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Opium poppy
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Ranunculales
Family: Papaveraceae
Genus: Papaver
Species: P. somniferum
Binomial name
Papaver somniferum
L.

Opium poppy, Papaver somniferum var. album, is the species of plant from which opium and poppy seeds are extracted. Opium is the source of many opiates, including morphine, thebaine, codeine, papaverine, and noscapine. The Latin botanical name means, loosely, the "sleep-bringing poppy, white form", referring to the sedative properties of some of these opiates.

The poppy is the only species of Papaveraceae that is an agricultural crop grown on a large scale. Other species, Papaver rhoeas and Papaver argemone, are important agricultural weeds, and may be mistaken for the crop.

The plant itself is also valuable for ornamental purposes, and has been known as the "common garden poppy", referencing all the group of poppy plants.

Poppy seeds of Papaver somniferum are an important food item and the source of poppyseed oil, a healthy edible oil that has many uses. It is widely grown as an ornamental flower throughout Europe, North America, South America, and Asia.

Contents

Varieties

Papaver somniferum has many sub-species or varieties and cultivars. Colors of the flower vary widely, as do other physical characteristics such as number and shape of petals, number of flowers and fruits, number of seeds, color of seeds, production of opium, etc.

Papaver somniferum Paeoniflorum Group (sometimes called Papaver paeoniflorum) is a sub-type of opium poppy whose flowers are highly double, and are grown in many colors. Papaver somniferum Laciniatum Group (sometimes called Papaver laciniatum) is a sub-type of opium poppy whose flowers are highly double and deeply lobed, to the point of looking like a ruffly pompon.

A few of the varieties, notably the Norman and Przemko varieties, have low morphine content (less than one percent), but have much higher concentrations of other alkaloids. Most varieties, however, including those most popular for ornamental use or seed production, have a higher morphine content, with the average content being 10%.[1][2]

Opiates

The opium poppy is the principal source of all natural opiates. Opiates are extracted from opium and poppy straw. Opium (also called “raw opium”) is the latex harvested by making incisions on the green capsules (seed pods). Poppy straw is the dried mature plant except the seeds, harvested by mowing.

From opium and poppy straw are extracted alkaloids such as morphine, thebaine, codeine and oripavine. Morphine is the predominant alkaloid found in the varieties of opium poppy plant cultivated in most producing countries.[3]

Legality

Opium poppy cultivation in the United Kingdom does not need a licence, however, a licence is required for those wishing to extract opium for medicinal products.[4]

In the United States, opium is listed as a Schedule II controlled substance by the Drug Enforcement Administration. In addition, "Opium poppy and poppy straw" are also prohibited.[5] However, this is not typically enforced for poppies grown or sold for ornamental or food purposes.[1] There is a common misconception that there is a clear distinction between poppies useful for opium extraction and ornamental or food poppies. It is not difficult to manufacture opium tea with a high morphine content from poppies readily available at flower shops.[6][7]

The seeds themselves contain very low levels of opiates.[1] However, the television show MythBusters demonstrated that one could test positive for narcotics after consuming four poppy seed bagels. The show Brainiac: Science Abuse had subjects who tested positive with only two poppy seed bagels. As a result, the U.S. standard for urinalysis raised the threshold for a positive result by a considerable amount.[citation needed] However, many labs have not implemented the increased detection threshold and many believe that the new threshold is still too low.[citation needed]

In the United Arab Emirates, where the drug law is especially stern, at least one man was reported to have been imprisoned for possessing poppy seeds obtained from a bread roll.[8]

Poppies as medicine

Capsule of Papaver somniferum showing latex (opium) exuding from incision

Australia, Turkey and India are the major producers of poppy for medicinal purposes and poppy-based drugs, such as morphine or codeine.[9] The USA has a policy of sourcing 80% of its narcotic raw materials from the traditional producers, India and Turkey.[10]

A recent initiative to extend opium production for medicinal purposes called Poppy for Medicine was launched by The Senlis Council which proposes that Afghanistan could produce medicinal opium under a scheme similar to that operating in Turkey and India.[11] The Council proposes licensing poppy production in Afghanistan, within an integrated control system supported by the Afghan government and its international allies, to promote economic growth in the country, create vital drugs and combat poverty and the diversion of illegal opium to drug traffickers and terrorist elements. Interestingly, Senlis is on record advocating reintroduction of poppy into areas of Afghanistan, specifically Kunduz, which has been poppy free for some time.

The Senlis proposal is based in part on the assertion that there is an acute global shortage of opium poppy-based medicines some of which (morphine) are on the World Health Organisation's list of essential drugs as they are the most effective way of relieving severe pain. This assertion is contradicted by the International Narcotics Control Board (INCB), the "independent and quasi-judicial control organ monitoring the implementation of the United Nations drug control conventions". INCB reports that the supply of opiates is greatly in excess of demand.[12]

The British government has given the go-ahead to the pharmaceutical company Macfarlan Smith (a Johnson Matthey company) to cultivate opium poppies in England for medicinal reasons. This move is well-received by British farmers, with a major opium poppy field based in Didcot, England.[13]

In March 2010, researchers from the Department of Biological Sciences at the University of Calgary published an article in Nature Chemical Biology about their discovery of two enzymes and their encoding genes, thebaine 6-O-demethylase (T6ODM) and codeine O-demethylase (CODM), involved in morphine biosynthesis derived from the opium poppy.[14] The enzymes were identified as non-heme dioxygenases, and were isolated using functional genomics.[14] Codeine O-demethylase produces the enzyme that converts codeine into morphine.[15]

Use as food

Polish makowiec, a nut roll filled with poppy seed paste

The opium poppy is the source of two food ingredients: poppy seed and poppyseed oil. The seeds contain very low levels of opiates,[1] and the oil extracted from them contains even less. Both the oil and the seed residue also have commercial uses.

Poppy Seeds

Poppy seeds are commonly used in both North and South Indian Cusine. Its called Khuskhus in Hindi, Gasagasalu in Telugu, Gasagasa in Kannada, Posto dana in Bengali. Its dry roasted and ground to be used in wet curry (curry paste) or dry curry. It has creamy and nut like flavor. When used with ground coconut, its provides a unique and flavour rich curry base. [1]

Ornamental cultivation

A red opium poppy flower used for ornamental purposes

Once known as the "common garden poppy", live plants and seeds of the opium poppy are widely sold by seed companies and nurseries in most of the western world, including the United States. Poppies are sought after by gardeners for the vivid coloration of the blooms, the hardiness and reliability of the poppy plants, the exotic chocolate-vegetal fragrance note of some cultivars, and the ease of growing the plants from purchased flats of seedlings or by direct sowing of the seed. Poppy seed pods are also sold for dried flower arrangements.

It has been suggested that, since "opium poppy and poppy straw" are listed in Schedule II of the United States' Controlled Substances Act, a DEA license may be required to grow poppies in ornamental or display gardens. In fact the legal status of strictly ornamental poppy gardens is more nuanced, with destruction of ornamental poppy installations or prosecution of gardeners (except those caught extracting opium via capsule scarification or tea extraction) virtually unheard of.[1] During the early spring, opium poppies will be seen flowering in gardens throughout North America and Europe, with beautiful installations being found in many private planters, as well as public botanical and museum gardens (e.g. United States Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden, North Carolina Botanical Garden, residential garden, Seattle, WA, and residential garden, Hartford, CT).

Many countries grow the plants; some of which rely heavily on the commercial production of the drug as a major source of income. As an additional source of profit, the same seeds are sold in the culinary trade shortly thereafter, making cultivation of the plant a significant source of income. This international trade in seeds of Papaver somniferum was addressed by a UN resolution "to fight the international trade in illicit opium poppy seeds" on July 28, 1998.

Popular culture

What may be the most well known literary use of the poppy occurs both in L. Frank Baum's The Wonderful Wizard of Oz and in MGM's classic 1939 film based on the novel.

In the novel, while on their way to the Emerald City, Dorothy, the Scarecrow, the Tin Man, and the Cowardly Lion walk through a field of poppies, and both Dorothy and the Lion mysteriously fall asleep. The Scarecrow and the Tin Man, not being made of flesh and blood, are unaffected. They carry Dorothy to safety and place her on the ground beyond the poppy field. While they are considering how to help the Lion, a field mouse runs in front of them, fleeing a cougar. The Tin Man beheads the cougar with his axe, and the field mouse pledges her eternal gratitude. Being the Queen of the Field Mice, she gathers all her subjects together. The Tin Man cuts down several trees, and builds a wagon. The Lion is pushed onto it, and the mice pull the wagon safely out of the poppy field.

In the 1939 film, the sequence is considerably altered. The poppy field is conjured up by the Wicked Witch of the West, and it appears directly in front of the Emerald City, preventing the four travelers from reaching it. As in the novel, Dorothy and the Cowardly Lion fall asleep, but in a direct reversal of the book, the Scarecrow and the Tin Man are unable to carry Dorothy. Glinda, who has been watching over them, conjures up a snowfall which kills the poppies' narcotic power and enables Dorothy and the Lion to awaken. Unfortunately, the Tin Man has been weeping in despair, and the combination of his tears and the wet snow has caused him to rust. After he is oiled by Dorothy, the four skip happily toward the Emerald City.

In Baum's other Oz books, Oz's ruler, Princess Ozma, is often shown wearing poppies in her hair as decoration.

History

Use of the opium poppy predates written history. Images of opium poppies have been found in ancient Sumerian artifacts (ca. 4000 BC). The opium poppy was also known to the ancient Greeks, from whom it gained its modern name of opium. Remains have been discovered at sites such as Kalapodi and Kastanas.[citation needed]

Opium was used for treating asthma, stomach illnesses, and bad eye sight. The Opium Wars between China and the British Empire took place in the late 1830s when the Chinese attempted to stop the sale of opium by Britain, in China.

Many modern writers, particularly in the nineteenth century, have written on the opium poppy and its effects, notably L. Frank Baum in The Wonderful Wizard of Oz and Thomas de Quincey in Confessions of an English Opium Eater

The French Romantic composer Hector Berlioz used an opium hallucination for the program of his Symphonie Fantastique. In this work, a young artist overdoses on opium and experiences a series of visions of his unrequited love.

Opium poppies (flower and fruit) appear on the coat of arms of the Royal College of Anaesthetists.

Sources and notes

Inline citations

  1. ^ a b c d e "Poppy law" on Erowid.org
  2. ^ Ayatollah (2006-02-25). "How potent are the major culinary (spicerack) varieties such as McCormick?". Poppies. http://www.poppies.org/faq/introduction/how-potent-are-the-major-culinary-spicerack-varieties-such-as-mccormick/#more. Retrieved 2009-09-02. 
  3. ^ "International Narcotics Control Bureau, Technical Reports, 2008, Part IV, Statistical information on narcotic drugs"
  4. ^ Phillip, Rhodri, & Barry Wigmore (2007-07-14). "The painkilling fields: England's opium poppies that tackle the NHS morphine crisis". Evening Standard. http://www.thisislondon.co.uk/news/article-23404311-details/The%20painkilling%20fields:%20England's%20opium%20poppies%20that%20tackle%20the%20NHS%20morphine%20crisis/article.do. Retrieved 2009-09-02. 
  5. ^ Ayatollah. "Drug Scheduling". Drug Enforcement Administration. http://www.usdoj.gov/dea/pubs/scheduling.html. Retrieved 2009-09-02. 
  6. ^ Hogshire, Jim. Opium for the Masses: A Practical Guide to Growing Poppies and Making Opium. Port Townsend, Wash: Loompanics Unlimited, 1994. ISBN 1559501146. Reprinted as Opium for the Masses: Harvesting Nature's Best Pain Medication. Port Townsend, Wash.: Feral House, 2009. ISBN 9781932595468.
  7. ^ "Opium poppy tea a concern in northeast Calgary". CBC News. 2009-08-24. http://www.cbc.ca/health/story/2009/08/24/calgary-opium-doda-tea-sales.html. Retrieved 2009-09-02. 
  8. ^ McGrath, Ginny (2008-02-08). "Travellers who 'smuggle' poppy seeds face Dubai jail". The Times. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/travel/news/article3333905.ece. Retrieved 2009-09-02. 
  9. ^ Dicker, Jason. "The Poppy Industry in Tasmania". University of Tasmania. http://www.launc.tased.edu.au/online/sciences/agsci/alkalo/popindus.htm. Retrieved 2009-09-02. 
  10. ^ Braund, Claire (2001). "Research driving the Tasmanian poppy industry". Australian Society of Agronomy. http://www.regional.org.au/au/asa/2001/news.htm#P54_6133. Retrieved 2009-09-02. 
  11. ^ "Poppy for Medicine". Poppy for Medicine. http://www.poppyformedicine.net/. Retrieved 2009-09-02. 
  12. ^ International Narcotics Control Board, 2004, Report 2004, Vienna: International Narcotics Control Board: 23.
  13. ^ "Review of undertakings by Macfarlan Smith Limited". Department for Business Innovation & Skills. March 2006. http://www.berr.gov.uk/whatwedo/businesslaw/competition/market-studies/opium/page33834.html. Retrieved 2009-09-02. 
  14. ^ a b Jillian M Hagel and Peter J Facchini (2010-03-14). "Dioxygenases catalyze the O-demethylation steps of morphine biosynthesis in opium poppy". Nature Chemical Biology (Nature Publishing Group). doi:10.1038/nchembio.317. http://www.nature.com/nchembio/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nchembio.317.html. Retrieved 2010-03-15. 
  15. ^ "Genetic secrets of poppies' painkillers unlocked". The Canadian Press, Toronto Star. 2010-03-15. http://www.healthzone.ca/health/newsfeatures/research/article/779869--genetic-secrets-of-poppies-painkillers-unlocked. Retrieved 2010-03-15. 

General references

Photos


Simple English

Opium poppy
File:Poster papaver
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Ranunculales
Family: Papaveraceae
Genus: Papaver
Species: P. somniferum
Binomial name
Papaver somniferum
Carolus Linnaeus

Opium poppy, Papaver somniferum var. album, is a species of plant. Opium and poppy seeds can be taken from them. A great number of opiates, for example, morphine, thebaine, codeine, papaverine, and noscapine, are made from opium. The Latin name means the "sleep-bringing poppy, white form". Some of these opiates make people feel sleepy.

The poppy is the only species of Papaveraceae that is an agricultural crop grown so much. Other species, Papaver rhoeas and Papaver argemone, are important agricultural weeds. They may be wrongly thought of as the crop.

The plant itself is also used as a decoration. It has been known as the "common garden poppy". It is widely grown as an ornamental flower in Europe, North America, South America, and Asia.

Food

[[File:|thumb|left|Polish makowiec, a nut roll filled with poppy seed paste]] Poppy seeds of Papaver somniferum are important as food. It is where poppyseed oil, a healthy, useful oil, comes from. It is also where poppy seeds come from. The seeds have very little opiates. The oil that comes from them has even less.[1]

References

  1. "Erowid Poppy Vault : Legal Status". erowid.org. http://www.erowid.org/plants/poppy/poppy_law.shtml. Retrieved 19 April 2010. 

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