Optigan: Wikis

  
  

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The Optigan (a portmanteau of Optical Organ) was an early electronic keyboard instrument designed for the consumer market. It is best remembered today for its reputation of frequent failure and its cheap appearance and sound. The name stems from the fact that the instrument relied on pre-recorded optical soundtracks to reproduce sound. Later versions (built under license and aimed at the professional market) were sold under the name Orchestron.

Engineering work on the project began in 1968 and the first patents issued in 1970. The Optigan was released in 1971 by Optigan Corporation, a subsidiary of toy manufacturer Mattel, Incorporated of El Segundo, California with the manufacturing plant located nearby in Compton, California. All rights to the Optigan, the disc format, and all previous discs were sold in 1973 to Miner Industries of New York, an organ manufacturer who formed a subsidiary, Opsonar, to produce it. Miner had record sales for a time, in part due to Opsonar. However, sales declined shortly thereafter and production of the Optigan and its discs ceased in 1976.

The immediate predecessors of the Optigan were the "Welte Lichtton-Orgel" of 1936 (see literature: 'Elektrische Klangmaschinen' and 'Lichttonorgel (German Wikipedia)') and the Lumigraph of 1950.

Contents

Appearance and construction

The Optigan looked like a scaled-down version of the electronic organs of the day. The various cabinet designs and their matching benches were simulated wood made out of a molded plastic the manufacturer dubbed "Temperite" and finished with matching speaker grille cloth. A mechanical reverb unit and cabinetry with genuine wood veneer were available as extra-cost options. According to optigan.com, two piano bar prototypes were produced. The Optigan played in stereo through two solid state amplifiers with the right-hand keyboard assigned to the instrument's right channel and the chords and effects assigned to the left.

The optical disc format

The Optigan's playback system functioned much like the storage and reading of an optical soundtrack as was used in motion pictures, using a light bulb to energize a photoelectric cell on the opposite side of spinning, 12" diameter clear plastic film discs encoded with fifty-seven concentric optical tracks. The system then translated the analog waveforms on the disc to an audio signal. Thirty-seven tracks were sustained notes in the timbre of a particular instrument and were played through a standard piano-style keyboard with the right hand; twenty-one were of a live band or soloist playing chords in different keys, specifically B-flat, F, C, G, D, A and E major, minor, and diminished and were played with the left hand in much the style of a chord organ or accordion. The remaining five were assigned to rocker switches above the chord buttons and featured (depending on the disc in question) percussion, sound effects, introductions, vamps, and endings synchronized with the chord buttons.

Cover of the beginner's music book shipped with each new Optigan. Despite the mention on the cover, no disc with the sound of a sitar was ever offered

Not all of the chord buttons had their own track assignments, the result being only fifty-seven sounds on sixty-three buttons, keys and switches. There was even an ingenious optical metronome incorporated into the discs which showed as a red flashing light for the downbeat and white for the upbeats inside the Optigan badge above the keyboard. The advantages of this unique optical playback system were that the Optigan's range of timbres was infinitely expandable and that there was no limit on the duration of a note as there was on the Optigan's professional-grade counterpart, the magnetic tape-based Mellotron. The disadvantage was that notes could have neither attack nor decay, as the tracks had no specific beginning or end. Nevertheless, one was never without a considerable choice of music styles while seated at an Optigan. The "Starter Set," sold with a new Optigan, contained discs with fairly self-explanatory titles: "Big Organ & Drums", "Pop Piano Plus Guitar", "Latin Fever", and "Guitar in 3/4 Time." More modern styles were represented by titles such as "Movin'!," which was a rhythm and blues disc and "Hear and Now," with a sound clearly based on the hit single "Sweet Seasons" by Carole King (and cover art suspiciously evocative of that of her Tapestry album). Other discs were marketed individually and packaged much like long-playing phonograph records. These individual titles were also bundled in much the same way as the "Starter Set" and sold as six-disc "Entertainment Folios." Some discs were available only as part of a two-disc "Style Pak" with titles such as "The Joyous Sounds of Christmas" and "Country Style Pak." Music books of various styles and even arrangements intended for individual disks were also available and sometimes packaged with the different bundles.

The initial run of musical tracks were recorded by Southern California studio musicians in Hollywood and Torrance. However, a musicians' union strike meant that some of the later discs were recorded in Germany. One disc is of particular note. The instrumental tracks for "Bluegrass Banjo" were recorded by members of the Nitty Gritty Dirt Band.


For the benefit of those unable to read music, the notes in the books were numbered in correspondence to a numbered and color-coded foil strip above the keyboard. The Optigan's songbooks were written and arranged by Optigan Corporation's music director, Johnny Largo. Largo, a well-known accordionist and session musician was a contemporary of Johnny Marks, a composer best known for his popular mid-20th century Christmas melodies. As such, many of the numbers in the Christmas songbooks were Marks compositions.

Problems

Despite its use of recordings of actual musical instruments in lieu of internally generated sounds, the Optigan suffered from poor tonal quality due not only to the bandwidth limitations of its optical system but its mechanical system as well. The Optigan concept was really similar to that of the Mellotron (early sampling technology) but while the Mellotron used magnetic tape, the Optigan borrowed its technology from early film soundtrack technology. An optical strip contained the soundtrack on early films and the same technology (AM Modulation) was used on the optical discs in the Optigan. The quality of the Optigan was more like that of AM Radio.

The disc could be sped up or slowed down via a thumbwheel next to the chord buttons to cause a corresponding change in tempo and pitch; however, faster speeds tended to roll off the lower frequencies, slower speeds rolled off the highs and moderate to slow tempo lent a slightly muddy quality overall. Natural imperfections on the celluloid discs as well as dust and dirt came through as scratches, clicks and pops, much like a worn phonograph record. Furthermore, the pitch change brought on by the tempo adjustment made session work with live musicians a difficult proposition, especially since the pitch varied greatly from disc to disc.


Even though the technology of the day was more than sophisticated enough to avoid them, there were numerous mechanical problems with the disc's motor drive due to its having been engineered to be as affordable as possible. Changes in environment which had a physical effect on the photocells frequently led to crosstalk between tracks. One common example involves the F at the upper end of the keyboard; press this key, step on the volume control pedal and the C-diminished/A-diminished chord can often be heard in the background.

These same diminished chords intentionally found their way onto the row of major chords. And as pointed out earlier in this article, not all of the chord buttons had their own track assignments. A-major utilizes the same soundtrack as B-flat-diminished, G-diminished, and E-diminished while E-major shares space with F-diminished and D-diminished. Apparently, this was done to save space on the disc, further explaining the lack of dominant seventh chords or any chords in the keys of E-flat, A-flat, D-flat, B and F-sharp. A somewhat bizarre end result of these "diminished major" chords is that playing anything in either the key of A- or E-major is impossible on the Optigan without adding a dissonant, even Gothic flavor to the music.

Cover of the 1972 Everything Is Beautiful songbook. As the name suggests, it was filled with arrangements of the soft popular music of the day.

Since the instrument was aimed at amateur players, the majority of the songs in the Optigan's music books are written in the much easier keys of F, C and G. The Optigan certainly had its share of detractors, then as now. Yet it provided an entertaining and educational introduction to the world of music and likely sparked interest in a generation of budding musicians and composers.

Vako Orchestron

Vako Synthesizers Incorporated, founded by electronic instrument pioneer David Van Koevering, and who built licensed versions of the Optigan under the name Orchestron in the mid 1970s. Intended for professional use as an alternative to the Mellotron, the Orchestron featured improved recorded sounds over the Optigan. Some models included sequencers and synthesizers. While the same fidelity limitations of the Optigan applied to the Orchestron, these instruments were built to be more reliable and were used successfully in commercial recordings.

Use in the music industry

Regardless of its limitations and its problems with pitch, many notable musicians have used the Optigan. Among them: Trace, Steve Hackett, Elvis Costello, Jon Brion, Blur, Marco Benevento, Fiona Apple, Kraftwerk, Money Mark, Michael Penn, Steve Fisk, Tom Waits, Hala Strana, TISM, The Artificial Sea, Mark Mothersbaugh of Devo—who mixed in parts of the "Banjo Sing-Along" disc on a later remix of Devo's 1981 single, "Beautiful World."

One of the earliest recordings that used the Optigan was an album by European dance music pioneer Alan Steward. On his 1970s album release "Just Listen", Alan made extensive use of the Optigan. Six out of the nine tracks on the album including the title track "Just Listen" feature the Optigan. Alan also made extensive use of the "breakbeats" and the samples of the Hammond B3 organ that were part of the backing tracks found on many of the soul and R&B oriented Optigan discs. The European distributor of the Optigan used Alan Steward's album for promotion and in-store demos.

Steve Hackett has also made frequent use of the Optigan. Hackett's 1980 album, Defector, features an unusual number called "Sentimental Institution", recorded with a solo Optigan spinning the "Big Band Beat" disc behind his own vocals. His 2003 release, To Watch the Storms, features sonically expanded samples of the Opsonar "Champagne Music" disc on the track, "Circus of Becoming". Also of considerable note is the band Optiganally Yours, featuring keyboardist and optigan.com founder Pea Hix; they base their original compositions around the Optigan and employ it and similar keyboard instruments on virtually all of their recordings.

An Optigan sample was used on an episode of the Cartoon Network series, Foster's Home for Imaginary Friends, first airing on October 22, 2004. In it, a mirror image of the character Bloo played sped-up samplings of the vamps and endings of the "Dixieland Strut" disc through a horn which appeared on his body. Another sample was used in an episode of Freaks and Geeks, as the soundtrack of an unseen porn film.

On the album White Chalk by PJ Harvey, released in 2007, an Optigan is played by Eric Drew Feldman.

Marilyn Manson plays the Optigan on the song Target Audience (Narcissus Narcosis) from the album Holy Wood (In the Shadow of the Valley of Death) released in 2001.

AK-Momo uses this instrument prominently on Return to N.Y. The album was recorded using only Optigans, Orchestrons and Mellotrons. Swedish producer Mattias Olsson has since the late 90's recorded several albums that features the Orchestron and Optigan prominently.

American producer Brian Coombes has used the Optigan on releases by singer/songwriter Christian Cuff (Silo) and singer/songwriter Will Kindler (Trifles for Queen Jane).

The Optigan is heard in the track "Eat Yourself," by Goldfrapp. This same Optigan track was featured in Lily Allen's 2009 release "It's Not Me, It's You," on the track "Chinese." Allen also featured the Optigan in two other tracks, "Not Fair" & "He Wasn't There".

Musician Jon Brion composed the soundtrack for the movie Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind (directed by Michel Gondry), using the 'guitar' from a Talentmaker. "It's funny because you were talking about my grandfather inventing that keyboard," begins Gondry. "Jon has some old keyboards. My father, who is the son-in-law of my grandfather, took over his keyboard shop and he started to sell electronic synthesizers and organs and he had this very weird synthesizer called The Talentmaker. And I hadn't heard or seen one in 30 years. And when I went to see Jon he had this. So when you hear this very sad guitar that we use a lot [in the film] that's [The Talentmaker]. So you had the nostalgia of my grandfather's shop." [1]

Literature

  • Peter Donhauser, Elektrische Klangmaschinen, Boehlau Wien 2007

External links








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