Oppositional defiant disorder: Wikis


Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Oppositional Defiant Disorder
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 F91.3
ICD-9 313.81
MeSH D019958

Oppositional defiant disorder is described by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders as an ongoing pattern of disobedient, hostile and defiant behavior toward authority figures which goes beyond the bounds of normal childhood behavior. People who have it may appear very stubborn.


DSM criteria

To meet DSM-IV-TR criteria, certain factors must be taken into account. First, the defiance must interfere with the child’s ability to function in school, home, or the community. Second, the defiance cannot be the result of another disorder, such as the more serious conduct disorder, depression, anxiety, or a sleep disorder such as DSPS. Third, the child's problem behaviors have been happening for at least six months.


The DSM-IV-TR cites a prevalence of 2-16%, "depending on the nature of the population sample and methods of ascertainment."[1]


Childhood oppositional defiant disorder is strongly associated with later developing conduct disorder.[2] Untreated, about 52% of children with ODD will continue to meet the DSM-IV criteria up to three years later and about half of those 52% will progress into Conduct Disorder.[3]


There are a variety of approaches to the treatment of oppositional defiant disorder, including parent training programs, individual psychotherapy, family therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, and social skills training.[4] According to the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, treatments for ODD are tailored specifically to the individual child, and different treatments are used for pre-schoolers and adolescents.[5]

An approach developed by Russell Barkley[6][7][8] uses a parent training model and begins by focusing on positive approaches to increase compliant behaviours. Only later in the program are methods introduced to extinguish negative or noncompliant behaviours.

One other type of treatment of this disorder is the prescription of risperidone.[citation needed]


According to The American Journal of Psychiatry, there are several sources of controversy around the diagnosis of ODD. One concerns the fact that the DSM-IV criteria differ slightly from those of the World Health Organization's criteria, as outlined in the ICD-10. Diagnosis of ODD is further complicated by the high occurrence of comorbidity with other disorders such as ADHD[9], though a 2002 study provided additional support for the validity of ODD as an entity distinct from Conduct disorder.[10]

In another study, the utility of the DSM-IV criteria to diagnose preschoolers has been questioned because the criteria were developed using school-age children and adolescents. The authors concluded that the criteria could be used effectively when developmental level was factored into assessment.[11]

Other critics maintain that the diagnostic criteria for ODD simply reflect normal behaviors for children and young adults.

In fiction

The 2007 play ODD by Hal Corley is about a New Jersey teenager with Oppositional Defiant Disorder.[12]

See also


  1. ^ Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edition, text revision ed.). Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association. 2000. p. 101. 
  2. ^ Lahey, B., & Loeber, R. (1994), Framework for a developmental model of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder. In D.K. Routh (Ed.) Disruptive Behavior Disorders in Childhood (pp. 139-180). NY: Plenum Press.
  3. ^ Lahey, B., Loeber, R., Quay, H., Frick, P., & Grimm, J., (1992) Oppositional defiant and conduct disorders: Issues to be resolved for the DSM-IV. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 31, 539-546.
  4. ^ "Children With Oppositional Defiant Disorder". www.aacap.org. http://www.aacap.org/cs/root/facts_for_families/children_with_oppositional_defiant_disorder. Retrieved 2008-07-15. 
  5. ^ "FAQs on Oppositional Defiant Disorder". www.aacap.org. http://www.aacap.org/cs/resource_center/odd_faqs#ODDFAQ3. Retrieved 2008-07-15. 
  6. ^ Barkley, R., (1997) Defiant Children: A Clinician's Manual for Assessment and Parent Training, NY: Guilford Press
  7. ^ Barkley, R., & Benton, C., (1998), Your Defiant Child, NY: Guilford Press
  8. ^ Barkley, R., Edwards, G., & Robin, A., (1999), Defiant Teens: A Clinician's Manual for Assessment and Family Intervention, NY: Guilford Press
  9. ^ Volkmar, Fred (2002). "Considering Disruptive Behaviors". Am J Psychiatry 159: 349–350. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.159.3.349. PMID 11869994. http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/159/3/349. 
  10. ^ Greene, Ross W.; Biederman, Joseph; Zerwas, Stephanie; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Goring, Jennifer C.; Faraone, Stephen V. (2008). "Psychiatric comorbidity, family dysfunction, and social impairment in referred youth with Oppositional Defiant Disorder". Am J Psychiatry 159: 1214–1224. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.159.7.1214. PMID 12091202. http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/159/7/1214. 
  11. ^ Keenan, Kate; Wakschlag, Lauren S. (2002). "Can a Valid Diagnosis of Disruptive Behavior Disorder Be Made in Preschool Children?". Am J Psychiatry 159: 351–358. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.159.3.351. PMID 11869995. http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/159/3/351. 
  12. ^ Venutolo, Anthony "Play about rejects is worth salvaging". The Star-Ledger September 10, 2007

External links



Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address