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Hardtack Oak mushroom cloud at Eniwetok.
Hardtack Socorro mushroom cloud at the Nevada Test Site.
An RB-57 Canberra observes Hardtack Juniper at Eniwetok.
Hardtack Umbrella, Shallow depth underwater shot near Eniwetok.

Operation Hardtack I & II was a series of 72 nuclear tests conducted by the United States in 1958. Hardtack I was carried out in the Pacific Ocean, at Bikini Atoll, Enewetak Atoll, and Johnston Island.

Hardtack II was carried out later that year at the Nevada Test Site, while the US simultaneously carried out the secret Operation Argus over the south Atlantic Ocean in September. Hardtack II consisted exclusively of low-yield atmospheric and underground tests, and 17 one-point safety tests.

With test moratoriums on the horizon, American weapons labs rushed out many new designs. After the conclusion of Hardtack II, the United States announced a unilateral testing moratorium, which the Soviet Union joined until September, 1961.[1] In September 1961, the Soviet Union resumed nuclear testing, and the United States followed suit with Operation Nougat. Hardtack was preceded by Operation Plumbbob.

All Hardtack I tests were barge shots, and all Hardtack II tests were underground, unless otherwise noted:

Contents

Hardtack I Test Blasts

Hardtack I Test Blasts
Test Name Date Location Yield Note
Yucca 28 April, 1958 Enewetak 1.7 kilotons 85nm NE of Enewetak, high-altitude balloon test at 86,000 feet for ABM development
Cactus 5 May, 1958 Enewetak 18 kilotons Test of Mark-43 Primary 11°33′09″N 162°20′50″E / 11.5525°N 162.34722°E / 11.5525; 162.34722, nowadays covered by Runit Dome[2]
Fir 11 May, 1958 Bikini Atoll 1.36 megatons 93.4 % fusion yield
Butternut 11 May, 1958 Enewetak 81 kilotons TX-46 test, primary only
Koa 12 May, 1958 Enewetak 1.37 megatons XW-35 ICBM warhead test
Wahoo 16 May, 1958 Enewetak 9 kilotons Deep underwater test (3200 ft.)
Holly 20 May, 1958 Enewetak 5.9 kilotons
Nutmeg 21 May, 1958 Bikini Atoll 25.1 kilotons
Yellowwood 26 May, 1958 Enewetak 330 kilotons Fizzled, TX-46 test, 2.5 megaton yield predicted
Magnolia 26 May, 1958 Enewetak 57 kilotons
Tobacco 30 May, 1958 Enewetak 11.6 kilotons 2nd stage failed to ignite
Sycamore 31 May, 1958 Bikini Atoll 92 kilotons Fizzle, 5 megaton yield predicted
Rose 2 June, 1958 Enewetak 15 kilotons Fizzle, 125 kiloton yield predicted
Umbrella 8 June, 1958 Enewetak 8 kilotons Shallow depth underwater shot (150 ft.)
Maple 10 June, 1958 Bikini Atoll 213 kilotons 89 % fission yield predicted
Aspen 14 June, 1958 Bikini Atoll 319 kilotons Fired in Castle Bravo crater
Walnut 14 June, 1958 Enewetak 1.45 megatons
Linden 18 June, 1958 Enewetak 11 kilotons
Redwood 27 June, 1958 Bikini Atoll 412 kilotons
Elder 27 June, 1958 Enewetak 880 kilotons
Oak 28 June, 1958 Enewetak 8.9 megatons TX-46 redesigned full-yield test, successful.
Hickory 30 June, 1958 Bikini Atoll 14 kilotons
Sequoia 1 July, 1958 Enewetak 5.2 kilotons
Cedar 2 July, 1958 Bikini Atoll 220 kilotons
Dogwood 5 July, 1958 Enewetak 397 kilotons
Poplar 12 July, 1958 Bikini Atoll 9.3 megatons Highest test of the Dominic Series, 5th largest U.S. test overall
Scaevola 14 July, 1958 Enewetak zero Zero yield safety test
Pisonia 17 July, 1958 Enewetak 255 kilotons
Juniper 22 July, 1958 Bikini Atoll 65 kilotons Final test at Bikini Atoll
Olive 22 July, 1958 Enewetak 202 kilotons
Pine 26 July, 1958 Enewetak 2 megatons "Clean" version of the three stage Mark-41 design, yield well below the 4-6 megaton prediction
Teak 1 Aug., 1958 Johnston Island 3.8 megatons ABM effects test, launched by the Redstone ballistic missile, with a 252,000 foot burst height. Miscalculation resulted in detonation directly above launch site.
Quince 6 Aug., 1958 Enewetak zero Fizzle
Orange 12 Aug., 1958 Johnston Island 3.8 megatons ABM effects test, launched on the Redstone ballistic missile, 141,000 foot burst height
Fig 18 Aug., 1958 Enewetak 0.02 kilotons Final test at Enewetak

Hardtack II Test Blasts

Hardtack II Test Blasts
Test Name Date Location Yield Note
Otero 12 September, 1958 NTS Area 3q 0.038 kilotons 1PT, failed
Bernalillo 17 September, 1958 NTS Area 3h 0.015 kilotons 1PT; unsafe
Eddy 19 September, 1958 NTS Area 7b 0.083 kilotons balloon shot
Luna 21 September, 1958 NTS Area 3m 0.0015 kilotons 1PT; unsafe
Mercury 23 September, 1958 NTS Area 12f "slight" 1PT
Valencia 26 September, 1958 NTS Area 3r 0.002 kilotons 1PT
Mars 28 September, 1958 NTS Area 12f 0.013 kilotons 1PT
Mora 29 September, 1958 NTS Area 7b 2 kilotons balloon shot; fizzled
Hidalgo 5 October, 1958 NTS Area 7b 0.077 kilotons balloon test; failed
Colfax 5 October, 1958 NTS Area 3k 0.0055 kilotons 1PT; failed
Tamalpais 8 October, 1958 NTS Area 12b 0.072 kilotons
Quay 10 October, 1958 NTS Area 7c 0.079 kilotons tower shot
Lea 13 October, 1958 NTS Area 7b 1.4 kilotons balloon shot; fizzled
Neptune 14 October, 1958 NTS Area 12c 0.115 kilotons 1pt; failed
Hamilton 15 October, 1958 NTS Area 5 0.0012 tower shot; fizzled
Logan 16 October, 1958 NTS Area 12e 5 kilotons
Dona Ana 16 October, 1958 NTS Area 7b 0.037 kilotons
Vesta 17 October, 1958 NTS Area 9e 0.024 kilotons 1pt; surface shot; failed
Rio Arriba 18 October, 1958 NTS Area 3s 0.090 kilotons tower shot
San Juan 20 October, 1958 NTS Area 3p "zero" 1pt
Socorro 22 October, 1958 NTS Area 3b 6 kilotons balloon shot
Wrangell 22 October, 1958 NTS Area 5 0.115 kilotons balloon shot; fizzle
Oberon 22 October, 1958 NTS Area 8a "zero" 1pt
Rushmore 22 October, 1958 NTS Area 9a 0.188 kilotons balloon test; fizzle
Catron 24 October, 1958 NTS Area 3T 0.021 kilotons 1pt; failed
Juno 24 October, 1958 NTS Area 9f 0.0017 kilotons 1pt, surface shot
Ceres 26 October, 1958 NTS Area 3b 0.0007 kilotons 1pt; tower shot
Sanford 26 October, 1958 NTS Area 5 4.9 kilotons balloon shot
De Baca 26 October, 1958 NTS Area 7b 2.2 kilotons balloon shot
Chavez 27 October, 1958 NTS Area 3u 0.0006 kilotons 1pt; tower shot; failed
Evans 29 October, 1958 NTS Area 12b 0.055 kilotons fizzle
Mazama 29 October, 1958 NTS Area 9 "zero" fizzle
Humbodt 29 October, 1958 NTS Area 3v 0.0078 kilotons tower shot
Santa Fe 30 October, 1958 NTS Area 7b 1.3 kilotons balloon shot
Ganymede 30 October, 1958 NTS Area 9g "zero" 1pt; surface shot
Blanca 30 October, 1958 NTS Area 12e 22 kilotons largest test on Hardtack II
Titania 30 October, 1958 NTS Area 3c 0.0002 kilotons 1pt; tower shot

Notes

References

External links








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