is still in use today in the Unisys ClearPath/MCP line of computers.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Each introduced innovations that we still use today, as well as some we’re still trying to catch up with even though the programs debuted in the 20th century.
  • 5 of the best desktop operating systems you never used | Classics Rock | TechRepublic.com 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC blogs.techrepublic.com.com [Source type: General]

^ There are probably a few too many tangents off towards other computers and operating systems, but I was making a chronicle of a series of forty-five year-old operating systems which defied the odds several times to still be used today.
  • Esoteric Operating Systems: The History of OS/360 and its successors 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.escapistmagazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.UNIVAC, the first commercial computer manufacturer, produced a series of EXEC operating systems.^ UNIVAC, the first commercial computer manufacturer, produced a series of EXEC operating systems.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Computer/Operating System One of the following: .
  • Microsoft Hardware Mice and Keyboard Product Documentation 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: General]

^ The first computers did not have operating systems.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.Like all early main-frame systems, this was a batch-oriented system that managed magnetic drums, disks, card readers and line printers.^ In a disk system, cards are read directly from the card reader onto the disk.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Like all early main-frame systems, this was a batch-oriented system that managed magnetic drums, disks, card readers and line printers.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The majority of computer systems in the late 1950's and early 1960's were batch systems reading from card readers and writing to line printers or card punches.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

.In the 1970s, UNIVAC produced the Real-Time Basic (RTB) system to support large-scale time sharing, also patterned after the Dartmouth BASIC system.^ In the 1970s, UNIVAC produced the Real-Time Basic (RTB) system to support large-scale time sharing, also patterned after the Dartmouth BASIC system.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Time-sharing operating systems are sophisticated.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Real-time operating systems .
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.General Electric and MIT developed General Electric Comprehensive Operating Supervisor (GECOS), which introduced the concept of ringed security privilege levels.^ General Electric and MIT developed General Electric Comprehensive Operating Supervisor (GECOS), which introduced the concept of ringed security privilege levels.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ But things were not perfect for IBM. Incensed at the loss of the MULTICS project to General Electric, IBM needed to develop a new architecture in order to stay competitive.
  • Esoteric Operating Systems: The History of OS/360 and its successors 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.escapistmagazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Attempts to alter these resources generally causes a switch to supervisor mode, where the operating system can deal with the illegal operation the program was attempting (for example, by killing the program).
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.After acquisition by Honeywell it was renamed to General Comprehensive Operating System (GCOS).^ (Correct) The CHORUS technology has been designed for building new generations of open, distributed, scalable operating systems.
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Sprite operating system 's process migration br generally already include an operating system Chapter .
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Early operating systems generally supported a single type of disk drive and only one kind of file system.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.Digital Equipment Corporation developed many operating systems for its various computer lines, including TOPS-10 and TOPS-20 time sharing systems for the 36-bit PDP-10 class systems.^ Computer/Operating System One of the following: .
  • Microsoft Hardware Mice and Keyboard Product Documentation 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: General]

^ Digital Equipment Corporation developed many operating systems for its various computer lines, including TOPS-10 and TOPS-20 time sharing systems for the 36-bit PDP-10 class systems.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Bit Operating system .
  • Operating System | Windows 7 News 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC windows7news.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Prior to the widespread use of UNIX, TOPS-10 was a particularly popular system in universities, and in the early ARPANET community.^ Prior to the widespread use of UNIX, TOPS-10 was a particularly popular system in universities, and in the early ARPANET community.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Linux began as a pet project of a Finnish university student, Linus Torvalds, in 1991 as an alternative to the server operating system Unix.

^ Used all over in American school systems, and frequent in American households, the Apple II, going from the plain-vanilla version to the popular Apple IIe/c, was a staple in its class.
  • Operating Systems Through Time (8-bits) 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.armory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the late 1960s through the late 1970s, several hardware capabilities evolved that allowed similar or ported software to run on more than one system.^ In the late 1960s through the late 1970s, several hardware capabilities evolved that allowed similar or ported software to run on more than one system.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ As time passes, entries in the registry for old or uninstalled or deleted software will build up, making the system start up slowly, run more slowly, or make the computer unstable - ‘freezes’ can be one sign of this.

^ IPC One of the strong features of Unix-like operating systems, is their ability to run several processes simultaneously, and let them all share the CPU(s), memory, and other resources.
  • Operating System - Free Operating System - Learn Operating System for Free at AcademicTutorials.Com 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.academictutorials.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Early systems had utilized microprogramming to implement features on their systems in order to permit different underlying architecture to appear to be the same as others in a series.^ Early systems had utilized microprogramming to implement features on their systems in order to permit different underlying architecture to appear to be the same as others in a series.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ In terms of other articles along these lines, I did write another article in the Esoteric Operating Systems series before this, concerning RISC OS .
  • Esoteric Operating Systems: The History of OS/360 and its successors 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.escapistmagazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Windows NT 's underlying operating system kernel which was a designed by essentially the same team as Digital Equipment Corporation 's VMS , a UNIX-like operating system which provided protected mode operation for all user programs, kernel memory protection, preemptive multi-tasking, virtual file system support, and a host of other features.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.In fact most 360's after the 360/40 (except the 360/165 and 360/168) were microprogrammed implementations.^ In fact most 360's after the 360/40 (except the 360/165 and 360/168) were microprogrammed implementations.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.But soon other means of achieving application compatibility were proven to be more significant.^ But soon other means of achieving application compatibility were proven to be more significant.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.The enormous investment in software for these systems made since 1960s caused most of the original computer manufacturers to continue to develop compatible operating systems along with the hardware.^ Computer/Operating System One of the following: .
  • Microsoft Hardware Mice and Keyboard Product Documentation 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: General]

^ The first computers did not have operating systems.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Stores with computer operating system .
  • Computer Operating System - Shop Smarter.com 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC www.smarter.com [Source type: General]
  • Computer Operating System - Shop Smarter.com 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC www.smarter.com [Source type: General]

The notable supported mainframe operating systems include:

Microcomputers

.The first microcomputers did not have the capacity or need for the elaborate operating systems that had been developed for mainframes and minis; minimalistic operating systems were developed, often loaded from ROM and known as Monitors.^ The first computers did not have operating systems.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The first microcomputers did not have the capacity or need for the elaborate operating systems that had been developed for mainframes and minis; minimalistic operating systems were developed, often loaded from ROM and known as Monitors .
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ System 1.0 was the first operating system GUI developed for the Macintosh.
  • Operating System Interface Design Between 1981-2009 | Webdesigner Depot 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.webdesignerdepot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One notable early disk-based operating system was CP/M, which was supported on many early microcomputers and was closely imitated in MS-DOS, which became wildly popular as the operating system chosen for the IBM PC (IBM's version of it was called IBM DOS or PC DOS), its successors making Microsoft.^ For a Microsoft® Windows®-based computer:Computer/Operating System One of the following: .
  • Microsoft Hardware Mice and Keyboard Product Documentation 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: General]

^ Microsoft Windows is a family of proprietary operating systems originated as an add-on to the older MS-DOS operating system for the IBM PC .
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Computer/Operating System One of the following: .
  • Microsoft Hardware Mice and Keyboard Product Documentation 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: General]

.In the 80's Apple Computer Inc.^ In the 80's Apple Computer Inc.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

(now Apple Inc.) abandoned its popular Apple II series of microcomputers to introduce the Apple Macintosh computer with an innovative Graphical User Interface (GUI) to the Mac OS.
.The introduction of the Intel 80386 CPU chip with 32-bit architecture and paging capabilities, provided personal computers with the ability to run multitasking operating systems like those of earlier minicomputers and mainframes.^ Computer/Operating System One of the following: .
  • Microsoft Hardware Mice and Keyboard Product Documentation 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: General]

^ Unix and Unix-like operating systems .
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Unix-like systems run on a wide variety of machine architectures.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.Microsoft responded to this progress by hiring Dave Cutler, who had developed the VMS operating system for Digital Equipment Corporation.^ Digital Unix operating system running on a .
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Next Microsoft operating system...
  • Can Microsoft juggle three operating systems? 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.neowin.net [Source type: General]

^ Can Microsoft juggle three operating systems?
  • Can Microsoft juggle three operating systems? 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.neowin.net [Source type: General]

.He would lead the development of the Windows NT operating system, which continues to serve as the basis for Microsoft's operating systems line.^ For a Microsoft® Windows®-based computer:Computer/Operating System One of the following: .
  • Microsoft Hardware Mice and Keyboard Product Documentation 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: General]

^ Windows as 'guest operating system'.
  • Free Operating systems and commercial operating systems 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.freebyte.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Research and development of new operating systems continues.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

Steve Jobs, a co-founder of Apple Inc., started NeXT Computer Inc., which developed the Unix-like NEXTSTEP operating system. NEXTSTEP would later be acquired by Apple Inc. and used, along with code from FreeBSD as the core of Mac OS X.
.The GNU project was started by activist and programmer Richard Stallman with the goal of a complete free software replacement to the proprietary UNIX operating system.^ UNIX operating system SunOS is described.
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ UNIX operating system .
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ C and requires an operating system compatible with Unix .
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

.While the project was highly successful in duplicating the functionality of various parts of UNIX, development of the GNU Hurd kernel proved to be unproductive.^ Today's Unix systems are split into various branches, developed over time by AT&T, several other commercial vendors, as well as several non-profit organizations, such as contributors to the GNU project.
  • Operating System - Free Operating System - Learn Operating System for Free at AcademicTutorials.Com 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.academictutorials.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Free software Unix variants, such as GNU , Linux and BSD , are popular in these areas.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ GNU Hurd is designed to be backwards compatible with Unix, but with enhanced functionality and a microkernel architecture.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.In 1991 Finnish computer science student Linus Torvalds, with cooperation from volunteers over the Internet, released the first version of the Linux kernel.^ Started by computer student Linus Torvalds with cooperation from volunteers over the internet, developed a kernel which was combined with the tools from the GNU Project .
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Linux began as a pet project of a Finnish university student, Linus Torvalds, in 1991 as an alternative to the server operating system Unix.

^ I’ve got an elderly laptop set up to run a bare-bones Linux kernel, the old UNIX tools, and vi and emacs — which is basically as powerful as the computer I shared with the entire Computer Science department at Duke in 1983 — and it runs fine.
  • Edgelings.com » Smilodon and the Computer Operating System 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC pajamasmedia.com [Source type: General]

.It was soon merged with the GNU userland and system software to form a complete operating system.^ COSA is a complete operating system.
  • The COSA Operating System 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.rebelscience.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Anyways, enjoy paying through the nose for software and Operating Systems that Linux users get for free legally!
  • Operating Systems - GraphJam: Music and Pop Culture in Charts and Graphs. Let us explain them. 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC graphjam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reply Reply Close comment form Onur YALAZI March 12th, 2009 at 3:23 am There is no Turkish National Operating system.
  • Operating System Interface Design Between 1981-2009 | Webdesigner Depot 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.webdesignerdepot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since then, the combination of the two major components has usually been referred to as simply "Linux" by the software industry, a naming convention which Stallman and the Free Software Foundation remain opposed to, preferring the name "GNU/Linux" instead.^ Anyways, enjoy paying through the nose for software and Operating Systems that Linux users get for free legally!
  • Operating Systems - GraphJam: Music and Pop Culture in Charts and Graphs. Let us explain them. 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC graphjam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You can't continuously worry about the past, but instead, should worry about building a strong foundation for software and compatibility from the now and into the future.
  • Can Microsoft juggle three operating systems? 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.neowin.net [Source type: General]

^ After getting used to having different workspaces in Ubuntu, I couldn't do any serious work in Windows or Mac OS X. And GNU/Linux variants are free as in freedom which makes them inherently superior to those two.
  • xkcd • View topic - Operating Systems 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC forums.xkcd.com [Source type: General]

.The Berkeley Software Distribution, known as BSD, is the UNIX derivative distributed by the University of California, Berkeley, starting in the 1970s.^ It is derived from BSD UNIX, the version of UNIX developed at the University of California, Berkeley.
  • Free Operating systems and commercial operating systems 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.freebyte.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The Berkeley Software Distribution, known as BSD , is the UNIX derivative distributed by the University of California, Berkeley, starting in the 1970s.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Free software Unix variants, such as GNU , Linux and BSD , are popular in these areas.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.Freely distributed and ported to many minicomputers, it eventually also gained a following for use on PCs, mainly as FreeBSD, NetBSD and OpenBSD.^ Freely distributed and ported to many minicomputers, it eventually also gained a following for use on PCs, mainly as FreeBSD , NetBSD and OpenBSD .
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Apple figuratively stands on the shoulders of giants (see freeBSD, NetBSD) then adds a windowing system and all of their GUI apps as non-free licensed software.
  • Google to Launch PC Operating System « naked capitalism 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.nakedcapitalism.com [Source type: General]

^ Reply David says: January 6, 2010 at 2:03 pm Well, how many people do you know that use Linuxes as PC’s?
  • Operating Systems - GraphJam: Music and Pop Culture in Charts and Graphs. Let us explain them. 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC graphjam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Features

Program execution

.The operating system acts as an interface between an application and the hardware.^ Fundamentals of Operating Systems An operating system is a program that acts as an intermediary between a user and the computer hardware.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Main article: Process (computing) The operating system acts as an interface between an application and the hardware.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The operating system acts as a host for applications that are run on the machine.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.The user interacts with the hardware from "the other side". The operating system is a set of services which simplifies development of applications.^ The user interacts with the hardware from "the other side".
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Operating systems offer a number of services to application programs and users.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The operating system is a set of services which simplifies development of applications.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.Executing a program involves the creation of a process by the operating system.^ What it says to me is that it is not that hard to create an operating system.
  • 10 amazingly alternative operating systems and what they could mean for the future | Royal Pingdom 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC royal.pingdom.com [Source type: General]

^ A process is a program in execution.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Executing a program involves the creation of a process by the operating system.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.The kernel creates a process by assigning memory and other resources, establishing a priority for the process (in multi-tasking systems), loading program code into memory, and executing the program.^ These resources are allocated to the process either when it is created, or while it is executing.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The kernel creates a process by assigning memory and other resources, establishing a priority for the process (in multi-tasking systems), loading program code into memory, and executing the program.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ A process is a program in execution.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

.The program then interacts with the user and/or other devices and performs its intended function.^ The program then interacts with the user and/or other devices performing its intended function.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The user interacts with the hardware from "the other side".
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ In many systems, a user's memory usage, their selection of available programs, their total disk usage or quota , available range of programs' priority settings, and other functions can also be locked down.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

Interrupts

.Interrupts are central to operating systems, as they provide an efficient way for the operating system to interact with and react to its environment.^ Main article: interrupt Interrupts are central to operating systems as they provide an efficient way for the operating system to interact and react to its environment.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Meglos: An operating system for a multiprocessor environment.
  • Distributed operating systems 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC portal.acm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ ABSTRACT Distributed operating systems have many aspects in common with centralized ones, but they also differ in certain ways.
  • Distributed operating systems 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC portal.acm.org [Source type: Academic]

.The alternative—having the operating system "watch" the various sources of input for events (polling) that require action—can be found in older systems with very small stacks (50 or 60 bytes) but fairly unusual in modern systems with fairly large stacks.^ C and requires an operating system compatible with Unix .
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Multiprogrammed operating systems are fairly sophisticated.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ File system support in modern operating systems .
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.Interrupt-based programming is directly supported by most modern CPUs.^ Interrupt -based programming is directly supported by most CPUs.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Solaris (as most Operating Systems based upon Open Standards and/or Open Source ) defaulted to, supported, and extended UFS .
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ In this case the components br programming languages operating systems and object database 3733.7 Efficient Runtime Support for Cluster-Based Distributed Shared Memory ..
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Interrupts provide a computer with a way of automatically saving local register contexts, and running specific code in response to events.^ Interrupts provide a computer with a way of automatically running specific code in response to events.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Some people also miss the dual nature of source code, it actually runs on two computers: first in your mind, then on the machine.
  • Edgelings.com » Smilodon and the Computer Operating System 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC pajamasmedia.com [Source type: General]

^ Interrupts may come from either the computer's hardware or from the running program.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.Even very basic computers support hardware interrupts, and allow the programmer to specify code which may be run when that event takes place.^ Interrupts may come from either the computer's hardware or from the running program.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Even very basic computers support hardware interrupts, and allow the programmer to specify code which may be run when that event takes place.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Interrupts provide a computer with a way of automatically running specific code in response to events.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.When an interrupt is received, the computer's hardware automatically suspends whatever program is currently running, saves its status, and runs computer code previously associated with the interrupt; this is analogous to placing a bookmark in a book in response to a phone call.^ Interrupts may come from either the computer's hardware or from the running program.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ When an interrupt is received the computer's hardware automatically suspends whatever program is currently running, saves its status, and runs computer code previously associated with the interrupt.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Interrupts provide a computer with a way of automatically running specific code in response to events.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.In modern operating systems, interrupts are handled by the operating system's kernel.^ File system support in modern operating systems .
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ In modern operating systems interrupts are handled by the operating system's kernel .
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ To accomplish this, modern operating system kernels make use of a timed interrupt.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.Interrupts may come from either the computer's hardware or from the running program.^ Interrupts may come from either the computer's hardware or from the running program.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ While the root user has virtually unlimited permission to affect system changes, programs running as a regular user are limited in where they can save files, what hardware they can access, etc.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Multiple jobs are executed by the CPU switching between them, but the switches occur so frequently that the users may interact with each program while it is running.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

.When a hardware device triggers an interrupt, the operating system's kernel decides how to deal with this event, generally by running some processing code.^ Programs br each machine runs within the operating system kernel.
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Digital Unix operating system running on a .
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ When a hardware device triggers an interrupt the operating system's kernel decides how to deal with this event, generally by running some processing code.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.The amount of code being run depends on the priority of the interrupt (for example: a person usually responds to a smoke detector alarm before answering the phone).^ How much code gets run depends on the priority of the interrupt (for example: a person usually responds to a smoke detector alarm before answering the phone).
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Even very basic computers support hardware interrupts, and allow the programmer to specify code which may be run when that event takes place.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ When an interrupt is received the computer's hardware automatically suspends whatever program is currently running, saves its status, and runs computer code previously associated with the interrupt.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.The processing of hardware interrupts is a task that is usually delegated to software called device driver, which may be either part of the operating system's kernel, part of another program, or both.^ Programs br each machine runs within the operating system kernel.
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Interrupts may come from either the computer's hardware or from the running program.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The processing of hardware interrupts is a task that is usually delegated to software called device drivers, which may be either part of the operating system's kernel, part of another program, or both.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.Device drivers may then relay information to a running program by various means.^ Device drivers may then relay information to a running program by various means.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ To me an OS has to run various programs.
  • Google Chrome: Redefining The Operating System 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.techcrunch.com [Source type: General]

^ The term "protected mode resource" generally refers to one or more CPU registers, which contain information that the running program isn't allowed to alter.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.A program may also trigger an interrupt to the operating system.^ A program may also trigger an interrupt to the operating system.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Ken Thompson , Dennis Ritchie and Douglas McIlroy at Bell Labs designed and developed the C programming language to build the operating system Unix.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The calculation for measuring this time involves adding together interrupt response time, task switching time, and other processor and operating system benchmarks.
  • Comp.dsp FAQ: DSP Operating Systems 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.bdti.com [Source type: Original source]

.If a program wishes to access hardware for example, it may interrupt the operating system's kernel, which causes control to be passed back to the kernel.^ Programs br each machine runs within the operating system kernel.
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Interrupts may come from either the computer's hardware or from the running program.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ A user program may leave protected mode only by triggering an interrupt, causing control to be passed back to the kernel .
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.The kernel will then process the request.^ The kernel will then process the request.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.If a program wishes additional resources (or wishes to shed resources) such as memory, it will trigger an interrupt to get the kernel's attention.^ If a program wishes additional resources (or wishes to shed resources) such as memory, it will trigger an interrupt to get the kernel's attention.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ When the kernel detects a page fault it will generally adjust the virtual memory range of the program which triggered it, granting it access to the memory requested.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The use of virtual memory addressing (such as paging or segmentation) means that the kernel can choose what memory each program may use at any given time, allowing the operating system to use the same memory locations for multiple tasks.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

Protected mode and supervisor mode

.Modern CPUs support something called dual mode operation.^ A freeware open-source 32-bit, protected-mode, multitasking, single-user, operating system which runs on i386 CPU's.
  • Free Operating systems and commercial operating systems 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.freebyte.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The primary br and enhance the following operating system concurrency interprocess 2957.3 Efficient Support for Multiple Concurrency Paradigms in Modern..
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ As a result, a single-CPU COSA operating system can easily support tens of thousands and even millions of concurrent cells.
  • The COSA Operating System 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.rebelscience.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.CPUs with this capability use two modes: protected mode and supervisor mode, which allow certain CPU functions to be controlled and affected only by the operating system kernel.^ Protected mode and supervisor mode .
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Solaris operating system used.
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ CPUs with this capability use two modes: protected mode and supervisor mode , which allow certain CPU functions to be controlled and affected only by the operating system kernel .
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.Here, protected mode does not refer specifically to the 80286 (Intel's x86 16-bit microprocessor) CPU feature, although its protected mode is very similar to it.^ CPUs might have other modes similar to 80286 protected mode as well, such as the virtual 8086 mode of the 80386 (Intel's x86 32-bit microprocessor or i386).
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Here, protected mode does not refer specifically to the 80286 (Intel's x86 16-bit microprocessor) CPU feature, although its protected mode is very similar to it.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Strawman: Don’t forget, while all of these OSes run on ARM and similar platforms, Intel still has the 960 microcontroller, and can compete with all of these 32-bit micros.
  • Edgelings.com » Smilodon and the Computer Operating System 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC pajamasmedia.com [Source type: General]

.CPUs might have other modes similar to 80286 protected mode as well, such as the virtual 8086 mode of the 80386 (Intel's x86 32-bit microprocessor or i386).^ CPUs might have other modes similar to 80286 protected mode as well, such as the virtual 8086 mode of the 80386 (Intel's x86 32-bit microprocessor or i386).
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Here, protected mode does not refer specifically to the 80286 (Intel's x86 16-bit microprocessor) CPU feature, although its protected mode is very similar to it.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Unlike earlier versions, RISC OS 5 runs entirely in the ARM's 32-bit mode making it suitable for the latest ARM processors such as Intel XScale, ARM9 and ARM10 based devices.
  • Free Operating systems and commercial operating systems 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.freebyte.com [Source type: Reference]

.However, the term is used here more generally in operating system theory to refer to all modes which limit the capabilities of programs running in that mode, providing things like virtual memory addressing and limiting access to hardware in a manner determined by a program running in supervisor mode.^ Programs br each machine runs within the operating system kernel.
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ View all » Topics » Operating systems add a comment 5 I like it!
  • Operating systems | ITworld 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.itworld.com [Source type: General]

^ Unix and Unix-like operating systems .
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.Similar modes have existed in supercomputers, minicomputers, and mainframes as they are essential to fully supporting UNIX-like multi-user operating systems.^ UNIX operating system SunOS is described.
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ UNIX operating system .
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Tech Support: "Windows 3.1 is the operating system.
  • Computer Stupidities: Operating Systems 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.rinkworks.com [Source type: General]

.When a computer first starts up, it is automatically running in supervisor mode.^ When a computer first starts up, it is automatically running in supervisor mode.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ As time passes, entries in the registry for old or uninstalled or deleted software will build up, making the system start up slowly, run more slowly, or make the computer unstable - ‘freezes’ can be one sign of this.

^ Some people also miss the dual nature of source code, it actually runs on two computers: first in your mind, then on the machine.
  • Edgelings.com » Smilodon and the Computer Operating System 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC pajamasmedia.com [Source type: General]

.The first few programs to run on the computer, being the BIOS, bootloader and the operating system have unlimited access to hardware - and this is required because, by definition, initializing a protected environment can only be done outside of one.^ Meglos: An operating system for a multiprocessor environment.
  • Distributed operating systems 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC portal.acm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ For a Microsoft® Windows®-based computer:Computer/Operating System One of the following: .
  • Microsoft Hardware Mice and Keyboard Product Documentation 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: General]

^ INSTALLING ANY operating system on a computer sucks.
  • Operating Systems - GraphJam: Music and Pop Culture in Charts and Graphs. Let us explain them. 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC graphjam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, when the operating system passes control to another program, it can place the CPU into protected mode.^ Each operating system runs in its own protected sandbox.
  • Free Operating systems and commercial operating systems 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.freebyte.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Open-source project to construct a free operating system which is able to run Windows and DOS programs, MAC programs, Linux programs and OS/2 programs.
  • Free Operating systems and commercial operating systems 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.freebyte.com [Source type: Reference]

^ When the operating system finishes the execution of one command, it seeks the next 'control statement'.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

.In protected mode, programs may have access to a more limited set of the CPU's instructions.^ In protected mode , programs may have access to a more limited set of the CPU's instructions.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ While the root user has virtually unlimited permission to affect system changes, programs running as a regular user are limited in where they can save files, what hardware they can access, etc.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The term "protected mode resource" generally refers to one or more CPU registers, which contain information that the running program isn't allowed to alter.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.A user program may leave protected mode only by triggering an interrupt, causing control to be passed back to the kernel.^ A user program may leave protected mode only by triggering an interrupt, causing control to be passed back to the kernel .
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ If a program wishes to access hardware for example, it may interrupt the operating system's kernel, which causes control to be passed back to the kernel.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ A program may also trigger an interrupt to the operating system.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.In this way the operating system can maintain exclusive control over things like access to hardware and memory.^ Unix and Unix-like operating systems .
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Mach operating system virtual memory.
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ In this way the operating system can maintain exclusive control over things like access to hardware and memory.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.The term "protected mode resource" generally refers to one or more CPU registers, which contain information that the running program isn't allowed to alter.^ The term "protected mode resource" generally refers to one or more CPU registers, which contain information that the running program isn't allowed to alter.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ In protected mode , programs may have access to a more limited set of the CPU's instructions.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ IPC One of the strong features of Unix-like operating systems, is their ability to run several processes simultaneously, and let them all share the CPU(s), memory, and other resources.
  • Operating System - Free Operating System - Learn Operating System for Free at AcademicTutorials.Com 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.academictutorials.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Attempts to alter these resources generally causes a switch to supervisor mode, where the operating system can deal with the illegal operation the program was attempting (for example, by killing the program).^ Attempts to alter these resources generally causes a switch to supervisor mode, where the operating system can deal with the illegal operation the program was attempting (for example, by killing the program).
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Examples of operating systems .
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Ken Thompson , Dennis Ritchie and Douglas McIlroy at Bell Labs designed and developed the C programming language to build the operating system Unix.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

Memory management

.Among other things, a multiprogramming operating system kernel must be responsible for managing all system memory which is currently in use by programs.^ Programs br each machine runs within the operating system kernel.
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Solaris operating system used.
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Other operating systems are modular , separating the graphics subsystem from the kernel and the Operating System.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.This ensures that a program does not interfere with memory already used by another program.^ This ensures that a program does not interfere with memory already used by another program.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Windows 3.1-Me had some level of memory protection, but programs could easily circumvent the need to use it.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Malicious programs, or viruses may purposefully alter another program's memory or may affect the operation of the operating system itself.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.Since programs time share, each program must have independent access to memory.^ Since programs time share, each program must have independent access to memory.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ It soon became capable of providing cross-platform time sharing using preemptive multitasking, advanced memory management, memory protection, and a host of other advanced features.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ When the kernel detects a page fault it will generally adjust the virtual memory range of the program which triggered it, granting it access to the memory requested.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.Cooperative memory management, used by many early operating systems assumes that all programs make voluntary use of the kernel's memory manager, and do not exceed their allocated memory.^ Programs br each machine runs within the operating system kernel.
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Solaris operating system used.
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ I will never ever use a Google operating system.
  • Google targets Microsoft with new operating system | Technology | guardian.co.uk 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: General]

.This system of memory management is almost never seen anymore, since programs often contain bugs which can cause them to exceed their allocated memory.^ This system of memory management is almost never seen anymore, since programs often contain bugs which can cause them to exceed their allocated memory.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ In many systems, a user's memory usage, their selection of available programs, their total disk usage or quota , available range of programs' priority settings, and other functions can also be locked down.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Since programs time share, each program must have independent access to memory.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.If a program fails it may cause memory used by one or more other programs to be affected or overwritten.^ If a program fails it may cause memory used by one or more other programs to be affected or overwritten.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ I wrote programs in APL. I’m one of the teeny tiny minority of people who actually use a computer for computing.
  • Edgelings.com » Smilodon and the Computer Operating System 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC pajamasmedia.com [Source type: General]

^ Windows 3.1-Me had some level of memory protection, but programs could easily circumvent the need to use it.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.Malicious programs, or viruses may purposefully alter another program's memory or may affect the operation of the operating system itself.^ Malicious programs, or viruses may purposefully alter another program's memory or may affect the operation of the operating system itself.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Mach operating system virtual memory.
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ A program may also trigger an interrupt to the operating system.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.With cooperative memory management it takes only one misbehaved program to crash the system.^ When a program crashes, only THAT program crashes.
  • Operating Systems - GraphJam: Music and Pop Culture in Charts and Graphs. Let us explain them. 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC graphjam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With cooperative memory management it takes only one misbehaved program to crash the system.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ In many systems, a user's memory usage, their selection of available programs, their total disk usage or quota , available range of programs' priority settings, and other functions can also be locked down.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.Memory protection enables the kernel to limit a process' access to the computer's memory.^ Memory protection enables the kernel to limit a process' access to the computer's memory.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ When the kernel detects a page fault it will generally adjust the virtual memory range of the program which triggered it, granting it access to the memory requested.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ In both segmentation and paging, certain protected mode registers specify to the CPU what memory address it should allow a running program to access.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.Various methods of memory protection exist, including memory segmentation and paging.^ Various methods of memory protection exist, including memory segmentation and paging .
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Memory protection · Segmentation · Paging · Segmentation fault · General protection fault · Bus error .
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ In both segmentation and paging, certain protected mode registers specify to the CPU what memory address it should allow a running program to access.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.All methods require some level of hardware support (such as the 80286 MMU) which doesn't exist in all computers.^ Parsons (1997) (Correct) Multiprocessors are being used increasingly to support workloads in which some or all of the jobs are parallel.
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ OS/2 Warp was everything XP has and then some, 5 years ahead of XP and half the hardware requirement.
  • Operating System Interface Design Between 1981-2009 | Webdesigner Depot 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.webdesignerdepot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also, notebook computers and desktop PCs should be able to meet all the hardware specifications.

.In both segmentation and paging, certain protected mode registers specify to the CPU what memory address it should allow a running program to access.^ In both segmentation and paging, certain protected mode registers specify to the CPU what memory address it should allow a running program to access.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ We are interested in only the sequence of memory addresses generated by the running program.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ In protected mode , programs may have access to a more limited set of the CPU's instructions.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.Attempts to access other addresses will trigger an interrupt which will cause the CPU to re-enter supervisor mode, placing the kernel in charge.^ Attempts to access other addresses will trigger an interrupt which will cause the CPU to re-enter supervisor mode , placing the kernel in charge.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ When the kernel detects a page fault it will generally adjust the virtual memory range of the program which triggered it, granting it access to the memory requested.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ When the CPU tries to fetch the first instruction, it immediately gets a page fault, which causes the page containing the first instruction to be loaded and entered in the page table.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

.This is called a segmentation violation or Seg-V for short, and since it is both difficult to assign a meaningful result to such an operation, and because it is usually a sign of a misbehaving program, the kernel will generally resort to terminating the offending program, and will report the error.^ This is called a segmentation violation or Seg-V for short, and since it is both difficult to assign a meaningful result to such an operation, and because it is usually a sign of a misbehaving program, the kernel will generally resort to terminating the offending program, and will report the error.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ General-purpose operating systems, such as DOS and UNIX , are not real-time.

^ When the kernel detects a page fault it will generally adjust the virtual memory range of the program which triggered it, granting it access to the memory requested.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.Windows 3.1-Me had some level of memory protection, but programs could easily circumvent the need to use it.^ Windows 3.1-Me had some level of memory protection, but programs could easily circumvent the need to use it.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ It soon became capable of providing cross-platform time sharing using preemptive multitasking, advanced memory management, memory protection, and a host of other advanced features.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Ollie Hancock — October 4, 2007, 6:59 am What is the Windows registry, and why might you need to use a registry cleaner?

.Under Windows 9x all MS-DOS applications ran in supervisor mode, giving them almost unlimited control over the computer.^ You could always try Linux + Cedega http://bit.ly/xxmcj which would allow you to play all your Windows games under Linux.
  • Google targets Microsoft with new operating system | Technology | guardian.co.uk 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Windows 95 desktop] "Do you see how all the programs are on the left side of the computer?"
  • Computer Stupidities: Operating Systems 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.rinkworks.com [Source type: General]

^ Almost all services are turned off - a first choice for every good administrator, as he will have ultimate control over the whole system.

.A general protection fault would be produced indicating a segmentation violation had occurred, however the system would often crash anyway.^ Memory protection · Segmentation · Paging · Segmentation fault · General protection fault · Bus error .
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ A general protection fault would be produced indicating a segmentation violation had occurred, however the system would often crash anyway.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ These latencies often produce noticeable slowness in desktop systems, and can prevent operating systems from performing time-sensitive operations such as audio recording and some communications.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.In most GNU/Linux systems, part of the hard disk is reserved for virtual memory when the Operating system is being installed on the system.^ In most Linux systems, part of the hard disk is reserved for virtual memory when the Operating system is being installed on the system.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Operating system (Linux Reviews) .
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Mach operating system virtual memory.
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

.This part is known as swap space.^ This part is known as swap space .
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.Windows systems use a swap file instead of a partition.^ Windows systems use a swap file instead of a partition .
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Previously, it was only possible to achieve such functionality in Windows 3.0 using the Adobe Type Manager (ATM) font system from Adobe.
  • Operating System Interface Design Between 1981-2009 | Webdesigner Depot 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.webdesignerdepot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The system was updated one more time using Windows Update to apply all the critical updates dated from 2005 and 2006.
  • 2006 Operating System Vulnerability Summary - OmniNerd 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.omninerd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Virtual memory

.The use of virtual memory addressing (such as paging or segmentation) means that the kernel can choose what memory each program may use at any given time, allowing the operating system to use the same memory locations for multiple tasks.^ Programs br each machine runs within the operating system kernel.
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Do not confuse this with the program file which may be located on the same disk.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The use of virtual memory addressing (such as paging or segmentation) means that the kernel can choose what memory each program may use at any given time, allowing the operating system to use the same memory locations for multiple tasks.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.If a program tries to access memory that isn't in its current range of accessible memory, but nonetheless has been allocated to it, the kernel will be interrupted in the same way as it would if the program were to exceed its allocated memory.^ If a program tries to access memory that isn't in its current range of accessible memory, but nonetheless has been allocated to it, the kernel will be interrupted in the same way as it would if the program were to exceed its allocated memory.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ When the kernel detects a page fault it will generally adjust the virtual memory range of the program which triggered it, granting it access to the memory requested.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ In many systems, a user's memory usage, their selection of available programs, their total disk usage or quota , available range of programs' priority settings, and other functions can also be locked down.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.(See section on memory management.^ (See section on memory management.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ See next topic Memory Management Memory Management .
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ See topics: Introduction to Memory Management Address Binding Dynamic Loading/Linking Overlays Swapping Paging Introduction to Memory Management .
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

) .Under UNIX this kind of interrupt is referred to as a page fault.^ Under UNIX this kind of interrupt is referred to as a page fault .
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ When a reference is made to an address on a page not present in main memory, it is called a page fault.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Thus, the code for the first n pages of a program might have been flagged to be loaded when the program is executed in order to drastically reduce the number of page faults that might have occurred under pure demand paging.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

.When the kernel detects a page fault it will generally adjust the virtual memory range of the program which triggered it, granting it access to the memory requested.^ When the kernel detects a page fault it will generally adjust the virtual memory range of the program which triggered it, granting it access to the memory requested.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ A program that generates page faults frequently and continuously is said to be thrashing.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Memory protection · Segmentation · Paging · Segmentation fault · General protection fault · Bus error .
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.This gives the kernel discretionary power over where a particular application's memory is stored, or even whether or not it has actually been allocated yet.^ This gives the kernel discretionary power over where a particular application's memory is stored, or even whether or not it has actually been allocated yet.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Most people would feel nervous if their system crashed while the sole copy of important data was in memory, even if the power stayed ...
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ In modern operating systems, application memory which is accessed less frequently can be temporarily stored on disk or other media to make that space available for use by other programs.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.In modern operating systems, memory which is accessed less frequently can be temporarily stored on disk or other media to make that space available for use by other programs.^ Solaris operating system used.
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ In modern operating systems, application memory which is accessed less frequently can be temporarily stored on disk or other media to make that space available for use by other programs.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Memory is central to the operation of a modern computer system.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

.This is called swapping, as an area of memory can be used by multiple programs, and what that memory area contains can be swapped or exchanged on demand.^ In programs, the memory locations that are referenced are called logical addresses because an address specified by a program may or may not be the correct physical address.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ This method of operating a virtual memory is called pure demand paging.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The limit of w(k,t) as k becomes large is finite, because the program cannot reference more pages than its address space contains, and few programs will use every single page.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

Multitasking

.Multitasking refers to the running of multiple independent computer programs on the same computer; giving the appearance that it is performing the tasks at the same time.^ Main article: Computer multitasking Main article: Process management (computing) Multitasking refers to the running of multiple independent computer programs on the same computer, giving the appearance that it is performing the tasks at the same time.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The most important program that runs on a computer .

^ In addtion, if several jobs are ready to run at the same time, the system must choose among them.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Since most computers can do at most one or two things at one time, this is generally done via time-sharing, which means that each program uses a share of the computer's time to execute.^ The most important program that runs on a computer .

^ One of two things will then happen.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ I wrote programs in APL. I’m one of the teeny tiny minority of people who actually use a computer for computing.
  • Edgelings.com » Smilodon and the Computer Operating System 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC pajamasmedia.com [Source type: General]

.An operating system kernel contains a piece of software called a scheduler which determines how much time each program will spend executing, and in which order execution control should be passed to programs.^ Scheduling Algorithms and Operating Systems Support for Real-Time br the areas of scheduling and operating system kernels.
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Programs br each machine runs within the operating system kernel.
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Operating System Scheduler br .
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Control is passed to a process by the kernel, which allows the program access to the CPU and memory.^ Memory protection enables the kernel to limit a process' access to the computer's memory.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Control is passed to a process by the kernel , which allows the program access to the CPU and memory.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Priority processing is controlled at the message server level, not at the kernel level.
  • The COSA Operating System 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.rebelscience.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Later, control is returned to the kernel through some mechanism, so that another program may be allowed to use the CPU. This so-called passing of control between the kernel and applications is called a context switch.^ In this model, when control is passed to a program by the kernel , it may execute for as long as it wants before explicitly returning control to the kernel .
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ At a later time control is returned to the kernel through some mechanism, so that another program may be allowed to use the CPU. This so-called passing of control between the kernel and applications is called a context switch .
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Control is passed to a process by the kernel , which allows the program access to the CPU and memory.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.An early model which governed the allocation of time to programs was called cooperative multitasking.^ An early model which governed the allocation of time to programs was called cooperative multitasking .
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ On many single user operating systems cooperative multitasking is perfectly adequate, as home computers generally run a small number of well tested programs.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The philosophy governing preemptive multitasking is that of ensuring that all programs are given regular time on the CPU. This implies that all programs must be limited in how much time they are allowed to spend on the CPU without being interrupted.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.In this model, when control is passed to a program by the kernel, it may execute for as long as it wants before explicitly returning control to the kernel.^ In this model, when control is passed to a program by the kernel , it may execute for as long as it wants before explicitly returning control to the kernel .
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Multiple jobs are executed by the CPU switching between them, but the switches occur so frequently that the users may interact with each program while it is running.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Nessus: The SMTP server on port 587 is susceptible to a buffer overflow when a long argument is passed in the MAIL FROM command which may permit remote code execution or denial of service.
  • 2006 Operating System Vulnerability Summary - OmniNerd 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.omninerd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This means that a malicious or malfunctioning program may not only prevent any other programs from using the CPU, but it can hang the entire system if it enters an infinite loop.^ It’s also used for running programs which only run on Windows.
  • Operating Systems - GraphJam: Music and Pop Culture in Charts and Graphs. Let us explain them. 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC graphjam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ OpenBSD can run Linux binaries on an emulation layer; DOS (and other systems) programs within the Qemu emulator, as well as FreeBSD and other BSD and Unix binaries.

^ The processes in the system can execute concurrently; that is, many processes may be multitasked on a CPU. There are several reasons for allowing concurrent execution: Physical Resource Sharing .
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

.The philosophy governing preemptive multitasking is that of ensuring that all programs are given regular time on the CPU. This implies that all programs must be limited in how much time they are allowed to spend on the CPU without being interrupted.^ The philosophy governing preemptive multitasking is that of ensuring that all programs are given regular time on the CPU. This implies that all programs must be limited in how much time they are allowed to spend on the CPU without being interrupted.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ While the root user has virtually unlimited permission to affect system changes, programs running as a regular user are limited in where they can save files, what hardware they can access, etc.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ It soon became capable of providing cross-platform time sharing using preemptive multitasking, advanced memory management, memory protection, and a host of other advanced features.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.To accomplish this, modern operating system kernels make use of a timed interrupt.^ Solaris operating system used.
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Time-sharing operating systems are sophisticated.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ I will never ever use a Google operating system.
  • Google targets Microsoft with new operating system | Technology | guardian.co.uk 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: General]

.A protected mode timer is set by the kernel which triggers a return to supervisor mode after the specified time has elapsed.^ Protected mode and supervisor mode .
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ A protected mode timer is set by the kernel which triggers a return to supervisor mode after the specified time has elapsed.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ In both segmentation and paging, certain protected mode registers specify to the CPU what memory address it should allow a running program to access.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.(See above sections on Interrupts and Dual Mode Operation.^ (See above sections on Interrupts and Dual Mode Operation.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The CPUs of these personal computers could not facilitate kernel memory protection or provide dual mode operation, so Xenix relied on cooperative multitasking and had no protected memory.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The 80286 -based IBM PC AT was the first IBM compatible personal computer capable of using dual mode operation, and providing memory protection.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

)
.On many single user operating systems cooperative multitasking is perfectly adequate, as home computers generally run a small number of well tested programs.^ Programs br each machine runs within the operating system kernel.
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Fundamentals of Operating Systems An operating system is a program that acts as an intermediary between a user and the computer hardware.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Digital Unix operating system running on a .
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Windows NT was the first version of Microsoft Windows which enforced preemptive multitasking, but it didn't reach the home user market until Windows XP, (since Windows NT was targeted at professionals.^ It had to have all the features of Windows XP Professional.
  • Computer Stupidities: Operating Systems 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.rinkworks.com [Source type: General]

^ Windows NT was the first version of Microsoft Windows which enforced preemptive multitasking, but it didn't reach the home user market until Windows XP , (since Windows NT was targeted at professionals.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Microsoft Windows XP Professional, Source: guidebookgallery.org .
  • Operating System Interface Design Between 1981-2009 | Webdesigner Depot 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.webdesignerdepot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

)

Kernel preemption

.In recent years, concerns have arisen because of long latencies associated with some kernel run-times, sometimes on the order of 100 ms or more in systems with monolithic kernels.^ In recent years concerns have arisen because of long latencies often associated with some kernel run-times, sometimes on the order of 100ms or more in systems with monolithic kernels.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ As time passes, entries in the registry for old or uninstalled or deleted software will build up, making the system start up slowly, run more slowly, or make the computer unstable - ‘freezes’ can be one sign of this.

^ In the event that the execution time exceeds the clock interval, the application designer has several options: a) use a slower real-time clock; b) use a faster CPU; c) split long operations into shorter ones; d) lower the priority of some message servers; or e) lighten CPU load by adding more CPUs to the system and redistributing the load.
  • The COSA Operating System 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.rebelscience.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These latencies often produce noticeable slowness in desktop systems, and can prevent operating systems from performing time-sensitive operations such as audio recording and some communications.^ Time-sharing operating systems are sophisticated.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Operating systems perform basic tasks, such as recognizing input from the keyboard , sending output to the display screen , keeping track of files and directories on the disk , and controlling peripheral devices such as disk drives and printers .

^ General-purpose operating systems, such as DOS and UNIX , are not real-time.

[3]
.Modern operating systems extend the concepts of application preemption to device drivers and kernel code, so that the operating system has preemptive control over internal run-times as well.^ Programs br each machine runs within the operating system kernel.
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The operating system acts as a host for applications that are run on the machine.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Time-sharing operating systems are sophisticated.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Under Windows Vista, the introduction of the Windows Display Driver Model (WDDM) accomplishes this for display drivers, and in GNU/Linux, the preemptable kernel model introduced in version 2.6 allows all device drivers and some other parts of kernel code to take advantage of preemptive multi-tasking.^ Under Windows Vista , the introduction of the Windows Display Driver Model (WDDM) accomplishes this for display drivers, and in Linux, the preemptable kernel model introduced in version 2.6 allows all device drivers and some other parts of kernel code to take advantage of preemptive multi-tasking.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The material specific to Windows now focuses on Windows Vista rather than Windows XP. The other example OSs are Unix and Linux with the Sidebar that compares the tradeoffs of each.
  • Pearson - Operating Systems: Internals and Design Principles, 6/E - William Stallings 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC pearsonhighered.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Many Linux distributions support some or all of ext2 , ext3 , ext4 , ReiserFS , Reiser4 , JFS , XFS , GFS , GFS2 , OCFS , OCFS2 , and NILFS .
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.Under Windows versions prior to Windows Vista and Linux prior to version 2.6 all driver execution was co-operative, meaning that if a driver entered an infinite loop it would freeze the system.^ Under Windows prior to Windows Vista and Linux prior to version 2.6 all driver execution was co-operative, meaning that if a driver entered an infinite loop it would freeze the system.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The material specific to Windows now focuses on Windows Vista rather than Windows XP. The other example OSs are Unix and Linux with the Sidebar that compares the tradeoffs of each.
  • Pearson - Operating Systems: Internals and Design Principles, 6/E - William Stallings 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC pearsonhighered.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Under Windows Vista , the introduction of the Windows Display Driver Model (WDDM) accomplishes this for display drivers, and in Linux, the preemptable kernel model introduced in version 2.6 allows all device drivers and some other parts of kernel code to take advantage of preemptive multi-tasking.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

Disk access and file systems

.Access to data stored on disks is a central feature of all operating systems.^ It had several features of a modern operating system, being windows based with icons.
  • Operating System Interface Design Between 1981-2009 | Webdesigner Depot 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.webdesignerdepot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ View all » Topics » Operating systems add a comment 5 I like it!
  • Operating systems | ITworld 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.itworld.com [Source type: General]

^ Why invest in hardware for 6 servers when all 6 could run from within one operating system through virtualisation?

.Computers store data on disks using files, which are structured in specific ways in order to allow for faster access, higher reliability, and to make better use out of the drive's available space.^ Hard Drive 30 MB of available hard disk space (Install 30 MB) .
  • Microsoft Hardware Mice and Keyboard Product Documentation 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: General]

^ The specific way in which files are stored on a disk is called a file system , and enables files to have names and attributes.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Computers store data on disks using files , which are structured in specific ways in order to allow for faster access, higher reliability, and to make better use out of the drive's available space.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.The specific way in which files are stored on a disk is called a file system, and enables files to have names and attributes.^ The specific way in which files are stored on a disk is called a file system , and enables files to have names and attributes.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Disk access and file systems .
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ For example, the DOS operating system contains commands such as COPY and RENAME for copying files and changing the names of files, respectively.

.It also allows them to be stored in a hierarchy of directories or folders arranged in a directory tree.^ It also allows them to be stored in a hierarchy of directories or folders arranged in a directory tree .
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.Early operating systems generally supported a single type of disk drive and only one kind of file system.^ Early operating systems generally supported a single type of disk drive and only one kind of file system.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Computer/Operating System One of the following: .
  • Microsoft Hardware Mice and Keyboard Product Documentation 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: General]

^ Tech Support: "Windows 3.1 is the operating system.
  • Computer Stupidities: Operating Systems 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.rinkworks.com [Source type: General]

.Early file systems were limited in their capacity, speed, and in the kinds of file names and directory structures they could use.^ Early file systems were limited in their capacity, speed, and in the kinds of file names and directory structures they could use.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Performance of FAT compares poorly to most other file systems as it uses overly simplistic data structures, making file operations time-consuming, and makes poor use of disk space in situations where many small files are present.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ While the root user has virtually unlimited permission to affect system changes, programs running as a regular user are limited in where they can save files, what hardware they can access, etc.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.These limitations often reflected limitations in the operating systems they were designed for, making it very difficult for an operating system to support more than one file system.^ Various differences between file systems make supporting all file systems difficult.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Tech Support: "Windows 3.1 is the operating system.
  • Computer Stupidities: Operating Systems 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.rinkworks.com [Source type: General]

^ (This file is the UNIX operating system image.
  • Computer Stupidities: Operating Systems 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.rinkworks.com [Source type: General]

.While many simpler operating systems support a limited range of options for accessing storage systems, operating systems like UNIX and GNU/Linux support a technology known as a virtual file system or VFS. An operating system like UNIX supports a wide array of storage devices, regardless of their design or file systems to be accessed through a common application programming interface (API).^ C and requires an operating system compatible with Unix .
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Digital Unix operating system running on a .
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Mach operating system virtual memory.
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

.This makes it unnecessary for programs to have any knowledge about the device they are accessing.^ This makes it unnecessary for programs to have any knowledge about the device they are accessing.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ While the root user has virtually unlimited permission to affect system changes, programs running as a regular user are limited in where they can save files, what hardware they can access, etc.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ A VFS allows the operating system to provide programs with access to an unlimited number of devices with an infinite variety of file systems installed on them through the use of specific device drivers and file system drivers.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.A VFS allows the operating system to provide programs with access to an unlimited number of devices with an infinite variety of file systems installed on them through the use of specific device drivers and file system drivers.^ Solaris operating system used.
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Operating Systems File Systems Management br access methods D. .
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ A VFS allows the operating system to provide programs with access to an unlimited number of devices with an infinite variety of file systems installed on them through the use of specific device drivers and file system drivers.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.A connected storage device such as a hard drive is accessed through a device driver.^ A connected storage device such as a hard drive is accessed through a device driver .
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ However, when several jobs are on a direct access device, such as a disk, job scheduling becomes possible.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ When the kernel has an appropriate device driver in place, it can then access the contents of the disk drive in raw format, which may contain one or more file systems.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.The device driver understands the specific language of the drive and is able to translate that language into a standard language used by the operating system to access all disk drives.^ Solaris operating system used.
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ I will never ever use a Google operating system.
  • Google targets Microsoft with new operating system | Technology | guardian.co.uk 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Operating systems perform basic tasks, such as recognizing input from the keyboard , sending output to the display screen , keeping track of files and directories on the disk , and controlling peripheral devices such as disk drives and printers .

.On UNIX, this is the language of block devices.^ Another alternative, used in the BSD UNIX system, is to keep the first, say 15 pointers of the index block in the device directory.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

.When the kernel has an appropriate device driver in place, it can then access the contents of the disk drive in raw format, which may contain one or more file systems.^ When the kernel has an appropriate device driver in place, it can then access the contents of the disk drive in raw format, which may contain one or more file systems.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Disk access and file systems .
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ While the root user has virtually unlimited permission to affect system changes, programs running as a regular user are limited in where they can save files, what hardware they can access, etc.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.A file system driver is used to translate the commands used to access each specific file system into a standard set of commands that the operating system can use to talk to all file systems.^ Solaris operating system used.
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Operating Systems File Systems Management br access methods D. .
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ I will never ever use a Google operating system.
  • Google targets Microsoft with new operating system | Technology | guardian.co.uk 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: General]

.Programs can then deal with these file systems on the basis of filenames, and directories/folders, contained within a hierarchical structure.^ For example, the DOS operating system contains commands such as COPY and RENAME for copying files and changing the names of files, respectively.

^ Its architecture is based on the principle that a file system must support a wide variety of file structures...
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ This topic deals with the the management of files in a computer system.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

.They can create, delete, open, and close files, as well as gather various information about them, including access permissions, size, free space, and creation and modification dates.^ They can create, delete, open, and close files, as well as gather various information about them, including access permissions, size, free space, and creation and modification dates.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ When a file is deleted, its disk space is added to the free-space list.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ This error could result in linking into the free-space list or into another file.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Various differences between file systems make supporting all file systems difficult.^ Its architecture is based on the principle that a file system must support a wide variety of file structures...
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Place all downloaded files in any directory (for example, in /usr/opbsd) and issue the following command to make the ISO image of it: .

^ Not different at all I’m afraid, and they could have simply just released another service pack, but instead are just trying to make back some lost revenue.
  • Operating Systems - GraphJam: Music and Pop Culture in Charts and Graphs. Let us explain them. 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC graphjam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Allowed characters in file names, case sensitivity, and the presence of various kinds of file attributes makes the implementation of a single interface for every file system a daunting task.^ At the moment of creation, the system should immediately find every effector that can potentially change variable A to a positive non-zero value and associate it with our sensor.
  • The COSA Operating System 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.rebelscience.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It’s like the Crazy Eddie business model: they lose money on almost every use of the system, and then make it up in volume.
  • Edgelings.com » Smilodon and the Computer Operating System 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC pajamasmedia.com [Source type: General]

^ In 2006, the compromised hosts became a network of distributed computers with downloadable controls to make it act as a single, massive attack system.
  • 2006 Operating System Vulnerability Summary - OmniNerd 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.omninerd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Operating systems tend to recommend using (and so support natively) file systems specifically designed for them; for example, NTFS in Windows and ext3 and ReiserFS in GNU/Linux.^ Operating system (Linux Reviews) .
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Does WinDriver support the Real Time Linux operating system?
  • TechDocs - Operating System 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.jungo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Operating systems tend to recommend the use of (and so support natively) file systems specifically designed for them; for example, NTFS in Windows and ext3 and ReiserFS in Linux.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.However, in practice, third party drives are usually available to give support for the most widely used file systems in most general-purpose operating systems (for example, NTFS is available in GNU/Linux through NTFS-3g, and ext2/3 and ReiserFS are available in Windows through FS-driver and rfstool).^ But which operating systems are the most secure?
  • 2006 Operating System Vulnerability Summary - OmniNerd 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.omninerd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Solaris operating system used.
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ However, these features are easily available in third party packs.

Device drivers

.A device driver is a specific type of computer software developed to allow interaction with hardware devices.^ Main article: Device driver A device driver is a specific type of computer software developed to allow interaction with hardware devices.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ It is a specialized hardware-dependent computer program which is also operating system specific that enables another program, typically an operating system or applications software package or computer program running under the operating system kernel, to interact transparently with a hardware device, and usually provides the requisite interrupt handling necessary for any necessary asynchronous time-dependent hardware interfacing needs.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Software drivers periodically synchronise the system time of the host computer to the received reference time.

.Typically this constitutes an interface for communicating with the device, through the specific computer bus or communications subsystem that the hardware is connected to, providing commands to and/or receiving data from the device, and on the other end, the requisite interfaces to the operating system and software applications.^ Computer/Operating System One of the following: .
  • Microsoft Hardware Mice and Keyboard Product Documentation 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: General]

^ Operating systems provide a software platform on top of which other programs, called application programs, can run.

^ INSTALLING ANY operating system on a computer sucks.
  • Operating Systems - GraphJam: Music and Pop Culture in Charts and Graphs. Let us explain them. 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC graphjam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is a specialized hardware-dependent computer program which is also operating system specific that enables another program, typically an operating system or applications software package or computer program running under the operating system kernel, to interact transparently with a hardware device, and usually provides the requisite interrupt handling necessary for any necessary asynchronous time-dependent hardware interfacing needs.^ (Correct) PANDA is a run-time package based on a very small operating system kernel which supports distributed applications written in C++.
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Programs br each machine runs within the operating system kernel.
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Interrupts may come from either the computer's hardware or from the running program.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

The key design goal of device drivers is abstraction. .Every model of hardware (even within the same class of device) is different.^ Every model of hardware (even within the same class of device) is different.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ It may be true that successful innovations start small, and that certain classes of software are the same way, but a lot of enterprise software (one of the areas I develop for) are very different.
  • Edgelings.com » Smilodon and the Computer Operating System 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC pajamasmedia.com [Source type: General]

.Newer models also are released by manufacturers that provide more reliable or better performance and these newer models are often controlled differently.^ Newer models also are released by manufacturers that provide more reliable or better performance and these newer models are often controlled differently.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ It often turns out that one or more objects need to be notified whenever a given operation is performed.
  • The COSA Operating System 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.rebelscience.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With registry cleaning software you can successfully purge these entries from the registry getting better performance and a smooth running pc.

.Computers and their operating systems cannot be expected to know how to control every device, both now and in the future.^ Computer/Operating System One of the following: .
  • Microsoft Hardware Mice and Keyboard Product Documentation 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: General]

^ What are your predictions for the future of operating systems?
  • 10 amazingly alternative operating systems and what they could mean for the future | Royal Pingdom 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC royal.pingdom.com [Source type: General]

^ My predictions for the future of operating systems is .
  • 10 amazingly alternative operating systems and what they could mean for the future | Royal Pingdom 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC royal.pingdom.com [Source type: General]

.To solve this problem, operative systems essentially dictate how every type of device should be controlled.^ To solve this problem, OSes essentially dictate how every type of device should be controlled.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ In sum, the system should enforce associations in such a way that every comparison sensor is associated with every effector that may potentially affect the comparison.
  • The COSA Operating System 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.rebelscience.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, the processor should have intimate knowledge of every cell type.
  • The COSA Operating System 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.rebelscience.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The function of the device driver is then to translate these operative system mandated function calls into device specific calls.^ Before jumping into my own list, I should say up-front that not all of these systems are dead, or really even obsolete.
  • Five great, obsolete operating systems - Computerworld Blogs 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC blogs.computerworld.com [Source type: General]

^ As most operating systems do not feature any layered security during these preliminary phases, it was not necessary to attempt firewall or network intrusion device evasion tricks.
  • 2006 Operating System Vulnerability Summary - OmniNerd 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.omninerd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No new executable code is allowed, not even for traditional system services such as file I/O, memory management, device drivers, etc...
  • The COSA Operating System 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.rebelscience.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In theory a new device, which is controlled in a new manner, should function correctly if a suitable driver is available.^ In theory a new device, which is controlled in a new manner, should function correctly if a suitable driver is available.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The function of the device driver is then to translate these OS mandated function calls into device specific calls.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Modern operating systems extend the concepts of application preemption to device drivers and kernel code, so that the operating system has preemptive control over internal run-times as well.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.This new driver will ensure that the device appears to operate as usual from the operating system's point of view.^ (Correct) This white paper describes Scout, a new operating system being designed for systems connected to the National Information Infrastructure (NII).
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Prior to installation of the new operating system, be sure to check that you have all the installation media from your existing software and the proper licensing information.

^ Pi A New Approach to Operating System Structuring for Flexibility br two main challenges faced by operating systems .
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

Networking

.Currently most operating systems support a variety of networking protocols, hardware, and applications for using them.^ Main article: Computer network Currently most operating systems support a variety of networking protocols, hardware, and applications for using them.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ I will never ever use a Google operating system.
  • Google targets Microsoft with new operating system | Technology | guardian.co.uk 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ File system support in modern operating systems .
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.This means that computers running dissimilar operating systems can participate in a common network for sharing resources such as computing, files, printers, and scanners using either wired or wireless connections.^ Computer/Operating System One of the following: .
  • Microsoft Hardware Mice and Keyboard Product Documentation 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: General]

^ Operating System Share of 2006 .
  • 2006 Operating System Vulnerability Summary - OmniNerd 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.omninerd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Solaris operating system used.
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Networks can essentially allow a computer's operating system to access the resources of a remote computer to support the same functions as it could if those resources were connected directly to the local computer.^ Computer/Operating System One of the following: .
  • Microsoft Hardware Mice and Keyboard Product Documentation 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: General]

^ The first computers did not have operating systems.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ File system support in modern operating systems .
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.This includes everything from simple communication, to using networked file systems or even sharing another computer's graphics or sound hardware.^ This includes everything from simple communication, to using networked file systems or even sharing another computer's graphics or sound hardware.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Boot loader · PXE · API · Virtual file system · Virtual tape library · Computer network · CLI · TUI · GUI · HAL .
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ While adhering to the principle of not configuring the services, every available remote connection was enabled over TCP /IP to include file sharing and personal websharing.
  • 2006 Operating System Vulnerability Summary - OmniNerd 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.omninerd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some network services allow the resources of a computer to be accessed transparently, such as SSH which allows networked users direct access to a computer's command line interface.^ Some network services allow the resources of a computer to be accessed transparently, such as SSH which allows networked users direct access to a computer's command line interface.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Many computer operating systems allow the user to install or create any user interface they desire.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ A Graphical User Interface (GUI for short) allows users to interact with the computer hardware in a user friendly way.
  • Operating System Interface Design Between 1981-2009 | Webdesigner Depot 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.webdesignerdepot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Client/server networking involves a program on a computer somewhere which connects via a network to another computer, called a server.^ Client/server networking involves a program on a computer somewhere which connects via a network to another computer, called a server.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Chapter 15 Distributed Processing, Client/Server, and Clusters 15.1 Client/Server Computing .
  • Pearson - Operating Systems: Internals and Design Principles, 6/E - William Stallings 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC pearsonhighered.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Speight (1997) (Correct) Distributed shared memory (DSM) systems provide a shared memory programming paradigm on top of a physically distributed network of computers.
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Servers offer (or host) various services to other network computers and users.^ Servers, usually running UNIX or Linux , offer (or host) various services to other network computers and users.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ As a consultant, he has advised government agencies, computer and software vendors, and major users on the design, selection, and use of networking software and products.
  • Pearson - Operating Systems: Internals and Design Principles, 6/E - William Stallings 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC pearsonhighered.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Mac OS X Server includes work group management and administration software tools that provide simplified access to key network services , including a mail transfer agent , a Samba server , an LDAP server, a domain name server , and others.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.These services are usually provided through ports or numbered access points beyond the server's network address.^ These services are usually provided through ports or numbered access points beyond the server's network address .
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Each port number is usually associated with a maximum of one running program, which is responsible for handling requests to that port.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ A VFS allows the operating system to provide programs with access to an unlimited number of devices with an infinite variety of file systems installed on them through the use of specific device drivers and file system drivers.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.Each port number is usually associated with a maximum of one running program, which is responsible for handling requests to that port.^ Desktop managers are usually associated with a graphical toolkit, and applications built to work with one of them tend to look a little strange on a different desktop manager.
  • Operating System Interface Design Between 1981-2009 | Webdesigner Depot 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.webdesignerdepot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One Note, by the way, is a fantastic little program which allows you to create rough notes for a project comprised of any number of clippings and information sources.
  • Edgelings.com » Smilodon and the Computer Operating System 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC pajamasmedia.com [Source type: General]

^ The only time I’ve used it is at jobs running one or two inventory/billing programs, and even then supported by a professional IT department.
  • Operating Systems - GraphJam: Music and Pop Culture in Charts and Graphs. Let us explain them. 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC graphjam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A daemon, being a user program, can in turn access the local hardware resources of that computer by passing requests to the operating system kernel.^ Programs br each machine runs within the operating system kernel.
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Fundamentals of Operating Systems An operating system is a program that acts as an intermediary between a user and the computer hardware.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ INSTALLING ANY operating system on a computer sucks.
  • Operating Systems - GraphJam: Music and Pop Culture in Charts and Graphs. Let us explain them. 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC graphjam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many operating systems support one or more vendor-specific or open networking protocols as well, for example, SNA on IBM systems, DECnet on systems from Digital Equipment Corporation, and Microsoft-specific protocols (SMB) on Windows.^ ReactOS is an operating system designed to be compatible with Microsoft Windows software.
  • 10 amazingly alternative operating systems and what they could mean for the future | Royal Pingdom 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC royal.pingdom.com [Source type: General]

^ File system support in modern operating systems .
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Digital Unix operating system running on a .
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Specific protocols for specific tasks may also be supported such as NFS for file access.^ Specific protocols for specific tasks may also be supported such as NFS for file access.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ They can multi-task much better these days, and support Microsoft documents for people still using Word and such.
  • 10 amazingly alternative operating systems and what they could mean for the future | Royal Pingdom 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC royal.pingdom.com [Source type: General]

^ A file system driver is used to translate the commands used to access each specific file system into a standard set of commands that the operating system can use to talk to all file systems.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.Protocols like ESound, or esd can be easily extended over the network to provide sound from local applications, on a remote system's sound hardware.^ Protocols like ESound , or esd can be easily extended over the network to provide sound from local applications, on a remote system's sound hardware.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Major hardware vendors, including IBM and Hewlett-Packard, sell servers preloaded with Linux and provide premium support for the operating system.

^ Main article: Process (computing) The operating system acts as an interface between an application and the hardware.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

Security

A computer being secure depends on a number of technologies working properly. .A modern operating system provides access to a number of resources, which are available to software running on the system, and to external devices like networks via the kernel.^ Programs br each machine runs within the operating system kernel.
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ System Calls System calls provide the interface between a running program and the operating system.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Digital Unix operating system running on a .
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

.The operating system must be capable of distinguishing between requests which should be allowed to be processed, and others which should not be processed.^ The processes in the system can execute concurrently; that is, many processes may be multitasked on a CPU. There are several reasons for allowing concurrent execution: Physical Resource Sharing .
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Producer-consumer processes are common in operating systems.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ A quick Nmap scan identified the operating system as between OS X 10.3.9 and 10.4.7 with several open ports and Nessus identified remote vulnerabilities.
  • 2006 Operating System Vulnerability Summary - OmniNerd 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.omninerd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While some systems may simply distinguish between "privileged" and "non-privileged", systems commonly have a form of requester identity, such as a user name.^ In the case of an I/O request, such a request may be to disk.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Nessus: Arbitrary code may be executed with SYSTEM privileges via the LSASS service’s DsRolerUpgradeDownlevelServer function.
  • 2006 Operating System Vulnerability Summary - OmniNerd 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.omninerd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In sum, the system should enforce associations in such a way that every comparison sensor is associated with every effector that may potentially affect the comparison.
  • The COSA Operating System 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.rebelscience.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.To establish identity there may be a process of authentication.^ The processes in the system can execute concurrently; that is, many processes may be multitasked on a CPU. There are several reasons for allowing concurrent execution: Physical Resource Sharing .
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Since there are many processes in the system, the disk may be busy with the I/O request of some other process.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ There may be minutes between creation of new processes in the system.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

Often a username must be quoted, and each username may have a password. .Other methods of authentication, such as magnetic cards or biometric data, might be used instead.^ Modern batch systems are no longer defined by the batching together of similar jobs; other characteristics are used instead.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ A fast card reader, on the other hand, might read only 17 cards per second.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

.In some cases, especially connections from the network, resources may be accessed with no authentication at all (such as reading files over a network share).^ While adhering to the principle of not configuring the services, every available remote connection was enabled over TCP /IP to include file sharing and personal websharing.
  • 2006 Operating System Vulnerability Summary - OmniNerd 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.omninerd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The processes in the system can execute concurrently; that is, many processes may be multitasked on a CPU. There are several reasons for allowing concurrent execution: Physical Resource Sharing .
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ In such cases, all operations must execute within the fixed interval allotted between real-time ticks.
  • The COSA Operating System 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.rebelscience.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Also covered by the concept of requester identity is authorization; the particular services and resources accessible by the requester once logged into a system are tied to either the requester's user account or to the variously configured groups of users to which the requester belongs.^ Similarly, when the job requests the printer to ouput a line, that line is copied into a system buffer and is written to the disk.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ As soon as users begin to arbitrarily enable remote services or fiddle with the default configurations, the systems quickly become open to intrusion.
  • 2006 Operating System Vulnerability Summary - OmniNerd 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.omninerd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As such, vulnerability scans were conducted against 2006’s flagship operating systems in various configurations to determine weakness from the moment of installation throughout the patching procedure.
  • 2006 Operating System Vulnerability Summary - OmniNerd 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.omninerd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In addition to the allow/disallow model of security, a system with a high level of security will also offer auditing options.^ Sting a high-level operating system kernel for symbolic br tuple-spaces.
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ However, software-based protection can allow for more flexible security models,...
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ For Database Systems and Database Design and Application courses offered at the junior, senior, and graduate levels in Computer Science departments.
  • Pearson - Operating Systems: Internals and Design Principles, 6/E - William Stallings 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC pearsonhighered.com [Source type: Academic]

.These would allow tracking of requests for access to resources (such as, "who has been reading this file?"^ Nessus: The web server (port 80, 1085) accepts unlimited requests allowing attackers to consume all available resources.
  • 2006 Operating System Vulnerability Summary - OmniNerd 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.omninerd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are many instances, however, in which it would be useful for resources to be shared and accessed concurrently.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ For these systems, new scheduling algorithms are required to allocate resources in such ...
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

). .Internal security, or security from an already running program is only possible if all possibly harmful requests must be carried out through interrupts to the operating system kernel.^ Programs br each machine runs within the operating system kernel.
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Digital Unix operating system running on a .
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ But which operating systems are the most secure?
  • 2006 Operating System Vulnerability Summary - OmniNerd 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.omninerd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If programs can directly access hardware and resources, they cannot be secured.^ These programs, together with the data they access, must be in main memory during execution.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

.External security involves a request from outside the computer, such as a login at a connected console or some kind of network connection.^ JasonS: I can understand why someone [#44 JasonS] who thinks of a computer as some kind of enterprise secretary would have different needs, though.
  • Edgelings.com » Smilodon and the Computer Operating System 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC pajamasmedia.com [Source type: General]

^ I got my first Atari when I was only 2 years old - 1980 I think - and I've had a computer of some kind ever since.
  • Your Blog » Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC yourblog.dell.com [Source type: General]

^ I can understand why someone [#44 JasonS] who thinks of a computer as some kind of enterprise secretary would have different needs, though.
  • Edgelings.com » Smilodon and the Computer Operating System 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC pajamasmedia.com [Source type: General]

.External requests are often passed through device drivers to the operating system's kernel, where they can be passed onto applications, or carried out directly.^ Parameters may also be placed, or pushed , onto the stack by the program, and popped off the stack by the operating system.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Anyways, enjoy paying through the nose for software and Operating Systems that Linux users get for free legally!
  • Operating Systems - GraphJam: Music and Pop Culture in Charts and Graphs. Let us explain them. 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC graphjam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They may generate a call to a special run-time routine that makes the system call, or the system call may be generated directly in-line.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Security of operating systems has long been a concern because of highly sensitive data held on computers, both of a commercial and military nature.^ But which operating systems are the most secure?
  • 2006 Operating System Vulnerability Summary - OmniNerd 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.omninerd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ INSTALLING ANY operating system on a computer sucks.
  • Operating Systems - GraphJam: Music and Pop Culture in Charts and Graphs. Let us explain them. 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC graphjam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When one operating system dominates the pool, it presents a more lucrative target because exploit code stands a better chance of succeeding.
  • 2006 Operating System Vulnerability Summary - OmniNerd 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.omninerd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The United States Government Department of Defense (DoD) created the Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria (TCSEC) which is a standard that sets basic requirements for assessing the effectiveness of security.^ For Database Systems and Database Design and Application courses offered at the junior, senior, and graduate levels in Computer Science departments.
  • Pearson - Operating Systems: Internals and Design Principles, 6/E - William Stallings 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC pearsonhighered.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For a Microsoft Windows®-based computer:For Windows®-based PC Requires a PC that meets the requirements for and has installed one of these operating systems: Windows Vista™/Windows XP with Service Pack 2 (SP2).
  • Microsoft Hardware Mice and Keyboard Product Documentation 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: General]

^ Computer/Operating System Mac OS X v.10.2.6–10.4.X Other2 AAA alkaline batteries required (included).
  • Microsoft Hardware Mice and Keyboard Product Documentation 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: General]

.This became of vital importance to operating system makers, because the TCSEC was used to evaluate, classify and select computer systems being considered for the processing, storage and retrieval of sensitive or classified information.^ Computer/Operating System One of the following: .
  • Microsoft Hardware Mice and Keyboard Product Documentation 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: General]

^ I will never ever use a Google operating system.
  • Google targets Microsoft with new operating system | Technology | guardian.co.uk 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ INSTALLING ANY operating system on a computer sucks.
  • Operating Systems - GraphJam: Music and Pop Culture in Charts and Graphs. Let us explain them. 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC graphjam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Network services include offerings such as file sharing, print services, email, web sites, and file transfer protocols (FTP), most of which can have compromised security.^ While adhering to the principle of not configuring the services, every available remote connection was enabled over TCP /IP to include file sharing and personal websharing.
  • 2006 Operating System Vulnerability Summary - OmniNerd 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.omninerd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ PORT STATE SERVICE VERSION 21/tcp open ftp vsftpd 2.0.5 22/tcp open ssh OpenSSH 4.3 (protocol 2.0) 80/tcp open http?
  • 2006 Operating System Vulnerability Summary - OmniNerd 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.omninerd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For testing the standard binaries, Personal File Sharing, Windows Sharing, Personal Web Server, Remote Login, FTP Access, Apple Remote Desktop, Remote Apple Events and Printer Sharing were all enabled through the Preferences tool.
  • 2006 Operating System Vulnerability Summary - OmniNerd 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.omninerd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At the front line of security are hardware devices known as firewalls or intrusion detection/prevention systems.^ To prevent user programs from interfering with the proper operation of the system, the hardware must provide appropriate mechanisms to ensure such proper behavior.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ As most operating systems do not feature any layered security during these preliminary phases, it was not necessary to attempt firewall or network intrusion device evasion tricks.
  • 2006 Operating System Vulnerability Summary - OmniNerd 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.omninerd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At the operating system level, there are a number of software firewalls available, as well as intrusion detection/prevention systems.^ Anyways, enjoy paying through the nose for software and Operating Systems that Linux users get for free legally!
  • Operating Systems - GraphJam: Music and Pop Culture in Charts and Graphs. Let us explain them. 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC graphjam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reply Reply Close comment form Onur YALAZI March 12th, 2009 at 3:23 am There is no Turkish National Operating system.
  • Operating System Interface Design Between 1981-2009 | Webdesigner Depot 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.webdesignerdepot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Prior to installation of the new operating system, be sure to check that you have all the installation media from your existing software and the proper licensing information.

.Most modern operating systems include a software firewall, which is enabled by default.^ But which operating systems are the most secure?
  • 2006 Operating System Vulnerability Summary - OmniNerd 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.omninerd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The criticisms of the article are for the most part valid; it really doesn’t say enough, but it is a good starting point if you’re interested in researching operating systems.
  • 10 amazingly alternative operating systems and what they could mean for the future | Royal Pingdom 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC royal.pingdom.com [Source type: General]

^ Note: Windows® Vista™ operating system already includes the XPS viewer.
  • Microsoft Hardware Mice and Keyboard Product Documentation 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: General]

.A software firewall can be configured to allow or deny network traffic to or from a service or application running on the operating system.^ Rather, the system restarted running services and then allowed for a user login.
  • 2006 Operating System Vulnerability Summary - OmniNerd 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.omninerd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Immediately upon rebooting the Slackware system, an Nmap scan identified the system as Linux 2.4.X and determined the running services: 79 .
  • 2006 Operating System Vulnerability Summary - OmniNerd 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.omninerd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nessus: The TCP /IP stack responds to packets from a multicast address (known as a spank attack) which allows Denial of Service through network saturation or stealth scans.
  • 2006 Operating System Vulnerability Summary - OmniNerd 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.omninerd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Therefore, one can install and be running an insecure service, such as Telnet or FTP, and not have to be threatened by a security breach because the firewall would deny all traffic trying to connect to the service on that port.^ Fedora’s installer prompted for security configurations on the firewall whereupon ports were opened for FTP , Mail, NFS , SSH , Samba, HTTPS , telnet and HTTP .
  • 2006 Operating System Vulnerability Summary - OmniNerd 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.omninerd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With Microsoft’s Service Pack 2 installed, Nmap discovered that every port was filtered due to the default firewall now in place.
  • 2006 Operating System Vulnerability Summary - OmniNerd 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.omninerd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You could always try Linux + Cedega http://bit.ly/xxmcj which would allow you to play all your Windows games under Linux.
  • Google targets Microsoft with new operating system | Technology | guardian.co.uk 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: General]

.An alternative strategy, and the only sandbox strategy available in systems that do not meet the Popek and Goldberg virtualization requirements, is the operating system not running user programs as native code, but instead either emulates a processor or provides a host for a p-code based system such as Java.^ Such a system consists of a collection of processes: operating system processes execute system code, and user processes execute user code.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ It’s also used for running programs which only run on Windows.
  • Operating Systems - GraphJam: Music and Pop Culture in Charts and Graphs. Let us explain them. 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC graphjam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ System Calls System calls provide the interface between a running program and the operating system.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Internal security is especially relevant for multi-user systems; it allows each user of the system to have private files that the other users cannot tamper with or read.^ The original Unix allowed multiple users on a single system, whereas the modern paradigm is to have one user accessing multiple computers.
  • Google targets Microsoft with new operating system | Technology | guardian.co.uk 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Rather, the system restarted running services and then allowed for a user login.
  • 2006 Operating System Vulnerability Summary - OmniNerd 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.omninerd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rather than let the CPU sit idle when this happens, the operating system will rapidly switch the CPU to the program of some other user.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Internal security is also vital if auditing is to be of any use, since a program can potentially bypass the operating system, inclusive of bypassing auditing.^ I will never ever use a Google operating system.
  • Google targets Microsoft with new operating system | Technology | guardian.co.uk 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ But which operating systems are the most secure?
  • 2006 Operating System Vulnerability Summary - OmniNerd 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.omninerd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Type: Presentations) PowerPoint Slides to accompany, "Operating Systems: Internals and Design Principles," Sixth Edition by Stallings PPT Chapters 1-5 (zip) (3.1MB .
  • Pearson - Operating Systems: Internals and Design Principles, 6/E - William Stallings 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC pearsonhighered.com [Source type: Academic]

File system support in modern operating systems

.Support for file systems is highly varied among modern operating systems although there are several common file systems which almost all operating systems include support and drivers for.^ Various techniques for gauging operating system share include: .
  • 2006 Operating System Vulnerability Summary - OmniNerd 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.omninerd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The processes in the system can execute concurrently; that is, many processes may be multitasked on a CPU. There are several reasons for allowing concurrent execution: Physical Resource Sharing .
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Note: Windows® Vista™ operating system already includes the XPS viewer.
  • Microsoft Hardware Mice and Keyboard Product Documentation 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: General]

.Operating systems vary on file system support and on the disk formats they may be installed on.^ INSTALLING ANY operating system on a computer sucks.
  • Operating Systems - GraphJam: Music and Pop Culture in Charts and Graphs. Let us explain them. 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC graphjam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pearson - Operating Systems: Internals and Design Principles, 6/E - William Stallings This page is trying to run JavaScript and your browser either does not support JavaScript or you may have turned-off JavaScript.
  • Pearson - Operating Systems: Internals and Design Principles, 6/E - William Stallings 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC pearsonhighered.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Depending on the total amount of disk storage and the average file size, external fragmentation may be either a minor or major problem.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

GNU/Linux

.Many GNU/Linux distributions support some or all of ext2, ext3, ext4, ReiserFS, Reiser4, JFS , XFS , GFS, GFS2, OCFS, OCFS2, and NILFS.^ If you were to buy a computer with a good distribution of GNU/Linux already installed with all of the kinks worked out for you it would be a similar experience as with your first time using a mac or Windows machine.
  • Operating Systems - GraphJam: Music and Pop Culture in Charts and Graphs. Let us explain them. 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC graphjam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Those that have been ported to Linux are not always fully supported — if they’re supported at all — by the original producer.

^ This Linux distribution I selected has some of the most practical applications.
  • Your Blog » Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC yourblog.dell.com [Source type: General]

.The ext file systems, namely ext2, ext3 and ext4 are based on the original GNU/Linux file system.^ Oberon is an operating system, originally developed as part of the NS32032-based Ceres workstation project; it is written entirely in the Oberon programming language.
  • 10 amazingly alternative operating systems and what they could mean for the future | Royal Pingdom 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC royal.pingdom.com [Source type: General]

^ Filed under: Software , Linux , Windows , Free , Computer , Desktop , Information Technology , Operating System , Open Source , Technology — Comments (0) .

.Others have been developed by companies to meet their specific needs, hobbyists, or adapted from UNIX, Microsoft Windows, and other operating systems.^ Linux began as a pet project of a Finnish university student, Linus Torvalds, in 1991 as an alternative to the server operating system Unix.

^ The material specific to Windows now focuses on Windows Vista rather than Windows XP. The other example OSs are Unix and Linux with the Sidebar that compares the tradeoffs of each.
  • Pearson - Operating Systems: Internals and Design Principles, 6/E - William Stallings 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC pearsonhighered.com [Source type: Academic]

^ OpenBSD can run Linux binaries on an emulation layer; DOS (and other systems) programs within the Qemu emulator, as well as FreeBSD and other BSD and Unix binaries.

.GNU/Linux has full support for XFS and JFS, along with FAT (the MS-DOS file system), and HFS which is the primary file system for the Macintosh.^ OpenBSD can run Linux binaries on an emulation layer; DOS (and other systems) programs within the Qemu emulator, as well as FreeBSD and other BSD and Unix binaries.

^ Moreover, technically Linux-based systems can be tuned for lower power, storage needs, vs. Windows 7 which is basically all MS has.
  • Edgelings.com » Smilodon and the Computer Operating System 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC pajamasmedia.com [Source type: General]

^ Major hardware vendors, including IBM and Hewlett-Packard, sell servers preloaded with Linux and provide premium support for the operating system.

.In recent years support for Microsoft Windows NT's NTFS file system has appeared in GNU/Linux, and is now comparable to the support available for other native UNIX file systems.^ Creating custom patches doesn’t go as easily as it does on real BSD/Linux/Unix systems, simply because Apple doesn’t allow it.
  • Operating Systems - GraphJam: Music and Pop Culture in Charts and Graphs. Let us explain them. 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC graphjam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reply deuce says: September 21, 2009 at 9:49 am I used to always use windows xp, and my friend introduced me to linux and i actually caught on pretty fast, now i have two computers, one with windows xp, and the other with Ubuntu .
  • Operating Systems - GraphJam: Music and Pop Culture in Charts and Graphs. Let us explain them. 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC graphjam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reply teigenn says: November 7, 2009 at 1:39 pm Windows still easily gets viruses compared to Linux and Macs.
  • Operating Systems - GraphJam: Music and Pop Culture in Charts and Graphs. Let us explain them. 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC graphjam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.ISO 9660 and Universal Disk Format (UDF) are supported which are standard file systems used on CDs, DVDs, and BluRay discs.^ A CD or DVD burned with this ISO file will boot on any PC (not DVD in UDF format, but DVD in ISO format).

^ The operating system itself supported standard and 386 enhanced modes, which made use of higher memory capacity than 640 KB and hard disk space, resulting in the ability to use higher screen resolutions and better graphics, such as Super VGA 800×600 and 1024×768.
  • Operating System Interface Design Between 1981-2009 | Webdesigner Depot 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.webdesignerdepot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Yes, this notebook has no built in Wi-Fi support, and I’m using the ancient wireless 802.11b standard.
  • Your Blog » Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC yourblog.dell.com [Source type: General]

.It is possible to install GNU/Linux on the majority of these file systems.^ Requires a PC that meets the requirements for and has installed one of these operating systems: Windows Vista™/Windows XP with Service Pack 2 (SP2).
  • Microsoft Hardware Mice and Keyboard Product Documentation 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: General]

^ Major hardware vendors, including IBM and Hewlett-Packard, sell servers preloaded with Linux and provide premium support for the operating system.

^ For a Microsoft Windows®-based computer:For Windows®-based PC Requires a PC that meets the requirements for and has installed one of these operating systems: Windows Vista™/Windows XP with Service Pack 2 (SP2).
  • Microsoft Hardware Mice and Keyboard Product Documentation 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: General]

.Unlike other operating systems, GNU/Linux and UNIX allow any file system to be used regardless of the media it is stored in, whether it is a hard drive, a disc (CD,DVD...^ I will never ever use a Google operating system.
  • Google targets Microsoft with new operating system | Technology | guardian.co.uk 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ What it says to me is that it is not that hard to create an operating system.
  • 10 amazingly alternative operating systems and what they could mean for the future | Royal Pingdom 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC royal.pingdom.com [Source type: General]

^ Other CD-ROM drive .
  • Microsoft Hardware Mice and Keyboard Product Documentation 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: General]

), a .USB key, or even contained within a file located on another file system.^ Installing an INF file for PCI/USB devices on Windows Plug and Play systems - versions 4.20 - 5.05 of WinDriver.
  • TechDocs - Operating System 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.jungo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Mac OS X

.Mac OS X supports HFS+ with journaling as its primary file system.^ Mac OS System 1.0 (released in 1984) .
  • Operating System Interface Design Between 1981-2009 | Webdesigner Depot 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.webdesignerdepot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mac OS System 7 (released in 1991) .
  • Operating System Interface Design Between 1981-2009 | Webdesigner Depot 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.webdesignerdepot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mac OS System 8 (released in 1997) .
  • Operating System Interface Design Between 1981-2009 | Webdesigner Depot 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.webdesignerdepot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is derived from the Hierarchical File System of the earlier Mac OS.^ In early 2000 Apple announced their new Aqua interface and in 2001 the company released it with their brand new operating system called Mac OS X. .
  • Operating System Interface Design Between 1981-2009 | Webdesigner Depot 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.webdesignerdepot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mac OS System 1.0 (released in 1984) .
  • Operating System Interface Design Between 1981-2009 | Webdesigner Depot 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.webdesignerdepot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nmap identified the system as Mac OS even though the actual fingerprint included the string i386-apple-darwin8.8.1 .
  • 2006 Operating System Vulnerability Summary - OmniNerd 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.omninerd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Mac OS X has facilities to read and write FAT, UDF, and other file systems, but cannot be installed to them.^ Mac OS System 1.0 (released in 1984) .
  • Operating System Interface Design Between 1981-2009 | Webdesigner Depot 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.webdesignerdepot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mac OS System 7 (released in 1991) .
  • Operating System Interface Design Between 1981-2009 | Webdesigner Depot 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.webdesignerdepot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mac OS System 8 (released in 1997) .
  • Operating System Interface Design Between 1981-2009 | Webdesigner Depot 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.webdesignerdepot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Due to its UNIX heritage Mac OS X now supports virtually all the file systems supported by the VFS.

Microsoft Windows

.Microsoft Windows currently supports NTFS and FAT file systems (including FAT16 and FAT32), along with network file systems shared from other computers, and the ISO 9660 and UDF filesystems used for CDs, DVDs, and other optical discs such as Blu-ray.^ For a Microsoft® Windows®-based computer:Computer/Operating System One of the following: .
  • Microsoft Hardware Mice and Keyboard Product Documentation 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: General]

^ A CD or DVD burned with this ISO file will boot on any PC (not DVD in UDF format, but DVD in ISO format).

^ For a Microsoft Windows®-based computer:Computer/Operating System One of the following: .
  • Microsoft Hardware Mice and Keyboard Product Documentation 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: General]

.Under Windows each file system is usually limited in application to certain media, for example CDs must use ISO 9660 or UDF, and as of Windows Vista, NTFS is the only file system which the operating system can be installed on.^ Is this a limitation of the operating system?
  • TechDocs - Operating System 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.jungo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ INSTALLING ANY operating system on a computer sucks.
  • Operating Systems - GraphJam: Music and Pop Culture in Charts and Graphs. Let us explain them. 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC graphjam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It’s also used for running programs which only run on Windows.
  • Operating Systems - GraphJam: Music and Pop Culture in Charts and Graphs. Let us explain them. 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC graphjam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Windows Embedded CE 6.0, Windows Vista Service Pack 1, and Windows Server 2008 support ExFAT, a (late version MSWindows-only) file system more suitable for flash drives.^ Service Pack 2 is also required with Windows XP. .
  • Microsoft Hardware Mice and Keyboard Product Documentation 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: General]

^ In March of 2005, Service Pack 1 was released for Windows Server 2003.
  • 2006 Operating System Vulnerability Summary - OmniNerd 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.omninerd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Windows Server 2008 R2 .
  • Operating System | Windows 7 News 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC windows7news.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Solaris

.The Solaris Operating System uses UFS as its primary file system.^ I will never ever use a Google operating system.
  • Google targets Microsoft with new operating system | Technology | guardian.co.uk 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ The original version of Solaris is based on UNIX System V Release 4 which demonstrated a shift from the BSD code base used for building SunOS. Originally, SunOS was designed to operate using Motorolla processors on Sun’s propriety hardware.
  • 2006 Operating System Vulnerability Summary - OmniNerd 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.omninerd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After enabling ethernet, an Nmap scan revealed zero open ports but did fingerprint the operating system as Sun Solaris 10|8|9.
  • 2006 Operating System Vulnerability Summary - OmniNerd 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.omninerd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Prior to 1998, Solaris UFS did not have logging/journaling capabilities, but over time the OS has gained this and other new data management capabilities.^ The GUI was also ported to other computers but did not gain popularity on them.
  • Operating System Interface Design Between 1981-2009 | Webdesigner Depot 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.webdesignerdepot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In other news, Linux seems to be only hard to use for people who have been using Windows for quite some time.
  • Operating Systems - GraphJam: Music and Pop Culture in Charts and Graphs. Let us explain them. 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC graphjam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Motif, which others have mentioned, was the default (commercial) window manager for X11 for a very long time.
  • Operating System Interface Design Between 1981-2009 | Webdesigner Depot 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.webdesignerdepot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Additional features include Veritas (Journaling) VxFS, QFS from Sun Microsystems, enhancements to UFS including multiterabyte support and UFS volume management included as part of the OS, and ZFS (free software, poolable, 128-bit, compressible, and error-correcting).^ (En este último caso es posible que ésta quiera contratar servicios de mantenimiento y especialización de software de SUN™ Microsystem) .

^ The companies continue to be more about litigation than performance and the OS continues to lack basic modern security features like memory management.
  • 10 amazingly alternative operating systems and what they could mean for the future | Royal Pingdom 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC royal.pingdom.com [Source type: General]

^ In addition to the projects defined for the previous edition the new edition includes support for a more extensive set of projects that cover key principles in the book.
  • Pearson - Operating Systems: Internals and Design Principles, 6/E - William Stallings 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC pearsonhighered.com [Source type: Academic]

.Kernel extensions were added to Solaris to allow for bootable Veritas VxFS operation.^ In a broad move, Sun expanded Solaris to support the x86 environment, allowing their operating system to operate on non-Sun hardware.
  • 2006 Operating System Vulnerability Summary - OmniNerd 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.omninerd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Logging or journaling was added to UFS in Solaris 7. Releases of Solaris 10, Solaris Express, OpenSolaris, and other open source variants of Solaris later supported bootable ZFS.
.Logical Volume Management allows for spanning a file system across multiple devices for the purpose of adding redundancy, capacity, and/or throughput.^ This topic deals with the the management of files in a computer system.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Installing an INF file for PCI/USB devices on Windows Plug and Play systems - versions 4.20 - 5.05 of WinDriver.
  • TechDocs - Operating System 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.jungo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If we can get 512 pointers into an index block, then two levels of indexes allows 262,144 data blocks, which(at 1024 bytes each) allows a file of up to 268,435,456 bytes - a size that exceeds the physical capacity of many devices.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

Solaris includes Solaris Volume Manager (formerly known as Solstice DiskSuite.) .Solaris is one of many operating systems supported by Veritas Volume Manager.^ Computer/Operating System One of the following: .
  • Microsoft Hardware Mice and Keyboard Product Documentation 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: General]

^ When the operating system finishes the execution of one command, it seeks the next 'control statement'.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Requires a PC that meets the requirements for and has installed one of these operating systems: Windows Vista™/Windows XP with Service Pack 2 (SP2).
  • Microsoft Hardware Mice and Keyboard Product Documentation 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: General]

Modern Solaris based operating systems eclipse the need for volume management through leveraging virtual storage pools in ZFS.

Special-purpose file systems

.FAT file systems are commonly found on floppy disks, flash memory cards, digital cameras, and many other portable devices because of their relative simplicity.^ Even though it includes a graphical desktop, networking and many other features it still fits on a single 1.44 MB floppy disk (for our younger readers, that was the USB stick of the 80s and early 90s ).
  • 10 amazingly alternative operating systems and what they could mean for the future | Royal Pingdom 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC royal.pingdom.com [Source type: General]

^ ICYI, the system requirements were: 320K memory, DOS 2.0, two double-sided disk drives and a graphics adapter card.
  • Operating System Interface Design Between 1981-2009 | Webdesigner Depot 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.webdesignerdepot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In a disk system, cards are read directly from the card reader onto the disk.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Performance of FAT compares poorly to most other file systems as it uses overly simplistic data structures, making file operations time-consuming, and makes poor use of disk space in situations where many small files are present.^ Time-sharing operating systems are sophisticated.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ I will never ever use a Google operating system.
  • Google targets Microsoft with new operating system | Technology | guardian.co.uk 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ But which operating systems are the most secure?
  • 2006 Operating System Vulnerability Summary - OmniNerd 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.omninerd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.ISO 9660 and Universal Disk Format are two common formats that target Compact Discs and DVDs.^ A CD or DVD burned with this ISO file will boot on any PC (not DVD in UDF format, but DVD in ISO format).

.Mount Rainier is a newer extension to UDF supported by GNU/Linux 2.6 series and Windows Vista that facilitates rewriting to DVDs in the same fashion as has been possible with floppy disks.^ If Linux offers so much of the same functionality as Windows, why isn’t it more widely used?

^ So you can download Vista Windows, your PC should have a DVD drive in which you could install Vista.

^ They really aren’t customizable, except for the newer Intel-based ones, and even then you have to dual boot either Linux or Windows on them anyway… .
  • Operating Systems - GraphJam: Music and Pop Culture in Charts and Graphs. Let us explain them. 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC graphjam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Journalized file systems

.File systems may provide journaling, which provides safe recovery in the event of a system crash.^ Time-sharing systems must also provide an on-line file system and protection.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

.A journaled file system writes some information twice: first to the journal, which is a log of file system operations, then to its proper place in the ordinary file system.^ Parameters may also be placed, or pushed , onto the stack by the program, and popped off the stack by the operating system.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The operating system must select processes from these queues in some fashion.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Tanenbaum also provides information on current research based on his experience as an operating systems researcher.
  • Pearson - Operating Systems: Internals and Design Principles, 6/E - William Stallings 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC pearsonhighered.com [Source type: Academic]

.Journaling is handled by the file system driver, and keeps track of each operation taking place that changes the contents of the disk.^ To keep track of free disk space, the system maintains a free-space list .
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Parameters may also be placed, or pushed , onto the stack by the program, and popped off the stack by the operating system.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Manual editing of the Windows registry is not recommended though, because the registry files are essential for the operating system to function.

In the event of a crash, the system can recover to a consistent state by replaying a portion of the journal. .Many UNIX file systems provide journaling including ReiserFS, JFS, and Ext3.^ Major hardware vendors, including IBM and Hewlett-Packard, sell servers preloaded with Linux and provide premium support for the operating system.

^ Time-sharing systems must also provide an on-line file system and protection.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ GPS has the advantage of providing a world-wide time and frequency system, however, an externally mounted antenna is required which can be impractical in many cases.

.In contrast, non-journaled file systems typically need to be examined in their entirety by a utility such as fsck or chkdsk for any inconsistencies after an unclean shutdown.^ In general, a process will need certain resources-such as CPU time, memory, files, and I/O devices-to accomplish its task.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Soft updates is an alternative to journaling that avoids the redundant writes by carefully ordering the update operations.^ On January 1, 2007, the Nessus engine was updated with every plug-in available in order to test operating systems against a common set of known vulnerabilities from 2006.
  • 2006 Operating System Vulnerability Summary - OmniNerd 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.omninerd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Log-structured file systems and ZFS also differ from traditional journaled file systems in that they avoid inconsistencies by always writing new copies of the data, eschewing in-place updates.^ For one- or two-semester courses in data structures (CS-2) in the departments of Computer Science, Computer Engineering, Business, and Management Information Systems.
  • Pearson - Operating Systems: Internals and Design Principles, 6/E - William Stallings 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC pearsonhighered.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This program is called Update Manager and you can always find it under System -> Administration menu, but it will always appear when there are new updates.

^ The first 12 of these pointers point to direct blocks ; that is, they directly contain addresses of blocks that contain data of the file.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

Graphical user interfaces

.Most of the modern computer systems support graphical user interfaces (GUI), and often include them.^ A Graphical User Interface (GUI for short) allows users to interact with the computer hardware in a user friendly way.
  • Operating System Interface Design Between 1981-2009 | Webdesigner Depot 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.webdesignerdepot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It should be noted that a notebook computer with graphics card that is not compatible has a lesser chance of a successful upgrade to the new system.

^ Fundamentals of Operating Systems An operating system is a program that acts as an intermediary between a user and the computer hardware.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

.In some computer systems, such as the original implementations of Microsoft Windows and the Mac OS, the GUI is integrated into the kernel.^ For a Microsoft® Windows®-based computer:Computer/Operating System One of the following: .
  • Microsoft Hardware Mice and Keyboard Product Documentation 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: General]

^ Mac OS System 1.0 (released in 1984) .
  • Operating System Interface Design Between 1981-2009 | Webdesigner Depot 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.webdesignerdepot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For a Microsoft Windows®-based computer:Computer/Operating System One of the following: .
  • Microsoft Hardware Mice and Keyboard Product Documentation 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: General]

.While technically a graphical user interface is not an operating system service, incorporating support for one into the operating system kernel can allow the GUI to be more responsive by reducing the number of context switches required for the GUI to perform its output functions.^ Computer/Operating System One of the following: .
  • Microsoft Hardware Mice and Keyboard Product Documentation 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: General]

^ For operating systems, we need to consider the effect of context switching on the performance of RR scheduling.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Also, the more complex the operating system, the more work must be done during a context-switch.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Other operating systems are modular, separating the graphics subsystem from the kernel and the Operating System.^ Their graphical UI is just as good or better than another operating system.
  • 10 amazingly alternative operating systems and what they could mean for the future | Royal Pingdom 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC royal.pingdom.com [Source type: General]

^ A batch operating system normally reads a stream of separate jobs(from a card reader, for example), each with its own control cards that predefine what the job does.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Other CD-ROM drive USB Port For a Macintosh-based computer:Computer/Operating System Mac® OS X v10.2x*–10.4x (excluding Mac OS X v10.0–10.1).
  • Microsoft Hardware Mice and Keyboard Product Documentation 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: General]

.In the 1980s UNIX, VMS and many others had operating systems that were built this way.^ Linux began as a pet project of a Finnish university student, Linus Torvalds, in 1991 as an alternative to the server operating system Unix.

^ OpenBSD can run Linux binaries on an emulation layer; DOS (and other systems) programs within the Qemu emulator, as well as FreeBSD and other BSD and Unix binaries.

^ I didint know that are so many different operating systems!
  • 10 amazingly alternative operating systems and what they could mean for the future | Royal Pingdom 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC royal.pingdom.com [Source type: General]

.GNU/Linux and Mac OS X are also built this way.^ No comparison to the Mac OS of the day, which actually was built-in to the OS experience.
  • Operating System Interface Design Between 1981-2009 | Webdesigner Depot 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.webdesignerdepot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If this is integrated into Linux as seamlessly as the presentation layer in Mac OS, they may be onto something.
  • Google targets Microsoft with new operating system | Technology | guardian.co.uk 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ The way I see it now is that it’s the other way around, with Mac OS looking like shite until 2001, six years after Win95 and 3 years after Win98.
  • Operating System Interface Design Between 1981-2009 | Webdesigner Depot 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.webdesignerdepot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Modern releases of Microsoft Windows such as Windows Vista implement a graphics subsystem that is mostly in user-space, however versions between Windows NT 4.0 and Windows Server 2003's graphics drawing routines exist mostly in kernel space.^ Migrating Users from Microsoft® Exchange Server 5.5 to Exchange Server 2003(4926) .

^ Managing a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Environment .

^ Maintaining a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Environment .

Windows 9x had very little distinction between the interface and the kernel.
.Many computer operating systems allow the user to install or create any user interface they desire.^ Computer/Operating System One of the following: .
  • Microsoft Hardware Mice and Keyboard Product Documentation 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: General]

^ INSTALLING ANY operating system on a computer sucks.
  • Operating Systems - GraphJam: Music and Pop Culture in Charts and Graphs. Let us explain them. 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC graphjam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Creating custom patches doesn’t go as easily as it does on real BSD/Linux/Unix systems, simply because Apple doesn’t allow it.
  • Operating Systems - GraphJam: Music and Pop Culture in Charts and Graphs. Let us explain them. 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC graphjam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The X Window System in conjunction with GNOME or KDE is a commonly-found setup on most Unix and Unix-like (BSD, GNU/Linux, Solaris) systems.^ Even Linux is trying to be like Windows.
  • 10 amazingly alternative operating systems and what they could mean for the future | Royal Pingdom 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC royal.pingdom.com [Source type: General]

^ Linux began as a pet project of a Finnish university student, Linus Torvalds, in 1991 as an alternative to the server operating system Unix.

^ The original version of Solaris is based on UNIX System V Release 4 which demonstrated a shift from the BSD code base used for building SunOS. Originally, SunOS was designed to operate using Motorolla processors on Sun’s propriety hardware.
  • 2006 Operating System Vulnerability Summary - OmniNerd 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.omninerd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A number of Windows shell replacements have been released for Microsoft Windows, which offer alternatives to the included Windows shell, but the shell itself cannot be separated from Windows.^ Microsoft Sets Windows Server 2003 Release Date , Windows IT Pro, accessed February 2003 from http://www.windowsitpro.com/Article/ArticleID/37643/37643.html .
  • 2006 Operating System Vulnerability Summary - OmniNerd 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.omninerd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From Microsoft, testing included Windows XP, Server 2003 and Vista Ultimate.
  • 2006 Operating System Vulnerability Summary - OmniNerd 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.omninerd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As Microsoft tends to change their GUI completely with every major operating system release, Windows XP was no exception.
  • Operating System Interface Design Between 1981-2009 | Webdesigner Depot 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.webdesignerdepot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Numerous Unix-based GUIs have existed over time, most derived from X11. Competition among the various vendors of Unix (HP, IBM, Sun) led to much fragmentation, though an effort to standardize in the 1990s to COSE and CDE failed for the most part due to various reasons, eventually eclipsed by the widespread adoption of GNOME and KDE. Prior to free software-based toolkits and desktop environments, Motif was the prevalent toolkit/desktop combination (and was the basis upon which CDE was developed).^ License: Various free software licenses .
  • 10 amazingly alternative operating systems and what they could mean for the future | Royal Pingdom 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC royal.pingdom.com [Source type: General]

^ The desktop environment that ubuntu uses is the GNome desktop!

^ Version 4 of K Desktop Environment produced many new improvements to the GUI such as animated, smooth, efficient window management and support for desktop widgets.
  • Operating System Interface Design Between 1981-2009 | Webdesigner Depot 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.webdesignerdepot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Graphical user interfaces evolve over time.^ A Graphical User Interface (GUI for short) allows users to interact with the computer hardware in a user friendly way.
  • Operating System Interface Design Between 1981-2009 | Webdesigner Depot 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.webdesignerdepot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also, big thanks to Nathan Toasty’s graphical user interface gallery.
  • Operating System Interface Design Between 1981-2009 | Webdesigner Depot 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.webdesignerdepot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It’s absolutely correct to say that IRIX included its own graphical user interface even if the basis was (off course) X. .
  • Operating System Interface Design Between 1981-2009 | Webdesigner Depot 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.webdesignerdepot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

For example, Windows has modified its user interface almost every time a new major version of Windows is released, and the Mac OS GUI changed dramatically with the introduction of Mac OS X in 1999.[4]

Examples of operating systems

GNU/Linux and Unix-like operating systems

Ubuntu desktop
Ken Thompson wrote B, mainly based on BCPL, which he used to write Unix, based on his experience in the MULTICS project. .B was replaced by C, and Unix developed into a large, complex family of inter-related operating systems which have been influential in every modern operating system (see History).^ Linux began as a pet project of a Finnish university student, Linus Torvalds, in 1991 as an alternative to the server operating system Unix.

^ The major lacks as stated in the article, the TCP-IP stack and a modern browser that need to be downloaded externally, are now integrated into system.
  • 10 amazingly alternative operating systems and what they could mean for the future | Royal Pingdom 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC royal.pingdom.com [Source type: General]

^ It had several features of a modern operating system, being windows based with icons.
  • Operating System Interface Design Between 1981-2009 | Webdesigner Depot 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.webdesignerdepot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Unix-like family is a diverse group of operating systems, with several major sub-categories including System V, BSD, and GNU/Linux.^ The BSD family of operating systems consists of the base system and packages.

^ Linux began as a pet project of a Finnish university student, Linus Torvalds, in 1991 as an alternative to the server operating system Unix.

^ The original version of Solaris is based on UNIX System V Release 4 which demonstrated a shift from the BSD code base used for building SunOS. Originally, SunOS was designed to operate using Motorolla processors on Sun’s propriety hardware.
  • 2006 Operating System Vulnerability Summary - OmniNerd 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.omninerd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The name "UNIX" is a trademark of The Open Group which licenses it for use with any operating system that has been shown to conform to their definitions.^ Linux began as a pet project of a Finnish university student, Linus Torvalds, in 1991 as an alternative to the server operating system Unix.

^ The original version of Solaris is based on UNIX System V Release 4 which demonstrated a shift from the BSD code base used for building SunOS. Originally, SunOS was designed to operate using Motorolla processors on Sun’s propriety hardware.
  • 2006 Operating System Vulnerability Summary - OmniNerd 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.omninerd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During this phase, Nmap was unable to identify any open ports and could not fingerprint the operating system.
  • 2006 Operating System Vulnerability Summary - OmniNerd 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.omninerd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

."Unix-like" is commonly used to refer to the large set of operating systems which resemble the original Unix.^ Linux began as a pet project of a Finnish university student, Linus Torvalds, in 1991 as an alternative to the server operating system Unix.

^ The original version of Solaris is based on UNIX System V Release 4 which demonstrated a shift from the BSD code base used for building SunOS. Originally, SunOS was designed to operate using Motorolla processors on Sun’s propriety hardware.
  • 2006 Operating System Vulnerability Summary - OmniNerd 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.omninerd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nessus version 3.0.4 build 2G142 was used for conducting vulnerability scans against the various operating systems.
  • 2006 Operating System Vulnerability Summary - OmniNerd 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.omninerd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Unix-like systems run on a wide variety of machine architectures.^ OpenBSD can run Linux binaries on an emulation layer; DOS (and other systems) programs within the Qemu emulator, as well as FreeBSD and other BSD and Unix binaries.

^ While there are an enormous variety of operating systems to choose from, only four "core" lineages exist in the mainstream – Windows, OS X, Linux and UNIX .
  • 2006 Operating System Vulnerability Summary - OmniNerd 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.omninerd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I’ve been able to get four of the alternate operating systems on this page to run so far on my Windows XP machine.
  • 10 amazingly alternative operating systems and what they could mean for the future | Royal Pingdom 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC royal.pingdom.com [Source type: General]

.They are used heavily for servers in business, as well as workstations in academic and engineering environments.^ It’s facing threats in the business environment as a server (aside from as a webserver, where Linux/Unix is in the majority).

.Free Unix variants, such as GNU/Linux and BSD, are popular in these areas.^ Creating custom patches doesn’t go as easily as it does on real BSD/Linux/Unix systems, simply because Apple doesn’t allow it.
  • Operating Systems - GraphJam: Music and Pop Culture in Charts and Graphs. Let us explain them. 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC graphjam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ OpenBSD can run Linux binaries on an emulation layer; DOS (and other systems) programs within the Qemu emulator, as well as FreeBSD and other BSD and Unix binaries.

^ BSD: BSD systems are based upon an actual Unix variant called Berkeley Software Distribution, which has a long history.

.Some Unix variants like HP's HP-UX and IBM's AIX are designed to run only on that vendor's hardware.^ Of course, some of the monster distros like SuSE try to be able to run anything and everything, but you’d better be a card-carrying nerd if you want to try that.
  • Edgelings.com » Smilodon and the Computer Operating System 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC pajamasmedia.com [Source type: General]

^ Major hardware vendors, including IBM and Hewlett-Packard, sell servers preloaded with Linux and provide premium support for the operating system.

^ Nmap also identified the TCP /IP stack as matching HP HP-UX 11.X or variants of Sun Solaris 2.X, 7, 8, 9 or 10.
  • 2006 Operating System Vulnerability Summary - OmniNerd 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.omninerd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Others, such as Solaris, can run on multiple types of hardware, including x86 servers and PCs.^ Further, while OS X is designed to run only on Apple hardware, and while Windows runs primarily on x86 processors from Intel and AMD, there are many distributions or flavors of Linux, compiled to run on a wide array of hardware, everything from high-end corporate servers and mainframes, to home PC’s, to cell phones.

^ Major hardware vendors, including IBM and Hewlett-Packard, sell servers preloaded with Linux and provide premium support for the operating system.

^ Why invest in hardware for 6 servers when all 6 could run from within one operating system through virtualisation?

Apple's Mac OS X, a hybrid kernel-based BSD variant derived from NeXTSTEP, Mach, and FreeBSD, has replaced Apple's earlier (non-Unix) Mac OS.
Unix interoperability was sought by establishing the POSIX standard. .The POSIX standard can be applied to any operating system, although it was originally created for various Unix variants.^ What it says to me is that it is not that hard to create an operating system.
  • 10 amazingly alternative operating systems and what they could mean for the future | Royal Pingdom 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC royal.pingdom.com [Source type: General]

^ Linux began as a pet project of a Finnish university student, Linus Torvalds, in 1991 as an alternative to the server operating system Unix.

^ Various techniques for gauging operating system share include: .
  • 2006 Operating System Vulnerability Summary - OmniNerd 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.omninerd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Mac OS X

Mac OS X is a line of partially proprietary, graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc., the latest of which is pre-loaded on all currently shipping Macintosh computers. Mac OS X is the successor to the original Mac OS, which had been Apple's primary operating system since 1984. Unlike its predecessor, Mac OS X is a UNIX operating system built on technology that had been developed at NeXT through the second half of the 1980s and up until Apple purchased the company in early 1997.
The operating system was first released in 1999 as Mac OS X Server 1.0, with a desktop-oriented version (Mac OS X v10.0) following in March 2001. Since then, six more distinct "client" and "server" editions of Mac OS X have been released, the most recent being Mac OS X v10.6, which was first made available on August 28, 2009. Releases of Mac OS X are named after big cats; the current version of Mac OS X is nicknamed "Snow Leopard".
.The server edition, Mac OS X Server, is architecturally identical to its desktop counterpart but usually runs on Apple's line of Macintosh server hardware.^ Baring any last-minute change of mind, Mozilla will permanently drop support for Mac OS X 10.4 from future editions of Firefox.
  • Operating systems | ITworld 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.itworld.com [Source type: General]

^ Further, while OS X is designed to run only on Apple hardware, and while Windows runs primarily on x86 processors from Intel and AMD, there are many distributions or flavors of Linux, compiled to run on a wide array of hardware, everything from high-end corporate servers and mainframes, to home PC’s, to cell phones.

^ Mac, Macintosh, and the Mac logo are trademarks of Apple Inc., registered in the United States and other countries.
  • Microsoft Hardware Mice and Keyboard Product Documentation 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: General]

.Mac OS X Server includes work group management and administration software tools that provide simplified access to key network services, including a mail transfer agent, a Samba server, an LDAP server, a domain name server, and others.^ The mail server only required a name for its configuration, for which omninerd.com was provided.
  • 2006 Operating System Vulnerability Summary - OmniNerd 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.omninerd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Examinations against Apple included Mac OS9, OSX Tiger and OSX Tiger server.
  • 2006 Operating System Vulnerability Summary - OmniNerd 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.omninerd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Computer/Operating System Mac OS X v.10.2.6–10.4.X Other2 AAA alkaline batteries required (included).
  • Microsoft Hardware Mice and Keyboard Product Documentation 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: General]

Microsoft Windows (OS)

.Microsoft Windows is a family of proprietary operating systems that originated as an add-on to the older MS-DOS operating system for the IBM PC.^ For a Microsoft® Windows®-based computer:Computer/Operating System One of the following: .
  • Microsoft Hardware Mice and Keyboard Product Documentation 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: General]

^ ReactOS is an operating system designed to be compatible with Microsoft Windows software.
  • 10 amazingly alternative operating systems and what they could mean for the future | Royal Pingdom 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC royal.pingdom.com [Source type: General]

^ For a Microsoft Windows®-based computer:Computer/Operating System One of the following: .
  • Microsoft Hardware Mice and Keyboard Product Documentation 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: General]

.Modern versions are based on the newer Windows NT kernel that was originally intended for OS/2.^ It had several features of a modern operating system, being windows based with icons.
  • Operating System Interface Design Between 1981-2009 | Webdesigner Depot 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.webdesignerdepot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Windows-based PC: Versions of Microsoft CD Player, Microsoft Deluxe CD, Microsoft Windows Media® Player, and certain versions of other popular media players and browsers .
  • Microsoft Hardware Mice and Keyboard Product Documentation 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: General]

^ For a Macintosh-based computer:Computer/Operating System Mac OS X version 10.1 to 10.1.3 (excluding 10.0) .
  • Microsoft Hardware Mice and Keyboard Product Documentation 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: General]

.Windows runs on x86, x86-64 and Itanium processors.^ Also, Vista won’t run on PPC based processors (including Cell), ARM, Itanium, SPARC, and so on.
  • Operating Systems - GraphJam: Music and Pop Culture in Charts and Graphs. Let us explain them. 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC graphjam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As Windows has grown, the processors have grown, but people are going to find that Google Chrome runs fine on the processor in an iPhone or a hand-held computer game.
  • Edgelings.com » Smilodon and the Computer Operating System 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC pajamasmedia.com [Source type: General]

.Earlier versions also ran on the Alpha, MIPS, Fairchild (later Intergraph), Clipper and PowerPC architectures (some work was done to port it to the SPARC architecture).^ With all new release versions come more bugs that will need to be worked out and, yes, you will encounter some bugs with the beta release of Ubuntu 8.10.
  • Your Blog » Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC yourblog.dell.com [Source type: General]

^ Using the Debian code base, Ubuntu works on a variety of architectures including x86, AMD64, Sun UltraSPARC, PowerPC and OpenPower.
  • 2006 Operating System Vulnerability Summary - OmniNerd 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.omninerd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nmap identified the same open ports as before (some versions were updated) and correctly identified the system as OS 10.4.8 Tiger.
  • 2006 Operating System Vulnerability Summary - OmniNerd 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.omninerd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As of 2009, Microsoft Windows still holds a large amount of the worldwide desktop market share.^ Reply teigenn says: November 7, 2009 at 1:39 pm Windows still easily gets viruses compared to Linux and Macs.
  • Operating Systems - GraphJam: Music and Pop Culture in Charts and Graphs. Let us explain them. 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC graphjam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Apple will probably never really rival Microsoft’s market share without it.
  • Your Blog » Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC yourblog.dell.com [Source type: General]

^ Bill Gates once famously said that Windows 90%+ market share wasn’t a monopoly , at least not in the traditional sense.
  • Your Blog » Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC yourblog.dell.com [Source type: General]

.Windows is also used on servers, supporting applications such as web servers and database servers.^ They can multi-task much better these days, and support Microsoft documents for people still using Word and such.
  • 10 amazingly alternative operating systems and what they could mean for the future | Royal Pingdom 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC royal.pingdom.com [Source type: General]

^ Version 4 of K Desktop Environment produced many new improvements to the GUI such as animated, smooth, efficient window management and support for desktop widgets.
  • Operating System Interface Design Between 1981-2009 | Webdesigner Depot 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.webdesignerdepot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unlike the UNIX systems which required simply enabling the application, Windows Server 2003 required configuring via built-in wizards.
  • 2006 Operating System Vulnerability Summary - OmniNerd 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.omninerd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In recent years, Microsoft has spent significant marketing and research & development money to demonstrate that Windows is capable of running any enterprise application, which has resulted in consistent price/performance records (see the TPC) and significant acceptance in the enterprise market.^ Microsoft will continue to own the PC market, but that leaves a lot of gadgets that are smart enough to run apps.
  • Edgelings.com » Smilodon and the Computer Operating System 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC pajamasmedia.com [Source type: General]

^ Microsoft Office , Office 2010 sort by Popular Recent Comments Windows 7 Tips: Best Security Features .
  • Operating systems | ITworld 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.itworld.com [Source type: General]

^ According to figures from Net Applications, Windows currently runs around 90% of computers worldwide, with Apple's OSX trailing in second with 8%.
  • Google targets Microsoft with new operating system | Technology | guardian.co.uk 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: General]

Currently, the most widely used version of the Microsoft Windows family is Windows XP, released on October 25, 2001.
.In November 2006, after more than five years of development work, Microsoft released Windows Vista, a major new operating system version of Microsoft Windows family which contains a large number of new features and architectural changes.^ For a Microsoft® Windows®-based computer:Computer/Operating System One of the following: .
  • Microsoft Hardware Mice and Keyboard Product Documentation 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: General]

^ For a Microsoft Windows®-based computer:Computer/Operating System Windows Vista®, Windows® XP, or Windows® 2000 .
  • Microsoft Hardware Mice and Keyboard Product Documentation 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: General]

^ As Microsoft tends to change their GUI completely with every major operating system release, Windows XP was no exception.
  • Operating System Interface Design Between 1981-2009 | Webdesigner Depot 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.webdesignerdepot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Chief amongst these are a new user interface and visual style called Windows Aero, a number of new security features such as User Account Control, and a few new multimedia applications such as Windows DVD Maker.^ Do you understand and use the new security features in Windows 7?
  • Operating systems | ITworld 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.itworld.com [Source type: General]

^ Version 4 of K Desktop Environment produced many new improvements to the GUI such as animated, smooth, efficient window management and support for desktop widgets.
  • Operating System Interface Design Between 1981-2009 | Webdesigner Depot 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.webdesignerdepot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In early 2000 Apple announced their new Aqua interface and in 2001 the company released it with their brand new operating system called Mac OS X. .
  • Operating System Interface Design Between 1981-2009 | Webdesigner Depot 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.webdesignerdepot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A server variant based on the same kernel, Windows Server 2008, was released in early 2008.
.On October 22, 2009, Microsoft released Windows 7, the successor to Windows Vista, coming three years after its release.^ Windows Vista (released in 2007) .
  • Operating System Interface Design Between 1981-2009 | Webdesigner Depot 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.webdesignerdepot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reply ; says: October 11, 2009 at 9:13 pm Other than Vista, this is OK. On this graph, Vista appears circled about here: (Vista) .
  • Operating Systems - GraphJam: Music and Pop Culture in Charts and Graphs. Let us explain them. 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC graphjam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Microsoft Sets Windows Server 2003 Release Date , Windows IT Pro, accessed February 2003 from http://www.windowsitpro.com/Article/ArticleID/37643/37643.html .
  • 2006 Operating System Vulnerability Summary - OmniNerd 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.omninerd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While Vista was about introducing new features, Windows 7 aims to streamline these and provide for a faster overall working environment.^ Learn more about Windows Vista .
  • Microsoft Hardware Mice and Keyboard Product Documentation 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: General]

^ Version 4 of K Desktop Environment produced many new improvements to the GUI such as animated, smooth, efficient window management and support for desktop widgets.
  • Operating System Interface Design Between 1981-2009 | Webdesigner Depot 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.webdesignerdepot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Requires a PC that meets the requirements for and has installed one of these operating systems: Windows Vista™/Windows XP with Service Pack 2 (SP2).
  • Microsoft Hardware Mice and Keyboard Product Documentation 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: General]

.Windows Server 2008 R2, the server variant, was released at the same time.^ Windows Server 2008 R2 .
  • Operating System | Windows 7 News 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC windows7news.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Officially released in April of 2003, Windows Server 2003 ships in a variety of different editions.
  • 2006 Operating System Vulnerability Summary - OmniNerd 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.omninerd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Microsoft Sets Windows Server 2003 Release Date , Windows IT Pro, accessed February 2003 from http://www.windowsitpro.com/Article/ArticleID/37643/37643.html .
  • 2006 Operating System Vulnerability Summary - OmniNerd 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.omninerd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Google Chrome OS

.On July 7th 2009 Google announced that they will be releasing an Operating System by the second half of 2010. Google Chrome OS will be designed to work exclusively with web applications.^ I will never ever use a Google operating system.
  • Google targets Microsoft with new operating system | Technology | guardian.co.uk 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ So basically their "OS" is the Chrome web browser.
  • Google targets Microsoft with new operating system | Technology | guardian.co.uk 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Google are announcing before they are ready again.
  • Google targets Microsoft with new operating system | Technology | guardian.co.uk 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: General]

It will be an open source OS.
Google Chrome OS Screenshot.
This is what Google Chrome OS is expected to look like.

Plan 9

Plan 9
.Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie and Douglas McIlroy at Bell Labs designed and developed the C programming language to build the operating system Unix.^ Parameters may also be placed, or pushed , onto the stack by the program, and popped off the stack by the operating system.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The purpose of an operating system is to provide an environment in which a user can execute programs in a convenient and efficient manner.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Fundamentals of Operating Systems An operating system is a program that acts as an intermediary between a user and the computer hardware.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

Programmers at Bell Labs went on to develop Plan 9 and Inferno, which were engineered for modern distributed environments. .Plan 9 was designed from the start to be a networked operating system, and had graphics built-in, unlike Unix, which added these features to the design later.^ The criticisms of the article are for the most part valid; it really doesn’t say enough, but it is a good starting point if you’re interested in researching operating systems.
  • 10 amazingly alternative operating systems and what they could mean for the future | Royal Pingdom 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC royal.pingdom.com [Source type: General]

^ Requires a PC that meets the requirements for and has installed one of these operating systems: Windows Vista™/Windows XP with Service Pack 2 (SP2).
  • Microsoft Hardware Mice and Keyboard Product Documentation 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: General]

^ It had several features of a modern operating system, being windows based with icons.
  • Operating System Interface Design Between 1981-2009 | Webdesigner Depot 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.webdesignerdepot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Plan 9 has yet to become as popular as Unix derivatives, but it has an expanding community of developers. It is currently released under the Lucent Public License. Inferno was sold to Vita Nuova Holdings and has been released under a GPL/MIT license.

Real-time operating systems

.A real-time operating system (RTOS) is a multitasking operating system intended for applications with fixed deadlines (real-time computing).^ Computer/Operating System One of the following: .
  • Microsoft Hardware Mice and Keyboard Product Documentation 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: General]

^ Time-sharing operating systems are sophisticated.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ INSTALLING ANY operating system on a computer sucks.
  • Operating Systems - GraphJam: Music and Pop Culture in Charts and Graphs. Let us explain them. 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC graphjam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Such applications include some small embedded systems, automobile engine controllers, industrial robots, spacecraft, industrial control, and some large-scale computing systems.^ This was the first system that was referred to as a fully integrated desktop computer including applications and a GUI. It was known as “The Xerox Star” , later renamed “ViewPoint” and later again renamed to “GlobalView” .
  • Operating System Interface Design Between 1981-2009 | Webdesigner Depot 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.webdesignerdepot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This will be a Mom operating system, with only the things needed to set up a laptop or small computer.
  • Edgelings.com » Smilodon and the Computer Operating System 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC pajamasmedia.com [Source type: General]

^ A time-shared operating system uses CPU scheduling and multiprogramming to provide each user with a small portion of a time-shared computer.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

.An early example of a large-scale real-time operating system was Transaction Processing Facility developed by American Airlines and IBM for the Sabre Airline Reservations System.^ Time-sharing operating systems are sophisticated.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The criticisms of the article are for the most part valid; it really doesn’t say enough, but it is a good starting point if you’re interested in researching operating systems.
  • 10 amazingly alternative operating systems and what they could mean for the future | Royal Pingdom 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC royal.pingdom.com [Source type: General]

^ Producer-consumer processes are common in operating systems.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Embedded systems that have fixed deadlines use a real-time operating system such as VxWorks, eCos, QNX, MontaVista Linux and RTLinux.^ Does WinDriver support the Real Time Linux operating system?
  • TechDocs - Operating System 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.jungo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Time-sharing operating systems are sophisticated.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The criticisms of the article are for the most part valid; it really doesn’t say enough, but it is a good starting point if you’re interested in researching operating systems.
  • 10 amazingly alternative operating systems and what they could mean for the future | Royal Pingdom 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC royal.pingdom.com [Source type: General]

.Windows CE is a real-time operating system that shares similar APIs to desktop Windows but shares none of desktop Windows' codebase[citation needed].^ Time-sharing operating systems are sophisticated.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The criticisms of the article are for the most part valid; it really doesn’t say enough, but it is a good starting point if you’re interested in researching operating systems.
  • 10 amazingly alternative operating systems and what they could mean for the future | Royal Pingdom 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC royal.pingdom.com [Source type: General]

^ Note: Windows® Vista™ operating system already includes the XPS viewer.
  • Microsoft Hardware Mice and Keyboard Product Documentation 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: General]

.Some embedded systems use operating systems such as Symbian OS, Palm OS, BSD, and GNU/Linux, although such operating systems do not support real-time computing.^ Does WinDriver support the Real Time Linux operating system?
  • TechDocs - Operating System 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.jungo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Computer/Operating System One of the following: .
  • Microsoft Hardware Mice and Keyboard Product Documentation 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: General]

^ This simple but efficient method is used by the DOS and OS/2 operating systems.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

Hobby development

.Operating system development is one of the more involved and technical options for the computing hobbyist.^ For a Microsoft® Windows®-based computer:Computer/Operating System One of the following: .
  • Microsoft Hardware Mice and Keyboard Product Documentation 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: General]

^ INSTALLING ANY operating system on a computer sucks.
  • Operating Systems - GraphJam: Music and Pop Culture in Charts and Graphs. Let us explain them. 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC graphjam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For a Microsoft Windows®-based computer:Computer/Operating System One of the following: .
  • Microsoft Hardware Mice and Keyboard Product Documentation 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: General]

.A hobby operating system is classified as one with little or no support from maintenance developers.^ Computer/Operating System One of the following: .
  • Microsoft Hardware Mice and Keyboard Product Documentation 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: General]

^ When the operating system finishes the execution of one command, it seeks the next 'control statement'.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Requires a PC that meets the requirements for and has installed one of these operating systems: Windows Vista™/Windows XP with Service Pack 2 (SP2).
  • Microsoft Hardware Mice and Keyboard Product Documentation 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: General]

.[5] Development usually begins with an existing operating system.^ The operating system picks and begins to execute one of the jobs in the job pool.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ System 1.0 was the first operating system GUI developed for the Macintosh.
  • Operating System Interface Design Between 1981-2009 | Webdesigner Depot 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.webdesignerdepot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I should mention that this article showcases only the significant advances in GUI design (not operating system advances) and also not all of the graphical user interfaces and operating systems existing today.
  • Operating System Interface Design Between 1981-2009 | Webdesigner Depot 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.webdesignerdepot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The hobbyist is their own developer, or they interact in a relatively small and unstructured group of individuals who are all similarly situated with the same code base.^ Historically, Intel has been a more agile company than Microsoft, and after all, they can make small simple chips using the same factories that now make big complicated chips.
  • Edgelings.com » Smilodon and the Computer Operating System 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC pajamasmedia.com [Source type: General]

^ A lot of small businesses are the same: they don’t want to switch until others do.
  • Edgelings.com » Smilodon and the Computer Operating System 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC pajamasmedia.com [Source type: General]

^ Once every card maker starts making EFI-based cards this whole situation will be a non-issue since they will be, by default, compatible with Macs.
  • Operating Systems - GraphJam: Music and Pop Culture in Charts and Graphs. Let us explain them. 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC graphjam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Examples of a hobby operating system include Syllable and ReactOS; Minix is a classical example.^ Note: Windows® Vista™ operating system already includes the XPS viewer.
  • Microsoft Hardware Mice and Keyboard Product Documentation 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: General]

^ A batch operating system normally reads a stream of separate jobs(from a card reader, for example), each with its own control cards that predefine what the job does.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ ReactOS is an operating system designed to be compatible with Microsoft Windows software.
  • 10 amazingly alternative operating systems and what they could mean for the future | Royal Pingdom 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC royal.pingdom.com [Source type: General]

Commodore

.Commodore International designed a series of 8 bit platforms that were all to one degree or another separately intelligent and yet interconnectable.^ Strawman: Don’t forget, while all of these OSes run on ARM and similar platforms, Intel still has the 960 microcontroller, and can compete with all of these 32-bit micros.
  • Edgelings.com » Smilodon and the Computer Operating System 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC pajamasmedia.com [Source type: General]

^ Later on, high speed optical serial buses will become the future of all IC interconnects.
  • 10 amazingly alternative operating systems and what they could mean for the future | Royal Pingdom 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC royal.pingdom.com [Source type: General]

^ My point of view, remember before you reply, is that All OS’s suck in one way or another.
  • Operating Systems - GraphJam: Music and Pop Culture in Charts and Graphs. Let us explain them. 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC graphjam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For instance, one computer always powered up as a host, and the others powered up in a generally cooperative state, according to a complex coordination of signals (TALK/LISTEN protocol) so they could work separately or in tandem, depending on whatever tasks were at hand.^ They will have the kernel to work with so it could get vicious.
  • Edgelings.com » Smilodon and the Computer Operating System 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC pajamasmedia.com [Source type: General]

^ Reply deuce says: September 21, 2009 at 9:49 am I used to always use windows xp, and my friend introduced me to linux and i actually caught on pretty fast, now i have two computers, one with windows xp, and the other with Ubuntu .
  • Operating Systems - GraphJam: Music and Pop Culture in Charts and Graphs. Let us explain them. 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC graphjam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For instance, the UNIX kernel is single-tasking; Only one task can be executing in the kernel at a time.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

.December 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Although the TALK/LISTEN protocol logically supported up to 30 devices daisy-chaining together on the serial bus, signal attenuation required some kind of device in the middle for voltage maintenance through a buffer, amplifier, and propagator.^ Connectivity An available PS/2 or Universal Serial Bus (USB) port (USB requires Windows XP, Windows 2000, Windows Millennium Edition, or Windows 98) .
  • Microsoft Hardware Mice and Keyboard Product Documentation 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: General]

For the state of the art in the late 1980s, the machine was at a roadblock. .The TALK/LISTEN protocol was quite similar to SCSI bus management but there was no arbitration phase, and only one powered up as host, which could then command one or more of the other devices to enter into a TALKing or LISTENing state, until such time that some other computer in the daisy chain was willing to be the host.^ And it was around for quite some time.
  • Operating System Interface Design Between 1981-2009 | Webdesigner Depot 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.webdesignerdepot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Notice that such a speed up can be achieved only if the computer has multiple processing elements(such as CPUs or channels) Modularity .
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ At some later time, the process can be reintroduced into memory and its execution can be continued where it left off.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

.In some cases, one or more computers could drop off the daisy chain for a period of time until they voluntarily (of their own accord) came back, which was called "reentrance",[citation needed] but there was still no arbitration phase like that enjoyed by SCSI-compliant computers.^ Like they say, 'No-one ever got sacked for going with Microsoft.'
  • Google targets Microsoft with new operating system | Technology | guardian.co.uk 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ They may generate a call to a special run-time routine that makes the system call, or the system call may be generated directly in-line.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Vista and 7 are trying to be more user-friendly but I think Macs still take the cake on that one.
  • Operating Systems - GraphJam: Music and Pop Culture in Charts and Graphs. Let us explain them. 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC graphjam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One of the limitations was the small number of physical devices (close to 32, depending on the way the signal was amplified prior to propagation) that could be connected, preventing it from being useful in a multi-user environment.^ The user friendly bit depends on what computer you’re more used to.
  • Operating Systems - GraphJam: Music and Pop Culture in Charts and Graphs. Let us explain them. 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC graphjam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One Note, by the way, is a fantastic little program which allows you to create rough notes for a project comprised of any number of clippings and information sources.
  • Edgelings.com » Smilodon and the Computer Operating System 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC pajamasmedia.com [Source type: General]

^ It may be true that successful innovations start small, and that certain classes of software are the same way, but a lot of enterprise software (one of the areas I develop for) are very different.
  • Edgelings.com » Smilodon and the Computer Operating System 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC pajamasmedia.com [Source type: General]

Other

.Older operating systems which are still used in niche markets include OS/2 from IBM and Microsoft; Mac OS, the non-Unix precursor to Apple's Mac OS X; BeOS; XTS-300.^ This simple but efficient method is used by the DOS and OS/2 operating systems.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Mac OS System 1.0 (released in 1984) .
  • Operating System Interface Design Between 1981-2009 | Webdesigner Depot 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.webdesignerdepot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mac OS System 7 (released in 1991) .
  • Operating System Interface Design Between 1981-2009 | Webdesigner Depot 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.webdesignerdepot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some, most notably AmigaOS 4 and RISC OS, continue to be developed as minority platforms for enthusiast communities and specialist applications.^ Although off-line preparation of jobs continued for some time, it was quickly replaced in most systems.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ This Linux distribution I selected has some of the most practical applications.
  • Your Blog » Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC yourblog.dell.com [Source type: General]

OpenVMS formerly from DEC, is still under active development by Hewlett-Packard.
.There were a number of operating systems for 8 bit computers - Apple's DOS (Disk Operating System) 3.2 & 3.3 for Apple II, ProDOS, UCSD, CP/M - available for various 8 and 16 bit environments, FutureOS for the Amstrad CPC6128 and 6128Plus.^ Computer/Operating System One of the following: .
  • Microsoft Hardware Mice and Keyboard Product Documentation 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: General]

^ INSTALLING ANY operating system on a computer sucks.
  • Operating Systems - GraphJam: Music and Pop Culture in Charts and Graphs. Let us explain them. 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC graphjam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For a Microsoft® Windows®-based computer:Computer/Operating System One of the following: .
  • Microsoft Hardware Mice and Keyboard Product Documentation 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: General]

.Research and development of new operating systems continues.^ The criticisms of the article are for the most part valid; it really doesn’t say enough, but it is a good starting point if you’re interested in researching operating systems.
  • 10 amazingly alternative operating systems and what they could mean for the future | Royal Pingdom 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC royal.pingdom.com [Source type: General]

^ Oberon is an operating system, originally developed as part of the NS32032-based Ceres workstation project; it is written entirely in the Oberon programming language.
  • 10 amazingly alternative operating systems and what they could mean for the future | Royal Pingdom 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC royal.pingdom.com [Source type: General]

^ This concept is so useful that several new operating systems are providing a mechanism to support it through the thread facility.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

.GNU Hurd is designed to be backwards compatible with Unix, but with enhanced functionality and a microkernel architecture.^ Windows offers POSIX support, but that's not the same as being based on UNIX. Dave Cutler designed Windows and based the architecture on VMS, which he also designed.
  • Google targets Microsoft with new operating system | Technology | guardian.co.uk 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: General]

.Singularity is a project at Microsoft Research to develop an operating system with better memory protection based on the .Net managed code model.^ For a Microsoft® Windows®-based computer:Computer/Operating System One of the following: .
  • Microsoft Hardware Mice and Keyboard Product Documentation 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: General]

^ For a Microsoft Windows®-based computer:Computer/Operating System One of the following: .
  • Microsoft Hardware Mice and Keyboard Product Documentation 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: General]

^ The criticisms of the article are for the most part valid; it really doesn’t say enough, but it is a good starting point if you’re interested in researching operating systems.
  • 10 amazingly alternative operating systems and what they could mean for the future | Royal Pingdom 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC royal.pingdom.com [Source type: General]

.Systems development follows the same model used by other Software development, which involves maintainers, version control "trees",[citation needed] forks, "patches", and specifications.^ But NeWS used PostScript as both the imaging model and the programming language of the window system, so programs talked to the window system similar to the way word processors send PostScript code to a printer.
  • Operating System Interface Design Between 1981-2009 | Webdesigner Depot 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.webdesignerdepot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It may be true that successful innovations start small, and that certain classes of software are the same way, but a lot of enterprise software (one of the areas I develop for) are very different.
  • Edgelings.com » Smilodon and the Computer Operating System 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC pajamasmedia.com [Source type: General]

^ Multimedia Hot Keys are supported for use with: Versions of Microsoft CD Player, Microsoft Deluxe CD, Microsoft Windows Media® Player, and certain versions of other popular media players and browsers.
  • Microsoft Hardware Mice and Keyboard Product Documentation 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: General]

.From the AT&T-Berkeley lawsuit the new unencumbered systems were based on 4.4BSD which forked as FreeBSD and NetBSD efforts to replace missing code after the Unix wars.^ But NeWS used PostScript as both the imaging model and the programming language of the window system, so programs talked to the window system similar to the way word processors send PostScript code to a printer.
  • Operating System Interface Design Between 1981-2009 | Webdesigner Depot 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.webdesignerdepot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This situation is similar to the case where a fork system call is invoked with a new thread of control executing within the same virtual address space.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ My current employer is replacing it with a “new” system which has only been about 8 years in development.
  • Edgelings.com » Smilodon and the Computer Operating System 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC pajamasmedia.com [Source type: General]

.Recent forks include DragonFly BSD and Darwin from BSD Unix.^ Yes, it’s the Darwin kernel, and it’s BSD unix… which is exactly what I said.
  • Operating Systems - GraphJam: Music and Pop Culture in Charts and Graphs. Let us explain them. 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC graphjam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]

Diversity of operating systems and portability

.Application software is generally written for use on a specific operating system, and sometimes even for specific hardware.^ Three general methods are used to pass parameters to the operating system.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ I will never ever use a Google operating system.
  • Google targets Microsoft with new operating system | Technology | guardian.co.uk 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Anyways, enjoy paying through the nose for software and Operating Systems that Linux users get for free legally!
  • Operating Systems - GraphJam: Music and Pop Culture in Charts and Graphs. Let us explain them. 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC graphjam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When porting the application to run on another OS, the functionality required by that application may be implemented differently by that OS (the names of functions, meaning of arguments, etc.^ Windows vista is different from Windows XP or Windows ME. Linux represent thousand os different OS (Gentoo, Ubuntu, RedHat etc etc) each of this are different for userfriendly and stability.
  • Operating Systems - GraphJam: Music and Pop Culture in Charts and Graphs. Let us explain them. 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC graphjam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Well-known applications such as Firefox have been ported to run on SkyOS. .
  • 10 amazingly alternative operating systems and what they could mean for the future | Royal Pingdom 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC royal.pingdom.com [Source type: General]

^ In this case, the threads themselves are synchronous: another thread in the same group may run only if the currently executing thread relinquishes control.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

) requiring the application to be adapted, changed, or otherwise maintained.
.This cost in supporting operating systems diversity can be avoided by instead writing applications against software platforms like Java, Qt or for web browsers.^ All that is needed it a splashtop style system when the client just needs a web browser to run.
  • 10 amazingly alternative operating systems and what they could mean for the future | Royal Pingdom 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC royal.pingdom.com [Source type: General]

^ Anyways, enjoy paying through the nose for software and Operating Systems that Linux users get for free legally!
  • Operating Systems - GraphJam: Music and Pop Culture in Charts and Graphs. Let us explain them. 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC graphjam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A bug in the operating system software or a disk hardware failure might result in picking up the wrong pointer.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

.These abstractions have already borne the cost of adaptation to specific operating systems and their system libraries.^ Note: Windows® Vista™ operating system already includes the XPS viewer.
  • Microsoft Hardware Mice and Keyboard Product Documentation 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: General]

^ Requires a PC that meets the requirements for and has installed one of these operating systems: Windows Vista™/Windows XP with Service Pack 2 (SP2).
  • Microsoft Hardware Mice and Keyboard Product Documentation 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: General]

^ The operating system must select processes from these queues in some fashion.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Another approach is for operating system vendors to adopt standards.^ When one process has to wait, the operating system takes the CPU away from that process and gives it to another process.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Their graphical UI is just as good or better than another operating system.
  • 10 amazingly alternative operating systems and what they could mean for the future | Royal Pingdom 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC royal.pingdom.com [Source type: General]

^ The difference between ReactOS and wine is that wine is just another tool to attract users to Linux, the better methodology and operating system.
  • 10 amazingly alternative operating systems and what they could mean for the future | Royal Pingdom 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC royal.pingdom.com [Source type: General]

.For example, POSIX and OS abstraction layers provide commonalities that reduce porting costs.^ What’s important in an OS is the internal architecture, code quality, portability, device model, abstraction layer, etc.
  • 10 amazingly alternative operating systems and what they could mean for the future | Royal Pingdom 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC royal.pingdom.com [Source type: General]

^ One should be careful to distinguish between OS (hardware control, access, and abstraction layer), and Desktop Environment (GUI).
  • 10 amazingly alternative operating systems and what they could mean for the future | Royal Pingdom 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC royal.pingdom.com [Source type: General]

See also

References

  • Auslander, Marc A.; Larkin, David C.; Scherr, Allan L. (1981). The evolution of the MVS Operating System. .IBM J. Research & Development.  http://www.research.ibm.com/journal/rd/255/auslander.pdf
  • Deitel, Harvey M.; Deitel, Paul; Choffnes, David.^ The ACube link is wrong on the AmigaOS 4.1 entry – it should point to http://www.acube-systems.biz OS4’s official website is at http://www.amigaos4.com and the developers are Hyperion http://www.hyperion-entertainment.biz .
    • 10 amazingly alternative operating systems and what they could mean for the future | Royal Pingdom 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC royal.pingdom.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Some screen shots at http://www.sts.tu-harburg.de/~r.f.moeller/symbolics-info/development-environment/index.html .
    • Operating System Interface Design Between 1981-2009 | Webdesigner Depot 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.webdesignerdepot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Take a look at http://www.uvlayer.com and http://www.uvlayer.com/download.html for our AIR version.
    • 10 amazingly alternative operating systems and what they could mean for the future | Royal Pingdom 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC royal.pingdom.com [Source type: General]

    Operating Systems. Pearson/Prentice Hall. ISBN 978-0-13-092641-8. 
  • Bic, Lubomur F.; Shaw, Alan C. (2003). Operating Systems.. Pearson: Prentice Hall. 
  • Stallings (2005). .Operating Systems, Internals and Design Principles.^ We’ll be taking a look at the evolution of the interface designs of the major operating systems since the 80’s.
    • Operating System Interface Design Between 1981-2009 | Webdesigner Depot 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.webdesignerdepot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Webdesigner Depot Go back to our homepage Web Designer Depot 11 Mar Operating System Interface Design Between 1981-2009 .
    • Operating System Interface Design Between 1981-2009 | Webdesigner Depot 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.webdesignerdepot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ I should mention that this article showcases only the significant advances in GUI design (not operating system advances) and also not all of the graphical user interfaces and operating systems existing today.
    • Operating System Interface Design Between 1981-2009 | Webdesigner Depot 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.webdesignerdepot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Pearson: Prentice Hall.
     
  • Silberschatz, Avi; Galvin, Peter; Gagne, Greg (2008). .Operating Systems Concepts.^ This concept is so useful that several new operating systems are providing a mechanism to support it through the thread facility.
    • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

    John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-470-12872-0.
     

External links


Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiversity

< Wikiversity < Wikiversity:School of Computer Science

Contents

Definition

.The operating system (OS) is specialized computer software that allocates memory and manages system resources.^ The operating system is responsible for managing and protecting these resources.
  • Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.thocp.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Mac computers use an operating system called the Mac OS .
  • The Secret Guide to Computers - Operating Systems 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.secretguide.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ List of computer operating systems Bibliography .
  • Operating system - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

.When a computer is turned on, the OS is loaded into memory and works as an abstraction layer between the physical hardware and the software.^ A hardware abstraction layer (HAL) is a layer between the physical hardware of a computer and the software that runs on that computer.
  • Operating system - Wikiversity 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Turn your computer into a piece of hardware.
  • Google Chrome Operating System: the Facts and Fallacy 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.sitepoint.com [Source type: General]

^ Some even load 'modules' into memory for the OS. .
  • Operating System Design/Print Version - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Reference]

.While the Operating system doesn't perform a specific function it helps other programs run smoothly and effeciently.^ Programs br each machine runs within the operating system kernel.
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Get help with disk operating system commands and programming .
  • Disk Operating System (DOS) Information | Business.com 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.business.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The developed system is now correctly performing operation functions.
  • ATM Transport Network Operation System in Japan 20 November 2009 20:47 UTC www.comsoc.org [Source type: Reference]

History

.To understand why Operating systems not only exist today but why they take the forms they do one has to have an understanding of the development of computers.^ Google to take on Microsoft with computer operating system .
  • Google to take on Microsoft with computer operating system | The Australian 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC www.theaustralian.news.com.au [Source type: News]

^ List of computer operating systems Bibliography .
  • Operating system - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ For a Microsoft® Windows®-based computer:Computer/Operating System One of the following: .
  • Microsoft Hardware Mice and Keyboard Product Documentation 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: General]

.The first computers were only designed to do a specific task.^ The first computers were only designed to do a specific task.
  • Operating system - Wikiversity 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Dell Community Forum for first time users This is a specific area of Dell Community Forum designed for new users.
  • Your Blog » Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC yourblog.dell.com [Source type: General]

^ Influenced by the idea, Maurice Wilkes of the Cambridge University Mathematical Laboratory designed and built the EDSAC, the world’s first operational, production, stored-program computer.
  • history of operating system 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.osdata.com [Source type: Reference]

.From calculators came computers or machines that could do a series of operations in a specific order but it was a single chain of events and once the program had ended the computer shut off.^ It outlines the development of the computer from a single operator machine, to a multiple operator machine and beyond.
  • Operating System Design/Print Version - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Reference]

^ This continued until the 1960s when IBM developed the S/360 series of machines, where all machines ran the same operating system, OS/360.
  • Fundamental Concept: Computer Operating System History 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC www.clearleadinc.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It is the name for a number of closely related operating systems that came standard with nearly all IBM PC compatible computers from 1985 to 1991.
  • Disk Operating System (DOS) Information | Business.com 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.business.com [Source type: Reference]

.Soon it was found that it was very useful to not only have a computer that looped indefinitely to monitor certin activities, it was useful to run multiple programs at once.^ Programs are read not only by computers but also by programmers.
  • CS-343 Operating Systems - Fall 2002 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.northwestern.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most important program that runs on a computer .
  • operating system - Inside ID Online Glossary of Identity Management Terminology 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC insideid.webopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • operating system - Webopedia.com 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC winplanet.webopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • operating system - Internetnews.com - Webopedia.com 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC inews.webopedia.com [Source type: General]

^ It’s also used for running programs which only run on Windows.
  • Operating Systems - GraphJam: Music and Pop Culture in Charts and Graphs. Let us explain them. 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC graphjam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It was decided that a mediator was needed to run all these tasks to make sure everything ran smoothly and so the operating system was born.^ See all guides for Operating System .

^ Operating system design is a complex task.
  • Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.thocp.net [Source type: Reference]

^ This is what makes a standard Operating System so important.
  • Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.thocp.net [Source type: Reference]

Job of an Operating System

Coordination

.The goal of an operating system (OS) is to allow multiple applications and users to work together in fair and efficient ways.^ A multi-application windows type operating system simultaneouslyruns multiple applications.
  • Application selection window in a windows operation system - Patent # 6831666 - PatentGenius 20 November 2009 20:47 UTC www.patentgenius.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Does the operating system allow this?
  • Embedded Control Systems Design/Operating systems - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Reference]

^ This simple but efficient method is used by the DOS and OS/2 operating systems.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

  • security - prevent jobs from interfering with one another
  • communication - let jobs talk to one another
  • resource management - give jobs fair share of resources

Abstraction / Standard Services

.An operating system provides a set of standard services (or API) for applications to use the various system resources.^ So what operating system are you using?
  • operating systems - Lifehacker 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC lifehacker.com [Source type: General]

^ Setting the default operating system .
  • 2.0 Help: Setting the default operating system 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC docs.info.apple.com [Source type: General]

^ This is what makes a standard Operating System so important.
  • Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.thocp.net [Source type: Reference]

.Instead of forcing every application programmer to know how to write a complicated device driver just to read the CD-ROM, for instance, a modern-day operating system will simply provide a routine to access the device.^ I don’t know, but I think it’s an operating system.
  • Hints of a Facebook Operating System In New Design 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.techcrunch.com [Source type: General]

^ Every application is seen as an extension of the operating system.
  • The COSA Operating System 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.rebelscience.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Any programmer knows that there is a big difference between an operating system and a software application.
  • Is Facebook An Operating System? 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.redherring.com [Source type: General]

.This not only simplifies the job of an application programmer, but also provides the ability to manage system resources effectively and protects against malicious behavior.^ The operating system is responsible for managing and protecting these resources.
  • Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.thocp.net [Source type: Reference]

^ This not only simplifies the job of an application programmer, but also provides the ability to manage system resources effectively and protects against malicious behavior.
  • Operating system - Wikiversity 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Efficient system resource management.
  • Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.thocp.net [Source type: Reference]

.We will explore the trade-offs that decisions about operating system designs involve when we introduce the concept of a kernel.^ Learn about Operating Systems!
  • Compare prices on Operating Systems - Shop & find the lowest prices 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.sortprice.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Embedded Control Systems Design/Operating systems .
  • Embedded Control Systems Design/Operating systems - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Reference]

^ But what about this operating system stuff?
  • Is Facebook An Operating System? 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.redherring.com [Source type: General]

Operating System Principles

  • OS as illusionist
.Make hardware limitations disappear.^ OS as illusionist Make hardware limitations disappear.
  • Operating system - Wikiversity 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: Reference]

.An operating system provides an application with the illusion of an infinite amount of memory and an infinite amount of processors.^ The application is the new the operating system .
  • Operating Systems - Computers - Technology - news 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.wikio.com [Source type: General]

^ An operating system provides an application with the illusion of an infinite amount of memory and an infinite amount of processors.
  • Operating system - Wikiversity 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The following links provide examples of applications for social operating systems.
  • 2008 Horizon Report » Four to Five Years: Social Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC wp.nmc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

  • OS as government
.Protect users from each other and allocate resources fairly and efficiently.^ OS as government Protect users from each other and allocate resources fairly and efficiently.
  • Operating system - Wikiversity 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: Reference]

^ It can monitor installed service packs and hot fixes, services, devices, processes, installed applications, disks, shared resources, users, local groups and global groups, printers and other.
  • Operating Systems Software 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.programurl.com [Source type: Reference]

^ OS from users, whether malicious or clumsy protect each user from other users Permissions cover .

  • OS as complex system
.Keep things simple is the key to functionality.^ OS as complex system Keep things simple is the key to functionality.
  • Operating system - Wikiversity 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: Reference]

  • OS as history teacher
.Learn from the past to predict the future.^ OS as history teacher Learn from the past to predict the future.
  • Operating system - Wikiversity 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: Reference]

.As the technology progresses, design principles change.^ As the technology progresses, design principles change.
  • Operating system - Wikiversity 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: Reference]

Operating Systems Structure

Hardware Abstraction Layer

.A hardware abstraction layer (HAL) is a layer between the physical hardware of a computer and the software that runs on that computer.^ A hardware abstraction layer (HAL) is a layer between the physical hardware of a computer and the software that runs on that computer.
  • Operating system - Wikiversity 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: Reference]

^ When a computer is turned on, the OS is loaded into memory and works as an abstraction layer between the physical hardware and the software.
  • Operating system - Wikiversity 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: Reference]

^ It is one thing to run an old operating system on current hardware, and another to effectively leverage current hardware to best serve modern software applications.
  • Amazon.com: Modern Operating Systems (2nd Edition) (GOAL Series) (9780130313584): Andrew S. Tanenbaum: Books 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

.The function is to hide differences in hardware and therefore provide a consistent platform to run applications on.^ The function is to hide differences in hardware and therefore provide a consistent platform to run applications on.
  • Operating system - Wikiversity 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Leveraging Virtualisation for a Competitive Edge Improve Application Availability and Resource Provisioning by Virtustream they either run on different operating platforms, or they demand exclusive processor or disk usage.
  • Operating System - CIO Resource 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC resources.searchcio.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is one thing to run an old operating system on current hardware, and another to effectively leverage current hardware to best serve modern software applications.
  • Amazon.com: Modern Operating Systems (2nd Edition) (GOAL Series) (9780130313584): Andrew S. Tanenbaum: Books 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

.The best example of an HAL can be found in the AS/400 architecture.^ The best example of an HAL can be found in the AS/400 architecture.
  • Operating system - Wikiversity 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: Reference]

.The implementation of the LIC, or Licensed Internal Code, was so successful that software written on the predecessor, the S/38, runs without modifications on an AS/400. That, regardless of the underlying hardware having been changed dramatically; at least 3 different types of processors have been in use.^ That, regardless of the underlying hardware having been changed dramatically; at least 3 different types of processors have been in use.
  • Operating system - Wikiversity 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The implementation of the LIC, or Licensed Internal Code, was so successful that software written on the predecessor, the S/38, runs without modifications on an AS/400.
  • Operating system - Wikiversity 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Job Descriptions Job descriptions are used when jobs are run on the AS/400.
  • A Beginner's Guide to Auditing the AS/400 Operating System 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.isaca.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.BSD, Linux and the Windows NT based operating systems, also have a HAL. These operating systems have different subsystems for particular functions; e.g.^ With BSD systems, this is a bit different.

^ For a Microsoft® Windows®-based computer:Computer/Operating System One of the following: .
  • Microsoft Hardware Mice and Keyboard Product Documentation 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: General]

^ The company told that this Linux based operating system is meant for netbooks.

sound and vision.
.Operating systems having a defined HAL are easily portable across different hardware.^ Different operating systems.
  • Operating Systems and Airlines | Really Funny Clean Jokes and Humor 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.tensionnot.com [Source type: General]

^ Operating systems having a defined HAL are easily portable across different hardware.
  • Operating system - Wikiversity 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Diversity of operating systems and portability .
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

.This is especially important for embedded systems that run on dozens of different microcontrollers.^ This is especially important for embedded systems that run on dozens of different microcontrollers .
  • Operating system - Wikiversity 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Top 10 Tips for Successful Access Control by FoxT running a mixture of different operating systems requires careful planning and demands the right tools.
  • Operating Systems - CIO Resource 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC resources.searchcio.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The big difference today is that the choice of operating system is increasingly less and less important as end users continue to demand more integrated, complete solutions.

Virtual Machines

.For multi-platform operating systems, trying to generalize core components tends to make things very complex.^ Operating system design is a complex task.
  • Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.thocp.net [Source type: Reference]

^ This is what makes a standard Operating System so important.
  • Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.thocp.net [Source type: Reference]

^ The kernel is the core of an operating system.
  • Operating System Design/Print Version - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Reference]

.A new philosophy emerging is to use a hypervisor (like Xen) to create a common machine interface which can then be extended to any architecture.^ A new philosophy emerging is to use a hypervisor (like Xen ) to create a common machine interface which can then be extended to any architecture.
  • Operating system - Wikiversity 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: Reference]

^ When it came time to develop a simulator for the code, I found out that it would be easier to use an existing simulator than to create a new one so I adapted the one used in NACHOS. This required some changes in the SOS code to accommodate the different machine and the simulation environment.
  • SOS (Simple Operating System) Simulator 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.unm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, the memory used to hold any new processes should come from the memory quota of the creating process.
  • Embedded.com - Safety-Critical Operating Systems 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.embedded.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Kernel

.The fundamental program that is the basis of an operating system is typically referred to as a kernel.^ Programs br each machine runs within the operating system kernel.
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Scheduling is a fundamental operating system function.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The kernel is the core of an operating system.
  • Operating System Design/Print Version - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Reference]

.An operating system kernel is not strictly needed to run a computer.^ Programs br each machine runs within the operating system kernel.
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Computer/Operating System One of the following: .
  • Microsoft Hardware Mice and Keyboard Product Documentation 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: General]

^ It means that you can write an operating system for a computer system that is simulated and so it can run on any computer.
  • SOS (Simple Operating System) Simulator 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.unm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Programs can be directly loaded and executed on the "bare metal" machine, provided that the authors of those programs are willing to do without any hardware abstraction or operating system support.^ When the computer is turned on, a small "boot program" loads the operating system.
  • Operating System: Definition and additional resources from ZDNet 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC dictionary.zdnet.com [Source type: General]

^ Programs br each machine runs within the operating system kernel.
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Tech Support: "Windows 3.1 is the operating system.
  • Computer Stupidities: Operating Systems 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.rinkworks.com [Source type: General]

.This was the normal operating method of many early computers, which were reset and reloaded between the running of different programs.^ This was the normal operating method of many early computers, which were reset and reloaded between the running of different programs.
  • Operating system - Wikiversity 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Operating System Design/Print Version - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Reference]

^ There is a huge difference in speed between I/O and running programs.
  • history of operating system 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.osdata.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The most important program that runs on a computer .
  • operating system - Internetnews.com - Webopedia.com 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC inews.webopedia.com [Source type: General]

.Eventually, small ancillary programs such as program loaders and debuggers were typically left in-core between runs, or loaded from read-only memory.^ Programs are read not only by computers but also by programmers.
  • CS-343 Operating Systems - Fall 2002 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.northwestern.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We are interested in only the sequence of memory addresses generated by the running program.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ It’s also used for running programs which only run on Windows.
  • Operating Systems - GraphJam: Music and Pop Culture in Charts and Graphs. Let us explain them. 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC graphjam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As these were developed, they formed the basis of what became early operating system kernels.^ As these were developed, they formed the basis of what became early operating system kernels.
  • Operating system - Wikiversity 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Operating System Design/Print Version - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The kernel is the core of an operating system.
  • Operating System Design/Print Version - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Operation system program development method.
  • ATM Transport Network Operation System in Japan 20 November 2009 20:47 UTC www.comsoc.org [Source type: Reference]

Graphical overview of a microkernel
Graphical overview of a monolithic kernel
There are four broad categories of kernels :
  • Monolithic kernels provide rich and powerful abstractions of the underlying hardware.
  • Microkernels provide a small set of simple hardware abstractions and use applications called servers to provide more functionality.
  • Hybrid (modified microkernels) are very much like pure microkernels, except that they include some additional code in kernelspace so that it runs more quickly.
  • Exokernels provide no abstractions but allow the use of libraries to provide more functionality via direct or nearly direct access to hardware.
Tradeoffs (micro vs macro)
  • simplicity vs complexity
  • more overhead vs less overhead

Processes

.A computer process is a running instance of a program, including all variables and other states.^ A task (= process or thread) is an instance of a computer program that is being executed.
  • Embedded Control Systems Design/Operating systems - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Reference]

^ A computer process is a running instance of a program, including all variables and other states.
  • Operating system - Wikiversity 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The process state is saved by saving all the registers.
  • SOS (Simple Operating System) Simulator 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.unm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The three important components of a process are:
  • Program Code - Sometimes called the "text" section, this contains the instructions to be performed for the process.
  • Program Counter - Maintains the specific instruction in the program code to be executed next (imagine check marks in a checklist).
  • Stack Area - Sometimes called the "data" section, this includes all static memory allocated to the process.
.A multitasking operating system switches between processes to give the appearance of simultaneous execution, though in fact, in general, only one process can be executing per CPU core.^ Computer/Operating System One of the following: .
  • Microsoft Hardware Mice and Keyboard Product Documentation 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: General]

^ The operating system picks and begins to execute one of the jobs in the job pool.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Thus, the operating system is responsible for scheduling the processes on the CPU(s).
  • Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.thocp.net [Source type: Reference]

.Some new processors, such as Intel's Pentium 4 with Hyperthreading capability, can actually execute more than one process at a time.^ Let me try one more time.
  • Mental Rootkit » Trusted Operating Systems 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC mentalrootkit.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some new processors, such as Intel's Pentium 4 with Hyperthreading capability, can actually execute more than one process at a time.
  • Operating system - Wikiversity 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: Reference]

^ But some people prefer Internet Explorer more than Mozilla Firefox because Mozilla Firefox consume a lot of memory and sometimes does not respond.
  • Operating System Tutorials and Source Code 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.go4expert.com [Source type: General]

Reality vs. Abstraction

  • physical memory vs. virtual memory
  • no protection vs. protection
  • limited size vs. unlimited
  • data scattered vs. contiguous virtual address range
  • easy sharing vs. controlled sharing

Boot Loader

.The function of a boot loader, whether a boot ROM or a Unix boot loader such as uboot or grub, is to initialize the hardware, set boot parameters, load a kernel image into RAM, and pass control of the hardware to the loaded kernel image.^ The function of a boot loader, whether a boot ROM or a Unix boot loader such as uboot or grub , is to initialize the hardware, set boot parameters, load a kernel image into RAM, and pass control of the hardware to the loaded kernel image.
  • Operating system - Wikiversity 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Boot loader Hardware Initialization .
  • Operating System Design/Print Version - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Many boot loaders also support passing parameters to the kernel.
  • Operating System Design/Print Version - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Reference]

Virtual Memory

Introduction

File:Virtual memory-Virtualmem.png
Virtual memory is intended to help the programmer by taking care of some memory housekeeping duties.
.Virtual memory is a computer design feature that permits software to use more main memory (the memory which the CPU can read and write to directly) than the computer actually physically possesses.^ Virtual memory is a computer design feature that permits software to use more main memory (the memory which the CPU can read and write to directly) than the computer actually physically possesses.
  • Operating system - Wikiversity 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Yeah, Macs are actually more useful than PCs.
  • Operating Systems - GraphJam: Music and Pop Culture in Charts and Graphs. Let us explain them. 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC graphjam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Microsoft has applied for a patent for " Pay as you go " PC computing.  Basically you would get a reduced rate for your computer but would pay a "usage fee" to use it.  This could lead to many people actually paying more for the system in the long run.
  • IdeaStorm | Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC dellideas.force.com [Source type: General]

.Most computers possess four kinds of memory: registers in the CPU, caches both inside and adjacent to the CPU, physical memory, generally in the form of RAM which the CPU can read and write to directly and reasonably quickly; and disk storage, which is much slower, but also much larger.^ Most computers possess four kinds of memory : registers in the CPU, caches both inside and adjacent to the CPU, physical memory , generally in the form of RAM which the CPU can read and write to directly and reasonably quickly; and disk storage , which is much slower, but also much larger.
  • Operating system - Wikiversity 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Scalable, Fault-Tolerant NAS for Oracle - The Next Generation For several years NAS has been evolving as a storage alternative for Oracle databases, and for good reason: NAS is quite often the simplest, most cost-effective storage approach for Oracle.
  • Operating Systems Forums 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.devhardware.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Operating Systems Forums 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC forums.devshed.com [Source type: General]

^ This reduces the time for loading data into virtual memory or seeking, reading, and writing to data storage devices, thus making applications run faster and more efficiently.
  • Microsoft Windows XP Professional x64 Edition 64-Bit Operation System Software Microsoft ZAT-00096 WinXP Pro 64Bit OS SP2B-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 20 November 2009 20:47 UTC www.directron.com [Source type: General]

.Many applications require access to more information (code as well as data) than can be stored in physical memory.^ This reduces the time for loading data into virtual memory or seeking, reading, and writing to data storage devices, thus making applications run faster and more efficiently.
  • Microsoft Windows XP Professional x64 Edition 64-Bit Operation System Software Microsoft ZAT-00096 WinXP Pro 64Bit OS SP2B-Best Computer Online Store Houston Buy Discount Prices Texas-Directron.com 20 November 2009 20:47 UTC www.directron.com [Source type: General]

^ The leading provider of software licensing, entitlement, installation and application readiness is trusted by more than 80,000 customers.

^ More Information: Well-endowed is as well-endowed does; I oversimplified grossly.
  • Operating Systems Through Time (8-bits) 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.armory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This is especially true when the operating system is one that wishes to allow multiple processes/applications to run seemingly in parallel.^ A multi-application windows type operating system simultaneouslyruns multiple applications.
  • Application selection window in a windows operation system - Patent # 6831666 - PatentGenius 20 November 2009 20:47 UTC www.patentgenius.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Computer/Operating System One of the following: .
  • Microsoft Hardware Mice and Keyboard Product Documentation 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: General]

^ Does the operating system allow this?
  • Embedded Control Systems Design/Operating systems - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Reference]

.The obvious response to the problem of the maximum size of the physical memory being less than that required for all running programs is for the application to keep some of its information on the disk, and move it back and forth to physical memory as needed, but there are a number of ways to do this.^ Also there isn't a limit of the memory size.
  • Embedded Control Systems Design/Operating systems - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Translator disk that did not quite fix the problem for some programs.
  • Operating Systems Through Time (8-bits) 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.armory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ High criticality applications already running are guaranteed to have the physical memory they will require to run.
  • Embedded.com - Safety-Critical Operating Systems 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.embedded.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One option is for the application software itself to be responsible both for deciding which information is to be kept where, and also for moving it back and forth.^ It is one thing to run an old operating system on current hardware, and another to effectively leverage current hardware to best serve modern software applications.
  • Amazon.com: Modern Operating Systems (2nd Edition) (GOAL Series) (9780130313584): Andrew S. Tanenbaum: Books 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ One menu option to find and install software instead of having to shop/download, install, and troubleshoot.
  • Operating Systems - GraphJam: Music and Pop Culture in Charts and Graphs. Let us explain them. 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC graphjam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Synaptic application is one of the finest software installation management tools available.
  • My ideal operating system | Linux and Open Source | TechRepublic.com 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC blogs.techrepublic.com.com [Source type: General]

.The programmer would do this by determining which sections of the program (and also its data) were mutually exclusive, and then arranging for loading and unloading the appropriate sections from physical memory, as needed.^ The user section consisted of program, data, and unused memory.
  • history of operating system 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.osdata.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Physical memory pages are mapped into the logical space to hold the current process' code; others are mapped for data.
  • Embedded.com - Safety-Critical Operating Systems 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.embedded.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the program ran to completion, the result would be some end data.
  • history of operating system 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.osdata.com [Source type: Reference]

.The disadvantage of this approach is that each application's programmer must spend time and effort on designing, implementing, and debugging this mechanism, instead of focusing on their application; this hampered programmers' efficiency.^ Workshop on Network and Operating System Support for Digital Audio br applications require operating system support to ensure real-time 40 The Tenet Real-Time Protocol Suite: Design, Implementation, and..
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ (Correct) We describe the design of an application platform able to run distributed real-time and multimedia applications alongside conventional UNIX programs.
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Ferrari (1996) (Correct) The Process Introspection project is a design and implementation effort, the main goal of which is to construct a general purpose, flexible, efficient checkpoint/restart mechanism appropriate for use ...
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Also, if any programmer could truly choose which of their items of data to store in the physical memory at any one time, they could easily conflict with the decisions made by another programmer, who also wanted to use all the available physical memory at that point.^ If I have an all-in-one, I want to be able to use all of the features in my hardware.
  • My ideal operating system | Linux and Open Source | TechRepublic.com 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC blogs.techrepublic.com.com [Source type: General]

^ The user uses one application at a time, one application program must finish before the next can be selected.
  • PDA Operating Systems White Papers ( Personal Digital Assistant Operating Systems, Wireless Operating Systems ) Software Downloads, Definition and Webcasts - Bitpipe 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.bitpipe.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Chrome OS netbooks will not have traditional hard disk drives — they will rely on non-volatile flash memory and internet-based storage for saving all of your data.
  • Operating Systems | Gadget Lab | Wired.com 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: General]

.The alternative is to use virtual memory, in which a combination of special hardware and operating system software makes use of both kinds of memory to make it look as if the computer has a much larger main memory than it actually does.^ So a computer that needs to boot from DynaOS does not need any software or operating system inside it.
  • Concept of DynaOS - Dynamic Operating System - An OS that can boot from remote server - Articles - Hoozi Resources 11 September 2009 10:18 UTC www.hoozi.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Compare the computer operating systems .
  • Operating Systems Information | Business.com 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.business.com [Source type: Reference]

^ INSTALLING ANY operating system on a computer sucks.
  • Operating Systems - GraphJam: Music and Pop Culture in Charts and Graphs. Let us explain them. 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC graphjam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It does this in a way that is invisible to the rest of the software running on the computer.^ So a computer that needs to boot from DynaOS does not need any software or operating system inside it.
  • Concept of DynaOS - Dynamic Operating System - An OS that can boot from remote server - Articles - Hoozi Resources 11 September 2009 10:18 UTC www.hoozi.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This way there does not need to be a different running program associated with each terminal.
  • Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.thocp.net [Source type: Reference]

^ However, it is not good for games, as it does not natively run software designed for windows, and very few companies design commercial games for linux (there are ways to run windows software on linux, such as wine / cedega, but these very rarely work for running full 3d games) .
  • Operating Systems - GraphJam: Music and Pop Culture in Charts and Graphs. Let us explain them. 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC graphjam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It usually provides the ability to simulate a main memory of almost any size (as limited by the size of the addresses being used by the operating system and cpu; the total size of the Virtual Memory can be 232 for a 32 bit system, or approximately 4 Gigabytes, while newer 64 bit chips and operating systems use 64 or 48 bit addresses and can index much more virtual memory).^ Don?t be bounded by operating systems limitations.

^ All modern and usually used file systems and operating systems are supported.

^ Monitor (more like an operating system) .
  • Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.thocp.net [Source type: Reference]

.This makes the job of the application programmer much simpler.^ This makes the job of the application programmer much simpler.
  • Operating system - Wikiversity 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: Reference]

^ This not only simplifies the job of an application programmer, but also provides the ability to manage system resources effectively and protects against malicious behavior.
  • Operating system - Wikiversity 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: Reference]

^ From a user and application programmer standpoint, Unix is Unix regardless of the CPU make and model.
  • Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.thocp.net [Source type: Reference]

.No matter how much memory the application needs, it can act as if it has access to a main memory of that size.^ No matter how much memory the application needs, it can act as if it has access to a main memory of that size.
  • Operating system - Wikiversity 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: Reference]

^ No matter how hard it tries.
  • The Best Operating Systems News, Reviews, Features, and Forums | MaximumPC - All of the Best Software and Hardware Reviews | Maximum PC 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.maximumpc.com [Source type: General]

^ It ostensibly has no CPU or memory/storage inside, permitting it to be used strictly as a KVM+ access device.
  • Operating Systems - Technology News, Blogs, How To for IT Professionals - Techworld.com 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.techworld.com [Source type: General]

.The programmer can also completely ignore the need to manage the moving of data back and forth between the different kinds of memory.^ The programmer can also completely ignore the need to manage the moving of data back and forth between the different kinds of memory.
  • Operating system - Wikiversity 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: Reference]

^ But you would still need to be a complete computer-tard to manage it.
  • Operating Systems - GraphJam: Music and Pop Culture in Charts and Graphs. Let us explain them. 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC graphjam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It can all be done with the right kind of memory management and suitable compilers, and it picks off masses of errors during the development process.
  • Google to Launch PC Operating System « naked capitalism 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.nakedcapitalism.com [Source type: General]

.In technical terms, virtual memory allows software to run in a memory address space whose size and addressing are not necessarily tied to the computer's physical memory.^ A memory map relates virtual addresses to physical addresses.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ In technical terms, virtual memory allows software to run in a memory address space whose size and addressing are not necessarily tied to the computer's physical memory.
  • Operating system - Wikiversity 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The Virtual Address eXtension (VAX) series of medium-size computers manufactured by the Digital Equipment Corp.
  • COMPUTER OPERATING SYSTEM, 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.history.com [Source type: Reference]

.While conceivably virtual memory could be implemented solely by operating system software, in practice its implementation almost universally uses a combination of hardware and operating system software.^ Solaris operating system used.
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Home / Software / keyword: Operating Systems .

^ NETIX: A network-using operating system, based on UNIX software.
  • Distributed operating systems 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC portal.acm.org [Source type: Academic]

Base and Bounds Method

2-level Paging

Multi-level Paging

Swap Partions

Evaluating Performance/Overhead

Traps and Interrupts

Multiprogramming

Introduction

.Multiprogramming became possible when disks were introduced to the computing world.^ Multiprogramming became possible when disks were introduced to the computing world.
  • Operating system - Wikiversity 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: Reference]

^ As hardware and software was developed to create monitors, simple and spooling batch systems and finally multiprogrammed systems, the separation between the user and the computer became more and more pronounced.
  • Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.thocp.net [Source type: Reference]

^ As on-line disk storage became feasible, it was possible to provide immediate access to all of the application packages.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

.The concept of multiprogramming relies on the capability of a computer to store instructions (programs) for long-term use.^ The concept of multiprogramming relies on the capability of a computer to store instructions (programs) for long-term use.
  • Operating system - Wikiversity 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Soon it was found that it was very useful to not only have a computer that looped indefinitely to monitor certin activities, it was useful to run multiple programs at once.
  • Operating system - Wikiversity 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The term was first applied to devices that were not capable of running their own stand-alone programs, but could interact with remote computers via a network.
  • Concept of DynaOS - Dynamic Operating System - An OS that can boot from remote server - Articles - Hoozi Resources 11 September 2009 10:18 UTC www.hoozi.com [Source type: Reference]

.The goal is to reduce CPU idle time by allowing new jobs to take over the CPU whenever the currently running job needed to wait (e.g.^ This reduced the idle time of the CPU between jobs but not during the execution of jobs.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Available programs include more than just those programs that happen to be currently running on the operating system at the time.
  • Application selection window in a windows operation system - Patent # 6831666 - PatentGenius 20 November 2009 20:47 UTC www.patentgenius.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In addtion, if several jobs are ready to run at the same time, the system must choose among them.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

for user I/O).
.It was also at this point when operating systems received a new responsibility - decision making.^ This is what makes a standard Operating System so important.
  • Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.thocp.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Daily news on Operating Systems.
  • Free Operating systems and commercial operating systems 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.freebyte.com [Source type: Reference]

^ What makes an operating system modern?
  • Amazon.com: Modern Operating Systems (2nd Edition) (GOAL Series) (9780130313584): Andrew S. Tanenbaum: Books 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

Before multiprogramming was introduced, the role of the operating system was simple and straight-forward - load a program into memory and execute it via the CPU.
.With the advent of multiprogramming, operating systems now faced different mechanics for program execution as multiple jobs now needed to be loaded into memory at the same time and several options existed for allocating CPU time.^ In addtion, if several jobs are ready to run at the same time, the system must choose among them.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ List of real-time operating systems .
  • Embedded Control Systems Design/Operating systems - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Reference]

^ First DOS is loaded into the system.
  • PC Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Two types of scheduling were introduced to handle this decision-making - job scheduling and CPU scheduling.^ (The term shortest process first is not used because most people and textbooks refer to this type of scheduling discipline as shortest-job-first ) This algorithm associates with each process the length of the next CPU burst.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Instead of having a human operator load each program, software handled the scheduling of jobs.
  • history of operating system 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.osdata.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Shortest-Job-First Scheduling A different approach to CPU scheduling is the shortest-job-first(SJF) algorithm.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Job scheduling refers to the selection of jobs to load into memory.^ The long- term scheduler (or job scheduler ) selects processes from this pool and loads them into memory for execution.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Programs may then load from, store into, or jump to any word in the virtual address space, without regard to the fact that there really is not enough physical memory.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Some even load 'modules' into memory for the OS. .
  • Operating System Design/Print Version - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Reference]

.CPU scheduling refers to the selection of a job existing in memory to execute via the CPU. In a computer system, both these decisions are made by the operating system.^ Computer/Operating System One of the following: .
  • Microsoft Hardware Mice and Keyboard Product Documentation 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: General]

^ The operating system picks and begins to execute one of the jobs in the job pool.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Thus, the operating system is responsible for scheduling the processes on the CPU(s).
  • Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.thocp.net [Source type: Reference]

Scheduling Algorithms

Scheduling Basics
.Process scheduling is one of the most important functions of an operating system that supports multiprogramming.^ Computer/Operating System One of the following: .
  • Microsoft Hardware Mice and Keyboard Product Documentation 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC www.microsoft.com [Source type: General]

^ Windows is the most popular operating system.
  • Operating Systems | Reviews, Download, Forum, Alternatives from the Geeks | Iterating Software Guide - Software Reviews 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.iterating.com [Source type: General]

^ Tech Support: "Windows 3.1 is the operating system.
  • Computer Stupidities: Operating Systems 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.rinkworks.com [Source type: General]

This function is heavily dependent on queues. There are three types of queues that are used in process scheduling:
.
  • Job Queue - Contains all processes that have been introduced into the system
  • Ready Queue - Contains processes that are waiting for CPU time, and can be selected to run at any time
  • Device Queue - Contains processes waiting on a certain device.^ In addtion, if several jobs are ready to run at the same time, the system must choose among them.
    • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

    ^ To have several jobs ready to run, the system must keep all of them in memory simultaneously.
    • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

    ^ The CPU scheduler will then select the next process from the ready queue.
    • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

    Each device has its own queue for processes that need input/output from it.
Scheduling Statistics
.To gauge the performance of a scheduling algorithm, several statistics are used.^ Although the SJF algorithm is optimal , that is, not other algorithm can deliver better performance, it cannot be implemented at the level of short-term CPU scheduling.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

  • Turnaround Time = Time Job Finished - Time Job First Ready
  • Average Turnaround Time = Average of Turnaround Time of all jobs
  • Throughput = Number of Jobs Finished / Total CPU Time
  • CPU Utilization = (Total CPU Time - Idle Time)/Total CPU Time
The general goals of scheduling are:
  • Reduce average turnaround time.
  • Increase the throughput
  • Increase CPU Utilization

First Come First Serve
The name of this algorithm is self-explanatory. .This is the simplest (but least efficient) algorithm used to schedule processes for execution.^ SJF scheduling is used frequently in process scheduling.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Multilevel Queue Scheduling Another class of scheduling algorithms has been created for situations in which classes of processes are easily classified into different groups.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Therefore the operating system must schedule application processes (called pre-emptive scheduling) to have access to the processor according to an algorithm that may be modified by many factors.
  • Operating System Design/Print Version - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Reference]

.The first process to arrive in the ready queue will be executed first.^ A context switch will be executed, and the process will be put at the tail of the ready queue.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ When a process arrives at the ready queue, its priority is compared with the priority of the currently running process.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The choice arises when a new process arrives at the ready queue while a previous process is executing.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Since this is not a preemptive algorithm, an incoming process is not allowed to take over the CPU if the running process is not complete.^ The processes in the system can execute concurrently; that is, many processes may be multitasked on a CPU. There are several reasons for allowing concurrent execution: Physical Resource Sharing .
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The term "protected mode resource" generally refers to one or more CPU registers, which contain information that the running program isn't allowed to alter.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ It would be disastrous to allow one process to keep the CPU for an extended period.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Thus, the running process will continue until it is completed.^ Sometimes there is no user process to run and you need to wait until the next interrupt occurs.
  • SOS (Simple Operating System) Simulator 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.unm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A process continues this cycle until it terminates, at which time it exits from the system.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ It continued to develop releases of Windows, but computers would not be powerful enough to run a GUI until the 386 was widely used.
  • PC Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Shortest Job First
.In this algorithm, if more than one process is ready to execute, the scheduler selects the process with the shortest "burst time" (time to finish) and assigns it to the CPU. This is also a non-preemptive algorithm, so as soon as a process is assigned to the CPU, it will not be replaced until it is completed.^ This distribution can be quite important in selecting an appropriate CPU scheduling algorithm.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ A preemptive SJF algorithm will preempt the currently executing process, whereas a non-preemptive SJF algorithm will allow the currently running process to finish its CPU burst.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The CPU scheduler will then select the next process from the ready queue.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

Shortest Remaining Time First
.This is similar to Shortest Job First, but this algorithm is preemptive.^ (The term shortest process first is not used because most people and textbooks refer to this type of scheduling discipline as shortest-job-first ) This algorithm associates with each process the length of the next CPU burst.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Shortest-Job-First Scheduling A different approach to CPU scheduling is the shortest-job-first(SJF) algorithm.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Preemptive SJF scheduling is sometimes called shortest-remaining-time-first scheduling.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

.If a new process becomes ready, the scheduler will check if its burst time is shorter than the remaining time of the currently running process, then the new process will "preempt" the current process.^ When a process arrives at the ready queue, its priority is compared with the priority of the currently running process.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The process may have a CPU burst of less than 1 time quantum.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The new process may have a shorter next CPU burst than what is left of the currently executing process.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

.The current process will be returned to the ready queue.^ When a process arrives at the ready queue, its priority is compared with the priority of the currently running process.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ A non-preemptive priority scheduling algorithm will simply put the new process at the head of the ready queue.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The choice arises when a new process arrives at the ready queue while a previous process is executing.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

Threads

.The concept of threading was introduced to address the issue of concurrent execution within a single process.^ The processes in the system can execute concurrently; that is, many processes may be multitasked on a CPU. There are several reasons for allowing concurrent execution: Physical Resource Sharing .
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ As mentioned above, one of the things that distinguishes concurrent COSA objects from concurrent algorithms is that all COSA objects perform their assigned elementary operations within one execution cycle.
  • The COSA Operating System 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.rebelscience.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In COSA, there is a single loop thread called the execution thread which runs the entire system, including applications and services.
  • The COSA Operating System 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.rebelscience.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since the overhead for switching between multiple processes was too expensive in terms of computing resources, programmers needed a way to perform concurrent execution without resorting to the use of multiple processes.^ Recall that a process is defined by the resources it uses and by the location at which it is executing.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The CPU can be switched from process to process See Concurrent Processes Concurrent Processes .
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ In these computers entire processes are in memory (albeit virtual memory) and the computer switches between executing code in each of them.
  • Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.thocp.net [Source type: Reference]

A thread is simply a lightweight process. .Although each thread executes a separate program code, all threads belonging to the same process share the same memory space and context.^ Each user has a separate program in memory.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ A process is a program in execution.
  • Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.thocp.net [Source type: Reference]
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ CPUs, all with access to the same memory.
  • Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.thocp.net [Source type: Reference]

.This allows more convenient communication and data sharing.^ Memory sharing : shared memory allows different tasks to communicate with eachother.
  • Embedded Control Systems Design/Operating systems - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Messages are shared data structures between two or more components and are associated with a set of male and female connectors.
  • The COSA Operating System 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.rebelscience.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Communication in Orca is based on shared data-objects, which is a form of distributed shared memory.
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

.More importantly, switching between threads takes much less time compared to the context switch between processes.^ Context-switch time is pure overhead.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ In these computers entire processes are in memory (albeit virtual memory) and the computer switches between executing code in each of them.
  • Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.thocp.net [Source type: Reference]

^ A context switch will be executed, and the process will be put at the tail of the ready queue.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

Threads come in two types:
  1. Kernel Threads - Kernel threads are managed by the kernel itself. .It is created in kernel space and the switching between threads is performed by the kernel.^ This is due in large part to the overhead of moving in and out of the kernel, a context switch, in order to move data between the various applications and servers.
    • Operating System Design/Print Version - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Reference]

    .Although management is more efficient, the trade-off is the overhead required to create these threads.
  2. User Threads - User threads are created as part of a user process.^ Perhaps they won’t be as efficient, but I think for most users they will be more than adequate.
    • Google Announces PC Operating System to Compete with Windows | Epicenter | Wired.com 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The first part of this method is some space allocated in each process descriptor to save the necessary state, that is, the data required to restart the system call.
    • SOS (Simple Operating System) Simulator 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.unm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ This required the create process system call to know how long the file was.
    • SOS (Simple Operating System) Simulator 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.unm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Implementation-wise, the mechanism for creating and managing user threads is found within a programming language's application program interface.

File Systems

I/O Basics

File System History

Basics and Terminology

"File Header to Block" Abstraction

"File Name to File Header" Abstraction

Caching

.Caching, as a concept, simply refers to the usage of a faster (albeit usually smaller) storage medium to store copied data from a slower medium to allow faster access to data.^ A memory reference may fetch an instruction, it may fetch data, or it may store data.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ It can also supply data stored in its storage for user as per request.
  • Concept of DynaOS - Dynamic Operating System - An OS that can boot from remote server - Articles - Hoozi Resources 11 September 2009 10:18 UTC www.hoozi.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Serverless backup requires RDMs to SAN LUNs to allow the backup server direct access to the LUN. But if a VM was created with defaults, you must re-create virtual disks and move data into RDM-configured storage to support a serverless backup architecture.

.The trade-off is a decreased reliability of data, although this disadvantage is eliminated when a good caching algorithm is implemented.^ Although the SJF algorithm is optimal , that is, not other algorithm can deliver better performance, it cannot be implemented at the level of short-term CPU scheduling.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.cs.wayne.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ In the mid-70's, the MVS , the descendant of OS/360 offered the first [ citation needed ] implementation of using RAM as a transparent cache for disk resident data.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Hardware-Software Trade-Offs in a Direct Rambus Implementation of the ..
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Although a hardware cache exists within and parallel to the processor in a computer system, in theory, any storage medium can serve as a cache for a slower storage medium.^ Association class Relates a computer system and a service program that exists on the system.
  • Operating System Classes (Windows) 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC msdn.microsoft.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Why invest in hardware for 6 servers when all 6 could run from within one operating system through virtualisation?

^ VMware Server installs on any existing server hardware and partitions a physical server into multiple virtual machines by abstracting processor, memory, storage and networking resources, giving you greater hardware utilization and flexibility.

.The hardware cache itself is slower than general purpose registers but faster than main memory.^ Chapin (1997) (Correct) Reliability and scalability are major concerns when designing general-purpose operating systems for large-scale shared-memory multiprocessors.
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Here are the essential results: accessor functions are 3 to 18 times slower (depending on the CPU) than directly fetching data from a memory location.
  • Edgelings.com » Smilodon and the Computer Operating System 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC pajamasmedia.com [Source type: General]

^ VirtualBox is a general-purpose full virtualizer for x86 hardware.
  • Open Source Living » Web++ 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC osliving.com [Source type: General]

.Thus, it serves as a cache for main memory.^ A specially designed COSA-optimized processor could maintain both update lists in the processor's on-chip cache, obviating the need to access main memory to read and write to them, thus saving processing time.
  • The COSA Operating System 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.rebelscience.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In cases when larger amounts of data from secondary storage needs to be cached, the main memory can be used.^ It ostensibly has no CPU or memory/storage inside, permitting it to be used strictly as a KVM+ access device.
  • Operating Systems - Technology News, Blogs, How To for IT Professionals - Techworld.com 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.techworld.com [Source type: General]

^ The operating system also synchronizes clocks and 81 Application-Controlled Physical Memory using External Page-Cache..
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Machanick, Salverda, Pompe (1998) (Correct) The RAMpage memory hierarchy is an alternative to the traditional division between cache and main memory: main memory is moved up a level and DRAM is used as a paging device.
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

.A new type of caching came into play with the advent of the world wide web.^ Learning to Extract Text-based Information from the World Wide Web - Soderland (1997) (Correct) There is a wealth of information to be mined from narrative text on the World Wide Web.
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Charlotte: Metacomputing on the Web - Baratloo (1996) (Correct) The World Wide Web has the potential of being used as an inexpensive and convenient metacomputing resource.
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ If I’m writing a web app, I just type “sudo apt-get install apache2″ into the command line for the first time, and open it in a web browser.
  • Operating Systems - GraphJam: Music and Pop Culture in Charts and Graphs. Let us explain them. 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC graphjam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A server PC (e.g. web server, .FTP server) could now act as a "virtual" storage medium.^ Targeted at server, desktop and embedded use, it is now the only professional-quality virtualization solution that is also Open Source Software.
  • Open Source Living » Web++ 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC osliving.com [Source type: General]

.In this case, a secondary storage medium, presumably providing faster access compared to TCP/IP, could now serve a cache for data acquired through a network (e.g.^ That means it must be capable of enforcing access control over all application operations involving the kernel (and in some cases, operations provided by applications like X or Dbus).
  • Mental Rootkit » Trusted Operating Systems 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC mentalrootkit.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nessus: The TCP /IP stack responds to packets from a multicast address (known as a spank attack) which allows Denial of Service through network saturation or stealth scans.
  • 2006 Operating System Vulnerability Summary - OmniNerd 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.omninerd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The major lacks as stated in the article, the TCP-IP stack and a modern browser that need to be downloaded externally, are now integrated into system.
  • 10 amazingly alternative operating systems and what they could mean for the future | Royal Pingdom 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC royal.pingdom.com [Source type: General]

.HTML and images in the case of a web server).^ ISO images available for download from Novell, accessed February 2007 from http://www.novell.com/products/server/eval.html .
  • 2006 Operating System Vulnerability Summary - OmniNerd 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.omninerd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Consistency and coherency is an important consideration in the design of a cache system.^ Named The Mythical Man-Month, the book noted some very important concepts in operating system design.
  • Esoteric Operating Systems: The History of OS/360 and its successors 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.escapistmagazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Embra: Fast and Flexible Machine Simulation - Witchel, Rosenblum (1996) (Correct) This paper describes Embra, a simulator for the processors, caches, and memory systems of uniprocessors and cache-coherent multiprocessors.
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ More general benchmarks designed to measure overall system performance consistently show that SELinux performance overhead is quite small.
  • Mental Rootkit » Trusted Operating Systems 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC mentalrootkit.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The principle is to maintain consistent data across the storage hierarchy (from registers to network servers) in order to avoid erratic computations.^ SWALLOW: A distributed data storage system for a local network.
  • Distributed operating systems 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC portal.acm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ One of the most fundamental features of operating systems is to provide a consistent interface for data storage.
  • The Browser Is The New Operating System | Techdirt 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.techdirt.com [Source type: General]

^ As long as the master clock (really an integer count) is incremented once every cycle and as long as it serves as the reference clock for timing purposes, logical order consistency is maintained.
  • The COSA Operating System 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.rebelscience.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This is a problem commonly noted, although not having a significant effect, in the case of web browsers.^ Applications will run mostly inside the browser, which in effect turns the web into the platform.
  • Operating Systems | Gadget Lab | Wired.com 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: General]

^ And now you are all having orgasms over a Linux Distro + a web browser and you have the audacity to say it will (nuclear) bomb Windows!!!
  • Google Chrome: Redefining The Operating System 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.techcrunch.com [Source type: General]

.Oftentimes, you will need to refresh the page or clear the cache in order to see the most recent images on screen.^ Most Recent Hint: If you don't want the words you enter to be searched for separately, use quotation marks to find people or exact phrases.
  • operating system - SC Magazine US 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.scmagazineus.com [Source type: General]

^ Please send me an e-mail (look at the very bottom of this page, or here ) if there are conferences and workshops you would like to see on this list.
  • Operating Systems Conferences (and other Systems and Architecture) 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.eecg.toronto.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Most computer users understand that you need an operating system to use a computer practically, even if it is not clear why.
  • Computer Stupidities: Operating Systems 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.rinkworks.com [Source type: General]

Linking

Transactions and Journaling Filesystems

Disk Scheduling

Distributed File Systems

Distributed Systems Basics

RPC: Remote Procedure Call

NFS

Andrew FS

Bayou FS

Coda FS

2-Phase Commit

Security Principles

References

Primer on Multithreaded Programming Principles

External References

Popular operating systems include:
Other related wikibooks:

Gaming

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

.From Wikia Gaming, your source for walkthroughs, games, guides, and more!^ Shorten your development time with the newest game engine to be added to the Free Games Programming Libraries and Source Code .
  • Free and Open Source Operating Systems (thefreecountry.com) 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.thefreecountry.com [Source type: General]

^ Operating System Tutorials and Source Code Build your business online doing freelancing, Blogging and many more...
  • Operating System Tutorials and Source Code 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.go4expert.com [Source type: General]

^ You are welcome to share if you want to say Thank You to more Open-Source Applications that made your life easier.
  • Operating System - Free and Useful Online Resources for Designers and Developers @ SmashingApps 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.smashingapps.com [Source type: General]

.In computing, an operating system (OS) is the system software responsible for the direct control and management of hardware and basic system operations.^ An operating system is the software component of a computer system, which is responsible for the management of a wide variety of computer operations as also the sharing of computer resources.
  • Fundamentals of Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The operating system is responsible for managing and protecting these resources.
  • Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.thocp.net [Source type: Reference]

^ An operating system is what your system (computer) uses to operate.

.Additionally, it provides a foundation upon which to run application software such as word processing programs and web browsers.^ It is a virtual desktop on the web, running in a web browser as software.
  • Web Operating Systems And Web Desktops: A Mini-Guide 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.masternewmedia.org [Source type: General]

^ Applications running in web browsers are becoming popular, useful, and powerful.
  • XV_Semana_Informatica - es-operating-system - Project Hosting on Google Code 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC code.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are thousands of application programs running on it.
  • Operating Systems/Linux - Wikiversity 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Operating Systems/Linux - Wikiversity 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC en.wikiversity.org [Source type: Reference]

Today's operating systems

.As of 2005, the major operating systems in widespread use on general-purpose computers (including personal computers) have consolidated into two main families: the Unix-like family and the Microsoft Windows family.^ General-purpose operating systems, such as DOS and UNIX , are not real-time.
  • What is operating system? 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.easeus.com [Source type: Reference]
  • What is operating system? - A Word Definition From the Webopedia Computer Dictionary 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.webopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • operating system definition - isp.webopedia.com - The Glossary for Internet Service Providers 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC isp.webopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • operating system - Enterprise Storage Forum, Leading Edge Coverage of the Storage Industry 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC enterprisestorageforum.webopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • operating system - Inside ID Online Glossary of Identity Management Terminology 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC insideid.webopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • operating system - Webopedia.com 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC systems.webopedia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ UNIX operating system SunOS is described.
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Mac computers use an operating system called the Mac OS .
  • The Secret Guide to Computers - Operating Systems 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.secretguide.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Mainframe computers and embedded systems use a variety of different operating systems, many with no direct connection to Windows or Unix.^ UNIX operating system SunOS is described.
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Most operating systems come preconfigured for many different devices.
  • Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.thocp.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Instance class Represents a computer system operating in a Windows environment.
  • Operating System Classes (Windows) 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC msdn.microsoft.com [Source type: Reference]

.The Unix-like family is a more diverse group of operating systems, with several major sub-categories including System V, BSD, and Linux.^ UNIX operating system SunOS is described.
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Major operating systems: .
  • Operating Systems 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.thocp.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Category:Operating systems .
  • Category:Operating systems - Wikimedia Commons 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC commons.wikimedia.org [Source type: Reference]

.The name "Unix" is a trademark of The Open Group which licenses it for use to any operating system that has been shown to conform to the definitions that they have cooperatively developed.^ UNIX operating system SunOS is described.
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ So what operating system are you using?
  • operating systems - Lifehacker 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC lifehacker.com [Source type: General]

^ Solaris is a UNIX operating system developed by Sun Microsystems.
  • Operating System Design/Print Version - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Reference]

.The name is commonly used to refer to the large set of operating systems which resemble the original Unix.^ UNIX operating system SunOS is described.
  • Operating Systems [CiteSeer; NEC Research Institute; Steve Lawrence, Kurt Bollacker, Lee Giles] 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC citeseer.ist.psu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ So what operating system are you using?
  • operating systems - Lifehacker 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC lifehacker.com [Source type: General]

^ We use CentOS - CentOS is an enterprise operating system.
  • www.centos.org - The Community ENTerprise Operating System 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.centos.org [Source type: General]

.Unix systems run on a wide variety of machine architectures.^ Unix-like systems run on a wide variety of machine architectures.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ While servers generally run Unix or some Unix-like operating system, embedded system markets are split amongst several operating systems.
  • PhysOrg.com - operating system 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.physorg.com [Source type: News]

^ Popular among the Open Source crowd, Silicon Mechanics runs a variety of Linux distributions in their long list of operating systems supported on their servers.
  • Operating Systems | PodTech.net 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.podtech.net [Source type: General]

.Unix systems are used heavily as server systems in business, as well as workstations in academic and engineering environments.^ They are used heavily for servers in business, as well as workstations in academic and engineering environments.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Posted in Unix operating systems and servers .

^ Linux began as a pet project of a Finnish university student, Linus Torvalds, in 1991 as an alternative to the server operating system Unix.

.Free software Unix variants, such as Linux and BSD are increasingly popular, and have made inroads on the desktop market as well.^ Linux made its first desktop breakthrough .

^ Free software Unix variants, such as GNU , Linux and BSD , are popular in these areas.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ License: Various free software licenses .
  • 10 amazingly alternative operating systems and what they could mean for the future | Royal Pingdom 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC royal.pingdom.com [Source type: General]

.Some proprietary Unix variants like HP's HP-UX and IBM's AIX are designed to run only on that vendor's proprietary hardware while others can run on the vendor's proprietary hardware and also on industry-standard PCs.^ Some Unix variants like HP's HP-UX and IBM's AIX are designed to run only on that vendor's hardware.
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Linux is a UNIX variant that runs on several different hardware platforms.
  • Operating Systems - system, type, business, system, Types of operating systems, What do operating systems do?, Which operating systems are available? 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.referenceforbusiness.com [Source type: Reference]

^ As long as it’s a computer or phone running Windows, Mac OS, or variant of Unix.
  • Hints of a Facebook Operating System In New Design 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.techcrunch.com [Source type: General]

.Sun's formerly proprietary Solaris (it is becoming open-source under the CDDL license) is one such versatile but true Unix (it can run on Sun's servers but also on smaller x86 systems).^ Solaris is a UNIX operating system developed by Sun Microsystems.
  • Operating System Design/Print Version - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Reference]

^ T5440 server , the Solaris™ 10 Operating System , and Sun open storage technologies.
  • Operating Systems - CIO Resource 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC resources.searchcio.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sun servers running the Solaris™ Operating System and Sun™ Storage 7000 Unified Storage systems .

.Apple's Mac OS X, a BSD variant, has replaced Apple's earlier (non-Unix) Mac OS in a small but dedicated market, becoming one of the most popular Unix systems in the process.^ Earlier versions of Mac OS included Mac OS 9, Mac OS 8, System 7.5, and System 6.
  • What is an operating system (OS)? 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC support.apple.com [Source type: General]

^ Apple Mac OS (102) 1 .
  • operating system news on CNET 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC mcall.com.com [Source type: General]

^ Mac OS X v10.2 and earlier .
  • 2.0 Help: Setting the default operating system 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC docs.info.apple.com [Source type: General]
  • Macintosh Operating System: Maximum Volume Size 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC support.apple.com [Source type: General]
  • 2.0 Help: Selecting an operating system during startup 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC docs.info.apple.com [Source type: General]
  • Macintosh: Support for earlier operating systems 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC support.apple.com [Source type: General]
  • What is an operating system (OS)? 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC support.apple.com [Source type: General]

.The Microsoft Windows family of operating systems originated as a graphical layer on top of the older MS-DOS environment for the IBM PC. Modern versions are based on the newer Windows NT core that first took shape in OS/2. Windows runs on 32- and 64-bit Intel and AMD computers, although earlier versions also ran on the DEC Alpha, MIPS and PowerPC architectures (and there was work in progress to make it work also on the SPARC architecture).^ Microsoft Window 7 Professional 32 bit Windows Server Domain support .
  • Operating Systems - Softwares - 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.beliscity.com [Source type: General]

^ TAGS: 64-bit , 32-bit , 64-bit CPU , hardware maker , device driver , Apple Computer , memory , Microsoft Windows Vista , PC , operating system , Microsoft Corp.
  • operating system, and Apple Computer news on CNET 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC brighthand.com.com [Source type: General]
  • Apple Computer, and operating system news on CNET 12 October 2009 10:43 UTC starwarsshopper.com.com [Source type: General]

^ Instance class Represents a computer system operating in a Windows environment.
  • Operating System Classes (Windows) 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC msdn.microsoft.com [Source type: Reference]

.Today, Windows is a popular desktop operating system, enjoying a near-monopoly of around 90% of the worldwide desktop market share.^ Windows is the most popular operating system.
  • Operating Systems | Reviews, Download, Forum, Alternatives from the Geeks | Iterating Software Guide - Software Reviews 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.iterating.com [Source type: General]

^ Tech Support: "Windows 3.1 is the operating system.
  • Computer Stupidities: Operating Systems 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC www.rinkworks.com [Source type: General]

^ Operating System Share of 2006 .
  • 2006 Operating System Vulnerability Summary - OmniNerd 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.omninerd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is also widely used on low-end and mid-range servers, supporting applications such as Web servers and database servers.^ Windows is also used on servers, supporting applications such as web servers and database servers .
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Web application server role.
  • Operation System :: Windows Server 2003 R2 Standard Edition English OEM - TechLope.com - Buy Software Online in Viet Nam, you will find best software license for your business 20 November 2009 20:47 UTC www.techlope.com [Source type: General]

^ NetKernel Standard Edition is a resource oriented microkernel and RESTful application server based on the convergence and unification of powerful fundamental concepts found in the World Wide Web and Unix.
  • 18 projects tagged "Operating Systems" | freshmeat.net 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC mac.freshmeat.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • 18 projects tagged "Operating Systems" | freshmeat.net 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC mac.freshmeat.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • 18 projects tagged "Operating Systems" | freshmeat.net 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC mac.freshmeat.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Common operating systems

External links

  • Operating system @ dmoz.org
  • TUNES wiki, contains reviews of operating systems
  • Multicians.org and the History of Operating Systems
  • Operating System - explains what an operating system is and provides various examples
  • The "Write Your Own Operating System" OS Developer FAQ
  • How OSs Work
  • Operating System Programming- Tutorials and source code
  • Operating Systems Technical Comparison
  • BonaFide OS Development - resource for operating system developers
Smallwikipedialogo.png .This page uses content from Wikipedia.^ Number of HTML pages: 14 Site versions: English, Russian Current version: 1.3 SSI technology was used to simplify changing site content by the user.
  • Artem Prokhorov's recent projects 20 November 2009 20:47 UTC sly2m.com [Source type: Reference]

.The original article was at Operating system.^ Main article: History of operating systems .
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Operating system - encyclopedia article - Citizendium .
  • Operating system - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ In origin all operating systems were server operating systems; the concept of a client operating system only emerged in the late 1970s with inexpensive but underpowered PC hardware.
  • The Elements of Operating-System Style 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The list of authors can be seen in the page history
. .As with Wikia Gaming, the text of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 (unported) license.^ User published content is licensed under a Creative Commons License .
  • How To Select The Right Webhosting Server Operation System? 20 November 2009 20:47 UTC www.articlesbase.com [Source type: General]
  • Operating Systems Articles - Find Operating Systems Related Articles on ArticlesBase.com 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.articlesbase.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This text uses material from Wikipedia and is available under the GNU Free Documentation License.
  • PhysOrg.com - operating system 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.physorg.com [Source type: News]

^ Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License ; additional terms may apply.
  • Embedded Control Systems Design/Operating systems - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Reference]

.The content might also be available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License.^ This text uses material from Wikipedia and is available under the GNU Free Documentation License.
  • PhysOrg.com - operating system 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.physorg.com [Source type: News]

^ Copyright Wikipedia All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License .
  • Operating system (Linux Reviews) 28 January 2010 0:36 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Recent content is available under a simple permissive license .
  • Applications and libraries/Operating system - HaskellWiki 9 February 2010 15:43 UTC www.haskell.org [Source type: Reference]


This article uses material from the "Operating system" article on the Gaming wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

Simple English

File:Ubuntu 10.
Ubuntu Linux, a free operating system
An operating system (also called an OS) is what is needed to run the programs on a computer or a mobile device. The programs that run on an Operating System talk to the hardware (Specifically through the BIOS). Microsoft Windows and Mac OS are common operating systems. Less common, but important operating systems are Linux, Unix, and Solaris.

An operating system must be made up of different parts: (these can change depending on the operating system)

Contents

Tasks commonly done by operating systems

  • Interaction with the user, and management of attached devices
  • Management of programs, starting and stopping them
  • Management of resources like processor time: Making sure each program gets to run in turn
  • Data needs to be read, and written.
  • Memory management: virtual memory, paging, swapping

What an operating system does

Most ordinary computer users take their operating system for granted. The easiest way to understand what an operating system does is to take a close look at what computers were like before operating systems were invented.

The earliest electronic computers did not have any operating system. If the user wanted to change what the computer was doing, the user had to open the back panel on the (then very large) computer, and change how the wires were connected. Changing what the computer did was very time consuming and required an expert.

Later, computer scientists decided to have the wires stay as they were, and feed instructions to the computer with punch cards (cards with holes that represented instructions) or magnetic tape. The computer would store the instructions in some kind of memory. This way of operating a computer is called the von Neumann architecture.

Still, computers of the time generally only had enough memory to "remember" one program at a time. If the user wanted the computer to run a different program, the user had to wipe out the first program from memory and then load another program into memory.

Computer operators and computer scientists grew tired of carrying around large stacks of punch cards. They also wanted computers to run more than one program at a time. As years of work changed or replaced computers to have more memory, computer operators and computer scientists decided that some computers could hold several programs in its memory. The computer user could then simply choose which program the user wanted to run. Running a computer this way requires a "boss" program that controls all the other programs, and asks the user what program the user wants to run. Such a boss program is called an operating system.

Having several programs in memory that can be run at any time makes some new problems. The operating system itself has to remember where the programs are at in memory. The operating system also has to prevent two programs from fighting over which one gets to use the processor.

Modern desktop computers need an operating system. Operating systems generally start up automatically when the user turns on the computer.

Differences

Operating systems can also have other differences:

Examples

Some common operating systems are:

Other pages


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 09, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Operating system, which are similar to those in the above article.








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