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A typical glass of pulp-free orange juice.
A small glass of Sanguinello blood orange juice.

Orange juice is a popular beverage made from the extraction (squeezing) of liquid from fresh oranges. The term "orange juice" is also used, both colloquially and commercially, to refer to "concentrated orange juice".

Not from concentrate orange juice is typically more expensive, ranging from two to eight times the price of concentrate.[citation needed]

Contents

Health

Orange juice is a source of vitamin C (ascorbic acid), potassium, thiamine, Phosphorus G, folic acid (Vitamin B9) and vitamin B6. One 8-ounce glass of 100 percent orange juice counts as almost 25 percent of the USDA-recommended daily fruit and vegetable servings, based on a 2,000-calorie diet. Research shows orange juice is more nutrient dense than many commonly consumed 100 percent fruit juices, such as apple, grape, pineapple and prune.[1]

Citrus juices also contain flavonoids that are believed to have beneficial health effects. Orange juice containing pulp seems to be more nutritious than no-pulp varieties due to the flavonoids contained in the pulp.[2] If drunk on an empty stomach, orange juice can exacerbate present gastrointestinal conditions and/or cause mild and temporary stomach upset. Due to the citric acid, orange juice typically has a pH of 3.5.[3] Drinking or sipping orange juice can therefore cause erosion of the tooth enamel, otherwise known as 'acid erosion'. Some publications recommend using a straw when drinking orange juice so that the juice does not come into contact with the teeth.[4]

Commercial orange juice and concentrate

Frozen concentrated orange juice

When water is added to freshly-thawed concentrated orange juice, it is reconstituted.[5] Most of the orange juice sold today throughout the world is reconstituted juice. There is a huge difference in the volume of frozen concentrated orange juice (FCOJ) and unprocessed juice and this makes a difference in the price the consumer is charged[citation needed].

The Intercontinental Exchange (ICE) trades FCOJ futures and options on futures. Several exchanges, including the Brazilian Mercantile and Futures Exchange, the New York Mercantile Exchange, and the Chicago Mercantile Exchange, have tried to co-list these contracts and steal the volume away from the ICE. However, to this date none have succeeded and their products have been wound down.[citation needed]

Benefits over fresh juice

Freshly squeezed juice and filtered orange juice is pasteurized and is evaporated under vacuum and heat to remove most of the water before it is frozen. This process strips out certain essences and oils[citation needed]. The concentrated juice, about 65°Bx, is then stored at about +10°F (-12°C). At this point essences and oils, recovered during the vacuum concentration process, are added back to restore the flavor. To make cans of frozen concentrate for sale, filtered water is added back to bring the Brix level down to 42°Bx, about three times the concentration of fresh juice.

Canned orange juice

A small fraction of fresh orange juice is canned. Canned orange juice does retain Vitamin C much better than bottled juice. However, the canned product loses flavor when stored at room temperature for over 12 weeks.[6]

Major orange juice brands

Tropicana orange juice container

In the US, the major orange juice brand is Tropicana Products (owned by PepsiCo Inc.), which possesses nearly 65% of the market share. Tropicana also has a large presence in Latin America, Europe and Central Asia. Competing products include Simply Orange (owned by the Minute Maid division of The Coca-Cola Company) and Florida's Natural (a Florida-based agricultural cooperative that differentiates itself from the competition by using only Florida grown oranges; Tropicana and Simply Orange use a mix of domestic and foreign stock).

Additives

Some producers add citric acid or ascorbic acid to juice beyond what is naturally found in the orange. Some also include other nutrients such as calcium and Vitamin D, not found naturally in oranges. Low-acid varieties of orange juice are also available. Omega-3 is sometimes added to orange juice from fish oils.[7]

References

  1. ^ Rampersaud, GC (2007). A comparison of nutrient density scores for 100% fruit juices. Journal of Food Science 72(4)261-266.
  2. ^ "Is fruit juice as good as whole fruit". World's Healthiest Foods. http://www.whfoods.com/genpage.php?tname=george&dbid=74. Retrieved 2007-04-13. 
  3. ^ "Acids". British Soft Drinks Association. http://www.britishsoftdrinks.com/htm/qa/AdditivesIngredients/acids/acids.htm. Retrieved 2006-09-12. 
  4. ^ "Acid erosion and abrasion:Prevention". aciderosion.co.uk. http://www.aciderosion.co.uk/erosion/prevention.aspx. 
  5. ^ To prevent off-flavor, distilled or reverse osmosis filtered water should be used when reconstituting frozen juice, devoid of minerals, chlorine, etc.
  6. ^ Yiu H. Hu, József Barta Handbook of Fruits and Fruit Processing. Blackwell Publishing, 2006. p. 327.
  7. ^ New York Times Article on Orange Juice Additives

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